All Saints - Tousaints
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The  VANGUARD --   2018

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit"

We will begin our 22nd Year online in May 2018
". . . One Nation under God . . . ."

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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage -- Irish Copper Colonial Coinage (US) -- Seventeenth Century British Copper

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- US Gold Coinage (a small sample) -- (New: Spring 2018 )

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3
Passover - Pesach

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; 
walk in that way and find rest for your souls

This is none other than the dwelling place of God,
and this is the Gate of Heaven
This is the Gate of the Lord, the Righteous shall enter into it

And, on the last day, I know that I shall stand,
in my own flesh,
and see God, my Redeemer [Job 19:25-27].
Dieu entendre moi
cri de mon cœur - étrangère
dans mon propre pays {Psalm 69}

Unto Thee {alone}
will I cry, O Lord my Rock
{and my Redeemer}

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers,
Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes!

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord  Psalm 122.

Beloved, we are now the sons of God, but it doth not yet appear what we shall become;
however, we know that, when He shall return, we shall be like Him; for we shall see Him as He is [1 John 3:2].

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !


[devant l'Autel de Dieu]
Crions de joie pour le Seigneur,
Acclamons notre Rocher, notre Salut !
Approchons devant lui en rendant grâce,
Par nos chants et nos hymnes,
[Nous] acclamons-tu !
{Psaume 94}
{So let us} come
{before the Alter of the Lord},
Cry out with joy for the Lord,
Hail our Rock, our Salvation !
Approach Him with thanksgiving,
With our songs and hymns, let us hail [extol] Him !
(Psalm 95 (eng numbering))

Mach 18, 2018: The Collect for the Fifth Sunday in Lent, Commonly Called Passion Sunday, originally, in the Sarum Missal, was retained by Cranmer, appointed for the Fourth Sunday in Easter; but it was moved (1662) to replace a Gregorian Collect about protection that was not well-suited for the Season: Passion Sunday is a name that has been applied both to the fifth Sunday of Lent and the sixth Sunday (commonly called Palm Sunday) --

We beseech thee, Almighty God, mercifully to look upon thy people; that by thy great goodness they may be governed and preserved evermore, both in body and soul; through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with thee and the Holy Ghost, be all glory and honour, world without end. Amen (U.S. Book of common Prayer, p. 132 (1928))

Blessed be the Lord,
because He hath heard the voice of my supplications.

The Lord is my strength and my shield;
my heart trusted in Him, and I am helped:
therefore my heart greatly rejoiceth;
and with my song will I praise Him.

The Lord is their strength,
and He is the saving strength of His anointed.

Save Thy people, and bless Thine inheritance:
feed them also,
and lift them up for ever
[Psalm 28:6-9 (KJV)].
Behold, the days come, saith the Lord,
that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel,
and with the house of Judah,

Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers,
when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt,
which covenant they brake,
although I was [like] an husband unto them, saith the Lord.
But this shall be the covenant that I will make
with the house of Israel,
After those days, saith the Lord,
I will put my law in their inward parts,
and write it in their hearts,
and I will be their God, and they shall be my people

And they shall teach no more every man his neighbor,
and every man his brother, saying,
Know the Lord:
for they shall all know me
from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the Lord:
for I will forgive their iniquity,
and will remember their sins no more
[Jeremiah 31:31-34 (1599 Geneva Bible)]
Because Thou hast delivered my soul from death, mine eyes from tears, and my feet from falling.
I shall walk before the Lord in the land of the living [Psalm 116:8-9 (1599 Geneva Bible)].
Oui, Tu as délivré mon âme de la mort,
Mes yeux des larmes,
Mes pieds de la chute.
Je marcherai devant l'Éternel,
Sur la terre des vivants
[Psaumes 116:8-9 (Louis Segond)].

The Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, died as a heretic at Oxford (March 21, 1556). Upon the accession (1553) of the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I, he had been tried for treason, convicted of heresy, and condemned. Before his death he had recanted, however he refused on his day of death to repeat his confession of error. He then proceeded to place the hand that had written it into the fire.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

March 22nd: According to the decision of the Council of Nicea in AD 325, Easter is observed on the first Sunday following the first full moon after the spring equinox (March 21). This reckoning places Easter between March 22 and April 25 on any given year. Easter was last celebrated on March 22nd in 1818. Easter was not celebrated a single time on March 22nd during the 20th century, nor will it occur during the 21st century.

March 22nd -- Saint Zechariah (circa 750AD): Pope Zechariah, of Greek heritage, was born in Calabria (Latin: Brutium), in the toe of the southern Italian peninsula. A translator of Greek, educated through the Dialogues de saint Grégoire le Grand he became an eloquent prédicateur (preacher), and was admitted to the clergy at Rome under Pope Gregory III. When Luitprand (712-744) ruled over the Lombards, this King threatened to annex Rome and the Holy See (741). At this time Zechariah successfully perfected his power of persuasion. It is said that his contemporaries admired his gentleness and compassion, and at the same time, had great confidence in his political skills.

That year also saw the death of Charles Martel (October 22, 741) and Gregory III. Relief against the Lombards vanished overnight. Zechariah became Pope (December 3rd elected), being sanctified in the position on December 10, 741. Pope Zechariah abandoned the Holy See's ineffective ally, the Duke of Spoleto, to deal directly with Luitprand (Treaty of Terni, in August 742). A semblance of peace then reigned in Italy, especially when the Lombards (Longobards) agreed not to attack the Orthodox holdings at Ravenna (June 29, 743). Luitprand died the following January (which was still year 743 back then). His nephew (and successor), Hildebrand, was a we bit more more belligerent; but, he was so wicked that his subjects soon drove him away. The successor, Rachis, was no fool. He confirmed the peace treaty for another twenty years; however, Rachis broke the treaty by besieging Perugia (749). Pope Zechariah lifted that siege. The Lombard King repented to the point where, a few months later, he went to Rome, abdicated his throne, and entered the Abbey of Monte Cassino. His wife and daughter became nuns (June 749). Astolphe (Astolphus), the brother and successor, confirmed the treaty for twenty years; yet still, he seized Ravenna (751) thus ending the Byzantine exarchate. More about the Lombards HERE -- Merovingian Rulers & Map (7th Century) -- Map of Charlemagne's Empire, just 50 years later

