All Saints - Tousaints
Feast of Epiphany
Liturgical Year
The  VANGUARD --   2014

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . .

We began our We completed our 17th Year online in May 2014
". . . One Nation under God . . . ."

The Vanguard is a Presentation of

Search for Topics on these pages at:
This Google Link

 for the
Months of:


History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

Tour de France -- 2012 -- A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- (Summer 2014)

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord
[ from Psalm 122 ] .

All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth unto such as keep his covenant and his testimonies [ Psalm 25:10 ].

If you are on the wrong road, progress means doing an about-turn and walking back to the right road; and in that use, the man who turns back soonest is the most progressive. — C.S. Lewis

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

August 21, 1741: Georg Friedrich Händel would go into seclusion at his home to begin writing an oratorio. He finished the composition 23 days later. He later conceded, to paraphrase an apostle: Whether I was in the body or out of the body when I wrote it, I know not.

The first audience to hear the oratorio Messiah lived in Dublin in 1742. The Irish gave what is reported to be the greatest ovation in the city's history. Some weeks later, London heard the work for the first time, and again it was a grand triumph.

Behold, I tell you a mystery;
We shall not all sleep; but we shall all be changed in a moment,
in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet.

The trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible,
and we {all} shall be changed.
For this corruptible must put on incorruption,
and this mortal must put on immortality.

On March 23, 1743, the Messiah had its London premiere. King George II attended. In the middle of the Hallelujah Chorus (the last piece), the sovereign rose to his feet in appreciation ! The entire audience followed the example out of respect for the King. From the beginning came the custom of standing during the finale, Hallelujah. Now that's change in which we all can believe.

As an interesting aside, on April 6, 1759, Händel accompanied a performance of the Messiah on the organ for the final concert of the Easter season. He passed away just eight days later, on the Saturday between Good Friday and Easter Sunday. He is buried in Westminster Abbey.

August 21, 1959: Statehood bills for Hawai'i were introduced into the U.S. Congress as early as 1919 by the non-voting delegates Hawai'i sent to the U.S. Congress. Additional bills were introduced in 1935, 1947 and 1950. In 1959, the U.S. Congress approved the statehood bill. This was followed by a referendum in which Hawai'i residents voted overwhelmingly in support of statehood (the ballot question was: Shall Hawaii immediately be admitted into the Union as a state ?), and on August 21, 1959 (the third Friday in August), President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a proclamation making Hawai'i the 50th state. Good thing, too -- first last solar eclipse visible from the United States was in 1991 (and then only just from a portion of Hawai'i)

The solar eclipse that takes place on Monday, August 21, 2017, will be the next visible total eclipse of the Sun from a narrow corridor through the United States. The longest duration of totality will be 2 minutes 40 seconds in Christian County, Kentucky just northwest of Hopkinsville, Kentucky. A partial solar eclipse will be seen from the much broader path of the Moon's penumbra, including all of North America, northern South America, western Europe, and Africa. This eclipse will be part of the Saros cycle 145 that also produced an eclipse August 11, 1999.

August 22, 565: Celtic (Irish) missionary and abbot of Iona, Columba reportedly confronts the Loch Ness Monster. He becomes the first recorded historical observer of the creature. At the voice of the saint, the monster was terrified, wrote his biographer, and fled more quickly than if it had been pulled back with ropes.

In 1997 Great Britain issued special stamps for Saints Augustine of Canterbury and Columba of Iona. Royal Mail's Special Stamps Manager, Rosena Robson, said: The stamps celebrate two great saints who had a tremendous influence on shaping the Christian faith in Britain. This year will see a major pilgrimage following those early Christian missions, and it is appropriate that Royal Mail should be joining those celebrations with this Special Stamp issue. Information about the stamps is HERE.
August 22, 1787: A Silversmith, John Fitch, demonstrated his great device, the first successful one of its kind in the New Country. Never heard of him, you say. Have patience, we reply. He invented the steamboat. On this date he sailed the Perseverance, on the Delaware River to the delight of delegates of the Continental Congress. Twenty years later, Robert Fulton, of steamship folly fame, sailed into history on the Hudson River (August 17, 1807). I guess he had the New York City press behind him. Read about Georgia's first steam engine patent HERE

August 22, 1922 -- ¡ SÍ, se puede !: A thirty-one year old Irishman was murdered in ambush this day by former political allies, en route to his home in County Cork. On December 6, 1922, the Irish Constitution went into effect and the Irish Free State was officially proclaimed. One can argue that it was Michael Collins who achieved the goal of separation from England after hundreds of years, but he did not live to see his dream realised. President of the Irish Provisional Government and Commander-in-Chief of the Provisional Army, Collins knew well that he was a marked man by his support of a political first step away from Britain, when others wanted full and immediate independence.

Collins, arrested and sent to internment camps like many of the 1916 Easter Rising's participants, became a leading figure in the post-Rising Sinn Féin, a small nationalist party which the British government and the Irish media incorrectly blamed for the 1916 events. Negotiations with Great Britain resulted in an Anglo-Irish Treaty, which approved a new Irish dominion, named the "Irish Free State" (a literal translation from the Irish term Saorstát Éireann). A revolution broke out over the terms of the agreement. One of Collins' last public appearances involved the funeral for friend and fellow cabinet colleague, President Griffith. Within one week, Collins joined Griffith in Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin. from

Why is this important today, you may well ask? Collins remains in the public memory as the young man, barely aged thirty, who delivered a republic, then a lasting treaty, who inspired a generation and who tragically died before his time, just as his country stood on the threshold of independent self-government. Had he remained alive, perhaps many of the troubles that would come to plague Ireland during the next 80 years might have been lessened or avoided altogether. Collins' model for fighting a big power has remained, however, as a legacy that affects us today, either explicitly as with Israel's revolution against British rule, or implicitly in the tactics once used in Vietnam or even in Iraq to fight the allied forces.
August 23, 1784: At Jonesborough, upper East Tennessee settlers (in the first of two conventions that year) would declare their area (Washington, Greene and Sullivan Counties, today) independent of any other state (i.e. NC), naming the new area Franklin. The Continental Congress would reject the claim for statehood a year later, but the die was cast. Tennessee would become a territory in 1790 and the 16th state on June 1, 1796. A good history beginning with its roots as an area known as Watauga (Virginia) is found HERE. see also As an interesting aside, it appears that some of Ulrich Zwingli's family first settled in Pennsylvania and Maryland (mid-18th Century), and later could be found in upper East Tennessee by the 1790's.

August 23, 1821: After 11 years of civil war, the Spanish Empire granted Mexico independence as a constitutional monarchy. Spanish Viceroy (and Lieutenant-General of the Armies of Spain), Don Juan de Ó'Donojú (O'Donoghue), signed the Treaty of Cordoba, which approved the plan. Don Agustín de Iturbide, First Chief of the Imperial Mexican Army (his family from the Basque region of Spain), represented Mexico. He would become the first monarch, Emperor Agustín I, on July 22, 1822. His reign was short-lived because political and financial instability continued to plague the newly independent Mexico.

August 23, 1859: The first air mail in the U.S. is carried in a balloon. John Wise and his balloon "the Jupitir" travelled from Lafayette, Indiana, to Crawfordsville, Indiana, carrying 123 letters (and 23 circulars). The intended destination, however was New York City. Unfortunately, the winds were not favorable. The air was still, and the craft had to ascend to 14,000 feet before air currents could propel the balloon. After five hours, Wise had only traveled 30 miles south, not east, and had to touch down in Crawfordsville. Nevertheless, the bag of mail eventually made it to New York by train. None-the-less, in 1959 the United States Postal Service issued a 7 cent stamp commemorating Wise's flight. Toto, I don't think we're in Kansas anymore.

