Lübeck    Lübeck, Kiel, Rostock und Schwerin     Rostock

Lübeck: Lübeck is the second largest city in Schleswig-Holstein, in northern Germany. Situated at the Trave River, it also is the largest German port on the Baltic Sea. The Elbe-Lübeck Canal connects the Trave with the Elbe River. Its Brick Gothic architectural heritage puts on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites (1987). The older part of the town is an island enclosed by the Trave. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lübeck

The area around Lübeck was settled after the last Ice Age. Several Neolithic dolmens can be found in the area. About 700 AD Slavic peoples migrated into the eastern portions of Holstein, abandoned by Germanic tribes. By the early 9th century Charlemagne, who was opposed by Saxons, moved the Saxons out and brought in Polabian Slavs, who were allied to him. Liubice ("lovely") was founded on the Trave banks about four kilometres north of the present-day city-centre of Lübeck. In the 10th century it became the most important settlement of the Obotrite confederacy and a castle was built. The settlement was burned down in 1128 by pagan Rani from Rügen. The modern town was founded (1143) and castle (1147) by Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein, in as a German settlement on the river island Bucu. In the 14th century Lübeck became the "Queen of the Hanseatic League," being by far the largest and most powerful member of this mediaeval trade organization. In 1375, Emperor Charles IV. named Lübeck one of the five "Glories of the Empire", a title shared with Venice, Rome, Pisa and Florence. Lübeck's power slowly declined in the 16th century. Lübeck managed to remain neutral in the Thirty Years' War, but with the devastation caused by that conflict and the growth of transatlantic trade, the Hanseatic League (and thus Lübeck) lost economic importance. After the Hanseatic League, Lübeck remained an important trading town on the Baltic Sea. During the Napoleonic wars, Lübeck was formally annexed as part of France until the Vienna Congress of 1815.

The attack by the Britsh on March 28, 1942, created a firestorm, that caused extreme damage to the three of the main churches and greater parts of the historic area, as well as the rest of the city. After the war, migration from east Germany and other communist areas caused the city to grow. The old town centre is dominated by seven church steeples. The oldest ones are the Lübecker Dom (the city's cathedral) and the Marienkirche (Saint Mary's), both from the 13th and 14th centuries. Lübeck is very famous for its excellent marzipan industry, and according to local legend, Marzipan was first discovered in Lübeck. The great composer Dieterich Buxtehude became organist at the Marienkirche in Lübeck in 1668 and remained at the post until at least 1703. The Lübeck wine trade dates back to Hanseatic times. One Lübeck specialty is Rotspon, wine made from grapes processed and fermented in France and transported in wooden barrels to Lübeck, where it is stored, aged and bottled. LaRochelle is its French sister.

December 18, 1913, marks the birth of Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm in Lübeck, Germany. He had just started his university studies when, in 1933, the National Socialists (Nazis) seized power. As a Social Democrat, Frahm had to flee. It was then that he took a new name, which would mark him in history. He spent the duration of World War II in Norway and Sweden. He returned to Germany at the end of the conflict. This man was elected to the new West German parliament in 1949. In 1957, he became the mayor of West Berlin (1957-66). While he was mayor, the Berlin Wall was built. He became the foreign minister and vice-chancellor in the Grand Coalition of 1966. In 1969, he became the chancellor for the Federal German Republic. As chancellor he pursued the Ostpolitik, and one might say, laid the foundation for the eventual reunification of the two Germanys. He resigned as chancellor in 1974 when he learned that a close aid, Gunther Guillaume, had been functioning as a spy for the East German government. Willy Brandt won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1971. The Wall came down in November 1989.

Kiel: Kiel is approximately 90 km to the north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the north of Germany, the southeast of the Jutland peninsula, and the southwestern shore of the Baltic Sea, Kiel has become one of the main maritime ports of Germany. Kiel has also been one of the traditional homes of the German Navy's Baltic fleet, and continues to be a major high-tech shipbuilding point. Kiel the city sits on the Kiel Fjord and the busiest artificial waterway in the world, the Kiel Canal. The Kiel Canal (German: Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, NOK), until 1948 known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal, is a 61 miles (98 kilometres) long canal in the German Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein that links the North Sea at Brunsbüttel to the Baltic Sea at Kiel-Holtenau. An average of 280 nautical miles (519 kilometers) is saved by using the Kiel Canal instead of going around the Jutland Peninsula. In June 1887, construction works started at Holtenau near Kiel. It took the 9,000 workers eight years to build. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiel_Canal

