Scots, wha hae wi Wallace bled

January 25, 1759: Born this day, Robert Burns, the bard of Scotland, also known as the ploughman's poet. He is the object of celebratory Burns Suppers, held annually. Across the globe people will revere the birth of Robert Burns, some 250 years ago, with Scottish Whiskæ (and ale), dancing, pipes, poetry and of course haggis, neeps and tatties. -- "And well tak a right guid-willie waught" -- a deep draft (as of Scottish ale) in mutual good will. Scottish ales are generally dark, malty, full-bodied brews. Many examples have a hint of smokiness derived from the use of peated malt. 60, 70, and 80 shilling examples are all session ales under 5% abv, but the stronger "wee heavies" can range closer to 8%, with the accompanying increase in alcohol flavour and esters. To me it sounds like a reference to lifting a brew to William Wallace in honor of the cause of freedom, for which no man can live without. Consider the glass raised --

The Scots' Independent Newspaper are delighted to be able to offer all its visitors the opportunity to listen to a Burns Supper in Real Audio format. Burns Suppers are held to celebrate the birth of the national poet, Robert Burns, on 25th January each year.

Scots Wha Hae -- Robert Burns

Here is what you will be listening to ...
Click to see Picture 
Burns Cottage in Alloway Scotland

Robert Burns died on July 21st in the year 1796 at age 37.


Scots, wha hae wi Wallace bled,
Scots, wham Bruce has aften led,
Welcome to your gory bed,
Or to victorie!

Now's the day, and now's the hour;
See the front o' battle lour;
See approach proud Edward's power -
Chains and slaverie!

Wha will be a traitor-knave?
Wha can fill a coward's grave?
Wha sae base as be a slave?
Let him turn and flee!

Wha for Scotland's king and law
Freedom's sword will strongly draw,
Freeman stand, or freeman fa'
Let him follow me!

By oppression's woes and pains!
By your sons in servile chains!
We will drain our dearest veins,
But they shall be free!

Lay the proud usurpers low!
Tyrants fall in ev'ry foe!
Liberty's in ev'ry blow! -
Let us do - or die!

To play the entire program simply bring up your Real Audio program and type into the location window or click the link to the left. The only part of a Burns Supper remaining is the "Toast to the Lassies" and the link is one credited to Carson C. Smith, FSA Scot, which he gave at a Burns Supper at the Scottish American Club of Indiana.

One of Atlanta's best-kept secrets is the Robert Burns Cottage. It is the only replica in the world of the birthplace of Robert Burns, located on Alloway Place near the Emory Campus in the suburbs of Atlanta, GA. In the 1970s, the United States Department of the Interior recognized the Burns Cottage and designated it to be forever on the National Register of Historic Places in America. As the pamphlet from The Burns Club of Atlanta says: "The only place to see one like it is in Alloway, Ayrshire, in southwest Scotland." The Burns memorial association in Atlanta celebrated its 100th year in 2010 (kicking off festivities beginning October 13th). The cornerstone of the only replica of the Burns Cottage was laid November 5, 1910, in DeKalb County GA, near Confederate Avenue.

Saltire More than you can possibly want to know: The blue and white flag of an independent Scotland (St. Andrew's Cross) is as old as the pre-Union standard of England, the white and red St. George's Cross. It is often called Saltire, but that is a heraldic term for the type of device (i.e. this cross), which is seen on a coat of arms, or noble standard. More precisely it is an ordinary in the shape of a Saint Andrew's cross, formed by the crossing of a bend and a bend sinister. The word comes from the Middle English sautour, from Old French saultoir, from the Latin saltre. Indeed, Robert de Brus' coat of arms included a saltire of a red cross on gold background.
The Scots of Dalriada claimed a legendary antiquity (see below) through rulers of one of the Kingdoms of Greece founded in Spain, including one who went to Egypt during the time of Moses, where he married the Scoti, daughter of the Pharaoh. Eventually several groups of their descendants emigrated to Ireland; the final group under Simon Brek, whose grandson led a colony from Ireland to northern Britain and named it Scotia. In the year 330 BC, these Scots elected as their king Fergus, son of Ferehard; and they remained in Scotland until 360 AD when they were driven back to Ireland by the Picts and Britons. In the 5th century, they returned to Scotia under the leadership of Fergus, son of Erc. This person emerges from family-kept records (e.g. Psalter of Tara) into more modern written history as a King of Dalriada who ruled from 490-501AD.

