Salzburg is an Austrian city very near the German border, with views of the Eastern Alps. Best known as the birthplace of Mozart and setting for the film The Sound of Music, it offers more, possessing a rich cultural heritage. The Salzach River divides today's city, with medieval and baroque buildings of the pedestrian-friendly Altstadt (Old City) on its left bank, and 19th-century Neustadt (New City) on the right. The City's name literally means Salt Fortress, and is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg.
Traces of human settlements have been found in the area, dating to the Neolithic Age. The first continuous settlements in Salzburg were apparently by the Celtic Tribes of the Latin salt-based culture (around the 5th century BC). The separate settlements were merged into one city during the Roman Empire. At this time, the city, called Juvavum, became a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. After the collapse of the Norican frontier, Juvavum declined so sharply that by the late 7th century it nearly was a ruin. The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century Saint with the city's rebirth. St. Rupert named the city "Salzburg" and traveled from it to evangelize among pagans. This name derives from the presence of barges carrying salt on the Salzach River, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century. The Festung Hohensalzburg, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence. The structure has been greatly expanded during the following centuries. Salzburg became the seat of the Archbishopric of Salzburg; a Prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire and accordingly independent. It was a center of discord during the Reformation, being briefly occupied. The restoration of the Bishop's rule, however, returned the city to its prosperous course.
On October 31, 1731, the 214th anniversary of the posting 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. A total of 21,475 citizens refused to recant their beliefs and were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Frederick William I of Prussia, traveling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia. The rest settled in other Protestant states in Europe and the British colonies in America, along with many other refugees fleeing the French incursion into Germany. The city changed hands several times, and by 1866 was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the end of World War I. While about 50% of the city was damaged during the Second World War, most of the Baroque buildings survived bombing. American troops entered Salzburg on May 5, 1945. After World War II, Salzburg became the capital city of the State of Salzburg (Land Salzburg).
On January 27, 2006, the 250th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, all 35 churches of Salzburg rang their bells a little after 8:00 p.m. (local time) to celebrate the occasion. Maria Von Trapp (later Maria Trapp) and her family lived in Salzburg until they fled to the United States following the Nazi takeover. In the 1960s, the movie The Sound of Music used some locations in and around Salzburg and the state of Salzburg. The movie was based on the true story of Maria von Trapp who took up with an aristocratic family and fled the German Anschluss. Although the film is not particularly popular nor well known among Austrians, the town draws many visitors who wish to visit the filming locations, alone or on tours.
The first cathedral was built under Saint Vergilius of Salzburg, who might have used foundations by St. Rupert. The first Dom was recorded in 774. The so-called Virgil Dom was built from 767 to 774 and was 66 meters long and 33 meters wide. The Romanesque and Gothic churches dominated the medieval city. The Cathedral of Archbishop Conrad of Wittelsbach was the largest basilica the north of the Alps. Inspired by Vincenzo Scamozzi, Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau began transforming the medieval town based on the architectural styles of the late Renaissance. A second cathedral planned by Santino Solari arose as the first early Baroque church in Salzburg. It served as an example for many other churches in Southern Germany and Austria. Building stagnated when the Bishophoric was disolved and the city came into Bavarian hands.
Kollegienkirche-Salzburg: The large windows of the façade open the building to the outside and loosen the severity of the central façade front on. The delicate and ornate "jewelry box" comes from Diego Francesco Carlone and Paolo d'Allio. They designed, together with Fischer von Erlach, the wall articulation of the Church in great detail.