Although Constantinople was iconoclastic in Christian practice, Pope Zechariah developed good relations with Konstantin V. Thanks to the work of Saint Boniface, Zechariah maintained excellent relations with the Franks, now ruled by the sons of Charles Martel. Zechariah was able to mediate the question of royal succession. Pepin (the Short) was elected king and sanctified to that office by Saint Boniface, thus beginning the reign of the Carolingian dynasty (751) and a much-needed alley against the Lombards, which had threatened once again. It has long been believed that Zachariah died on March 14, 752, and his festival for a long time was celebrated on March 15th. The martyrology reform of 1922 was of the view that his death had occurred on March 22nd. So the fête has changed. And without Pepin there would have been no Charles the Great King of the Franks, Charlemagne, crowned emperor of a new Holy Roman Empire in 800AD by Pope Leo III.

Pippin III Brevis, rex francorum, deposed the Merovingian ruler, King Childeric III, and he was crowned King in November 751. Childericus III, rex francorum, so deposed, became the last Merovingian ruler of France. He was replaced by the Mayors of the Palace and the Pepin line. Childericus died in 755 at St-Omer, Pas-de-Calais, France. Pepin died during a campaign and was brought to Saint Denis in Paris to be buried near the patron saint in 768. Pepin had not only maintained his father's policy of containing the Moors, he drove them back across the Pyrenees with the capture of Narbonne. He continued his father's expansion of the Frankish church (missionary work in Germany and Scandinavia) and the infrastructure (feudalism) that would prove the backbone of medieval Europe. Picture here of coronation

March 22nd (continued): For you Vikings TV fans and of Ragnar and his dynasty, the Battle of Marton or Meretum took place on March 22, 871, at a place recorded as Marton, perhaps in Wiltshire or Dorset, after ÆTHELRED of WESSEX was forced (along with his brother Alfred) into flight following their costly victory against an army of Danish invaders at the Battle of Ashdown. They had retreated to Basing (in Hampshire), where he suffered defeat at the hands of Ivar the Boneless, a son of Ragnar. The TV Vikings program (first aired 19 March 2015) has suggested that the Egbert's grandchildren (Æthelred and ALFRED) had different fathers and that that he double-crossed Ragnar's clan. This battle (and death) would have been payback of a sorts.

Meretum became the last of eight battles known to be fought by Æthelred against the Danes in that year. The oft defeated King is reported to have died on April 15, 871. Whether he died in another battle, or from wounds suffered at Meretum is unclear. The site of that battle is unknown. Suggestions have included a place at the borders of the London Borough of Merton, Merton in Oxfordshire, Marden in Wiltshire or Martin in Dorset. The more westerly locations tend to be favored because King Æthelred was buried in the Wimborne Minster in Dorset soon thereafter. Merriton, on the banks of the River Stour, a few miles downstream of Wimborne, also provides a place for a short, simple journey by burial barge. ALFRED the GREAT followed King Æthelred, who was Alfred's brother. Alfred ruled to his death in 900AD (some sources say 901).

March 22nd might also be called US History day. On this day in 1508, Ferdinand II of Aragon confirmed Amerigo Vespucci to the post of chief navigator of the expanding Spanish Empire. The "Americas" are named after him according to most history books. He was, however, an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer. He died a few years later. On March 22, 1621, The Pilgrims of the Plymouth Colony sign a peace treaty with Massasoit of the Wampanoags, just a few months after arriving, surviving the first terrible winter. Exactly a year later at Jamestown in the Colony of Virginia a massacre occurred. A group of native Algonquian warriors killed 347 English settlers, a third of the colony's population, a battle that took place during the second Anglo-Powhatan War. As if survival was not enough of a worry for the founders, on this date in 1630, the Massachusetts Bay Colony (the Puritans not the Pilgrims) outlawed the possession of cards, dice, and tables for gaming (games of chance). The American eastern seaboard was never the same after that.

The Puritans still remained unsatisfied, so on March 22, 1638, the colony expelled Anne Hutchinson for her religious dissent. This was one of the events that stands in background of the Bill of Rights. While Anne remained a Puritan, her strong religious convictions conflicted with the Boston crowd (clergy); yet, her popularity and charisma created a theological schism, threatening peace and prosperity according to some reports. As a follower of Rev. John Cotton, she espoused a covenant of grace while accusing all of the local ministers (except for Cotton and her husband's brother-in-law, John Wheelwright) of preaching the covenant of works. Her excommunication and banishment led to the founding of Rhode Island (Providence). Sometime after continued tensions with Massachusetts she moved to a foreign land- New Netherland. In August 1643, Hutchinson and all but one of the 15 other members of her household were massacred during an attack of natives in the Bronx (then a Dutch Colony). One 9 year-old daughter survived and was taken captive by the tribe, eventually traded to the English, after which she married John Cole, and with him had 11 children. The man who claimed to have murdered Anne, took possession of her land until he transferred it in 1664. One descendant bearing the Hutchinson name was her ill-fated great-great-grandson, Thomas Hutchinson, who was a loyalist Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay at the time of the Boston Tea Party, an event leading to the American Revolutionary War.

On this date in 1713, the conflict with the Tuscaroran tribe ended with the fall of tribal fort Neoheroka (Greene County), effectively opening up the interior of North Carolina to European colonization. The fortification was besieged and ultimately attacked by a colonial militia from the neighboring Province of South Carolina, under the command of Colonel James Moore. It consisted mainly of native tribal members, including warriors from the Yamasee, Apalachee, Catawba, Cherokee and others. The siege lasted for more than three weeks. Hundreds of men, women and children died in the fire that destroyed Neoheroka.