Twenty-eight generations elapse, through Kings of Scotland and Alba. In this later generation we will discover the grandson of Robert de Brus -- Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, who was the victor of Bannockburn in 1314. He established Scottish independence from England and is one of Scotland's great national heroes, a contemporary of William Wallace. {Ed. note: for a very complete Wallace account go to new link to auld payge}

Bruce's daughter, Princess Marjorie Bruce, (Born: circa 1297), married the 6th High Stewart of Scotland, a descendant of Magna Carta Sureties Roger and Hugh Bigod (and indeed his wife also may claim Magna Carta lineage through de Clare and Marshall). Princess Marjorie Bruce and Walter Stewart had a son, Robert (II) Stuart, King of Scotland. One can go on from there, and the Stuart name becomes an important line in the history of English rule. (generation #30).

It is through Queen Matilda, who was the spouse of King Henry I of England (son of William I), the daughter Malcolm III, Stuart King of Scotland, many of the early English rulers descend. The current royal family also directly descends from the Scots of Dalriada, through this line, by way of the House of York (White Rose), Mary, Queen of Scots, James I, Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, the Duke of Brunswick (Hanover) and his son George I, King of England.
About 95 generations before Matlida we find one named Gaodhal (or Gæls) son of Niul, grandson of Phœniusa and further back a descendent of Japhet, who is one of the sons of Noah. From that point, it is only 10 generations to a man named Adam. see also -- The Irish Celtic genæologies (Ár nDúthchas), are brought to you by the Clan MacMahon (this link is dead). A much more detailed history was written in the gælic tongue by Rev. Dr. Geoffrey Keating. Its English translation is found here:

And more: The history of the Chatten or Catti before living in Hesse (Germany) is quite shrouded. Some claim that they descend from phœnician traders, and even from the Tribe of Gad. What happened to them after Rome arrived in germaniæ historicæ is even more interesting. Those who stayed became part of Germany under Roman rule. Some bravehearts moved on. From the College of Arms, London, England, is an extract from a work on the origin of names about the Keith clan: "This family derive their descent from the Chatti, or Catti, now Hesse, a tribe of Germans, who dwelt in what is now called Hesse-Cassel, and whose name ... is preserved in Katzenfort, Katzenburgh, etc., Germany. About B. C. 100, a part of this tribe descended the Rhine, and settled in Batavia or Holland, where the name is also maintained in Katwijk aan Zee, Katswoulde, etc.

During the reign of Corbred the second, King of Scotland, circa A. D. 76, a part of these Catti emigrated to Britain, some of whom, called Fordun, "Catti Meliboci," were driven to the northern parts of Scotland and landed in that part called Kateness, or Caithness; i.e. Catti's promontory. The Celtic name for that district is "Catt taobh," Catti's side; and the inhabitants are styled "Cattich." Caithness is also called "gall taobh," "Stranger's side, way, or shore."

The first of the tribe named by the Senachies is Gilli Chattan Noir, chief of the Catti, contemporary King Alpine (A.D. 831-834), from whom descend the Kethi, Keychts, Keths, or Keiths; and also the MacPhersons, Sutherlands, etc., known under the general name of Chattan Clan. The ancient title (Celtic) of the Earls of Sutherland is "Morfhear chat," Lord Cat -- literally Greatman Cat."

The 17th century English/Scottish historian, Sir Robert Gordon stated, "In the year of Christ four score and two, there arrived {in Scotland] a great company of Germans named "Catti", a valiant people of mighty bodies who were banished out of their native land for killing of a Roman general. At their first arrival, their captain went onshore to spy the land, when he was suddenly invaded by a company of monstrous big wild cats that much molested the country. The fight between them was cruel, yet in the end he killed them all. From thence the thanes and earls of Catti, or Sutherland, even unto this day do carry on their crest or badge, above their arms, a cat sitting with one of its feet upwards ready to catch his prey." He continued, "There is not a rat in Sutherland. And, if they do come thither in ships from other ports, which often happeneth, they die presently as soon as they do smell the air of that country." Whatever the fate of rats in the area, there is tradition that after landing in the north of Scotland, the Catti named the area of Caithness and their chief married the daughter of the Pictish King Brude.
Robert, the chief of the Catti in 1010, fought against the Norsemen. He slew Comus, the leader of the Viking invaders, and thus gained a complete victory, for which Malcolm II gave him the lands of Keith in East-Lothian. He was succeeded by his son Robert, who also fought against the Norsemen in Fife. Somewhat later on the 7th of November, 1324, Robert I. granted a charter of the lands of Keith Marischal to Sir Robert Keith and his heirs, and the office of Great Marischal of Scotland, on account of his support against the English. In short, the Keiths, wha hae wi Wallace bled are just some of the Scots, wham Bruce has aften led.

