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The  VANGUARD --   2018

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit"

We will begin our 22nd Year online in May 2018
". . . One Nation under God . . . ."

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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage -- Irish Copper Colonial Coinage (US) -- Seventeenth Century British Copper

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- US Gold Coinage (a small sample) -- (New: Summer 2018 )

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3
Passover - Pesach

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; 
walk in that way and find rest for your souls

This is none other than the dwelling place of God,
and this is the Gate of Heaven
This is the Gate of the Lord, the Righteous shall enter into it

And, on the last day, I know that I shall stand,
in my own flesh,
and see God, my Redeemer [Job 19:25-27].
Dieu entendre moi
cri de mon cœur - étrangère
dans mon propre pays {Psalm 69}

Unto Thee {alone}
will I cry, O Lord my Rock
{and my Redeemer}

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord  Psalm 122.

Beloved, we are now the sons of God, but it doth not yet appear what we shall become;
however, we know that, when He shall return, we shall be like Him; for we shall see Him as He is [1 John 3:2].

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

August 20, 573: Gregory of Tours was selected as the Bishop of that ancient town. Gregory's history of the Church in France (more specifically about Clovis and his successors, the Merovingian Franks) is considered one of the most well known primary sources of the time. -- a no-holds-barred compendium of the personalities and miracles of the time.

The name of Cæsarodunum (some say the "hill of Cæsar "- actually, Cæsaris montis would mean Cæsar's hill) was first mentioned in the first century AD. This new settlement became the chief town of the Romanized Gauls called the Turones. In the fourth century, Saint Martin of Tours established the city as a center of learning that produced France's first historian, Gregory of Tours, only one hundred years later. Under the influence of Charlemagne during the eighth and ninth centuries, Tours remained one of the great intellectual cities of Europe. In the Middle Ages, Tours was recognized as an important center for the teaching of medicine (its school of surgery was founded by a guild of barbers in 1408). Puis capitale du royaume de France, Tours bénéficie d'une situation exceptionnelle au centre de la célèbre Vallée de la Loire, au cœur du Jardin de la France.

Tuesday, August 20, 1991: This is the day officially recognized as that on which the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics collapsed, when more than 100,000 people rallied outside the Soviet Union's parliament building protesting the coup that deposed President Mikhail Gorbachev. Estonia reclaimed its independence and left the Soviet collective on this day, too. The Soviets had occupied Estonia occupied for more than 50 years. Interestingly (sadly), the heroes (martyrs) of this day and what they fought for, are all but forgotten 20 years later.

For those of you who enjoy irony, this is the same day that Milton's Paradise Lost was published in 1667, Leon Trotsky, an exiled Soviet revolutionary, was attacked on Stalin's orders (fatally wounded in Mexico City by an assassin's alpine ice-ax --it will take a day to die) and Czechoslovakia was invaded by Soviet led Warsaw Pact forces in 1968. The 200,000 Warsaw Pact troops, featuring about 5,000 tanks, invaded Czechoslovakia in order to end the political liberalization popularly known as the Prague Spring. Strangely enough, on Sunday August 20, 1882, Piotr Ilyitch Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture debuted in Moscow. On this day Arab forces led by Khalid bin Walid seize control of Syria and Palestine (Battle of Yarmuk 636AD) from the Roman forces in the East (Byzantine Empire), marking the first great wave of Muslim conquests that constituted a rapid advance of Islam outside the Arabian peninsula. Here is one for you to look up; on this day in history, a Canadian discovers buffalo from Manitoba.

August 21, 1741: Georg Friedrich Händel would go into seclusion at his home to begin writing an oratorio. He finished the composition 23 days later. He later conceded, to paraphrase an apostle: Whether I was in the body or out of the body when I wrote it, I know not.

The first audience to hear the oratorio Messiah lived in Dublin in 1742. The Irish gave what is reported to be the greatest ovation in the city's history. Some weeks later, London heard the work for the first time, and again it was a grand triumph.

Behold, I tell you a mystery;
We shall not all sleep; but we shall all be changed in a moment,
in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet.

The trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible,
and we {all} shall be changed.
For this corruptible must put on incorruption,
and this mortal must put on immortality.

On March 23, 1743, the Messiah had its London premiere. King George II attended. In the middle of the Hallelujah Chorus (the last piece), the sovereign rose to his feet in appreciation ! The entire audience followed the example out of respect for the King. From the beginning came the custom of standing during the finale, Hallelujah. Now that's change in which we all can believe.

As an interesting aside, on April 6, 1759, Händel accompanied a performance of the Messiah on the organ for the final concert of the Easter season. He passed away just eight days later, on the Saturday between Good Friday and Easter Sunday. He is buried in Westminster Abbey.

August 21, 1959: Statehood bills for Hawai'i were introduced into the U.S. Congress as early as 1919 by the non-voting delegates Hawai'i sent to the U.S. Congress. Additional bills were introduced in 1935, 1947 and 1950. In 1959, the U.S. Congress approved the statehood bill. This was followed by a referendum in which Hawai'i residents voted overwhelmingly in support of statehood (the ballot question was: Shall Hawaii immediately be admitted into the Union as a state ?), and on August 21, 1959 (the third Friday in August), President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a proclamation making Hawai'i the 50th state. Good thing, too -- first last solar eclipse visible from the United States was in 1991 (and then only just from a portion of Hawai'i)

The solar eclipse that takes place on Monday, August 21, 2017, will be the next visible total eclipse of the Sun from a narrow corridor through the United States. The longest duration of totality will be 2 minutes 40 seconds in Christian County, Kentucky just northwest of Hopkinsville, Kentucky. A partial solar eclipse will be seen from the much broader path of the Moon's penumbra, including all of North America, northern South America, western Europe, and Africa. This eclipse will be part of the Saros cycle 145 that also produced an eclipse August 11, 1999.

August 22, 565: Celtic (Irish) missionary and abbot of Iona, Columba reportedly confronts the Loch Ness Monster. He becomes the first recorded historical observer of the creature. At the voice of the saint, the monster was terrified, wrote his biographer, and fled more quickly than if it had been pulled back with ropes. In 1997 Great Britain issued special stamps for Saints Augustine of Canterbury and Columba of Iona.

Scoti or Scotti was a name used by Late Roman authors for the Irish Gaels (Celts). Scotland was named after Irish settlers from the 5th century onward. Iona (Scottish Gaelic: Ì Chaluim Chille) is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It was a centre of Gaelic monasticism for four centuries. In 1549, a burial inventory of 48 Scottish, 8 Norwegian and 4 Irish kings was recorded. None of these graves are now identifiable (their inscriptions were said to have worn away by the end of the 17th century). The Gaels traced their ancestry to two different daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs named Scota.

Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel. In the late 6th–early 7th centuries, it encompassed roughly what is now Argyll in Scotland and County Antrim in the Irish province of Ulster. The kingdom reached its height under Áedán mac Gabráin (r. 574–608), but King Æthelfrith of Bernicia checked its growth at the Battle of Degsastan in 603.

After a period of about 100 years the Dalriadic kingdom in Ireland and the one in what would be later known as Alba separated (There is no precise Gaelic equivalent for the English term 'Kingdom of Alba' as the Gaelic term Rìoghachd na h-Alba means only 'Kingdom of Scotland' from about 900AD to the mid-13th Century). The Dalriadic kingdom in Alba slowly became known as The land of the Scots. In the year 850 its king, Cinead (Kenneth) MacAlpin, completely defeated the Picts (original inhabitants) and became the Gaelic King of most of present day Scotland. Slowly the term “land of the Scots” became the Scots-land.

Remember you can be Scots by birth, Scottish by birth or descent; but, not Scotch, which would be a great wisky, laddie.
August 22, 1787: A Silversmith, John Fitch, demonstrated his great device, the first successful one of its kind in the New Country. Never heard of him, you say. Have patience, we reply. He invented the steamboat. On this date he sailed the Perseverance, on the Delaware River to the delight of delegates of the Continental Congress. Twenty years later, Robert Fulton, of steamship folly fame, sailed into history on the Hudson River (August 17, 1807). I guess he had the New York City press behind him. Read about Georgia's first steam engine patent HERE

August 22, 1922 -- ¡ SÍ, se puede !: A thirty-one year old Irishman was murdered in ambush this day by former political allies, en route to his home in County Cork. On December 6, 1922, the Irish Constitution went into effect and the Irish Free State was officially proclaimed. One can argue that it was Michael Collins who achieved the goal of separation from England after hundreds of years, but he did not live to see his dream realised. President of the Irish Provisional Government and Commander-in-Chief of the Provisional Army, Collins knew well that he was a marked man by his support of a political first step away from Britain, when others wanted full and immediate independence.

Collins, arrested and sent to internment camps like many of the 1916 Easter Rising's participants, became a leading figure in the post-Rising Sinn Féin, a small nationalist party which the British government and the Irish media incorrectly blamed for the 1916 events. Negotiations with Great Britain resulted in an Anglo-Irish Treaty, which approved a new Irish dominion, named the "Irish Free State" (a literal translation from the Irish term Saorstát Éireann). A revolution broke out over the terms of the agreement. One of Collins' last public appearances involved the funeral for friend and fellow cabinet colleague, President Griffith. Within one week, Collins joined Griffith in Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin. from

Why is this important today, you may well ask? Collins remains in the public memory as the young man, barely aged thirty, who delivered a republic, then a lasting treaty, who inspired a generation and who tragically died before his time, just as his country stood on the threshold of independent self-government. Had he remained alive, perhaps many of the troubles that would come to plague Ireland during the next 80 years might have been lessened or avoided altogether. Collins' model for fighting a big power has remained, however, as a legacy that affects us today, either explicitly as with Israel's revolution against British rule, or implicitly in the tactics once used in Vietnam or even in Iraq to fight the allied forces.
August 23, 1784: At Jonesborough, upper East Tennessee settlers (in the first of two conventions that year) would declare their area (Washington, Greene and Sullivan Counties, today) independent of any other state (i.e. NC), naming the new area Franklin. The Continental Congress would reject the claim for statehood a year later, but the die was cast. Tennessee would become a territory in 1790 and the 16th state on June 1, 1796. A good history beginning with its roots as an area known as Watauga (Virginia) is found HERE. see also As an interesting aside, it appears that some of Ulrich Zwingli's family first settled in Pennsylvania and Maryland (mid-18th Century), and later could be found in upper East Tennessee by the 1790's.

August 23, 1821: After 11 years of civil war, the Spanish Empire granted Mexico independence as a constitutional monarchy. Spanish Viceroy (and Lieutenant-General of the Armies of Spain), Don Juan de Ó'Donojú (O'Donoghue), signed the Treaty of Cordoba, which approved the plan. Don Agustín de Iturbide, First Chief of the Imperial Mexican Army (his family from the Basque region of Spain), represented Mexico. He would become the first monarch, Emperor Agustín I, on July 22, 1822. His reign was short-lived because political and financial instability continued to plague the newly independent Mexico.

August 23, 1859: The first air mail in the U.S. is carried in a balloon. John Wise and his balloon "the Jupiter" travelled from Lafayette, Indiana, to Crawfordsville, Indiana, carrying 123 letters (and 23 circulars). The intended destination, however was New York City. Unfortunately, the winds were not favorable. The air was still, and the craft had to ascend to 14,000 feet before air currents could propel the balloon. After five hours, Wise had only traveled 30 miles south, not east, and had to touch down in Crawfordsville. Nevertheless, the bag of mail eventually made it to New York by train. None-the-less, in 1959 the United States Postal Service issued a 7 cent stamp commemorating Wise's flight. "Toto, I don't think we're in Kansas anymore."

August 23, 1913: Léon Letort carried out the first non-stop flight between Paris and Berlin (Johannisthal). Letort flew his monoplane, a Morane-Saulnier (Robert et Léon Morane, and Raymond Saulnier designers -- Morane-Saulnier est une société constructrice d'avions française. Société créée sous le nom de « Sociètè Anonyme des Aèroplanes Morane-Saulnier» le 10 octobre à 1911 Puteaux (Paris region)) fitted with an 80-hp Le Rhône rotary engine. The journey lasted 8 hours to go the 560 miles between the two capitals. He returned with a friend who he had taught to fly, Millie Moore, one-time movie star. She learned to fly at Gashinka (St. Petersburg), earning Russian license # 56 on 19 November 1911. In August 1917, the Sopwith Pup, fitted with an 80-hp Le Rhône engine, was the first aircraft to land aboard a moving ship, the Royal Navy's HMS Furious.

August 23, 1939: After cocktails, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Vyacheslav M. Molotov, signed a Treaty of Non-Aggression. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact freed Hitler to invade Poland and let Stalin invade Finland, as well as eastern Poland, in order to protect them from the German aggressors. Secret protocols, made public many years later, assigned Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia to be within the Soviet sphere of influence. Poland was to be partitioned along the rivers Narev, Vistula and San. Germany retained Lithuania enlarged by the inclusion of Vilnius. Just days after the signing, Germany attacked Poland, and by the end of September, both powers had stolen portions of Poland. The Nazi invasion started World War II, when Britain and France (by treaty) came to Poland's aid.