One Hundred and Twenty-seven (127) years after expelling Anne, in 1765, the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act. It introduced a levy directly on its American colonies. The Bostonians once again in acrimony protested, even though the British had spent great sums to protect them during the French-Indian War. The act was repealed in response to the protests, but taxes on tea would cause the party in Boston of the same name, and eventually a Revolution began in Massachusetts.

March 22, 1775 -- Edmund Burke -- From his speech on conciliation with America:

* * * The proposition is peace. Not peace through the medium of war; not peace to be hunted through the labyrinth of intricate and endless negotiations; not peace to arise out of universal discord, fomented from principle, in all parts of the empire; not peace to depend on the juridical determination of perplexing questions, or the precise marking the shadowy boundaries of a complex government. It is simple peace, sought in its natural course and in its ordinary haunts. * * *

Interestingly, on this date in 1820, Stephen Decatur (b. 1779), an heroic American naval officer during the War of 1812 (and the conflict with muslims in Tripoli), died from wounds received in a duel with a man on whose court martial he once served.

March 23, 1743: Georg Frideric Händel's oratorio Messiah had its London premiere. King George II attended. In the middle of the "Hallelujah Chorus" (the last portion of the epic composition), the sovereign rose to his feet in appreciation ! The entire audience followed suit out of respect for the King. So from the beginning came the custom of standing during the Hallelujah finale. Franz Joseph Haydn's Symphony No. 94 in G Major, also known as the Surprise Symphony, premiered in London, on this date in 1792.

The first audience to hear the Messiah largely lived in Dublin in late-1742. They gave to it what is reported to be the greatest ovation in that city's history. Some weeks later, when the Londoners heard the presentation, it again was a triumph.

Behold, I tell you a mystery;
We shall not all sleep; but we shall all be changed in a moment,
in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet.

The trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible,
and we {all} shall be changed.
For this corruptible must put on incorruption,
and this mortal must put on immortality. 1 Corinthians 15:51-53

An interesting aside: On April 6, 1759, Georg Friedrich Händel accompanied the orchestra and choir on the organ during a performance of the Messiah for the final concert of the Easter season. He passed away just eight days later, on the Saturday between Good Friday and Easter Sunday. His remains lie in Abbey church at Westminster.

Voici, je vous dis un mystère:
nous ne mourrons pas tous, mais tous nous serons changés, en un instant,
en un clin d'œil, à la dernière trompette.

La trompette sonnera, et les morts ressusciteront incorruptibles,
et nous, nous serons changés.
Car il faut que ce corps corruptible revête l'incorruptibilité,
et que ce corps mortel revête l'immortalité. trans. par Louis Segond (1910)

March 23, 1775: In a speech before the Virginia Provincial Convention, American revolutionary Patrick Henry made his famous plea for independence from Britain. Give me liberty, or give me death ! In 1776, Henry was elected Governor of Virginia. He was re-elected for three terms and then succeeded by Thomas Jefferson. He was again elected to the office in 1784. Patrick Henry was a strong critic of the constitution proposed in 1787. He was in favor of the strongest possible government for the individual states, and a weak federal government.

March 23, 1806: This is the day that the Lewis and Clark expedition set out from the West Coast on its return to the East. Read the journal entries HERE or HERE.

Altho' we have not fared Sumptuously this winter & Spring at Fort Clatsop, we have lived quite as comfortably as we had any reason to expect we Should; and have accomplished every object which induced our remaining at this place except that of meeting with the traders who visit the entrance of this river. Our Salt will be very sufficient to last us to the Missouri where we have a Stock in Store. Clark: March 20th

Salt was vital to the survival of the Corps of Discovery. The crew began the journey with 12 casks of salt, but soon consumed them. Curing meat became impossible. The expedition nearly starved on several occasions when fresh meet proved unavailable. Upon reaching the mouth of the Columbia River in late 1805, Fort Clatsop was erected. Three men ventured to the beach at what is now Seaside, Oregon to boil down the sea water to make salt. In 50 days they obtained 4 bushels of salt and were thus able to preserve food and survive the return trek. This salt was genuine, pure Pacific Sea Salt and contained no added iodine or man-made impurities, except perhaps something from some rusty black-iron pots !

March 23, 1990: The U.S. Postal Service issued a 25-cent stamp commemorating an airy feature film: Gone With the Wind. The movie had won eight Oscars (Academy Awards of 1940), including Best Picture.  Among the other winners, Hattie McDaniel received the Best Supporting Actress award.  Ms. McDaniel was the first African-American (actress or actor) to receive an Oscar in any category.

March 24, 1882: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, US poet (Song of Hiawatha), died. He is the sole American honored with a bust in the Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was born in Portland, Maine (February 27, 1807). He was also famous for, inter alia, The Children's Hour   and   Evangeline, A Tale of Acadie.

Like unto shipwrecked Paul on Melita's desolate sea-shore,
Thus he approached the place where Evangeline sat . . . .

March 24, 1896: Russia independently invents it first: Alexander Stepanovich Popov [Алекса́ндр Степа́нович Попо́в] was a Russian physicist who communicated messages by radio waves. On March 24, 1896, he demonstrated transmission of of a message by radio waves between different campus buildings in St Petersburg, where some accounts say the Morse code message ГЕНРИХ ГЕРЦ (meaning HEINRICH HERTZ) was received from a transmitter 250 meters away and transcribed on the blackboard by the president of the Physical and Chemical Society. Popov and Marconi's early work seems to have been done without knowledge of each others system, although reading Marconi’s June 1896 patent disclosures led Popov to develop a long range wireless telegraphy system. He exhibited what was billed as the first radio at the All-Russia Exhibition of 1896.