August 23, 1913: Léon Letort carried out the first non-stop flight between Paris and Berlin (Johannisthal). Letort flew his monoplane, a Morane-Saulnier (Robert et Léon Morane, and Raymond Saulnier designers -- Morane-Saulnier est une société constructrice d'avions française. Société créée sous le nom de « Sociètè Anonyme des Aèroplanes Morane-Saulnier» le 10 octobre à 1911 Puteaux (Paris region)) fitted with an 80-hp Le Rhône rotary engine. The journey lasted 8 hours to go the 560 miles between the two capitals. He returned with a friend who he had taught to fly, Millie Moore, one-time movie star. She learned to fly at Gashinka (St. Petersburg), earning Russian license # 56 on 19 November 1911. In August 1917, the Sopwith Pup, fitted with an 80-hp Le Rhône engine, was the first aircraft to land aboard a moving ship, the Royal Navy's HMS Furious.

August 23, 1939: After cocktails, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Vyacheslav M. Molotov, signed a Treaty of Non-Aggression. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact freed Hitler to invade Poland and let Stalin invade Finland, as well as eastern Poland, in order to protect them from the German aggressors. Secret protocols, made public many years later, assigned Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia to be within the Soviet sphere of influence. Poland was to be partitioned along the rivers Narev, Vistula and San. Germany retained Lithuania enlarged by the inclusion of Vilnius. Just days after the signing, Germany attacked Poland, and by the end of September, both powers had stolen portions of Poland. The Nazi invasion started World War II, when Britain and France (by treaty) came to Poland's aid.

It is reported that Stalin cared not if Germany won or lost to the Western Allies. If Germany prevailed it would be too weak to attack Russia. If the West won, it would come at a high price, which would result in a socialist Europe. One may speculate on the reasons why he ignored the signs of a German buildup in Poland that presaged its invasion of Russia. Ironically, Britain would abandon Poland to Soviet domination at the end of the conflict, and send Polish soldiers who had fought with the British back to Poland where many were sent of to labour camps.

On August 23, 1990, East and West Germany announced that they would unite on October 3rd. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania achieved their freedom in late-August 1991, after the so-called hard-line communist coup failed in Moscow. By Early September most nations, including Russia had recognized these three countries that had been swallowed-up in 1939."

August 24, 79AD: A volcano near today's Italian city of Naples, Mount Vesuvius, erupts and in the process wipes out much of the population of the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The destruction did not occur in one hour or one day. The location of the cities are forgotten until the 19th Century. Today, excavation has revealed the life and times of all stratæ of Roman Society from the first century AD.
Is there a lesson here ?? Should we worry about problems only when they occur; after all, how serious could they be ??? Pompei: Città campana alle falde sudorientali del Vesuvio -- Infatti la città di origine osca, posta alla foce del fiume Sarno, poi porto greco, poi romana, fu completamente seppellita sotto uno strato di lapilli e di cenere durante l'eruzione del Vesuvio del 79 d.C. (Il giorno del 24 agosto) insieme ad Ercolano e Stabia. -- dies iræ dies illa dies tribulationis et angustiæ dies calamitatis et miseriæ dies tenebrarum et caliginis dies nebulæ et turbinis (

August 24, 1572: The slaughter of French Protestants at the hands of the Catholic forces began in Paris, as Charles IX of France attempted to rid the country of Huguenots. So started France’s fourth in a series of wars of religion, a day called the Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day, in which 50,000 Huguenots died in and around Paris.

The Église St. Germain-l'Auxerrois lies at the end of Pont du Neuf on the Right Bank at 2, Place du Louvre The oldest part of the current church building is the 12th century belfry, which rang out August 24, 1572, when some 3,000 Huguenots were massacred in this neighborhood. The tower bells signaled the supporters of Catherine de Médicis, Marguerite de Guise, Charles IX, and the future Henri III to launch a slaughter of these innocents (including Admiral Gaspard de Chastillon, Count de Coligny), who had been invited to celebrate the marriage of Henri de Navarre to Marguerite de Valois. Some believe that Charles' mother Catherine was told that the Huguenot Protestants were plotting a revolution and agreed to the pre-emptive plan. Some say she remains fully complicit in murder.

August 24, 1814: British troops under the command of General Robert Ross won an important victory (defeating an American force at Bladensburg, Maryland). This action would permit them to march into the City of Washington, in the Distict of Columbia, without opposition. In retaliation for the Yankee burning of the parliament building in York (Toronto), the capitol of Britain's Upper Canada, Washington's federal structures were cheerfully barbecued. Meeting no resistance from the disorganized American forces, the British roasted the White House, the US Capitol and British forces destroyed the Library of Congress, containing some 3,000 books, before a downpour extinguished the fires. Well, downpour is a mild word for what happened, it was more like a hurricane with a tornado thrown in for good measure, something of Biblical proportions. The British retreated as if smitten by divine wrath.

The British would fail to capture Baltimore, the next step in the pursuit of ultimate satisfaction. After 24 hours of bombardment, the British attack against Fort McHenry was repulsed (September 14, 1814). The representatives of the Empire returned home. A Washington lawyer who had come to Baltimore to negotiate the release of a civilian prisoner of war, witnessed the bombardment from a nearby truce ship. He wrote a poem to celebrate the American victory. The prose was later set to music. Oh say! Can you see . . . .

Bithynia, Nicaea in Bitthynia ARICTWN MEG in two lines within city walls of Nicaea, NIKAIE/WN in ex-gate clearly visible August 25, 325: The first Council of Nicæa ended with adoption of the Nicene Creed. It may be assumed that the synod, having been convoked for May 20th, in the absence of the emperor held meetings of a less solemn character until June 14th. The Council was opened by Constantine the Great in solemn form. After the emperor's arrival, the sessions, properly so called, began. The Council formulated the symbol on the 19th of June, after which various matters - such as the paschal controversy (date to celebrate) - were dealt with. The sessions came to an end on 25 August.

August 25, 1827: Martha Lumpkin, youngest daughter of future-governor Wilson Lumpkin (1831-35), was born. Lumpkin helped establish the Western and Atlantic Railroad. The line's southern end (terminus) lay in what was then DeKalb County, a place that would one day be within the City of Atlanta. First named Terminus, the small but growing settlement was incorporated on December 23, 1843. It was renamed Marthasville in honor of the then ex-governor's daughter.

August 25, 1864: The artillery bombardment of Atlanta stopped about as abruptly as it had begun. In the evening the Union troops, which had remained north of the city quietly withdrew from their network of trenches and field fortifications. At the same time, Confederate General A.P. Hill pushed back Union General Winfield Scott Hancock from Reams Station where his army had spent several days destroying railroad tracks. With Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia still stubbornly clinging to Petersburg, General Ulysses S. Grant had decided to cut Atlanta's vital rail links and score a win for the North in a more quick fashion.
August 25, 1944: Less than three months after D-Day, Paris was liberated from German occupation by Free French Forces under Général Jacques Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque and his 2nd Tank division. Fighting had begun on the 19th by the Resistance and continued for a few more days after the 25th, but the general German handover of the city had taken place. The next day, General DeGaulle would make his soon to be famous stroll down the Champs Élysées (Elysian fields) amid some scattered gunfire. -- La Libération de Paris On August 29th, American troops would march down the Champs Élysées, as the French capital continued to celebrate its liberation from the Nazis.

By now it seemed that everybody in France had a gun he wanted to shoot at something to prove that he had been a resister right along. We made it the next morning through the Port d'Orléans and to the Scribe Hotel, which was to be press headquarters in Paris. Paris liberated was more dangerous than the war. We entered with the Fourth Infantry Division. At street corners everything was stopped by jubilant mobs. Flowers and wine bottles pelted the Americans. German tanks looking for escape or for places to surrender dashed about. Gunfire went on sporadically all day and even the next day when DeGaulle marched down the Champs Élysées to Notre Dame Cathedral.

The previous week American forces had liberated the cities of Orléans and Chartres.

