The 12 Cæsars of Suetonius
and a few more

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Le 24 janvier 41: L'empereur Caligula est assassiné. Il laisse la réputation d'un dément et les chroniqueurs rapportent qu'il fit entre autres folies désigner son cheval au rang de sénateur. Perhaps the best thing that can be said of him, he died early before he could do more damage.

January 1, 69AD: The Roman legions in Germania Superior(Upper Rhein) refuse to swear a loyalty oath to Galba. They mutiny and proclaim Vitellius as their emperor.

December 21st: A silver Tetradrachm of Vespasian struck in Alexandria, Egypt, the coin measures 26 mm, and weighs 12.65 grams. ΑVΤΟΚ ΚΑΙΣ ΣΕΒΑ ΟVΕΣΠΑΣΙΑΝΟΒ (Greek for Augustus Cæsar Despot Vespasian), laureate head right with the date LB = regnal year 2 (69/70 CE) / Nike advancing left, symbolizing a Roman victory.

The watershed event for the rest of the Roman Empire, came in the year 69AD, in the aftermath of Nero’s suicide. The Year of the Four Emperors (68-69) [actually 5 if you count Nero] saw the advent of civil war over the control of the imperial office. As one of the four of the so-called "ambitious governors" competing to fill the vacuum of leadership, Vespasian turned his nearly-completed military affairs in Judea over to his eldest son (and future emperor, Titus). Going Rome to eliminate his rivals (Galba, Otho and Vitellius) and establish a new imperial house (Nero having been the last of the Julio-Claudian emperors, with no bloodline successors), Vespasianus was declared ruler by the Senate on December 21, 69AD.


Within a year of the accession of Vaspasian, the conclusion of the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD became the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War (although the Romans did not achieve complete victory until the fall of Masada in 73 AD). The Roman army, led by the future Emperor Titus, with Tiberius Julius Alexander as his second-in-command, had besieged and then conquered the city of Jerusalem, which had been occupied solely by its Jewish defenders essentially since in 66 AD. The siege ended with the sacking of the city and the destruction of the Second Temple. Above ground as predicted no stone was left upon another. In contrast, the Arch of Titus (built by Domitian-82 AD), celebrating the Roman sack of Jerusalem and its Temple, still stands in Rome.


24 January 76 AD: Birth of Publius Ælius Hadrianus (Cæsar-Roman Emperor (117-138)). Although born a Roman, Italica, Spain has been referred to as Hadrian's patria. Italica is located in a region in southern Spain named Santiponce in Bateica (old world Andalucia), just four miles north of Seville. Hadrian ordered the construction of a wall in Northumberland, which today bears his name, in order to keep out the barbarians after the first Roman withdrawal from the land of the Picts (Cruithni), which the Romans called caledonia. The Picts were not the Scots (Scotti), who came from Ireland somewhat later and called their gælic nation Alba.

The construction of Hadrian's Wall in 122 was supervised by Aulus Platorius Nepos, Governor of Roman Britain. The line of the wall from the Tyne to the Solway lies south of what is now Scotland's border, but a few outposts beyond it were retained. Indeed in 139-42 A.D. the Roman army advanced northwards, abandoning Hadrian’s Wall and erected the Antonine Wall across the Forth/Clyde isthmus. Soon, thereafter, they returned to Hadrian's fortifications, which while recommissioned proved less than effective. And, indeed, history was a wee bit more complicated than that:

Lo más significativo con todo, que destaca de esta ciudad de las restantes de la Bética, es el que dos de sus hijos accedieron a trono consecutivamente: Trajano ( 97 - 117 d.C.) y Adriano ( 117 - 137 d.C.).

Hadrian could be said to be a master-architect / city planner in his own right. He vastly increased the Roman style throughout his empire, and in so doing, affected the European style to this very day. Because Hadrian was born in Spain (as a Roman citizen), should he, often credited with being the architect of the Pantheon in Rome, then be considered a foreign architect as far as concerns Italy ?? Compare, Maxentius, perhaps born in Syria, like his mother Eutropia; his father Maximian was born in (today's) Serbia. Constantine too was born in Serbia, although his mother Helena was born in (today's) Turkey. The architecture of Eutropia and Helena had an unprecedented effect on Italian styles, later. And what of the rest of the WEST ??

The Panthéon in Paris, designed by Jacques-Germain Soufflot (1755-1792), was finished, in the midst of the French Revolution. The Constituent Assembly of the Révolution decided by decree to transform the church (église Sainte-Geneviève) into a secular temple to accommodate the remains of the great men of France. The pattern was thoroughly Roman, a pattern which the counter-revolutionary, Napoleon, followed slavishly, because it was the art of power in building. More about the Roman influence in Architecture is found HERE (with many examples pictured).

New: 12/21/2013

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