Also place in the my Scottish Heritage Section of forbears what hae with Wallace bled: Yaroslav, King of the Rus [Viking-Russia] gave one daughter {Anastasia Yaroslavna of Kiev} in marriage to Andrew I of Hungary [András I]. Andrew's mother was the daughter of the great Varangian-Rus privateer, Vladimir I. György [George] was his son. George according to European sources, went to Britain with Edgar the Ætheling. Drummond family tradition states that Maurice (from Hungary) was the first of the clan in Scotland (son of George). Interestingly, it is the flag of St. Andrew that is Scotland's flag. The flag of St. George represents England. Maurice was named Thane of Lennox, a title still relished by the Drummonds, for his support during the Usurpation of Harold. Without Maurice it is likely that Margaret, Edgar's sister, would not have survived to meet and marry Malcolm III the King of Scots. The complete lineage back to the Kiev Rus and Hungarian Magars is found at: (link also non-operative)

For a contrary view, Mr. Fraser, in an elaborate effort entitled The Red Book of Menteith (the Menteith being sworn enemies of Drummond), has sought to prove by conclusive evidence that the Hungarian tales are just a myth. The statements about Drummond family origin are purely apocryphal, Fraser claims. The words Drummond, Drymen, or Drummin, are just a local names used in several counties of Scotland. They derive from the Celtic word druim, a ridge or knoll. The first person who can be proved to have borne the name Drummond was one Malcolm, who, along with his brother Gilbert, witnessed the charters of Maldouen, third Earl of Lennox, from 1225 to 1270. This Malcolm was a chamberlain to the Earl, not a laird in his own right, says Fraser. (reference page 87)

Schyre Jhon of Menteith in tha days
Tuk in Glasgow William Walays;
And sent hym until Ingland sune,
There was he quartayrd and undone.

The Drummond name indeed first appears in written records about mid-13th century. Sir Malcolm de Drummond, attached himself firmly to the cause of de Bruce, future ruler of the Scots. King Robert, after the Battle of Bannockburn, bestowed upon him certain lands in Perthshire, although earlier family leaders are said to have sided with English King Edward I (also hailed as the hammer of Scotland), the protagonist in the capture and torture of Sir William Wallace. The line was allied by marriage with the Stewarts of Scotland. Annabella Drummond became the wife of King Robert III. She was crowned with him at Scone in September, 1390. Through this marriage the succeeding Kings of Scotland and of Britain (beginning with James I) have descended, and so there is Drummond blood in the veins of most of the crowned heads of Europe, too.  Finally, some Drummond names in North America appear as a corruption of a similar sounding German name.

So who was the father of Elizabeth (Drummond) LaRoche, the wife of Isaac LaRoche (the first of that name in Georgia) ? The name of John is a pure educated guess. A John Drummond was introduced to the "Georgia Corporation" by both General Oglethorpe and John LaRoche, a Trustee. John also introduced James LaRoche (no indication of relationship) on the same day. My thought is that these two men (of respectable family) are somehow related, by marriage or kinship to the Trustee John or in a close business relationship. Indeed, new information suggests that the second LaRoche trustee was Scottish (Argyle Clan) and Irish (la Roche). Moreover, because Oglethorpe's grandmother was a Roche, there is reason to believe that this possibility is more likely than not.

All this occurred in August 1732, and both men bought into the endeavor (invested in the Georgia corporation). John Drummond was a director of the East India Company, a commerce commissioner for the government, a banker, as well as, related to a nobleman (or so says the Viscount Percival in his diaries about the Georgia Colony). Drummond’s Bank opened in circa 1712-17 and its clientèle was largely recruited from the Scottish connections of the founder, John Drummond.

James Drummond, the Earl of Perth during about the same time period and James's son (also named John and also an Earl) are of unclear relation. Perhaps this James is a direct cousin, or perhaps banker John Drummond is closely-related to the Drummond family group that went to France in the 1600's during the time of Cromwell (they supported the Stuart rulers). In any event, the Earl of Perth took the wrong side in the "civil war" of 1745, by supporting the Stuart pretender to the throne. He lost lands and titles (by Writ of Attainder), which were later restored to the family. John Drummond the banker, seems to have continued on, his firm helping finance the French Indian War (paymaster for the troops). One thinks that if he were Elizabeth's father, we would know; but, his support of the Crown during the Revolution (which apparently also drove Elizabeth's brother offshore) may have caused family ties to be broken.