August 26, 1346 -- Or how this date affects one today: The Hundred Years War represents a series of engagments between England in France from 1337 to 1453. During the early phases, England won most of the battles. By 1429 however, the French, through the inspiration of Sainte Jeanne d'Arc at Orléans, had gained the advantage. France eventually expelled English troops, except at Port de Calais. Map of 100 years war:; Timeline (en français):; Battle described:

Thomas West, the Second Baron WEST, fought at Crécy, an early engagement during the Hundred Years War. The Battle of Crécy, took place in northern France (Crécy-en-Ponthieu) on this day, a Saturday, in 1346. It was one of several significant events during which the English longbow triumphed over crossbowmen and heavily-armored French knights. Other, perhaps more notable engagements during the war include Poitiers (1356) and Agincourt (1415). Sir Thomas WEST was summoned to Parliament as Third Lord WEST in 1402. This Baron West (he the son of Thomas of Crécy's fame) married Joan de la WARR {variously de Laware, laWarr[e]}. She was the daughter of Roger, 3rd Lord de la WARR, her family having title and lands, the 1st Lord laWarr being Roger who died in 1324, followed by John, 2nd Lord laWarr and others.

Eleanor MOWBRAY, spouse of Roger de la WARRE, 3rd Baron de la WARR, was the daughter of John MOWBRAY, 3rd Lord MOWBRAY, who married Joan Plantagenêt {great-granddaughter of Henry III, himself the grandson of Henry II and of sterling Norman and English lineage}. The superior Norman de la Warr title, which Joan (the wife of Roger West) brought to her marriage absorbed the West Barony. Thomas and Joan's son, Reginald WEST, became the 6th Lord de la WARR. The title remained with the West family (the title only lapsed briefly during troubled times in the 16th century).

Briefly, the de la Warr title was extinguished by Parliament. Soon it was reinstated for William WEST (born-1520; died-12/30/1595). He became the First Lord Delaware, restored to nobility for his gallant conduct in Picardy. It was from Picardy (Saint-Valery-sur-Somme) that William, The Conqueror sailed; it was in Picardy that the Battle of Crécy was fought (see also The Life of Henry the Fifth: ACT III, SCENE VI -- The English camp in Picardy) and where Henry VIII met François I of France at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Henry last went to Picardy, during the late years of his reign, and this is when and where William WEST fought, restoring his family's honor.
Thomas WEST (son of William WEST, Lord Delaware) was the Second Lord Delaware (under the restitution). He married Anne KNOLLES, daughter of Sir Francis KNOLLES (1514-1596) and [Mary] Katherine CAREY. The CAREY line descends from the BOLEYN line (Thomas Earl of Wilshire and wife Elizabeth HOWARD). The HOWARD and allied MOWBRAY & de BREUSE (Briouze) lines are well-established and well-connected to key events and people in English history. For example, the only two of Henry VIII 's wives who were executed were cousins through the HOWARD family line.

Lord Thomas Leighton WEST succeeded his father as Third Lord Delaware in 1602, and in 1609 was appointed Lord Governor and captain general of Virginia. He arrived at Jamestowne on June 9, 1610, commanding a fleet of three ships, completing a voyage of three months and a half. Out of respect for his leadership and contributions to the struggling settlement, the Delaware River today bears his name. Unfortunately, Thomas West died at sea before he could do more (June 7, 1618). His death came just over two years before the Pilgrims would establish residence accidentally in New England. His brother, called Captain John WEST, immigrated to the New World and resided at West's Point, King William County, Virginia. Among other offices, he was acting Governor of Virginia (and Captain General ?) under the Stuart Crown from 1635-1636. He and his wife, Anne SHIRLEY, are the progenitors of many Americans alive today.

John WEST, JR., their son, was variously, a Major in the Virginia Forces by 1678, Senior Justice of Virginia and Colonel in the Militia in 1680. His daughter, Anne WEST (born 1670; died 1708), married Henry FOX (‘Huntington’ -– 1665-1720), the son of John FOX, a new resident, who arrived at Jamestown in 1625. Henry and Anne’s daughter (also named Ann) was the third wife of Captain Thomas CLAIBORNE and bore him 15 children before she too died in a manse called Puddlecoke (Thomas' forebear was William -- William CLAIBORNE made his settlement on Kent Island in Maryland, and because of this transgression, CLAIBORNE and the CALVERTS of Maryland were engaged in a Civil War for many years). Ann's great-granddaughter, Elizabeth CLAIBORNE, married John WALTON (brother of George WALTON, the Declaration signer). John WALTON became a representative from Augusta in the Georgia Provincial Council. In turn, his daughter married her first cousin, Robert WATKINS, (son of Thomas WATKINS, whose wife was the sister of the aforementioned John and George WALTON) – this line goes forward to granddaughter Eliza WATKINS who married Oliver A. LaROCHE, a son of Isaac LaROCHE, the second of that name in the Georgia Colony established by General Oglethorpe.

But wait, we are not done yet -- go back to Colonel John WEST, Jr. (father of Anne) -- he had several other children, one of which was a son named Thomas. Then go forward in this line five generations to Elizabeth West CAIN (born June 1811; died 6 August 1868 Griffin, Spalding County, GA), who married Robert WALKER on February 18, 1828 in Henry County, Georgia. Robert WALKER (born 10 October 1807 Danburg, Wilkes County, GA died 4 April 1882 Griffin, Spalding County, GA -- son of John William WALKER, SR. and Martha SMITH) and his bride lived on a southern plantation between the towns of Griffin and Forsyth, Georgia -- and as well they might, because they had 18 children who lived, including some twins. They turn out to be the grandparents of my grandmother Eloise who married the grandson of Eliza Watkins and Oliver A. LaRoche (also mentioned above) -- small world, eh. Without the Second Baron WEST's service in the Hundred Years War and the success of the English Longbowmen at Crécy, one has to wonder how history in general and our family connections specifically would have turned. This writeup influenced by my family history and information from

August 26, 1789: The Marquis de Lafayette, most famous in the USA for his help during the War of Independence had influenced the French document called The Declaration of the Rights of Man, which was published on August 26, 1789. He had been working on a version, which reflected suggestions made by Jefferson, who was in France at the time. Lafayette furnished an unsolicited "first draft" to the French Congress, ironically just a few short days before the public storming of the Bastille.

The Representatives of the French People, formed into a National Assembly, considering ignorance, the lapse of memory or contempt of the rights of man to be the sole causes of public misfortunes and the corruption of Governments, have resolved to set forth, in a solemn Declaration, the natural, inalienable and sacred rights of man, to the end that this Declaration, constantly present to all members of the body politic, may remind them unceasingly of their rights and their duties; to the end that the acts of the legislative power and those of the executive power, since they may be at every moment [continually] compared with the aim of every political institution, may thereby be the more respected; to the end that the demands of the citizens, founded henceforth on simple and incontestable principles, may always be directed toward the maintenance of the Constitution and the happiness of all.

Consequently, the National Assembly recognizes and declares, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of the man and the citizen. Article the 1st Men are born and remain free and equal in rights ....

August 26, 1864: Those living in Atlanta awoke with the Union siege of the city apparently lifted. Empty trenches could only mean that General Sherman had given up and Atlanta was saved. Actually, Sherman had launched a new strategic drive. Part of the withdrawn Union force was deployed to guard the Western & Atlantic railroad bridge crossing the Chattahoochee River north of town. Most, however, were sent on a flanking manœuver around the west perimeter of Atlanta. The goal was to organize far enough south of Atlanta near Jonesboro so that Hood would have to pull his forces out of the city in order to meet them.

Military C-47 (based on the DC-3)

Issue date: August 27, 1941 -- This was intended for use on trans-oceanic airmail.

First Day Issue (first release) was in Philadelphia, PA, The United States Postal Service sold over 42 million of these stamps over the years.