In the Kosovo War (March 24, 1999): NATO commences aerial bombardment against Yugoslavia (Serbian military positions in the Yugoslav province of Kosovo), one of the traditional Russian allies. This event marked the first time NATO had attacked a sovereign nation. The Clinton Administration (US military) deploys and uses depleted uranium ordinance (such as bunker-busting bombs, anti-tank shells and rockets). AS the only NATO member to cross that boundary, the USA denied usage at first. Such weapons also were widely used in Iraq. This week (in 2015) saw a test of wills when Russia threatened use of tactical nuclear weapons against Denmark, a NATO Allie. We have yet to learn, whether (or not) Vladimir (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин) was named after Vlad the Impaler or Vladimir Lenin, although his cunning ways have seen much play in the US media as of late.

Elsewhere in the arena of fine arts this day -- March 24, 1958, Rock-n-Roll radio idol Elvis Presley won the draft and would enter the U.S. Army. He served in Germany under Sgt. Bilko's command. Just a few years later on this date in 1965 at Mount Kennedy, in the Yukon, US Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy reached the top of a peak that had been named by Canadian government in honor of the Senator's late brother, President John F. Kennedy; and thereby became the first person to scale this highest (and at the time) unclimbed mountain in North America. On March 24, 1934, James A. Farley, the Postmaster General, announced that FDR himself had selected the subject for the 1934 Mother's Day stamp:

you may find her in a french museum

March 25, 1584: Sir Walter Raleigh, English explorer, courtier and writer, thieving murderer, bane of the Irish renewed Humphrey Gilbert's patent to explore North America. He established the Virginia colony on Roanoke Island (1587), first English Colony in the Americas. Among the colonists was Virginia Dare, born at Roanoke, for whom a stamp was issued in 1937, 350 years after her birth. The stamp was first offered for sale on August 18, 1937, at Manteo, N.C., near the site of the original colony. It was a five-cent denomination, unusual because first-class postage was normally much less, just three (3) cents. The colony was unusual, too -- it vanished without a trace. The Mint of the United States also issue a commemorative half-dollar (25,000) that year.

Twenty-five years later, Henry Hudson would embark on his third voyage, for the Dutch East India Company, claiming the New York area (new Holland) for the Dutch. Exactly another twenty-five years later, the Catholic colony of Maryland was founded by English colonists sent by Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore. Although he had a Charter from the English King, he lost the Colony twice (during the English Civil Wars). On March 25, 1655, supporters of Parliament (Cromwell) imprisoned his ex-governor and executed four others. Cecil Calvert sent his 24-year-old son Charles to Maryland in 1661, to be governor after he regained control of the Colony for the second time.

After the dry spell of 1929-33, in which no new commemorative coin types were issued by the United States Mint, the Maryland half dollar was at the vanguard of new issues, beginning in 1934. Although it was not the first new issue authorized (that honor going to the Texas half dollar), it was the first one coined and distributed. As such, it ushered in a golden age of commemorative coinage that lasted another five years.

March 25, 1765: Following Great Britain's victory in the French and Indian War, King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763. One of its provisions was to extend Georgia's southern boundary from the Altamaha River to the St. Mary's river. Two years later, on March 25, 1765, Governor James Wright approved an act of the General Assembly creating four new parishes -- St. David, St. Patrick, St. Thomas, and St. Mary -- in the newly acquired land, and further assigning Jekyll Island to St. James Parish. Here is a map showing the Georgia's colonial parishes. Twelve years later, the Constitution of 1777 combined St. David and St. Patrick parishes into the new county of Glynn, and St. Thomas and St. Mary into a new county called Camden. Never-the-less, the presiding bishop claims these Parishes as her own, regardless of the legislative intent to the contrary. see our page on the Golden Isles if you want more information -- HERE.

March 25, 1968: It's a little bit spooky, but 50 years ago on this day in 2018, a new Radio voice appeared in Atlanta -- WREK - Ramblin WREK Radio. The original “board” (a radio term for the mixer that allows the announcer to control signal levels on all the inputs to the radio transmitter) was originally used by the Grand Ole Opry. WSM was also willing to donate a transmission tower. The station started at 17 watts and grew overtime. So the big news is that WREK received its new transmitter this month (in 2008). Actually, it was delivered, installed and tested in time for the 40th anniversary of the station.

Also on this date in 1968, the Monkees TV show (with Davy Jones, Micky Dolenz, Michael Nesmith, Peter Tork) last aired on the Network Hey, hey ... ; Secretary Clark Clifford convened his dinner meeting of Wise Men, a dozen distinguished elder statesmen and soldiers, including former Secretary of State Dean Acheson and World War II General Omar Bradley at the State Department (Given a blunt assessment of the situation in Vietnam, all but 4 would advocate withdrawal in a lunch meeting with President Johnson the next day); an airplane crashes in the Irish Sea; flight crews already are preparing an aircraft (an F-111a) for its first combat mission in in SE Asia; At Olympic Sound Studios, with Mick Jagger on lead vocals and Keith Richards performing acoustic rhythm as well as electric guitar work ... ; the Reverend Martin Luther King, PhD speaks at national rabbinical convention at the Concord Resort Hotel in New York’s Catskills Mountains (, while RFK wrote a memo to his headquarters, outlining his presidential campaign strategy; a Paris-based reporter, Jeffrey Paley (William Paley, president of CBS was his father) was trying to interview Jim Garrison (!topic/alt.conspiracy.jfk/FfabJ887BmM); Today's guest stars -- Sammy Davis Jr., Joey Bishop and Pam Austin (Dodge Spokesman and movie interest of Elvis) appear on Laugh-In, where a “Mod, Mod World” looks at the 1968 Olympics -- this episode wins an Emmy, with appearances by Regis Philbin and John Wayne, too; John Joseph Cardinal Carberry was installed as Archbishop of St. Louis (made a Cardinal a year later by Pope Paul VI); Stevie Wonder releases I'm Wondering on Motown Records; Kiss Me Kate a musical appears on ABC TV (in its third release) casting Robert Goulet, Carol Lawrence, Michael Callan, Jessica Walter, and Marty Ingels in the lead roles.