And Another -- Forbears for Elizabeth Sophia [Oliver] LaRoche: Donald MacKay (the afore-mentioned Elizabeth's Grandfather) owned several large pieces of property, by royal grant and purchased all of Fredrica when it was abandoned. James Spalding, a later arrival to the colony became his partner. Donald married first Elizabeth, and second (possibly) Gene Gordon. It is mentioned in an old book about the Golden Isles and Sea Island, that his daughter Catherine married a Col. William McKintosh, brother of Lachlan -- but that is not correct -- it was Donald's sister who married John Mohr McKintosh's son William. But it was also thought that she was also Lachlan's cousin and related to the Spalding gentleman (James) who married Catherine's daughter. 1735 a body of one hundred and thirty Highlanders with fifty women and children sailed from Inverness and landed at Savannah in January 1736. They were under the leadership of Lieutenant Hugh Mackay. Some Carolinians endeavored to dissuade them from going to the South by telling them that the Spaniards would attack them from their houses in the fort near where they were to settle, to which they boldly replied, Why, then, we will beat them out of their fort, and shall have houses ready built to live in. " This spirit," says Jones, "found subsequent expression in the efficient military service rendered by these Highlanders during the wars between the Colonists and the Spaniards, and by their descendants in the American Revolution. To John Mohr McIntosh, Captain Hugh Mackay, Ensign Charles Mackay, Col. John McIntosh, General Lachlan McIntosh and their gallant comrades and followers, Georgia, both as a Colony and a State, owes a large debt of gratitude. This settlement was subsequently augmented from time to time by fresh arrivals from Scotland .... Its men were prompt and efficient in arms, and when the war cloud descended upon the southern confines of the province, no defenders were more alert or capable than those found in the ranks of these Highlanders.

"No people," says Walter Glasco Charlton, "ever came to Georgia who took so quickly to the conditions under which they were to live or remained more loyal to her interests" than the Highlanders. "These men," again says Jones, "were not reckless adventurers or reduced emigrants volunteering through necessity, or exiled through insolvency or want. They were men of good character, and were carefully selected for their military qualities .... Besides this military band, others among the Mackays, the Dunbars, the Baillies, and the Cuthberts applied for large tracts of land in Georgia which they occupied. Many of them went over in person and settled in the province."

The Clan Mackay (motto: manu forti-with a strong hand), a Scottish clan from the country's far north in the Scottish Highlands, has roots in the old province of Moray. The traditional seat of the Mackays was at Castle Varrich (14th Century). Earlier, Clan MacKay fought under William Wallace at the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1296) to vanquish the English and again with Robert Bruce (1314) at the Battle of Bannockburn. Several hundred years of clan warfare follows, then as James of Scotland becomes King of England, the Clans are fighting against British foes. On June 20, 1628, chief of his clan, Donald Mackay, became Baron Reay of Reay in the Peerage of Scotland by Charles I, which he supports during the English Civil War. At Fort Fredrika (St. Simons Island, GA) a group of Highlanders led by Charles MacKay from Durness (Diuranais) help Oglethorpe ambush invading Spanish forces in July 1742 securing control of the South Georgia for the British EmpireFrom The Correct History of Clann MacAoidgh (The Clan Mackay), Dr. Gary Mckay,, (1999).

Around 710 A.D., three separate tribes leave Ireland from a region known as Dalriada and land in what is now known as Argyll and the southern Hebrides. One of the tribes is known as the C'nel Lorne, the progenitors of Clann MacAoidh. The C'nel Lorne are descended from Ædh, grand-son of the Irish king N'iall. In the 12th Century, the Mac Ædh/Mac Æd/Mac Heths (all variations of the Gælic pronunciation of the time) become a virtual separate kingdom around the Moray Firth on Scotland's middle north eastern coast; but, within 100 years, a series of losses causes a migration north and west into the Highlands into the region of the Strathnaver. To finish, Clann M'hic Aoidgh is one of the most famous and certainly oldest of the true Gælic Clans. If you are blood related, then you may count King Niall of Ireland, King David of Scotland, and Macbeth as your relations, among many descended from Adam.