Designer: William A. Roach
"Twin-Motored Transport Plane"
Engravers: J. R. Lowe (vignette) &
J. S. Edmondson & J. T. Vail (font-lettering)
Scott C25 - The  6¢ value is carmine (red)
Scott C26 - The  8¢ value is olive (green)
Scott C27 - The 10¢ value is violet (purple)
Scott C28 - The 15¢ value is brown carmine
Scott C29 - The 20¢ value is bright green
Scott C30 - The 30¢ value is blue
Scott C31 - The 50¢ value is orange

August 27th: Today is a day o` defeat or victory, depending on your point of view. In 479BC, the Greeks defeat the Persians in two separate battles, ending the invasion. In 410AD, the three day party in Rome was over. The Visagoths had sacked the city of seven hills. In 1758 at Kingston Ontario, Colonel John Bradstreet (1714-1774) captures French Fort Frontenac, as well as nine armed vessels with 100 guns, the total opposing naval force on Lake Ontario. Commandant Pierre-Jacques Payen, Sieur de Noyan (1695-1771), capitulated in face of overwhelming British artillery. Pierre-Jacques Payen de Noyan est le véritable auteur du dénombrement des nations sauvages du Canada de 1736. In 1776, George Washington lost Long Island to the British forces commanded by General William Howe. Twenty-two years later, united Irish and French forces clash with the British army in the Battle of Castlebar, part of the Irish Rebellion of 1798. In 1813, Napoleon would defeat the Austrians, Russians and Prussians at the Battle of Dresden. The year 1828 saw the Empire of Russia defeat the Turkish Empire at Akhalzic; while in 1900 the British Empire defeats the Boers (Dutch heritage) at Bergendal. Just 4 years earlier the shortest war in world history was fought (28 minutes on this day in 1896) between Britain and Kingdom of Zanzibar. Providentially, on August 27, 1928, the Kellogg-Briand Pact, a treaty outlawing war signed by sixty nations, was established bringing world peace.

Reginald WEST (see link for lineage), 6th Baron De La WARR (and 4th Baron WEST), would die on this date in 1450. This person was primarily important as being the juncture between two important families, for the politically-important connections that he and his children formed and for the later holders of the title who would profit from their connections. He did go to the wars, commanding garrisons in France from 1418 to 1421.

Georgia was hit by two hurricanes on this date (1881 and 1893). It experienced considerable loss of life when the barrier islands were inundated. The 1893 storm, as intense as the Galveston event (1900), caused the third greatest loss of life (Galveston was first). It was a Cape Verde type storm, tracked back to the African coast on the 15th of August. The storm made landfall as a major hurricane southwest of Tybee Island, the eye (and weaker side) passing just east of St. Simons and Jekyll Islands.

In 1965 on this date the Beatles met Elvis for the first and only time; later that night they partied with the Byrds in the Hollywood Hills. The "Fab 4" were at the height of their game, yet in three days played the last public performance in the US (or anywhere). Exactly two years later, the Beatles manager, who had steered the group to its international fame, died of a drug overdose.

August 28, 1565: St. Augustine Florida, oldest city in the USA, was named, although it would not be found for a few more days. It was christened for the feast day celebrating Augustine, who died on August 28, 430AD at Hippo (today the city of Annaba, Algeria), shortly before the city was taken by the Vandals. Among Augustine's many writings was Confessions, an immensely popular book which has been read, meditated upon and imitated by many generations. One of his greatest literary works, The City of God [ De Civitate Dei ], was occasioned by the sacking of Rome by armies in the year 410 by the Visagoths. Its fundamental thesis is that the ultimate importance of a city is not measured by its temporal significance, for in fact there are only two cities that really matter. see -- a great collection of links reference material about Saint Augustine of Hippo.

The Vandals consisted of migrating germanic tribes (origin in dispute) that eventually settled in southern Spain and northern Africa in the 5th Century AD, under pressure from migrations of other invaders like the Huns. Much like the Saxons in Britain, the Vandals were invited into these two areas, and were even seen as liberators from a corrupt regime. They eventually overcame their erstwhile allies. Unlike the Saxons, the Vandals presence as a political and military force did not last and they blended into the population. By the early 6th century they were forced also to leave Africa by moslem invaders from the middle-east.

August 28, 1749: If one had to pick a German writer with as much influence as Augustine, surely the author of Faustus would be among the top choices. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (d.1832), the master spirit of the German people, was born this date at Frankfurt am Main. Scientist, philosopher, novelist and critic as well as lyric, dramatist and epic poet, Goethe was the leading figure of late 18th Century early 19th-Century Europe after Napoléon. One could make a serious argument about the most influential Russian, too. Leo Tolstoy (d.1910), Russian novelist, was born near Tula on August 28, 1828. His works include War and Peace. History would be an excellent thing if only it were true. -- It is amazing how complete is the delusion that beauty is goodness.

Tula is the capital of Tula Oblast, western Russia, located in a rich iron-mining region. A notable structure is a well-preserved kremlin (citadel), begun in the early 16th century. Tula was became an important fortress of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1712 Peter the Great established the first arms factory in Russia there. Near the city is Yasnaya Polyana, the estate (now a museum) and burial place of Leo Tolstoy.,-Russia

In the western hemisphere, Tula was the capital city of the Toltec Empire. The ruins can still be found forty miles northwest of present day Mexico City, situated in the Mexican state of Hidalgo, and lies near the modern town of Tula de Allende. The Toltec city is located on a natural promontory (citadel) with steep slopes surrounding the city on three sides.

Frankfurt am Main (Goethe's birthplace), once the capital of the Holy Roman Empire, sits about 30 miles west of Mainz (Mayence) the Roman capital of upper Germany (Germaniæ Superior), when Frankfurt-today the principal city in a region called Hesse-was only just a collective of farms (Nida). Mainz became the capital city of the Roman province, Germaniæ Superior on October 27, 90AD. Legion 22 relieved the local legion about 10 years later. It occupied the fortification there until the middle of the 4th century. A portion of the castle of Weisenau (2km south and east of the city-centre of Mainz) was developed from a Celtic predecessor. Also, the local Celtic population is well recognized, as living among the Romans as part of regular society, and not as slaves. The tombstone of the Celt Blussus and his family is a good example for the romanization of the Celtic peoples of the La Tene cultural heritage.

The tribe of the Chatten were united by custom and language, when they first entered the west into Hesse from central Europe in about the 5th century BC. Initial contact was with Celtic tribes, who were either absorbed or pushed further westward. The initial clash with the Romans took place in Provence during the second century BC. From that time forward these peoples, and those that followed (Franks, etc.), were a continual source of harassment at the Roman frontiers. Eventually, these Germanic tribes would occupy all of the western Roman Empire. A few of the Chatten, migrated further, not desiring to live at first under the watchful Roman eye and later in a crowded Europe. These lionhearts moved on, first to the lowlands of the Rhine, then to the British Isles, becoming the Keith Clan of Scotland. More HERE about those who stayed in Germany.

August 29th: On this date in 708, the Japanese minted copper coins for the first time. Apocryphally, on this date in 1949, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics tests its first atomic bomb, known as First Lightning (or Joe 1), at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, one of its republics.

Both the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Christian denominations, as well as the Roman Catholic Church commemorate the beheading of John the Baptist with a feast day (a martyrdom that makes him a saint). The head was transferred to Comana of Cappadocia during a period of Muslim raids (about 820AD) and it was hidden in the ground during the period of iconoclastic persecution. When the veneration of icons was restored in 850, Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople (847-857) saw in a vision the place where the head of St John had been hidden. The patriarch told the emperor Michael III, who then sent a delegation to Comana, where the head soon was found. Afterwards, the head was again transferred to Constantinople, and on May 25 it was placed in a church at the court to rest until its destruction. Whereupon the location becomes a matter of tradition, rather than fact. Muslim tradition maintains that the head of John the Baptist was interred in the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus. Pope John Paul II visited the tomb of John the Baptist at the Umayyad Mosque during his visit to Syria in April, 2001.