The Kiel Fjord was first settled by Normans or Vikings who would colonize the land along their raids for many years staying in German villages. Not until 1233 was the city established along the waterway. Kiel, the capital of Holstein, was a member of the Hanseatic League from 1284 until it was expelled in 1518 for harboring pirates. From 1773 to 1864, the town belonged to the King of Denmark; however, because the king ruled Holstein as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire only through a personal possession, the town was not incorporated as part of Denmark proper. The Danish king continued to rule Kiel only through his position as Duke of Holstein, after the Germanic empire ended. On 24 March 1865, King William I based Prussia's Baltic Sea fleet out of Kiel instead of Danzig (Gdansk), a few years after Denmark ruler lost the area through rebellion. When William I of Prussia became Emperor William I of the German Empire in 1871, he designated Kiel (Baltic) and Wilhelmshaven (North Sea) as Reichskrieghafen, or "Imperial War Harbor." Kiel was the site of the sailors' mutiny, which sparked the German Revolution in late 1918 leading to the Weimar Republic. Kiel was heavily bombed by the Allies during World War II. A special British force secured the town (and Canal) against Soviet occupation at war's end. Kiel was named the seat of government for Schleswig-Holstein, and it officially became the state's capital in 1972. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiel

On September 6, 1970, Jimi Hendrix played his last concert, at the Love and Peace Festival, close by the border of East Germany (and a few air miles across the water from Denmark), on the Isle Of Fehmarn, (Puttgarden) Germany. Mr. Hendrix and his Cry of Love band last played in Atlanta on July 4th of that year; he last appeared onstage in a jam session with Eric Burdon and War on September 16th (two days before his death).

Freedom, give it to me.
That's what I want now --
Freedom, that's what I need now.
Freedom to live --
Freedom, so I can give ....

Rostock (and the remainder of East Germany) was reunited with Germany about 20 years later.

More modern pictures at linkRostock: Rostock, the largest city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, straddles the River Warnow. The quarter of Warnemünde 12 km north of the city-centre lies directly on the coast of the Baltic Sea. The port at Rostock is the Gateway to the Baltic Sea. Large ferry ships unite Germany with Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Latvia. Two hours separate Rostock from Berlin and Hamburg by highway. The firm Kali und Salz has a huge potash storage facility here for delivery to the world markets from its production facility at Zielitz.

In the 11th century Polabian Slavs founded a settlement at the Warnow river called Roztoc (which means broadening of a river). The town was burned by the Danes a hundred years later. Afterwards the place was populated by Germans. At the beginning there were three separate settlements; the Altstadt (Old Town) around today's Alter Markt (Old Market) with St. Petri (St. Peter's Church), the Mittelstadt (Middle Town) around the Neuer Markt (New Market) with St. Marien (St. Mary's Church) and finally, the Neustadt (New Town) around the Hopfenmarkt (Hops Market, now University Square) with St. Jakobi (St. James's Church, now demolished). Picture of Saint Nicolai's Church. The rise of the city began with its membership in the Hanseatic League. In the 14th century it was a powerful seaport town with 12,000 inhabitants and the biggest city of Mecklenburg. Ships for cruising the Baltic Sea were constructed in Rostock. In 1419 the oldest university in Northern Europe, the University of Rostock, was established. The strategic location of Rostock provoked the envy of its rivals. Danes and Swedes occupied the city twice, first during the Thirty Years' War (1618-48) and again from 1700 to 1721. Later, the French, under Napoleon, occupied the town for about a decade until 1813.

It was at the Heinkel facilities in Rostock-Marienehe where the world's pioneering jet plane made its test flights, under Nazi supervision. Ernst Heinkel, aviation pioneer had established these facilities, much like other famous aviator/inventors of the early 20th Century. Great parts of the central city were destroyed in World War II by Allied bombing, then Rostock found itself in the Soviet dominated East. It became the chief port for the DDR government, in a largely (otherwise) non-industrial area. The coat of arms used today depicts a golden griffin on blue background as well as the colors of the Hanseatic League, silver and red. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rostock

Schwerin: Schwerin is one of the older cities in the northern part of Germany. Located in the historic Duchy of Mecklenburg (of it was the capital), the city's name today reflects founding as Zuarin. At the end of World War II, on May 2, 1945 Schwerin was occupied first by U.S. troops. It was turned over to the British on June 1, 1945, and one month later, on July 1, 1945 it was handed over to the Soviet forces, as the British and American forces pulled back from the line of contact to the predesignated occupation zones. After reunification it became a capital city of the state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-West Pomerania), with a population of less than 100 thousand souls, still surrounded by many picturesque lakes.