It is reported that Stalin cared not if Germany won or lost to the Western Allies. If Germany prevailed it would be too weak to attack Russia. If the West won, it would come at a high price, which would result in a socialist Europe. One may speculate on the reasons why he ignored the signs of a German buildup in Poland that presaged its invasion of Russia. Ironically, Britain would abandon Poland to Soviet domination at the end of the conflict, and send Polish soldiers who had fought with the British back to Poland where many were sent of to labour camps.

On August 23, 1990, East and West Germany announced that they would unite on October 3rd. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania achieved their freedom in late-August 1991, after the so-called hard-line communist coup failed in Moscow. By Early September most nations, including Russia had recognized these three countries that had been swallowed-up in 1939."

August 24, 79AD: A volcano near today's Italian city of Naples, Mount Vesuvius, erupts and in the process wipes out much of the population of the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The destruction did not occur in one hour or one day. The location of the cities are forgotten until the 19th Century. Today, excavation has revealed the life and times of all stratæ of Roman Society from the first century AD.
Is there a lesson here ?? Should we worry about problems only when they occur; after all, how serious could they be ??? Pompei: Città campana alle falde sudorientali del Vesuvio -- Infatti la città di origine osca, posta alla foce del fiume Sarno, poi porto greco, poi romana, fu completamente seppellita sotto uno strato di lapilli e di cenere durante l'eruzione del Vesuvio del 79 d.C. (Il giorno del 24 agosto) insieme ad Ercolano e Stabia. -- dies iræ dies illa dies tribulationis et angustiæ dies calamitatis et miseriæ dies tenebrarum et caliginis dies nebulæ et turbinis (

August 24, 1572: The slaughter of French Protestants at the hands of the Catholic forces began in Paris, as Charles IX of France attempted to rid the country of Huguenots. So started France’s fourth in a series of wars of religion, a day called the Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day, in which 50,000 Huguenots died in and around Paris.

The Église St. Germain-l'Auxerrois lies at the end of Pont du Neuf on the Right Bank at 2, Place du Louvre The oldest part of the current church building is the 12th century belfry, which rang out August 24, 1572, when some 3,000 Huguenots were massacred in this neighborhood. The tower bells signaled the supporters of Catherine de Médicis, Marguerite de Guise, Charles IX, and the future Henri III to launch a slaughter of these innocents (including Admiral Gaspard de Chastillon, Count de Coligny), who had been invited to celebrate the marriage of Henri de Navarre to Marguerite de Valois. Some believe that Charles' mother Catherine was told that the Huguenot Protestants were plotting a revolution and agreed to the pre-emptive plan. Some say she remains fully complicit in murder.

August 24, 1814: British troops under the command of General Robert Ross won an important victory (defeating an American force at Bladensburg, Maryland). This action would permit them to march into the City of Washington, in the Distict of Columbia, without opposition. In retaliation for the Yankee burning of the parliament building in York (Toronto), the capitol of Britain's Upper Canada, Washington's federal structures were cheerfully barbecued. Meeting no resistance from the disorganized American forces, the British roasted the White House, the US Capitol and British forces destroyed the Library of Congress, containing some 3,000 books, before a downpour extinguished the fires. Well, downpour is a mild word for what happened, it was more like a hurricane with a tornado thrown in for good measure, something of Biblical proportions. The British retreated as if smitten by divine wrath.

The British would fail to capture Baltimore, the next step in the pursuit of ultimate satisfaction. After 24 hours of bombardment, the British attack against Fort McHenry was repulsed (September 14, 1814). The representatives of the Empire returned home. A Washington lawyer who had come to Baltimore to negotiate the release of a civilian prisoner of war, witnessed the bombardment from a nearby truce ship. He wrote a poem to celebrate the American victory. The prose was later set to music. Oh say! Can you see . . . .
August 24, 2006: For the foreseeable future, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has taken away Pluto's primary planetary status. Its new rules say a planet must, among other criteria, have cleared the neighborhood around its orbit, be the dominant object in its region of space and be at least the size of Mercury or Mars. Because Pluto's orbit overlaps Neptune's, tiny Pluto is out. The celestial body formerly known as the ninth planet will be reclassified as a dwarf planet. More dwarf planets are expected to be announced by the IAU in the coming months and years. Currently, a dozen candidates would be listed on the IAU's dwarf planet watchlist, which would keep changing as new objects are found and the existing candidates becomes better understood.

A conclusion on what to name 2003 UB313 (now Eris) had been delayed pending this decision, which affects whether it qualifies as a planet. It's unofficial name was Xena, the code name to be given to the first object larger than Pluto discovered by the team headed by Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David Rabinowitz. Found on January 5, 2005 from images taken on October 21, 2003, this Planet X raised some definition questions. These are settled for now. More observations (released in October 2005) revealed that the object had a moon, S/2005 (2003 UB313) 1, nicknamed Gabrielle. More than you will possibly want to know is found HERE under its new name Eris.

The original proposal, once thought likely to be approved, would have meant that 12 planets would today be orbiting the Sun. Despite attempts to strip it of its title, Pluto would have remained planet IX. Pluto's companion Charon, the asteroid Ceres, which was once classified as a planet, and the more distant body Eris would have received starfield promotions. Pluto, Charon, Eris and other similar bodies beyond Pluto in the Kuiper Belt are different in composition and angle of orbit.

The proposal was presented Wednesday (23rd) at IAU meeting being held in the Czech Republic. A vote to reject followed Thursday and the definition was narrowed. Official publication of the proceedings will take place in September. Pluto had earned planet status, when US astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered it in 1930, without the benefit of formal rules and well before much was known about its non-classical orbit. Ceres, a giant comet thought to be a planet when discovered in 1801, was later demoted. Charon, although smaller, is roughly the same size as companion Pluto, so they become the solar system's first set of binary dwarf planets. Within 10 days of these actions, substantial protests had broken out. Now that we have closely observed Pluto in 2015 and found more moons the controversy is somewhat rekindled.

August 25, 325: The first Council of Nicæa ended with adoption of the Nicene Creed. It may be assumed that the synod, having been convoked for May 20th, in the absence of the Emperor held meetings of a less solemn character until June 14th, when the Council was opened by Constantine the Great in more solemn form. After the Emperor's arrival, the sessions, properly so called, began. The Council formulated the symbol on the 19th of June, after which various matters - such as the paschal controversy (date to celebrate) - were dealt with. The sessions came to an end on 25 August.