August 30, 1919: Born in Nashville this day was Kitty Wells (Muriel Ellen Deason), the Queen of Country Music: It Wasn’t God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels (number 1 in 1952-her first, which was a response to "The Wild Side of Life" by Hank Thompson), Jealousy, Payin’ for that Back Street Affair (1953, an answer song to Webb Pierce's "Back Street Affair"), I Don’t Want Your Money-I Want Your Time, Makin’ Believe (1955), I Can't Stop Loving You (1958), Searching (1956), Heartbreak USA (1961), We’ll Stick Together, among her songs she and others made famous. She received the Country Music Association's Hall of Fame award in 1976. In 1991, during the Grammy show, Ms. Wells was presented with a Lifetime Achievement Award. In her company; Bob Dylan, Marian Anderson and John Lennon. She was the first female country singer to receive the award, and at that time only the third country performer overall, following Roy Acuff and Hank Williams into history. Gospel singer, songwriter, TV host and legend retired that same year with her farewell Nashville performance (2001).

She died on July 16, 2012, a month short of her 93rd Birthday. A Nashville native in a town of transplants, Ms. Wells paved the way for country-stars like Loretta Lynn, Tammy Wynette and others. Some of her friends and fans gathered at the Ernest Tubb Record Shop's Texas Troubadour Theatre, to honor her with song and word. The event, closed to the public, was broadcast on WSM (Eddie Stubbs hosted-AM 650). Makin' Believe.

At the end of August, Atlanta's fate was signed, sealed and almost fully delivered: On August 30, 1864, after a day of destroying the Atlanta & West Point Railroad, Sherman marched his army to the southeast in the direction of the Macon & Western Railroad line at Jonesboro GA, well south of the Atlanta city centre -- just about a day's ride by carriage. Confederate commander John Bell Hood still believed that the general's strategy would be to position forces for an attack of Atlanta from the south. Never-the-less, as a precaution, Hood had prepared an order for two Confederate corps to approach Jonesboro (from the north). That night, Hood learned that Union forces were within two miles of the Macon railroad line. Consequently, he ordered General Hardee to march the two corps through the night to turn the Union force back. Not knowing how prophetic his words were, Hood told Hardee that the fate of Atlanta depended on his success. Only two days of battle remained before ancient Terminus falls. Interestingly (and one might say sadly), fifteen years later to the day (August 30, 1879), John Bell Hood, former general and commander of Confederate forces during the final stages of Sherman's Atlanta Campaign, died of yellow fever in New Orleans at age 48.

August 31, 1864: In a day where confusion became the order of the day, coupled with poor command decisions, Southern forces move forward just after 3:00 p.m. The Battle of Jonesboro was underway. In less than an hour, the South suffered 1,400 casualties; more became prisoners. Hood ordered General Stephen Lee to withdraw from Jonesboro back to Atlanta. Hood had concluded that he could no longer defend Atlanta, so he began planning his tactical move northward. Now just one more day of intense fighting remained in and about Atlanta. Moreover, Sherman now would be positioned to move south and east toward's Georgia's Capital city of Milledgeville and its arsenal.

Also of note: Tilman Perkins (CSA) was captured at Jonesboro (August 30th). He had been injured at one of the battles around Atlanta a few weeks earlier. At War's start he was a volunteer private who was elected to the position of second lieutenant in 1863. After an exchange in late September he rejoined the fight. He surrendered at the end of the War at Augusta, Georgia and headed for home. Tilman married Emily Frances Stephens, whose father did not survive in battle. On December 26, 1863, Littleton Meeks Stephens, had passed away from wounds received at the Battle of Dalton. You'll find his marker there today, under the name Middleton Stephens. Tilman lived into the 20th Century. His marker and that of his wife may be found at Harmony Baptist Church in Banks County GA. One of their daughters married Freeman Melvin Cash (whose father had survived the War -- a Joe Brown's Pike volunteer). Littleton was named for a famous NE GA preacher named Littleton Meeks (a missionary to the Cherokee). Littleton Meeks Cash, a great uncle to Freeman, was also a Private of the 65th Regiment of Georgia (Capt. Grant's Co. E, Inf. Battalion, Smiths Legion Georgia Partisan Rangers).

August 31, 651AD: When King Oswald of Bernicia called upon his old educational institution, the great Scottish monastery of Iona, to provide him with a spiritual guide who would help him convert his people to Christianity, the monks asked Saint Aidan to oblige. Aidan, an Irish bishop, gave up his see on Scattery Island in order to undertake this post. In 635 he took up residence at his new episcopal see, Lindisfarne (alias Holy Island), off the Northumberland coast, a few miles north of Oswald's rocky fortress of Bamburgh. For the next 16 years, until his death this day in 651, he worked to spread the kingdom, which has no borders, in the language of the Scots.

Saint Aidan 
Apostle to 
NorthumbriaWell did Bede say: Churches were built in several places; the people joyfully flocked together to hear the Word; possessions and lands were given of the King's bounty to build monasteries; the younger English were, by their Scottish masters, instructed; and there were greater care and attention bestowed upon the rules and observance of regular discipline.

See also: Lindisfarne would be destroyed during the first raids from the east, on June 8, 793.

August 31, 1886: The great Charleston earthquake, which devastated that port city in South Carolina, was felt even across northern Georgia. In downtown Atlanta, the shaking of buildings caused citizens to flee to the streets out of fear that the structures would collapse. Near Augusta, Gertrude Thomas witnessed the event, as she vividly recorded in her journal ten days later:

. . . Just then a noise was heard right above my head as if a hundred rats might have been scampering. 'Look out for the ceiling' said Mr. Thomas, 'run here,' as he rushed into the bed room which is not plastered and exclaimed, 'It is an earthquake.' As that one horrible word, so portent with evil was uttered, as I glanced in his face, as I took in the meaning of the word some impulse prompted me to rush out into the front piazza where I met Turner [her son] just escaping from the parlour. I do not think either of us uttered one word. Together we stood while the house shook and reeled like a drunken man, and still that awful, rushing, roaring sound is heard. I look, I see the piazzi sway to and fro (I seem to feel it now) and then as a man flies for his life I grasp Turner, and hand in hand we rush down the step and out into the front yard. I feel the earth sway to and fro. Oh God! the horror of the moment! Just then I expect the earth to heave and swallow us up. Has the day of judgement come? And as I sway with that awful, horrible motion, far away from the distant coloured church is heard the most pathetic, mournful wail I ever listened to. I looked up for one instant. I expected the heavens to fall. Just where that day the lovely clouds floated the stars now shone brightly. The sight steadied me thank God. Turner and I had separated. He looked toward the house expecting it to fall. I had just time to glance toward the sky when another shock came. I heard Mr. Thomas say 'support your mother Turner.' I felt my husband's arms around me. I was conscious that I was falling. I was conscious of an intolerable pain in my back, and an awful nausea, and from that time through the successive shocks I was sick like unto death . . . .

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

September 1, 5509 BC: According to the Eastern Orthodox Church, the world (as we know it) dates from September 1, 5509 BC. -- Creation This date rests on a reading of the Septuagint, the oldest Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament (a popular Greek (koine dislektos) version of the ancient tongue). All Christians used the Septuagint until the 5th Century AD. Latin translations of the Roman Church and by the Byzantine Empire (until it ended in 1453) also relied on it. Various Orthodox denominations still employ it today. You can view the Greek version at: Interestingly, the oldest extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible date from approximately the ninth century AD.