Many consider 1160 as Schwerin's founding date, but the area was occupied by slavic tribes at least 150 years before (the town Osestorp today). Indeed the slavic people had driven out the Germanic tripes about 600AD. Initial attempts to evangelize the area at that time (by peaceable methods) failed, then a military solution was imposed, and pagan King Nicolet was overthrown at his city of Lübeck (1160) by Henry. Henry also founded Schwerin in that year to where the bishopric was relocated for the Diocese of Mecklenburg. People from Flanders, Westphalia and Lower Saxony were brought into the region as the slavic population (Obotrite group within the Wend peoples) was subdued. Nicolets son swore allegiance to Duke Henry the Lion and received Mecklenburg as fief. Later the family title itself was raised, and Nicolet's descendants maintained possession until the 20th Century. Henry was important in establishing the Hanseatic League of trading merchants during the time of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.

The Dutchy played a complicated but important role in securing the Catholic Church in the former pagan territory. The Reformation in Mecklenburg was entirely the work of the two joint rulers, Henry V and Albert VII. Even Protestant historians have testified that before the Reformation the country had excellent bishops, a pious clergy, and a genuinely Catholic population. Both dukes were early won over to Luther's cause by the Humanist Konrad Pegel, whom Henry had called from the University of Rostock as tutor for his son Magnus, the postulated Bishop of Schwerin. The duke had permitted Pegel to go to Wittenberg, whence the latter returned an ardent adherent of Luther. Albert, indeed, soon abandoned the new doctrine and maintained the old faith in his part of the country. On the other hand, from 1524 Henry allowed the new doctrine to be proclaimed in the chapel of the castle at Schwerin, and protected the preachers even in his brother's domains. Henry's chief desire was to obtain the Bishopric of Schwerin. Its administrator, his son Magnus, who had married in 1543, died childless in 1550, and Henry saw to it that the chapter elected as successor his nephew Ulrich. When after Albert's death in the year 1547 his son John Albert (1547-76) came to power, the Reformation was completely established. It was not long until the Roman Catholics suffered discrimination.

But the area had more than matters of faith to dispute. Claims of Denmark, Swedish invasions, famine and pestilence marked the 30 Years war, along with its general destruction. For many years, in the early 18th Century, war was waged in Mecklenburg between the imperial army and the duke, who was supported by Prussia and other powers -- and so it continued down through the 20th Century. The landmark of the city is the Schwerin Castle, located on an island in the lake of the same name (Schweriner See). It was for centuries the residence of the Dukes of Mecklenburg and today is the seat of the Landtag (state parliament). Schwerin Cathedral was built in 1260–1416 in Brick Gothic style. Schelfkirche (Saint Nicolai's Church), originally was built 1238, but had to be rebuilt in 1713 after destruction by a storm. The Staatliches Museum Schwerin-Kunstsammlungen (State Art Museum) houses a collection of 15th- to 19th-century Dutch and German art, including works by Rembrandt, Cranach the Elder, and Rubens. There are also German medieval collections, including porcelain (especially Dresden porcelain), 18th-century court paintings, as well as modern works. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwerin; see http://www.schwerin.de/ (city Website); City Panoramas; Straßenbahnen (In the year 1881, in Schwerin, a horse-tram route opened, since 1908 an electrical Tram has existed)

Modern Map to go Here

A few German Cities: Lörrach {twin city of Sens} -- Mainz -- Trier and Aachen -- Frankfurt -- Köln / Cologne -- Dresden -- Essen -- Duisburg, Düsseldorf und Dortmund -- Düren, Bonn und Koblenz -- Baden-Baden, Karlsruhe, Speyer, Kaiserslautern und Saarbrücken -- Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Stuttgart und Tübingen -- Mannheim, Worms, Darmstadt und Würzburg -- Magdeburg, Halle (Saale), Dessau und Leipzig -- Münster -- Fulda, Kassel und Erfurt -- Switzerland: Geneva -- Bern, Basel and Zürich

Hospital of the Holy Spirit

Celtic/Frank History -- Germaniæ Historicæ -- Anglo Saxons et.al.



New: March 11, 2009