I am a Cash and Stephens on my mother's side of the family, both names of a Scottish origin. Indeed, Stephens (Scottish-Irish) is a Sept of the MacKay Clan. Cash historically is based in Fifeshire. Some Cashes went to Ireland before immigrating elsewhere, but records show that a WILLIAM CASH was born about 1653 in Scotland, probably Strathmilgo, Fife, and died about 1708 in Westmoreland County Virginia. It's a few generations from here to the NE hills of Georgia and a Revolutionary soldier, named Howard (named after his grandfather a son of William) --- More HERE.

Scottish emigration to America came in two streams; one direct from the Scotland proper and the other through the province of Ulster in the north of Ireland. Those who came by this second route are usually known as "Ulster Scots," or more commonly as Scotish-Irish, claimed as Irishmen by Irish writers in the United States. This is perhaps excusable but hardly just. Throughout their residence in Ireland the Scots settlers preserved their distinctive Scottish characteristics, and generally described themselves as "the Scottish nation in the north of Ireland." They, of course, like the early pioneers in this country, experienced certain changes by the influence of their new surroundings; but, as one writer has remarked, they "remained as distinct from the native population as if they had never crossed the Channel. They were among the Irish but not of them." Their sons, too, when they attended the classes in the University of Glasgow, signed the matriculation register as "A Scot of Ireland." They did not inter-marry with the native Irish, though they did so to some extent with the English Puritans and with the French Huguenots. (These Huguenots were driven out of France by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and induced to settle in the north of Ireland by William III. To this people Ireland is indebted for its lace industry, which they introduced into that country.)

Again many Irish-American writers have assumed that the Scots settlers were entirely or almost of Gælic origin, ignoring the fact, if they were aware of it, that the people of the Scottish lowlands were "almost as English in derivation, as if they were living still the North of England. Parker, the historian of Londonderry, New Hampshire, speaking of the early Scots settlers in New England, has well said: "Although they came to this land from Ireland, where their ancestors had a century before planted themselves, yet they retained unmixed the national Scotish character. Nothing sooner offended them than to be called Irish. Their antipathy to this appellation had its origin in the hostility then existing in Ireland " among the Gælic-Celts, the native Irish and the English colonists. Belknap, in his History of New Hampshire (Boston, 1791) has quoted a letter from the Rev. James MacGregor (1677-1729) to Governor Shute in which the writer says: "We are surprised to hear ourselves termed Irish people, when we so frequently ventured our all for the British Crown and liberties against the Irish papists, and gave all tests, of our loyalty, which the [English] government of Ireland required, and are always ready to do the same when demanded."

Down to the present day the descendants of these Ulster Scots settlers living in the United States, those who have maintained an interest in their origin, always insist that they are of Scottish and not of Irish origin. On this point it will be sufficient to quote the late Honorable Leonard Allison Morrison, of New Hampshire. He said: "I am one of Scotch-Irish blood and my ancestor came with Rev. McGregor of Londonderry, and neither they nor any of their descendants were willing to be called 'merely Irish.' I have twice visited," he adds, "the parish of Aghadowney, Co. Londonderry, from which they came, in Ireland, and all that locality is filled, not with 'Irish' but with Scots-Irish, and this is pure Scotish blood to-day, after more than 200 years." The mountaineers of Tennessee and Kentucky are largely the descendants of these same Ulster Scots, and their origin is conclusively shown by the phrase used by mothers to their unruly children: "If you don't behave, Clavers [i.e., Claverhouse] will get you."

If we must continue to use the hyphen when referring to these early immigrants it is preferable to use the term "Ulster Scot" instead of "Scotch-Irish," as was pointed out by the late Whitelaw Reid, because it does not confuse the people the accident of birth, and because the people preferred it themselves. "If these Scottish and Presbyterian colonists," he says, "must be called Irish because they had been one or two generations in the north of Ireland, then the Pilgrim Fathers, who had been one generation or more in Holland, must by the same reasoning be called Dutch or at the very least English-Dutch." [ed.note: and many such as the Vanderlyns were of mixed-heritage]

More-read on I am not making this stuff up: Richard and Mary Robinson appear to have resided in the Atholl district of what was then Perthshire, Scotland. Atholl is a mountainous district at the southern base of the Grampian Mountains.l The area is generally uncultivable and is more appropriate for livestock and hunting. The Robinsons were members of the Clan Donnachaidh. Highland clans such as the Clan Donnachaidh were a pastoral warrior race that based their prestige on cattle. A great source of pride to these herdsmen were their combative skills that they often honed by raiding o ne another's catthe as a sport or test of prowness. Their son came to America, essentially as a slave for having been disloyal to England.