Ptolemæus Philadelphus freed the Jewish captives who had been brought to Egypt by his father Ptolemæus, and sent royal offerings to Onias Simon, the brother of Eleazar, who was high priest at Jerusalem. In order to translate the Jewish Scriptures from Hebrew into Greek, he locked away 72 of the Hebrew wise men on Pharos, the island of Proteus, in 72 separate dwelling places. He had placed the scriptures in the libraries which he had created at Alexandria, along with many other books of all sorts which he had collected from every city. When he saw that the books which he had brought from Jerusalem were written in letters of gold, he was amazed, and after having copies made he returned them together with gifts. The scriptures were translated within 72 days on the island of Pharos. The 72 wise men caused astonishment because they had each translated the scriptures while separated from each other, but when they came into Ptolemæus' presence and compared the translations, they were found to be identical. Then glory was given to God, and the scriptures were recognized as being truly inspired, because they had all produced the same translation. Therefore the nations of today believe that it was by the inspiration of God that the scriptures were translated within 72 days on the Island of Pharos. from [Ol. 123.4]

Many early Christians spoke and read Greek. Thus, they were able to rely on the Septuagint translation for most of their knowledge of the scriptures today called the Old Testament. The New Testament writers also relied heavily on the Septuagint, as a majority of Old Testament quotes cited in the New Testament originate directly from the Septuagint. see also

1 Behold, I send forth my messenger, and he shall survey the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come into his temple, even the angel of the covenant, whom ye take pleasure in: behold, he is coming, saith the Lord Almighty. 2 And who will abide {or wait for} the day of his coming? or who will withstand at his appearing? for he is coming in as the fire of a furnace and as the herb of them that wash {fullers}.

1 idou egw exapostellw ton aggelon mou kai epibleyetai odon pro proswpou mou kai exaifnhs hxei eis ton naon eautou kurios on umeis zhteite kai o aggelos ths diaqhkhs on umeis qelete idou ercetai legei kurios pantokratwr ("the Almighty" of Revelation 1:8 (pantokratôr)) 2 kai tis upomenei hmeran eisodou autou h tis uposthsetai en th optasia autou dioti autos eisporeuetai ws pur cwneuthriou kai ws poa plunontwn (Malachi, Chapter 3:1-2).

King James Version: 1 Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord (kurios is freely used for the Deity and for men), whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to this temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts (the King James rendering adopts the rule of Leviticus 24:16 to avoid directly using the holy name). 2 But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap .... cf Matthew 11:10.

In the New Testament the term theos takes the place of El, Elohim, and Elyon (in the Old Testament). The names Shaddai (Shadday) and El-Shaddai are rendered pantokratôr, the Almighty [Rev 1:8], [kurios pantokratôr Lord Almighty (2 Cor 6:18)] and theos pantokratôr [Rev 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 16:14 ;19:6; 21:22], God Almighty. Thus saith the LORD (Theos) the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD (Theos) of hosts (sabaôth); I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God (Theos). Isaiah 44:6 (King James)

September 01, 70: This is known as one of the traditional dates for the destruction of Jerusalem. An eyewitness to the event places it slightly earlier. More here. Others have chosen September 8th:

Bar-Kochba (Bar Koba) 
2nd Revolt 
132-135AD     And when he drew near and saw the city, he wept over it, saying, “Would that you, even you, had known on this day the things that make for peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes. For the days will come upon you, when your enemies will set up a barricade around you and surround you and hem you in on every side and tear you down to the ground, you and your children within you. And they will not leave one stone upon another in you, because you did not know the time of your visitation.” [Luke 19:41-44]

September 01, 1864: The Battle of Jonesboro (just south of the City of Atlanta), the final major aspect of the broader campaign to take Atlanta, had continued all the day then late into the night. Confederate forces had been overwhelmed by the superior Union numbers of men and equipment. Brigadier General Daniel Govan with his Arkansas troops had to surrender; and at one point, General Hardee's entire corps was at risk of the same fate. Darkness brought an end to the hard fighting. By 11 pm Hardee began to withdraw from the field of battle. In the darkness, what was left of Hardee's corps marched through the night to Lovejoy's Station six miles to the south of Jonesboro. There, they wearily dug in to prepare for what would prove to be the final battle in General Sherman's Atlanta Campaign.

Meanwhile, the morning of September 1st had found the Atlanta civilian population believing that the South had won the previous day's fight at Jonesboro. However, some Confederate deserters arrived and revealed what really happened. More confusion reigned during the day. No one seemed in charge, and by 5 pm, a full-scale evacuation of Atlanta had started. Supplies that could not be carted away were given to Atlanta residents. General Hood ordered General Stephen Lee to take his corps to Lovejoy's Station to join Hardee's corps. Lovejoy is about 25 miles south of Atlanta. As the military authority left, looting began. Scarlett and Rhet parted ways for the rest of the War Between the States. Actually, to be true to history, they separated in the early morning of the second and a hard rain was going to fall.

Mary Edwards Walker, one of the nation's 1.8 million women veterans, was the only one to earn the Congressional Medal of Honor, for her service during the Civil War. She, along with thousands of other women, were honored in the newly-dedicated Women in Military Service for America Memorial in October 1997. Her formal record for the citation: Contract Acting Assistant Surgeon (civilian), U. S. Army. Places and dates: Battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861; Patent Office Hospital, Washington, D.C., October 1861; Chattanooga, Tenn., following Battle of Chickomauga, September 1863; Prisoner of War, April 10, 1864-August 12, 1864, Richmond, Va.; Battle of Atlanta, September 1864. Entered service at: Louisville, Kentucky . . . and has devoted herself with much patriotic zeal to the sick and wounded soliders, both in the field and hospitals, to the detriment of her own health, and has also endured hardships as a prisoner of war four months in a Southern prison while acting as contract surgeon; and . . . .

Le premier de Septembre en France: In 1715, King Louis XIV of France died after a reign of 72 years, longer than any other French or other major European monarch, leaving the throne of his greatly indebted country to his great-grandson Louis XV. The Regent for the new, five-year-old monarch was Philippe d'Orléans, a nephew of Louis XIV. To commemorate the event in 1920, the state of Lebanon was created by the French, with Beirut its capital. In 1928, Ahmet Zogu, who ended his days in exile on the French Riviera (at age 65), declared Albania to be a monarchy and proclaimed himself king, ruling but 11 years until the German occupation. His hopes of returning to power dashed by the establishment of a communist republic under Enver Hoxha in 1945, Zogu formally abdicated on January 2, 1946. In 1933, HG Wells, seeing the gathering storm clouds, published The Shape of Things to Come. In 1948, Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedung set up a provisional government in China. In 1969, the lately executed Moammar Qaddafi staged a coup in Libya.

September 1, 1870: The Prussian army crushed the French under Marshal MacMahon at Sedan (Champagne-Ardennes), the last battle of the Franco-Prussian War. Napoleon III was captured (etiez-vous à Sedan?). The Germans would end up seizing French territory, thus setting the stage for the Great War. The German defeat in this next European-wide War (now called World War I) would in turn, set in motion a series of events leading to yet another great global conflict in 21 years. Interestingly, during World War II the German troops first invaded neutral Belgium and crossed the Meuse River in Sedan. This allowed them to bypass the French fortification system, the Maginot Line.

September 1, 1939: The year 2009 marked the 70th anniversary of the 6 year global conflict many call World War II. We will ignore for the moment earlier preludes, such as the Spanish Civil War, the Japanese War with China and the peaceful annexation of German Land by the Third Reich. It was not until this day that Germany invaded Poland (and the Soviet Union thereafter (June 22, 1941)). The invasion drew France and Great Britain, as allies to the Polish Nation, into the fight. On September 3rd at 11am the ultimatum to Germany to withdraw expired and Britain declared War just 15 minutes later, followed by France six hours later -- the policy of appeasement had failed with frightening consequences.

The war started near dawn (4:40am) with salvos from the cruiser Schleswig-Holstein at the Polish garrison in Gdañsk, a city within the Danzig region that had been part of Germany before World War I. The city sits at the mouth of the Vistula River on the Baltic Sea.; -- Wszystko o Gdañsku. Gdañsk was a member of the Hanseatic League and the largest city in Poland until the partitions of the late 18th century, when the largely German-speaking city became part of Eastern Prussia.