This Webmaster wandered through the doors of the offices and studio of WREK in the fall of 1969 and witnessed some early progressive improvements -- the move away from the Top Forty format, the "new" used-Gates transmitter, stereo, live concerts, automation, WAVES, classics intermingled with the regular and oldies playlist, new audio compressors, modern logo (a concept (image) remaining in use). The item to the right shows a former General Manager as well as a station op with glasses (circa 1969-70). Guess who ? Bonne Chance !! More Pictures HERE.

March 26, 809: Today commemorates the death date of Saint Liudger (742-809) St. Liudger, born near Utrecht (Modern Holland) in about 742, was a missionary to the Friesians and Saxons. He followed after the Martyrdom of Saint Boniface (Apostle to the Hessorum) whose work he wished to continue further to the north (lower Rhine). He studied under Alquin (who invented lower-case letters and punctuation) and enjoyed a lifelong association with him. Ordained a priest in 777 in Cologne, he undertook missionary effort among the pagans near the mouth of the Ems (787 -- Near modern Emden, Germany). Liudger was effective because he knew the language of the germanic tribes inhabiting the area.

In 793 Charlemagne (Karl der Große) offered Liudger the Bishopric of Trier, but Liudger declined, expressing a preference to continue his missionary work among the Saxons. In this effort he built a monastery in the more eastern Saxon territories. The city that grew around the monastery came to be known as Münster. He founded a convent for women in about 803 and placed his sister, Sainte Gerburgis at its head. This was the first convent in Westphalia. In 805 he became the first Bishop of Münster. Four years later he died (809), entombed in Werden, where he had built a monastery and a church. His designation as a saint precedes the practice of canonization by a pope. Werden is now part of Essen (Essen-Werden).

Werden commuters on the way to the train station (S-Bahnhof), pass by its ancient church, perhaps without knowing its history or significance, as this Webmaster would have done some 50 years ago. An 830, der Heliand, die sächsische Bibel in Stabreimen, entsteht im Kloster Werden; An 1550, die Reformation in Werden beginnt mit Peter Ullner, Pfarrer an der Luciuskirche; au 9ème siècle à la bibliothèque de cloître Werdener. La Bible de Wulfilas en argent trouvée des Goths, le Codex Argenteus, à l'empereur Rudolf II à Prague en 1573- aujourd'hui dans Uppsala. An 1877, die Eisenbahnstrecke von Werden nach Essen wird eröffnet. An 1929, Werden verliert nach 612 Jahren die Selbständigkeit - heute Stadtteil von Essen. Our Essen page is HERE.

March 26, 1812: A political cartoon in the Boston Gazette coins the term "gerrymander." It describes oddly shaped electoral districts (named after Governor Gerry) designed by the state legislature (Jeffersonian party) to help incumbents win reelection against the Federalists. The gazette began a weekly publication December 21, 1719. Contributors included such men as Samuel Adams and Paul Revere. Some have argued that it became the most influential newspaper this country has ever known, the motivating force for the onset Revolutionary War in 1775. After the Revolution the paper lost its more famous contributors; its tone and policy changed. Now, it opposed the adoption of the Constitution of the United States. It argued against the administration of President Washington. As a consequence, it declined in power and "popular favor." After a long economic struggle it ceased publication in 1798. A new paper with a similar name, covering Commercial and Political items, began operation in the 19th Century (the Library of Congress has an issue from as early as October 9th 1800 (1800 - 1802 is the official timeline of the publication that continued J. Russell's Gazette under the Boston name)). The name reappeared almost immediately in 1803; the last publishing date for that newspaper is May 25, 1840, but it never had the power and force of the original.

March 27, 1513 (Easter Sunday): The term Pascua Florida, which in Spain originally meant just Palm Sunday, was later also applied to the whole festival of Easter Week. Thus, the State of Florida received its name when, on this day, Juan Ponce de Léon first sighted the shore and named the discovery in honor of the great feast.

March 27, 1814 -- War of 1812: President, but then only General, Andrew Jackson's Division, wins the Battle of Horseshoe {Bend}, Mississippi Territory (in what would become the State of Alabama). In the Battle of Horseshoe Bend along the Tallapoosa River, one thousand Red Stick Creeks became the enemy (Jackson permitted women and children to leave prior to the conflict). This event, along with the Battle of New Orleans (Chalmette Plantation), propelled Jackson into National prominence. He comanded 2700 regulars and other Native Americans (600), representatives of tribes who he later forced out of the South during the Trail of Tears. Only 200 of his enemy in 1814 escaped (into the Florida swamps). The Battle took place on March 27th, and by April 9th a Treaty had transferred 23 million acres to the Uncle Sam. A future governor of Tennessee and Texas) (whose Birthday was March 2nd) served as a 3rd Lieutenant, receiving a wound that troubled him for the rest of his life. The campaign was the direct result of the Massacre at Fort Mims (north of Mobile). Private Robert McMurry was in a Company commanded by Captain George Chapman (2nd Regiment-TN Militia- Col. Archer Cheatham). It was called the War with the Creek Indians. Robert was drafted at Springfield 1814 for a term of 3 months and served 3 mo. 15 days (116 days). His Honorable Discharge was dated May 10, 1814, and he left the Militia at Fayettsville (Fayetteville). see;

Also at the battle was John Ross. A Native American, he was adjutant to Revolutionary War hero Colonel Gideon Morgan (also known as A’gansta’ta (Oconostota) out of respect). Morgan led a regiment of the Cherokee in the War of 1812 against the hostile Creeks in such battles as Tallasehatche, Talladega, Auttose and Horseshoe Bend. Ross, after that war ended, became a wealthy planter. In 1827 he moved to Georgia. Oh, the afore mentioned 3rd Lieutenant's name was Sam Houston. He had just turned 21.