Son Daniel Robinson was part of the Scottish Army raised by King Charles during the English Civil War. On September 3, 1651, Oliver Cromwell's Parliamentarian army routed the royalist army at Worcester, Worcestershire (present-day Hereford and Worcester County), located approximately 25 miles South-southwest of Birmingham. Daniel Robbinson/Robin was taken prisoner, marched to London and confined to Tothill Field near Parliament House to await his fate. Daniel was selected as one of the prisoners to be exiled to America. We can surmise by his being selected that he was in good physical condition and not wounded.

Approximately 274 Scotch prisoners from the Battle of Worcester were consigned to Thomas Kemble of New England, a lumber merchant with an interest in New Hampshire sawmills. Mr. John Becx was interested in obtaining Scottish prisoners that were neither sick nor wounded for his ironworks. The ship the John and Sara was engaged to transport these Highlanders to Boston. Those who survived the voyage arrived at Boston Harbor sometime in February 1652. They were sold on the auction block to New England planter and mill owners as indentured servants for six to eight years.

Daniel Robinson and Hope Potter registered their intention to marry on February 3, 1663 at New Haven, New Haven County, CT. They married one week later. The specifics as to how Daniel met his wife are not known. Hope's father, William, was from England, born in 1609. Married Frances Childs in 1632 or 3 in Ipswich, England. William was executed in New England (1662). Hope Potter's sister, Sarah was married to Robert Foote, brother of Nathaniel Foote, Jr. It was not an uncommon occurrence for these young Scottish soldiers to marry into the families of their masters upon receiving their freedom. Subsequent to their marriage the couple moved to Woodbridge in the Province of East Jersey (Middlesex County-a frontier location). As a point of reference Middlesex was formed from the Province of East Jersey and 1663. The couple had eleven children.

The name Robinson was not used by Daniel after he and his family moved from New England to New Jersey (possible because of William Potter's execution). Daniel's will indicates he was unable to write. It is possible that a minor alteration in the spelling may not have been of any great importance to Daniel, so the Robinson name became Robbins. Daniel Robbins has been described by his descendants as being about five feet in height with bright blue eyes and dark, thick, curly hair. Family tradition has it he played a harp. Although Daniel may not have been able to read, it is said that his wife Hope could read the bible and that Daniel enjoyed the Old Testament scriptures.

In 1695 Daniel moved across the state from Woodbridge to Crosswicks, Burlington County, New Jersey where he purchased large tracts of land in central NJ. One of these he conveyed to his son, Moses. This transaction is found in an old deed dated 1701 and this land included the one acre family cemetery known as Ye Olde Robbins Burial Ground (about five miles east from Allentown on the road leading to Clarksburg, NJ). Daniel acquired the land, supposedly selecting the specific site for the purpose of a cemetery. Daniel died in 1714 in Hunterdon, Monmouth Co., NJ. Bible records indicate he was buried at Woodbridge NJ. Interested ? One of his descendants came to the North Georgia mountains and married into other families from which I descend.

May 5, 1891: In the City of New York, its citizens attended the dedication of a famous building. When it first opened, Carnegie Hall had just three auditoriums: the Main Hall, the Chamber Music Hall and the Recital Hall, located underneath the Main Hall. The opening festival, held for five days, featured a guest conductor, Tchaikovsky.

Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (d. Nov 6, 1893) was born at Kamsko-Votinsk, in the Ural region of imperial Russia (May 7, 1840). His family moved to St. Petersburg in 1850. There he studied Law and graduated from the school of jurisprudence, from where he entered the Ministry of Justice as a clerk, first-class in 1859. He didn't start to study music seriously until he was 21, under Nicolai Zaremba. Tchaikovsky enrolled into the St. Petersburg Conservatory when it opened in 1862. His works included many well-known pieces, including the 1812 Overture, which celebrated the Russian victory over the French at the doorsteps of Moscow.

The structure in which Tchaikovsky partied was named Carnegie Hall, in honor of Andrew Carnegie, an immigrant from Dunfermline, Scotland and a real Man of Steel. Carnegie set up 2,500 libraries in Great Britain and North America. He did many other acts of Charity. Believing it a sin to die with great wealth, he set up a foundation that still provides money today. All four of the older Scottish universities received bequests, as did Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University). He forgot not his birthplace -- the most sacred spot to me on earth. Among his endowments, Pittencrieff House and its gardens were acquired for Dunfermline.

The city that Carnegie built: Pittsburgh.htm
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