The Nicene Creed (Greek: Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας or τῆς πίστεως, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) -- The belief of the Western Church finds succinct expression in this profession of Faith or Credo called the Nicene Creed: I BELIEVE in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, And of all things visible and invisible:

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God; Begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of very God; Begotten, not made; Being of one substance with the Father; By whom all things were made: Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, And was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, And was made man: And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; He suffered and was buried: And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures: And ascended into heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of the Father: And he shall come again, with glory, to judge both the quick and the dead; Whose kingdom shall have no end.

And I believe in the Holy Ghost, The Lord, and Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son; Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; Who spake by the Prophets: And I believe one Catholic and Apostolic Church: I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins: And I look for the Resurrection of the dead: And the Life of the world to come. Amen. see

Bithynia, Nicaea in Bitthynia ARICTWN MEG in two lines within city walls of Nicaea, NIKAIE/WN in ex-gate clearly visible CREDO in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, factorem cæli et terrae, visibilium omnium, et invisibilium.

Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum. Et ex Patre natum ante omnia sæcula. Deum de Deo, Lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum, non factum, consubstantialem Patri: per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines, et propter nostram salutem descendit de cælis. Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine: Et homo factus est. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis: sub Pontio Pilato passus, et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die, secundum Scripturas. Et ascendit in cælum: sedet ad dexteram Patris. Et iterum venturus est cum gloria, judicare vivos et mortuos: cuius regni non erit finis.

Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum, et vivificantem: qui ex Patre Filioque procedit. Qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur, et conglorificatur: qui locutus est per Prophetas. Et unam sanctam catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum. Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum. Et vitam venturi sæculi futuri. Amen.

In the Roman Rite Mass, the Latin text of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, with Deum de Deo (God from God) and Filioque (and from the Son), phrases absent in the original text, was previously the only form used for the "profession of faith". The Roman Missal now refers to it jointly with the Apostles' Creed as "the Symbol or Profession of Faith or Creed", describing the second as the baptismal Symbol of the Roman Church, known as the Apostles' Creed. The liturgies of the ancient Churches of Eastern Christianity (Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, Assyrian Church of the East and the Eastern Catholic Churches), use the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, never the Western Apostles' Creed.

While in certain places where the Byzantine Rite is used, the choir or congregation sings the Creed at the Divine Liturgy, in many places the Creed is typically recited by the cantor, who in this capacity represents the whole congregation although many, and sometimes all, members of the congregation may join in rhythmic recitation. Where the latter is the practice, it is customary to invite, as a token of honor, any prominent lay member of the congregation who happens to be present, e.g., royalty, a visiting dignitary, the Mayor, etc., to recite the Creed in lieu of the cantor. This practice stems from the tradition that the prerogative to recite the Creed belonged to the Emperor, speaking for his populace. Some evangelical and other Christians consider the Nicene Creed helpful and to a certain extent authoritative, but not infallibly so in view of their belief that only Scripture is truly authoritative. Other groups, such as the Church of the New Jerusalem, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and the Jehovah's Witnesses explicitly reject some of the statements in the Creed.

Mortem tuam annuntiamus, Domine, et tuam resurrectionem confitemur, donec venias.
{We proclaim Your death, Lord, and we acknowledge Your resurrection, until You return}

August 25, 1827: Martha Lumpkin, youngest daughter of future-governor Wilson Lumpkin (1831-35), was born. Lumpkin helped establish the Western and Atlantic Railroad. The line's southern end (terminus) lay in what was then DeKalb County, a place that would one day be within the City of Atlanta. First named Terminus, the small but growing settlement was incorporated on December 23, 1843. It was renamed Marthasville in honor of the then ex-governor's daughter.

August 25, 1864: The artillery bombardment of Atlanta stopped about as abruptly as it had begun. In the evening the Union troops, which had remained north of the city quietly withdrew from their network of trenches and field fortifications. At the same time, Confederate General A.P. Hill pushed back Union General Winfield Scott Hancock from Reams Station where his army had spent several days destroying railroad tracks. With Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia still stubbornly clinging to Petersburg, General Ulysses S. Grant had decided to cut Atlanta's vital rail links and score a win for the North in a more quick fashion.
August 25, 1944: Less than three months after D-Day, Paris was liberated from German occupation by Free French Forces under Général Jacques Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque and his 2nd Tank division. Fighting had begun on the 19th by the Resistance and continued for a few more days after the 25th, but the general German handover of the city had taken place. The next day, General DeGaulle would make his soon to be famous stroll down the Champs Élysées (Elysian fields) amid some scattered gunfire. -- La Libération de Paris On August 29th, American troops would march down the Champs Élysées, as the French capital continued to celebrate its liberation from the Nazis.

By now it seemed that everybody in France had a gun he wanted to shoot at something to prove that he had been a resister right along. We made it the next morning through the Port d'Orléans and to the Scribe Hotel, which was to be press headquarters in Paris. Paris liberated was more dangerous than the war. We entered with the Fourth Infantry Division. At street corners everything was stopped by jubilant mobs. Flowers and wine bottles pelted the Americans. German tanks looking for escape or for places to surrender dashed about. Gunfire went on sporadically all day and even the next day when DeGaulle marched down the Champs Élysées to Notre Dame Cathedral.

The previous week American forces had liberated the cities of Orléans and Chartres.

August 26, 1346 -- Or how this date affects one today: The Hundred Years War represents a series of engagments between England in France from 1337 to 1453. During the early phases, England won most of the battles. By 1429 however, the French, through the inspiration of Sainte Jeanne d'Arc at Orléans, had gained the advantage. France eventually expelled English troops, except at Port de Calais. Map of 100 years war:; Timeline (en français):; Battle described:

Thomas West, the Second Baron WEST, fought at Crécy, an early engagement during the Hundred Years War. The Battle of Crécy, took place in northern France (Crécy-en-Ponthieu) on this day, a Saturday, in 1346. It was one of several significant events during which the English longbow triumphed over crossbowmen and heavily-armored French knights. Other, perhaps more notable engagements during the war include Poitiers (1356) and Agincourt (1415). Sir Thomas WEST was summoned to Parliament as Third Lord WEST in 1402. This Baron West (he the son of Thomas of Crécy's fame) married Joan de la WARR {variously de Laware, laWarr[e]}. She was the daughter of Roger, 3rd Lord de la WARR, her family having title and lands, the 1st Lord laWarr being Roger who died in 1324, followed by John, 2nd Lord laWarr and others.

Eleanor MOWBRAY, spouse of Roger de la WARRE, 3rd Baron de la WARR, was the daughter of John MOWBRAY, 3rd Lord MOWBRAY, who married Joan Plantagenêt {great-granddaughter of Henry III, himself the grandson of Henry II and of sterling Norman and English lineage}. The superior Norman de la Warr title, which Joan (the wife of Roger West) brought to her marriage absorbed the West Barony. Thomas and Joan's son, Reginald WEST, became the 6th Lord de la WARR. The title remained with the West family (the title only lapsed briefly during troubled times in the 16th century).