A soon surrounded Switzerland proclaimed neutrality from the first day in 1939 but could never be sure of safety. Germany would violate the neutrality of the Benelux nations, Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg. Spain, Sweden, Portugal and Ireland remained neutral, too; but, with the exception of Portugal, these countries' policies (at least early on) were influenced greatly by the Germans and their successes. The rest of Europe (and portions of northern Africa) was overrun by the Nazi hoard (except for the British Isles, the portions of Soviet Union which remained free and Finland which was at war with Russia). The Vatican was never occupied, just surrounded by a fascist Italy. Some suggest that no one in Europe was truly able to remain neutral.

September 1st or 2nd in 1945: Americans received word of Japan's formal surrender that ended World War II on September first. Because of the time difference, it was September 2nd at Tokyo Bay, where the formal signing ceremony took place. The Allies and Japan signed the instrument of surrender upon the main deck of the Battleship USS Missouri.

September 2, 1752: This is the last day on which the Julian calendar was observed officially in Great Britain and its North American colonies. The Gregorian calendar was adopted effective September 3rd. Because of errors in the Julian calendar, eleven days were eliminated, meaning the day after the 2nd in 1752 was September 14th. The beginning of a new year was also changed from March 25th to January 1st. This explains why letters from a Georgia founder, James Oglethorpe, indicated the date of arrival of the first colonists as 1 February 1732/33. This would have been February 12, 1733 on the continent of Europe, because much of the rest of Europe already used the Gregorian nomenclature, dates from January 1 to March 25 frequently showed both the Julian and Gregorian year. Often, dates will indicate "O.S." for "Old Style" (i.e., Julian) or "N.S." for "New Style" (i.e., Gregorian).

A little searching by a friend turned up but it only goes back to year 1 AD (two days difference in that year, if it's calculations are accurate) The Julian was introduced in 45 BC, but his successor, Augustus corrected the incorrect usage of leap years after the first 36 years. Previously, they had assigned a leap day every third year (it should have been 4). So, in 24 years there would be 8 leap days instead of 6 or about 8 extra days every 100 years. Augustus skipped several leap years to compensate for the mistake, and correctly set the process to every 4 years. Ten days of error crept into the Julian Calendar over the course of its use -- over and above any mistakes in the original calculations. Today, of course, we are perfect to the micro-second, c'est la vie !!
September 2, 1864: By midnight of September 1st, all the Southern troops had left the City of Atlanta, except for a few special forces, cavalry with a unique mission. Commanding General Hood had no intention of leaving the Union Army anything of military importance. The few Confederates left behind began destroying everything they could not carry. Those Atlanta residents who still remained in the city heard the explosions as the seven locomotives and 81 loaded cars of Hood's ammunition train disintegrated. It must have been very much like the scene, immortalized many years later in the film Gone With the Wind. For 5 hours this frenetic demolition continued. By dawn, the job complete, the calvary departed to rejoin Hood's forces, heading for Lovejoy's Station well south of the Atlanta city-centre.

The morning of September 2nd brought silence. Residents and city officials had expected the Union Army to enter and claim its prize; however, no one arrived. Mayor James Calhoun and a small delegation rode out, white flag flying, to surrender. The party met members of Hooker's 20th Corps. His honour was requested to make his petition of surrender in writing (triplicate no doubt). So we have preserved Calhoun's two-sentence letter, directed to Brigadier General William Ward, which states: "Sir: The fortune of war has placed Atlanta in your hands. As mayor of the city I ask protection of non-combatants and private property."

By early afternoon, Union troops flowed into town. History records the Second Massachusetts Regiment as the first unit to reach downtown and raise the Flag. Atlanta was now in Federal hands. It occupied Atlanta's city hall (photo). The next day Sherman would write to Washington, Atlanta is ours, and fairly won. Although Atlanta still had its trial by fire through which it must pass, few realized that the town's fortunes were about to change. Atlanta would become Georgia's Capital and leading city, surpassing Savannah, Augusta and the former Capital, Milledgeville.

September 2, 1885: In Atlanta, 10,000 Georgians attended public ceremonies (photo) for the laying of the marble cornerstone of a new capitol building for Georgia in its post-war capital. Construction of the statehouse would take almost four years.

On July 4, 1889, the State of Georgia would dedicate this new structure. The Capitol Commission presented the building with a gold dome to Governor John B. Gordon. Commissioners had an additional gift. Having been authorized $1,000,000 to spend, they report that the construction project came in under budget. They return $118.43 to the state treasury. The new capitol was so large that it could house all three branches of state government, with rooms left over.

September 2, 1945: As the Japanese were signing documents in Tokyo, a 55 year old Ho Chi Minh issued a Vietnamese declaration of its independence, unifying the northern to the southern areas of the region. He was known to have written letters to President Truman asking for humanitarian assistance and advocated political rather than military action. His letters appear to have gone unnoticed, certainly unanswered.

Strangely enough on the same day in 1969, the North Vietnamese president died. The son of a poor scholar, Ho Chi Minh led his nationalist movement for 3 decades. He became an active socialist while in France (n'est pa), where he had petitioned unsuccessfully for colonial reforms (following the first World War). His involvement with the international communist movement continued from the 1920s, meeting and working with communist leaders in Europe and in the Soviet Union. In 1930 Minh, formed the Indochinese Communist Party and its successor, the Viet-Minh, in 1941. He served as president of the Democratic [Peoples'] Republic of Vietnam from 1945 until his death, le 2'er septembre 1969.

Aussi -- le 2 septembre 1969: L'ancêtre du réseau Internet naît, pendant le week-end de la fête du Travail. Il a nom ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency network) et relève d'un projet financé par le Pentagone des États-Unis. Le premier nœud du réseau est installé ce jour-là à l'UCLA (University of California Los Angeles), à Stanford (Californie). Il s'agit d'un mini-ordinateur Honeywell Model 516, de la taille d'un réfrigérateur, connecté à un unique terminal. Un mois plus tard, le deuxième nœud est installé au Stanford Research Institute (SRI) et connecté au premier par une ligne spécialisée de 50 Ko/s. Plusieurs transferts de données seront réalisés entre l'université de Los Angeles et le SRI durant le mois d'octobre 1969 et la première trace documentée de cette connexion sera datée du 29 octobre 1969.
September 3, 1783: Great Britain and the United States signed a formal Peace Treaty on this day in Paris. Issues still remained, issues that would result in an armed additional conflict in less than 30 years. Never-the-less, what had begun in earnest on a common green in Massachusetts in the Spring of 1775 was now at an end. The treaty bears the signatures of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay. Mackinaw Island, Michigan, passed into US hands following the Paris Peace Treaty. In the South, the border of Georgia was redrawn on the west and to the south. The state expanse once limited only by the Mississippi and Gulf of Mexico was diminished, helping to set up the Seminole Wars.

September 3, 1856: Louis H. Sullivan, architect, the leading figure in the Chicago-School style, was born in Boston, Massachusetts. Sullivan attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the first US school to offer formal training in his field. MIT was not enough; however, he had to go to Europe.

In Rome, the abundance of Renaissance art convinced him to emulate Michelangelo's style of creation rather than imitate those ideas from earlier periods. He considered himself an artist trying to impart espirit, not just an architect seeking to beautify a structure. Indeed, leaders of the Art Noueveau movement considered his work to be based on similar premises about art, nature and the artist. Sullivan thought that a building should reflect the place and time in which it was built, not some long-gone historical period, and be sympathetic to its site and natural surroundings.

After a year of study in Paris (Vaudremer studio at the École des Beaux-Arts -- 1874), Sullivan returned to Chicago and became a draftsman (under John Edelman). Later he joined the office of Dankmar Adler, and at age 24 became a partner in the firm. He gained fame for his design of the Chicago Auditorium Theater. Sullivan, regarded as a father of modern architecture in the United States, is particularly identified with the æsthetics of skyscraper design, as he was among the first to stress the vertical lines of steel skeleton construction.