March 27, 1836 - Palm Sunday: After two days of battle (March 19th and 20th), some 300 Georgia volunteers and others fighting in the War for Texas Independence under Colonel James Walker Fannin and Lt. Colonel William Ward (who also were Georgians) surrendered to a much larger Mexican Army. Many thought that Fannin had negotiated a surrender which would allow the troops in his command to be paroled. The prisoners were marched to Presidio La Bahia (Goliad). Many, including Fannin, were injured. Thereafter, upon Santa Anna's order, the prisoners were executed on Palm Sunday as pirates under a decree of December 30, 1835, that applied to captured armed rebels. Of course the Georgians technically were not rebels, just armed combatants fighting a foreign power on behalf of another country, Texas. This tragedy so inflamed Georgians that many would volunteer to fight during the Mexican War a decade later. Remember Goliad - Remember the Alamo !!! -- these became the battle cries in that later war, as well as at San Jacinto just a few weeks later.

As for Colonel Fannin, Georgia named a county for him, the gateway to the Blue Ridge Mountains. This Fannin County was created in 1854 from portions of Union County and Gilmer County, with Morganton as the first county seat. Fannin County Texas was created on December 14, 1837, along with 39 North Texas counties all carved out of the premier Red River County. Fannin's entire command, together with William Ward and the Georgia Battalion, were shot in the Goliad Massacre on Palm Sunday, March 27, 1836. The murder of these men culminated a long series of defeats by the Texas Patriots and gave the Dictator a sense of invincibility.

Of note, Fanin's men first unfurled the Texas flag as we know it today. This flag was made by Johanna Troutman of Knoxville, Georgia. In 1835, Colonel Fannin had made the appeal for a Georgia battalion to aid the Texas cause. Miss Troutman presented this flag to Colonel Fannin before he returned back to Texas with the volunteers. The flag was first flown at Velasco on January 8, 1836 and was carried into battle at Goliad in March 1836. White Flag-Blue Star -- -- (many pictures)

Dr. Lauro Cavazos, former president of Texas Tech University and Secretary of Education 1988-1990 under Presidents Reagan and Bush, the first Hispanic to serve in the U.S. Cabinet, descends from Señora Francita Alavez, the Angel of Goliad. The museum at Presidio La Bahia contains several items related to her; but except for her lifesaving actions, she is largely unknown in the Texas Pantheon . She was directly responsible for enabling a few men to survive the execution that took some 322 lives.

March 27, 1964: On Good Friday, Valdez, Alaska (Prince William Sound), was rocked by a very great earthquake. Indeed, it was thought to be the largest seismic event ever recorded in North America with the force of billions of tons of TNT. In 1977 seismologists pegged the quake at 9.2 on the Richter scale, although there have been later reevaluations of the intensity. It lasted 4 minutes, followed by tsunamis and fires. Over 100 persons died at Valdez. Survivors moved 4 miles west to solid bedrock and rebuilt the town. Tremendous destruction also occurred in Anchorage. Much of Crescent City, California was demolished by an unexpected tsunami, also created by this quake.

March 27, 1970: The late Georgia Governor, Lester Maddox, approved the state's first legislation designed to protect the Georgia's coastal marshlands. The law (Coastal Marshlands Protection Act, as amended (O.C.G.A. §§12-5-280, et seq.)) prohibited any person from removing, filling, dredging, draining or otherwise altering any marsh without first obtaining a permit from the newly created Coastal Marshlands Protection Agency. That agency has since been folded into the Georgia's Department of Natural Resources (DNR). It now functions as a Committee under the Coastal Resources Division of DNR.

March 27, 2005: This day is Easter in the Western Church. Within the Orthodox Church, feast days and fast days are reckoned according to two distinct calendars, the Julian Calendar and the Gregorian Calendar. The first is attributed to the Roman Emperor Julius Cæsar, whose name it bears. It was later corrected in the sixteenth century by Pope Gregory XIII due to the increasing discrepancy between calendar time and calculated astronomical time. The Gregorian Calendar corrected the error, but was not accepted fully by all Orthodox Churches for all events. So for some, Easter is the 27th of March and others May 1st in 2005.

March 28, 845 and within 5 days on TV in 2015: Marauding Viking pirates sack Paris (la Ville Lumière), a capital of the former Merovingian dynasty of the Franks. The group collects a huge ransom for leaving the city intact, and this gang goes on to plunder elsewhere in France. The crews find the French microclimate and land satisfying. In another 100 years, voila, the northmen become upstanding citizens of France, no longer estranged. In about another 100 years, some turn into the Norman rulers of England, with a claim on the French throne. A Viking Timeline for France is here. In particular, Rollo (c. 846 – c. 932), baptized Robert and so sometimes numbered Robert I to distinguish him from his descendants, was a Viking established and became the first ruler of the French Viking principality, which became known as Normandy. His descendants were the Dukes of Normandy; and, following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Kings of England.

The Viking fleet may have consisted of as many as 120 vessels. It sailed up the Seine River, commanded by Ragnar, past Rouen, taking captives, pillaging monasteries and towns on either of the river banks. On Easter Day, 845 the fleet sacked Paris. The protection-money came from the King, a tribute given the hoard to basically go away. This Danish Viking, Ragnar, was probably the legendary Ragnar Lodbrok (Ragnar died in Northumbria 862-866 after being tossed into a pit of snakes). Lodbrok's line can be traced back only to his great-grandfather, as is the case with his second wife Aslaug Sigurdsdottir. Lodbrok by her, fathered Ivar the Boneless, King of Dublin, and Sigurd Snake-in-Eye (d. 873). see generally

Other Highlights: In about 4500 BC a canoe (pirogue) sank along the Seine between the Bercy and Cour Saint-Emilion Métro stop (ligne 14). This will become the first evidence of a settled presence in the Paris region. It was placed on display in September 2000 at the Carnavalet Museum. About 250 years before the birth of Christ, a native tribe of Celtic people settled on the banks of the Seine River. They called the setting Loukteih, meaning a marshy place. Two hundred years later (52 B.C.), Roman soldiers arrive in Paris, beginning a long tradition of strangers marching into the town. There, after the usual rousing parade, Julius Cæsar holds an assembly at the local hôtel de ville. The new owners embark on a building spree for economic stimulus on a nearby hill. The Romans called the tribe that occupies the area the Parisii. Cæsar identifies the city as Lutetia Parisorum, a Latinized version of the Celtic names, in his famous work that extols the virtues and victories of his campaign in Gaul. see generally Our map of that Romanized city is HERE.