Briefly, the de la Warr title was extinguished by Parliament. Soon it was reinstated for William WEST (born-1520; died-12/30/1595). He became the First Lord Delaware, restored to nobility for his gallant conduct in Picardy. It was from Picardy (Saint-Valery-sur-Somme) that William, The Conqueror sailed; it was in Picardy that the Battle of Crécy was fought (see also The Life of Henry the Fifth: ACT III, SCENE VI -- The English camp in Picardy) and where Henry VIII met François I of France at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Henry last went to Picardy, during the late years of his reign, and this is when and where William WEST fought, restoring his family's honor.
Thomas WEST (son of William WEST, Lord Delaware) was the Second Lord Delaware (under the restitution). He married Anne KNOLLES, daughter of Sir Francis KNOLLES (1514-1596) and [Mary] Katherine CAREY. The CAREY line descends from the BOLEYN line (Thomas Earl of Wilshire and wife Elizabeth HOWARD). The HOWARD and allied MOWBRAY & de BREUSE (Briouze) lines are well-established and well-connected to key events and people in English history. For example, the only two of Henry VIII 's wives who were executed were cousins through the HOWARD family line.

Lord Thomas Leighton WEST succeeded his father as Third Lord Delaware in 1602, and in 1609 was appointed Lord Governor and captain general of Virginia. He arrived at Jamestowne on June 9, 1610, commanding a fleet of three ships, completing a voyage of three months and a half. Out of respect for his leadership and contributions to the struggling settlement, the Delaware River today bears his name. Unfortunately, Thomas West died at sea before he could do more (June 7, 1618). His death came just over two years before the Pilgrims would establish residence accidentally in New England. His brother, called Captain John WEST, immigrated to the New World and resided at West's Point, King William County, Virginia. Among other offices, he was acting Governor of Virginia (and Captain General under the Stuart Crown from 1635-1636. He and his wife, Anne, are the progenitors of many Americans alive today.

Older "research" had indicated that her maiden name was SHIRLEY, however, today some believe (the Wikipedia editor included) that she was Anne Percy, daughter of the Honorable George Percy, sometime Colonial Governor of Virginia and his partner Anne Floyd. This would have made her the granddaughter of the 8th. Earl of Northumberland (Henry Percy, 8th Earl of Northumberland, 2nd Baron Percy and Katherine Neville Percy of Yorkshire). He in turn descends from Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick (new reckoning - 8th Historical Baron Percy) (1300-1352) and Eleanor FitzAlan. One of his predecessors was Godfrey 'the Bearded' of Lorraine, Duke of Lower Lotharingia, which would explain a lot of things. Godfrey hailed from Walloon Brabant (the Walloon Region of today's Belgium). The bearded one was a several great-grandson of Reginar I "Longneck", Duke of Lorraine and Count of Hainault (died AD932), who descends from the comtes du Sens (Gainfroi of AUSTRALIA, thought to be the son of Carloman, King of the Franks and Rothilde). Carlomán, roi des Francs (son of Charles Martel), died August 17, 754 in Vienne, Isere, Rhone-Alpes, France Place of Burial: L'Abbaye de Montecassino, Cassino, Lazio, Italy.

John WEST, JR., their son, was variously, a Major in the Virginia Forces by 1678, Senior Justice of Virginia and Colonel in the Militia in 1680. His daughter, Anne WEST (born 1670; died 1708), married Henry FOX (‘Huntington’ -– 1665-1720), the son of John FOX, a new resident, who arrived at Jamestown in 1625. Henry and Anne’s daughter (also named Ann) was the third wife of Captain Thomas CLAIBORNE and bore him 15 children before she too died in a manse called Puddlecoke (Thomas' forebear was William -- William CLAIBORNE made his settlement on Kent Island in Maryland, and because of this transgression, CLAIBORNE and the CALVERTS of Maryland were engaged in a Civil War for many years). Ann's great-granddaughter, Elizabeth CLAIBORNE, married John WALTON (brother of George WALTON, the Declaration signer). John WALTON became a representative from Augusta in the Georgia Provincial Council. In turn, his daughter married her first cousin, Robert WATKINS, (son of Thomas WATKINS, whose wife was the sister of the aforementioned John and George WALTON) – this line goes forward to granddaughter Eliza WATKINS who married Oliver A. LaROCHE, a son of Isaac LaROCHE, the second of that name in the Georgia Colony established by General Oglethorpe.

But wait, we are not done yet -- go back to Colonel John WEST, Jr. (father of Anne) -- he had several other children, one of which was a son named Thomas. Then go forward in this line five generations to Elizabeth West CAIN (born June 1811; died 6 August 1868 Griffin, Spalding County, GA), who married Robert WALKER on February 18, 1828 in Henry County, Georgia. Robert WALKER (born 10 October 1807 Danburg, Wilkes County, GA died 4 April 1882 Griffin, Spalding County, GA -- son of John William WALKER, SR. and Martha SMITH) and his bride lived on a southern plantation between the towns of Griffin and Forsyth, Georgia -- and as well they might, because they had 18 children who lived, including some twins. They turn out to be the grandparents of my grandmother Eloise who married the grandson of Eliza Watkins and Oliver A. LaRoche (also mentioned above) -- small world, eh. Without the Second Baron WEST's service in the Hundred Years War and the success of the English Longbowmen at Crécy, one has to wonder how history in general and our family connections specifically would have turned. This writeup influenced by my family history and information from

August 26, 1789: The Marquis de Lafayette, most famous in the USA for his help during the War of Independence had influenced the French document called The Declaration of the Rights of Man, which was published on August 26, 1789. He had been working on a version, which reflected suggestions made by Jefferson, who was in France at the time. Lafayette furnished an unsolicited "first draft" to the French Congress, ironically just a few short days before the public storming of the Bastille.

The Representatives of the French People, formed into a National Assembly, considering ignorance, the lapse of memory or contempt of the rights of man to be the sole causes of public misfortunes and the corruption of Governments, have resolved to set forth, in a solemn Declaration, the natural, inalienable and sacred rights of man, to the end that this Declaration, constantly present to all members of the body politic, may remind them unceasingly of their rights and their duties; to the end that the acts of the legislative power and those of the executive power, since they may be at every moment [continually] compared with the aim of every political institution, may thereby be the more respected; to the end that the demands of the citizens, founded henceforth on simple and incontestable principles, may always be directed toward the maintenance of the Constitution and the happiness of all.