Place where St Denis lost his headIn 250 AD, the Romans beheaded Denis, Bishop of the Parisii (he also known as Dionysius), in the area of Paris that is now named for the hill of the martyred saint, Montmartre. The Church of Saint Pierre today sits on the spot (pictured right. Legend recites that the good bishop carries his head, after it is severed from his body, north (down the hill) to the place now known as the site of the abbey of St. Denis. Saint Denis is most often depicted headless, head in hand. Denis, the first bishop of Paris (pronounced dawn-ee) and his companions, martyred in 270AD on a large hill overlooking Gare du Nord and all Paris, were buried several miles north of the spot of the execution. The small chapel built over the spot and named for this martyr, became a very famous, pilgrimage church, during the fifth and sixth centuries. In 630 King Dagobert (a Merovingian ruler of France) founded an abbey for Benedictine monks, replacing the original chapel by a large basilica. This basilique has been much rebuilt and expanded -- only the burial crypt remains of the original structure; however, it was desecrated during the Revolution.

In about 300AD, barbarians destroy the city. By 360AD the city name of "Paris" had become official and Emperor Julian of the late Roman Empire (in the West) is crowned there. Moving along about 90 years, we find Attila, a Hun of some renown, heading toward Paris. A young nun named Geneviève encourages the Parisians to pray and stand firm against the impending onslaught and certain death. Attila's legions avoid Paris and are defeated at Châlons. Geneviève, hailed as the city's savioress' is named later the patron Sainte of Paris. What is now the Panthéon in Paris was originally built as a church to be named and dedicated to Sainte-Geneviève. The original church of that name sat on the highest point of a hill -- over 70 meters above the river -- looking west towards what was the Roman forum and city centre.

The Église Saint-Étienne-du-Mont, where now rest Saintes Geneviève and Clotilda (Clotilde-former Princess of ancient Burgundy) and Clovis, Roi of all Franks (in 1996 the country celebrated the 1500th anniversary of his baptism on December 25th), stands next to the Panthéon (to the north and the east) on the hill that dominates the left bank. These are the founding patrons of Paris and the French Nation (along with St. Denis). The first parish church of St. Étienne (the area of the old Roman forum) arose in the 6th century out of the Abbey of Ste. Geneviève. It used the burial crypt of the structure for its worship space. Not until the 13th century was a separate church built, on the north side of the abbey on the crest of the hill overlooking the Seine. An ever-growing parish resulted in a new structure begun in the year before Columbus left for the New World (1491). Successive stages of construction help explain the mixture of architectural styles, making it one of the most uncommon Église in 16th Century Paris. The vaults of the apse and the bell tower appeared in 1491, the chancel in 1537, the gallery in 1545; finally, the vaults of the nave and the transept were completed in 1580. The bell tower is raised in 1624 and the portal is built in 1610. After the Revolution the demolition of the Abbey church, in 1807, disturbs the balance of its façade. This church contains Pascal’s tomb, who died while he was in the parish territory and Racine’s ashes -- transferred to this church from Port-Royal in 1711. Furthermore, it contains the shrine of St. Geneviève’s remains (left), the patron sainte of Paris. The reliquary contains only a few fingers, bones and ashes, because during the Revolution, the remains were burned.

The three ancient schools of Notre-Dame, Ste-Geneviève, and St-Victor may be regarded as the triple cradle of the universitas scholarium, which included masters and students; hence the name University. Read about the first student strike in Paris, 1226AD -- it caused the changes that led to the founding of the historic University of Paris. The Université de Paris is often referred to as the Sorbonne or La Sorbonne after the collegiate institution (Collège de Sorbonne) founded about 1257. The University of Paris VIII: Vincennes - Saint-Denis was organized in response to the student strikes of 1968. Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose !!! Perhaps Sainte Geneviève will yet appear once more, and save her people from the barbarians.

March 28, 1889: Atlanta lumber dealer George V. Gress and railroad contractor Thomas J. James attended an auction of a bankrupt traveling circus at the Fulton County courthouse. The two joined together for the winning bid of $4,485.00. James wanted the circus wagons and railroad cars for his business, while Gress was interested in the collection of circus animals. A few days later, Gress offered the animals and their cages to the city of Atlanta. Several days after that, the Atlanta City Council decided to locate the animals in Grant Park. Gress then built a large brick building to house the animals, giving Atlanta its first zoo. In 1893, Gress and Charles Northern would purchase a cycloramic painting of the Battle of Atlanta. They placed it in Grant Park for public viewing. Over the next six years, Gress donated the $12,000 in admissions to the Cyclorama for use in helping Atlanta's poor children. Finally, in 1898, Gress donated the painting to the City of Atlanta.
How soon they forget -- March 28, 1930: The Greek peoples of Byzantium originally founded it on the European side of what today is the Bosphorus strait. Emperor Constantine (the First) renamed it Nova Roma, but the grand City became known as Constantinople, a more compelling name, reflecting its great ruler and its Greek heritage. Nova Roma became the seat of the Eastern Roman Empire for 1050 years (395 to 1453); moreover, after about 100 years, it was the only portion of the once vast empire to remain a single political entity. As the seat of the Ottoman Empire for another 465 years, the city stantinople began sounding like stamboul to the locals, and officially as Qusţanţanīya, which means "The City of Constantine" in Arabic. It officially became Istanbul at about the same time that the village of Angora became Ankara, the capital of Turkey. Mostafa Kamal Ata Turk had created the Turkish Republic out of the ruins of World War I and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. These two changes in name only were but the last official touches. see