Consequently, the National Assembly recognizes and declares, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of the man and the citizen. Article the 1st Men are born and remain free and equal in rights ....

August 26, 1864: Those living in Atlanta awoke with the Union siege of the city apparently lifted. Empty trenches could only mean that General Sherman had given up and Atlanta was saved; but actually, Sherman had launched a new tactical maneuver in his strategic march to the sea. Part of the withdrawn Union force was deployed to guard the Western & Atlantic railroad bridge crossing the Chattahoochee River north of town. Most, however, were sent on a flanking manœuver around the west perimeter of Atlanta. The goal was to organize far enough south of Atlanta near Jonesboro so that Hood would have to pull his forces out of the city in order to meet them.

Military C-47 (based on the DC-3)

Issue date: August 27, 1941 -- This was intended for use on trans-oceanic airmail.

First Day Issue (first release) was in Philadelphia, PA, The United States Postal Service sold over 42 million of these stamps over the years.

Designer: William A. Roach
"Twin-Motored Transport Plane"
Engravers: J. R. Lowe (vignette) &
J. S. Edmondson & J. T. Vail (font-lettering)
Scott C25 - The  6¢ value is carmine (red)
Scott C26 - The  8¢ value is olive (green)
Scott C27 - The 10¢ value is violet (purple)
Scott C28 - The 15¢ value is brown carmine
Scott C29 - The 20¢ value is bright green
Scott C30 - The 30¢ value is blue
Scott C31 - The 50¢ value is orange

August 27th: Today is a day o` defeat or victory, depending on your point of view. In 479BC, the Greeks defeat the Persians in two separate battles, ending the invasion. In 410AD, the three day party in Rome was over. The Visagoths had sacked the city of seven hills. In 1758 at Kingston Ontario, Colonel John Bradstreet (1714-1774) captures French Fort Frontenac, as well as nine armed vessels with 100 guns, the total opposing naval force on Lake Ontario. Commandant Pierre-Jacques Payen, Sieur de Noyan (1695-1771), capitulated in face of overwhelming British artillery. Pierre-Jacques Payen de Noyan est le véritable auteur du dénombrement des nations sauvages du Canada de 1736. In 1776, George Washington lost Long Island to the British forces commanded by General William Howe. Twenty-two years later, united Irish and French forces clash with the British army in the Battle of Castlebar, part of the Irish Rebellion of 1798. In 1813, Napoleon would defeat the Austrians, Russians and Prussians at the Battle of Dresden. The year 1828 saw the Empire of Russia defeat the Turkish Empire at Akhalzic; while in 1900 the British Empire defeats the Boers (Dutch heritage) at Bergendal. Just 4 years earlier the shortest war in world history was fought (28 minutes on this day in 1896) between Britain and Kingdom of Zanzibar. Providentially, on August 27, 1928, the Kellogg-Briand Pact, a treaty outlawing war signed by sixty nations, was established bringing world peace.

Reginald WEST (see link for lineage), 6th Baron De La WARR (and 4th Baron WEST), would die on this date in 1450. This person was primarily important as being the juncture between two important families, for the politically-important connections that he and his children formed and for the later holders of the title who would profit from their connections. He did go to the wars, commanding garrisons in France from 1418 to 1421.

Georgia was hit by two hurricanes on this date (1881 and 1893). It experienced considerable loss of life when the barrier islands were inundated. The 1893 storm, as intense as the Galveston event (1900), caused the third greatest loss of life (Galveston was first). It was a Cape Verde type storm, tracked back to the African coast on the 15th of August. The storm made landfall as a major hurricane southwest of Tybee Island, the eye (and weaker side) passing just east of St. Simons and Jekyll Islands.

In 1965 on this date the Beatles met Elvis for the first and only time; later that night they partied with the Byrds in the Hollywood Hills. The "Fab 4" were at the height of their game, yet in three days played the last public performance in the US (or anywhere). Exactly two years later, the Beatles manager, who had steered the group to its international fame, died of a drug overdose.

August 28, 1565: St. Augustine Florida, oldest city in the USA, was named, although it would not be found for a few more days. It was christened for the feast day celebrating Augustine, who died on August 28, 430AD at Hippo (today the city of Annaba, Algeria). Among Augustine's many writings was Confessions, an immensely popular book which has been read, meditated upon and imitated by many generations. One of his greatest literary works, The City of God [ De Civitate Dei ], was occasioned by the sacking of Rome by armies in the year 410 by the Visagoths. Its fundamental thesis is that the ultimate importance of a city is not measured by its temporal significance, for in fact there are only two cities that really matter.

The Vandals consisted of migrating "germanic" tribes (whose origin remains in dispute) that eventually settled in southern Spain and northern Africa in the 5th Century AD, under pressure from migrations of other invaders like the Huns. Saint Augustine's City of Hippo fell victim to the invasion shortly after his death, and his library of works by others lost.

Much like the Angles, Saxons and Jutes in Britain who had been "invited" to restore order upon the exit of Roman authority, the Vandals were invited into these two areas, and were even seen as liberators from a corrupt regime. They eventually overcame their erstwhile allies. Unlike the Saxons, the Vandals presence as a political and military force did not last, and they blended into the population. By the early 6th century they were forced also to leave Africa by moslem invaders from the middle-east.

August 28, 1749: If one had to pick a German writer with as much influence as Augustine, surely the author of Faustus would be among the top choices. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (d.1832), the master spirit of the German people, was born this date at Frankfurt am Main. Scientist, philosopher, novelist and critic as well as lyric, dramatist and epic poet, Goethe was the leading figure of late 18th Century early 19th-Century Europe after Napoléon. One could make a serious argument about the most influential Russian, too. Leo Tolstoy (d.1910), Russian novelist, was born near Tula on August 28, 1828. His works include War and Peace. History would be an excellent thing if only it were true. -- It is amazing how complete is the delusion that beauty is goodness.

Tula is the capital of Tula Oblast, western Russia, located in a rich iron-mining region. A notable structure is a well-preserved kremlin (citadel), begun in the early 16th century. Tula was became an important fortress of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1712 Peter the Great established the first arms factory in Russia there. Near the city is Yasnaya Polyana, the estate (now a museum) and burial place of Leo Tolstoy.,-Russia

In the western hemisphere, Tula was the capital city of the Toltec Empire. The ruins can still be found forty miles northwest of present day Mexico City, situated in the Mexican state of Hidalgo, and lies near the modern town of Tula de Allende. The Toltec city is located on a natural promontory (citadel) with steep slopes surrounding the city on three sides.