March 29, 1638: Immigrants establish New Sweden, the first settlement in Delaware by Swedish Lutherans and Finnish émigrés. They were the first to build log cabins in America. English colonists did not know how to build houses from logs, but those immigrants who had lived in the forests of Scandinavia, Germany and Switzerland did. German pioneers (called Dutch), who settled in Pennsylvania, built the log cabins there in the early 1700s. The Scotch-Irish immigrants who settled in the Appalachian highlands after 1720 made the widest use of log cabins. By the time of the American Revolution, cabins from logs were the principal dwelling type along the western frontier (Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio), and this architectural motif migrated westward from there. see

The Colony was established under Swedish jurisdiction (1637), however the Dutch sent in occupying troops in 1655 and technical Swedish sovereignty over New Sweden was at an end. Never-the-less, a Swedish and Finnish presence remained very much in evidence. In fact, Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant permitted the colonists to continue to be a Swedish Nation, governed by a court of their choosing, free to practice their religion. They organized their own militia, retained their land holdings and traded with the native people. This independent colony continued until 1681, when an Englishman, William Penn, received his charter for Pennsylvania, which included the three lower counties that comprise present-day Delaware.

30 Mars 1349: The Dauphiné is an alpine region which extends around Vienne and Grenoble. On March 30, 1349, the King of France presents the Dauphiné to his son Charles to assure him a steady income. In addition, Charles (the future Charles V) will gain the title of Dauphin of Vienne, who was one of the counts of Dauphiné region since 1192. Until the nineteenth century, all heirs of the Kingdom of France will get this title and will be titled "Dauphin." Also on this date Sébastien de Vauban (1633 - 1707) died in Paris. He was born on May first in Saint-Léger-de-Foucherets (Bourgogne, France). He acquired the reputation as the best engineer of his time. He would be elevated to "la dignité de Maréchal de France." He would be instrumental in convincing Louis XIV to create the Order of Saint Louis, which recognizes the important contributions of French people. His tomb was profaned during the Revolution. Napoleon transferred his heart to the Dome of the Invalids in 1908.

March 30, 1867: The U.S. Secretary of State, William H. Seward, reached agreement with Russia's Baron Stoeckl to purchase the territory of Alaska for $7.2 million, or about two and one-half cents an acre for all that gold, oil, timber, ice and beauty. This purchase, soundly ridiculed as Seward's Folly, Seward's Icebox or President Andrew Johnson's Polar Bear Garden, was signed the next day and later approved by the US Senate by only one vote. Tennessee born President Johnson took office after Lincoln's death, was impeached but not convicted, yet had this remarkable vision of America's future, despite the petty politics of the time.

Few persons remember that William H. Seward, former governor, U.S. Senator from New York and Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson was the leading Republican contender in a three-way contest for the post of President in the 1860 election; however on the third ballot Lincoln won. In fact, Seward first lost the nomination for the presidential election against John C. Frémont in 1856. Secretary Seward was brutally stabbed in his Washington home on April 14, 1865, the same night President Lincoln was shot in the Ford Theater. The attacker, Lewis Powell, a co-conspirator with Booth, injured five people in the nighttime action. Seward recovered from his injuries and continued to serve as Secretary of State, visiting Alaska during the Grant Administration.

March 30, 2006: We cry tears of joy for her release and we pray for the swift and safe release of all others still in captivity. -- An American journalist Jill Carroll was freed in Iraq on Thursday, nearly three months after being kidnapped in Baghdad.

March 31, 1831: Born this day in Scotland: Archibald Scott Couper in Kirkintilloch, Dumbartonshire. This chemist discovered the tetra-valency of carbon and the ability of carbon atoms to bond with one another to form long chains, which concepts are fundamental to modern organic chemistry. He also created the symbolic use of a line between element symbols to indicate chemical bonding. This Scotsman sought to publish his ideas with the French Academy of Sciences, in a paper delivered through his superior, Adolphe Würtz. Couper's efforts were not forwarded in a timely fashion, and August Kekulé published the same, although independently derived, idea of tetra-valence first, thereby depriving Couper of his due fame.

Archibald Scott Couper's father was in the business of textiles. Key to the manufacture of these types of materials are their dyestuffs. A number of chemical companies grew out of the research into textile substitutes, such as nylon, rayon and other plastic-like fibers -- and dyes, too -- none of which could have risen without Couper's discovery. For example, the Hoechst facility, just downriver from Frankfurt, has been a chemical manufacturing site for over 150 years. The aniline dye factory "Theerfarbenfabrik Meister, Lucius & Co." at Höchst am Main was founded in 1863, forming the basis for Hoechst AG. Just as the story, of how Progil {also a dyestuffs firm} and other companies became Rhône-Poulenc Chimie S.A., the Hoechst story has taken many twists and turns. Rhône-Poulenc and Hoechst AG combined into a drug manufacturing firm, Aventis in the not too distant past..

March 31, 1889: Today marks a completion date. Born, Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel, in Dijon France -- A man who could cut the mustard, he designed many important bridges and viaducts. Of course, you know him well for his notable work, the Statue of Liberty. He became the structural engineer on that project, completed in Paris in 1884. He also did the Tour Eiffel, begun in 1887 on the Champs-de-Mars, at a cost of about $1 million for the Parisian World Exhibition of 1889. On March 31st in the year 1889, this famous Paris landmark would open to the dismay of some at the time. At 985 feet high, it was the highest structure in the world until 1930, when a building in NYC was built with a pretty fair view of Lady Liberty. In spite of all of this, in 1893 France condemned him to two years' imprisonment plus fines for a criminal breach of trust in connection with the failed French attempt at building a canal in Panama.

March 31, 1943: Its pre-Broadway try-out was at New Haven's Shubert in 1943, under a forgettable title. The show, "Away We Go," was renamed. It had a honeymoon run when it opened at the St. James Theatre in New York City, this day in history. That is, it became an instant hit. The show ran for 2,248 performances -- until 1948. The musical has grossed millions of dollars as an onstage production, on and off Broadway. As a blockbuster movie it broke records. Still running in an occasional revival today, it has become legendary among musicals -- it was retitled -- OK -- wait for it -- Oklahoma?

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; 
walk in that way and find rest for your souls

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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at that moment.