Frankfurt am Main (Goethe's birthplace), once the capital of the Holy Roman Empire, sits about 30 miles west of Mainz (Mayence) the Roman capital of upper Germany (Germaniæ Superior), when Frankfurt-today the principal city in a region called Hesse-was only just a collective of farms (Nida). Mainz became the capital city of the Roman province, Germaniæ Superior on October 27, 90AD. Legion 22 relieved the local legion about 10 years later. It occupied the fortification there until the middle of the 4th century. A portion of the castle of Weisenau (2km south and east of the city-centre of Mainz) was developed from a Celtic predecessor. Also, the local Celtic population is well recognized, as living among the Romans as part of regular society, and not as slaves. The tombstone of the Celt Blussus and his family is a good example for the romanization of the Celtic peoples of the La Tene cultural heritage.

The tribe of the Chatten were united by custom and language, when they first entered the west into Hesse from central Europe in about the 5th century BC. Initial contact was with Celtic tribes, who were either absorbed or pushed further westward. The initial clash with the Romans took place in Provence during the second century BC. From that time forward these peoples, and those that followed (Franks, etc.), were a continual source of harassment at the Roman frontiers. Eventually, these Germanic tribes would occupy all of the western Roman Empire. A few of the Chatten, migrated further, not desiring to live at first under the watchful Roman eye and later in a crowded Europe. These lionhearts moved on, first to the lowlands of the Rhine, then to the British Isles, becoming the Keith Clan of Scotland. More HERE about those who stayed in Germany.

August 29th: On this date in 708, the Japanese minted copper coins for the first time. Apocryphally, on this date in 1949, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics tests its first atomic bomb, known as First Lightning (or Joe 1), at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, one of its republics.

Da Vinci John the Baptist -- Ancient Greek: "Iωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής [Ioannēs ho baptistēs]" or "Iωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων [Ioannēs ho baptizōn]" -- was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure for Christians, as well as the faiths of Islam, the Bahá'í, and Mandaeism. Both the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Christian denominations, as well as the Roman Catholic Church commemorate the beheading of John the Baptist (a martyrdom that makes him a saint) with a feast day on August 29th. The Gospel of Mark introduces John as a fulfillment of a prophecy from the Book of Isaiah (a conflation of texts from Isaiah, Micah and Exodus are used). The Gospel of Matthew (written later) uses the same modified quotation from Isaiah, moving the Micah and Exodus material to later in this Gospel account, where it is attributed to Jesus. The Gospel of Luke adds an account of John's infancy, introducing him as the miraculous son of Zechariah, an old man, and his elder wife Elizabeth. Because Zechariah is a priest of the course of Abijah, and Elizabeth is one of the daughters of Aaron, this would make John a descendant of Aaron on both his father's and mother's side. According to Luke, John is also kin to Jesus (which scholars dispute). The Old Testament account of the birth of Samuel suggests that Luke's account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus are based on that of Samuel being called by God. The fourth gospel describes the Baptist as "a man sent from God [...] to bear witness to the light so that through him everyone might believe."

The date of John the Baptist's death, August 29th, as assigned in the liturgical calendars can hardly be relied upon, because it is scarcely based upon trustworthy documents. His burial-place has been fixed by an old tradition at Sebaste (Samaria). But if there be any truth in Josephus's assertion, that John was put to death at Machaerus, it is hard to understand why he was buried so far from the Herodian fortress. Still, it is quite possible that, at a later date unknown to us, his sacred remains were carried to Sebaste. At any rate, by the middle of the fourth century, this tomb was honored. the shrine was desecrated under Julian the Apostate (c. A.D. 362), the bones being partly burned. A portion of the rescued relics were carried to Jerusalem, then to Alexandria; and there, on May 27, 395, these relics were laid in the basilica recently dedicated to the Precursor on the site of the once famous temple of Serapis. The tomb at Sebaste continued, nevertheless, to be visited by pious pilgrims, and St. Jerome bears witness to the miracles wrought there still.

What became of the head of the Precursor is difficult to determine. John's head was transferred to Comana of Cappadocia during a period of Muslim raids (about 820AD) and it was hidden in the ground during the period of iconoclastic persecution. When the veneration of icons was restored in 850, Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople (847-857) saw in a vision the place where the head of St John had been hidden. The patriarch told the emperor Michael III, who then sent a delegation to Comana, where the head soon was found. Afterwards, the head was again transferred to Constantinople, and on May 25 it was placed in a church at the court to rest until its destruction. Whereupon the location becomes a matter of tradition, rather than fact. Muslim tradition maintains that the head of John the Baptist was interred in the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus. Pope John Paul II visited the tomb of John the Baptist at the Umayyad Mosque during his visit to Syria in April, 2001. This signal relic, in whole or in part, is claimed by several churches, among them the cathedrals at Amiens and at Nemours, St-Jean d'Angeli (France), la Chiesa di San Silvestro in Capite (Rome).

August 30, 1919: Born in Nashville this day was Kitty Wells (Muriel Ellen Deason), the Queen of Country Music: It Wasn’t God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels (number 1 in 1952-her first, which was a response to "The Wild Side of Life" by Hank Thompson), Jealousy, Payin’ for that Back Street Affair (1953, an answer song to Webb Pierce's "Back Street Affair"), I Don’t Want Your Money-I Want Your Time, Makin’ Believe (1955), I Can't Stop Loving You (1958), Searching (1956), Heartbreak USA (1961), We’ll Stick Together, among her songs she and others made famous. She received the Country Music Association's Hall of Fame award in 1976. In 1991, during the Grammy show, Ms. Wells was presented with a Lifetime Achievement Award. In her company; Bob Dylan, Marian Anderson and John Lennon. She was the first female country singer to receive the award, and at that time only the third country performer overall, following Roy Acuff and Hank Williams into history. Gospel singer, songwriter, TV host and legend retired that same year with her farewell Nashville performance (2001).

She died on July 16, 2012, a month short of her 93rd Birthday. A Nashville native in a town of transplants, Ms. Wells paved the way for country-stars like Loretta Lynn, Tammy Wynette and others. Some of her friends and fans gathered at the Ernest Tubb Record Shop's Texas Troubadour Theatre, to honor her with song and word. The event, closed to the public, was broadcast on WSM (Eddie Stubbs hosted-AM 650). Makin' Believe.

At the end of August, Atlanta's fate was signed, sealed and almost fully delivered: On August 30, 1864, after a day of destroying the Atlanta & West Point Railroad, Sherman marched his army to the southeast in the direction of the Macon & Western Railroad line at Jonesboro GA, well south of the Atlanta city centre -- just about a day's ride by carriage. Confederate commander John Bell Hood still believed that the general's strategy would be to position forces for an attack of Atlanta from the south. Never-the-less, as a precaution, Hood had prepared an order for two Confederate corps to approach Jonesboro (from the north). That night, Hood learned that Union forces were within two miles of the Macon railroad line. Consequently, he ordered General Hardee to march the two corps through the night to turn the Union force back. Not knowing how prophetic his words were, Hood told Hardee that the fate of Atlanta depended on his success. Only two days of battle remained before ancient Terminus falls. Interestingly (and one might say sadly), fifteen years later to the day (August 30, 1879), John Bell Hood, former general and commander of Confederate forces during the final stages of Sherman's Atlanta Campaign, died of yellow fever in New Orleans at age 48.

August 31, 1864: In a day where confusion became the order of the day, coupled with poor command decisions, Southern forces move forward just after 3:00 p.m. The Battle of Jonesboro was underway. In less than an hour, the South suffered 1,400 casualties; more became prisoners. Hood ordered General Stephen Lee to withdraw from Jonesboro back to Atlanta. Hood had concluded that he could no longer defend Atlanta, so he began planning his tactical move northward. Now just one more day of intense fighting remained in and about Atlanta. Moreover, Sherman now would be positioned to move south and east toward's Georgia's Capital city of Milledgeville and its arsenal.

Also of note: Tilman Perkins (CSA) was captured at Jonesboro (August 30th). He had been injured at one of the battles around Atlanta a few weeks earlier. At War's start he was a volunteer private who was elected to the position of second lieutenant in 1863. After an exchange in late September he rejoined the fight. He surrendered at the end of the War at Augusta, Georgia and headed for home. Tilman married Emily Frances Stephens, whose father did not survive in battle. On December 26, 1863, Littleton Meeks Stephens, had passed away from wounds received at the Battle of Dalton. You'll find his marker there today, under the name Middleton Stephens. Tilman lived into the 20th Century. His marker and that of his wife may be found at Harmony Baptist Church in Banks County GA. One of their daughters married Freeman Melvin Cash (whose father had survived the War -- a Joe Brown's Pike volunteer). Littleton was named for a famous NE GA preacher named Littleton Meeks (a missionary to the Cherokee). Littleton Meeks Cash, a great uncle to Freeman, was also a Private of the 65th Regiment of Georgia (Capt. Grant's Co. E, Inf. Battalion, Smiths Legion Georgia Partisan Rangers).

August 31, 651AD: When King Oswald of Bernicia called upon his old educational institution, the great Scottish monastery of Iona, to provide him with a spiritual guide who would help him convert his people to Christianity, the monks asked Saint Aidan to oblige. Aidan, an Irish bishop, gave up his see on Scattery Island in order to undertake this post. In 635 he took up residence at his new episcopal see, Lindisfarne (alias Holy Island), off the Northumberland coast, a few miles north of Oswald's rocky fortress of Bamburgh. For the next 16 years, until his death this day in 651, he worked to spread the kingdom, which has no borders, in the language of the Scots.

Saint Aidan 
Apostle to 
NorthumbriaWell did Bede say: Churches were built in several places; the people joyfully flocked together to hear the Word; possessions and lands were given of the King's bounty to build monasteries; the younger English were, by their Scottish masters, instructed; and there were greater care and attention bestowed upon the rules and observance of regular discipline.

Oswald originally followed the gods of Saxon Heritage which were similar to those the Vikings later worshipped. The picture is of a church near Oswald's rocky fortress at Bamburgh, sitting on land given to the Church by Oswald. It is called St-Aidan. ( Interestingly, a cell of Augustinian "Canons" took root at Bamburgh (Northumbria) around 1121, surviving until the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1537 (Henry VIII). Apart from the church structure (primarily 13th Century), there are some possible remains of the greater monastary incorprated into some agricultural buildings beyond Bamburgh Hall.

The church is still in use and was substantially restored in the 19th century. ----- The site of Bamburgh Castle has been occupied since the 1st century BC. The first historical mention of Bamburgh is in 547 when it was the seat of an Anglo-Saxon King Ida. Ida's grandson Ethelfrith gave the castle to his wife Bebba and over the years 'Bebbanburgh' became Bamburgh. In 993 marauding Vikings left Bamburgh Castle in ruins. A new stone castle was built at Bamburgh by the Normans, the great keep probably being completed by Henry II. It remained impregnable from its first siege by William II in 1095 until its last in 1464 and during this time it remained a Royal stronghold. In 1464 Bamburgh became the first castle to succumb to cannon fire during the Wars of the Roses when it suffered heavy damage. Thereafter it gradually fell into disrepair and ruin with only the Norman Keep remaining intact (later restoration projects have repaired some portions). See also: Lindisfarne would be destroyed during the first raids from the east, on June 8, 793.

August 31, 1886: The great Charleston earthquake, which devastated that port city in South Carolina, was felt even across northern Georgia. In downtown Atlanta, the shaking of buildings caused citizens to flee to the streets out of fear that the structures would collapse. Near Augusta, Gertrude Thomas witnessed the event, as she vividly recorded in her journal ten days later:

. . . Just then a noise was heard right above my head as if a hundred rats might have been scampering. 'Look out for the ceiling' said Mr. Thomas, 'run here,' as he rushed into the bed room which is not plastered and exclaimed, 'It is an earthquake.' As that one horrible word, so portent with evil was uttered, as I glanced in his face, as I took in the meaning of the word some impulse prompted me to rush out into the front piazza where I met Turner [her son] just escaping from the parlour. I do not think either of us uttered one word. Together we stood while the house shook and reeled like a drunken man, and still that awful, rushing, roaring sound is heard. I look, I see the piazzi sway to and fro (I seem to feel it now) and then as a man flies for his life I grasp Turner, and hand in hand we rush down the step and out into the front yard. I feel the earth sway to and fro. Oh God! the horror of the moment! Just then I expect the earth to heave and swallow us up. Has the day of judgement come? And as I sway with that awful, horrible motion, far away from the distant coloured church is heard the most pathetic, mournful wail I ever listened to. I looked up for one instant. I expected the heavens to fall. Just where that day the lovely clouds floated the stars now shone brightly. The sight steadied me thank God. Turner and I had separated. He looked toward the house expecting it to fall. I had just time to glance toward the sky when another shock came. I heard Mr. Thomas say 'support your mother Turner.' I felt my husband's arms around me. I was conscious that I was falling. I was conscious of an intolerable pain in my back, and an awful nausea, and from that time through the successive shocks I was sick like unto death . . . .

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; 
walk in that way and find rest for your souls

A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at that moment.