Sullivan's work inspired a younger generation of architects to apply his principles to all types of buildings, with an emphasis on residential architecture, what would later become known as the Prairie School. I particular, Sullivan attracted a new architect of promise, Frank Lloyd Wright, to his firm in 1888. He even asked Wright to design his own (Sullivan's) house.

On January 6, 2006, fire destroyed a landmark structure on Chicago's South Side that played a major role in the development of gospel music in the 1930's. The Pilgrim Baptist Church, designed by the distinguished architect Louis Sullivan and a partner, was built between 1890 and 1891. The building, designated a National historic site in 1981, was originally a synagogue, but had served as a the church since 1922. The Depression era congregation and its longtime music director, Thomas A. Dorsey, were instrumental in the development of gospel music. Among the great, who sang at the church during his tenure, was Mahalia Jackson.

September 3, 1914: The French capital was moved from Paris to Bordeaux as the first Battle of the Marne began. The British expeditionary force, under French General Lanrezac's command, attacked near the river Marne. French troops vacated Reims. At the same time the air defense of Great Britain was assigned to Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). Winston Churchill, as the new first Lord of the Admiralty (and thus the RNAS) was assigned the task of stopping the enemy Zeppelins. Interestingly, the first German bombs fell on London, at night on September 3, 1917.

September 3, 2006: Protests have erupted over the proposal to change the name of the square in front of the cathedral of Notre-Dame (Paris) from Square of our Lady to Parvis Notre-Dame-Place Jean-Paul-II. Activist Clowns, Greens and Act UP have viewed the move as unsecular, and perhaps illegal under principles governing post-modern civilisation. See: Jean Paul II fait place à la discorde -- note the play on words with the close-by Place de la Concorde, with its Obelisk of Luxor, fountain and nearby bridge to the left bank. A more complete article can be found in Sunday's Le Monde. Calling the local governments's approval of the decision to rename the area after the last Pope incompréhensible et indécent, critics said the sacred spirit of secularism shockingly had been violated by Mayor Bertrand Delanoë. About 3,000 persons arrived to support the dedication, a handful were there in protest.

September 4, 999: Saint Cuthbert's casket (after spending a number of years at various places in Northumberland) was moved to Durham, and enshrined there on this date. These relics have a particularly well documented history, beginning with the discovery of his incorrupt body. This in turn led the Venerable Bede to write his history of the Saint. In 875, after the second Viking raid on the Holy Isle of Lindisfarne, his body was moved to Northumbria, and rested at several sites until it moved to Dunholme (what would become the City of Durham in England). Enshrined on September 4, 999, the memorial was visited by William the Conqueror seventy years later. If this will help, the date of his death until William's pilgrimage is a longer period of time than from Jamestown's founding until today.

The site, on the Durham Peninsula, also had the benefits of being both easily defended and having ample supplies of fresh water. So, here St. Cuthbert's body finally rested, first in a rough wooden chapel, then in a fine Saxon-styled white-stone church. In 1093, however, the Norman conquerors dismantled the existing structure called (appropriately) the White Church in order to replace it with the present magnificent Cathedral. Cuthbert's remains, together with the head of the warrior-king, Saint Oswald, were housed in the specially built shrine within this new Cathedral in 1104. At this time, when Saint Cuthbert had been dead well over 4 centuries, they opened his coffin again. They found his body still without corruption. from: There is a more modern and scientific precedent for this observation (à Bernadette Soubirous).

The Commissioners of Henry VIII, during the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in England, were sent to destroy the tomb in 1537, which they did. Archbishop Charles of Glasgow, who wrote a History of St. Cuthbert, (London, New York: 1887) notes that:

[Dr. Lee, Dr. Henly and Mr. Blythman on approaching the Shrine] found many valuable and goodly jewels…After the spoil of his ornaments and jewels they approached near his body, expecting nothing but dust and ashes: but, perceiving the chest he lay in strongly bound with iron, the goldsmith…broke it open, when they found him lying whole uncorrupt with his face bare, and his beard as of a fortnight's growth, and all the vestments about him as he was accustomed to say mass.

The monks were allowed to bury him on the ground under where the shrine had been. This was opened again in 1827, at which time a skeleton, swathed in decayed robes, was found. The designs matched those described in the 1104 accounts, although some argued the real body was elsewhere. [Cruz, 54-55].

September 4, 1768: François-René, vicomte de Chateaubriand is born. In 1791, he visited North America, which furnishes the setting for his exotic novels Les Natchez (written in 1800 but published only in 1826), Atala (1801) and René (1802). His work appears, even today, authentic, vivid with captivating descriptions of natur in the then sparsely settled land. His most famous work, one would think, is Analyse raisonnée de l’histoire de France (1861) -- an homage to French culture and reason. Our introduction page (in french) to his analysis is HERE. We are persuaded that there was never complete inhumanity [during the dark ages]. We cannot say that people are completely barbarian when they preserved the [Roman] intellectual culture and its knowledge of the [public] administration.

September 4, 1849: Architect and city planner Daniel H. Burnham was born in Henderson, New York on this day. At the age of 27, Burnham joined with architect John Wellborn Root to establish one of the most famous architectural firms in U.S. history. Pioneering the construction methods which made modern skyscrapers possible, this firm along with professionals like Louis Sullivan changed forever city skylines. Burnham became the chief designer of the Chicago Columbian Exposition of 1892-93. His style restored the popularity of the neo-classical school. His plan for Chicago about a dozen years later became a model for that city's revitalization and for city planning as a whole.

Quatre-Septembre: is a stop on Paris Métro Line 3, which named for the date of 4 September 1870, the date Napoléon III's reign ended and la Troisième République began. Situated on the Rue du 4 Septembre, the station commemorates when Léon Gambetta proclaimed the beginning of this new Republic from the palace of the Tuileries. The declaration came after the capture of the French emperor by German armies during the last battle of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71). Etiez-vous à Sedan ? The station opened in October 1904, when the first section of Line 3 began service between the Avenue de Villiers (today the station is known as simply Villiers) and Pére Lachaise. The Third Republic endured seventy years, making it the longest lasting government in France since the collapse of the ancient régime in the French Revolution of 1789 (and the longest too).
September 5, 1666: A Cathedral dedicated to Saint Paul has sat within the City of London since 604AD, a constant reminder to the great commercial city-centre of the role of the Church in its prosperity. The great fire of London, which had begun three days earlier, ended on this date in 1666. Old Saint Paul’s was among the 87 churches destroyed in the conflagration. A new Christopher Wren design would replace the lost structure. It would become another land-mark in a place full of important land-mark structures. Wren's church, in turn, would survive the London Firestorm caused by incendiary ordinance dropped by the Nazis during the Second World War. See the entry for September 8, 1944 about other types of ærial destruction in London.

Interestingly, you can find several Wren influenced designs in the United States; Saint Michael's Church in Charleston, South Carolina and an old northern church at Charlestowne, Massachusetts. The Wren Building, thought to have been designed by Sir Christopher Wren in 1694 (five years before the Virginia capital was moved from Jamestown to Colonial Williamsburg), is still in use today at the College of William and Mary. It contains classrooms, the chapel and the Great Hall.

The Anglicans (Church of England) built a wooden church (Christ Church) in Philadelphia on Pine Street in 1697. When they outgrew it, they erected a new structure, the most sumptuous in the colonies, designed by Dr. John Kearsley and modeled on the work of famed English architect Sir Christopher Wren. The symmetrical, classical façade with arched windows, completed in 1754, is a fine example of Georgian architecture. The church is one of the loving city's treasures. The congregation included 15 signers of the Declaration of Independence. The bells and the soaring 196-foot steeple, the tallest in the colonies, were financed by lotteries run by Benjamin Franklin. http://travel…Philadelphia/sightsacts_30979_1.html Brass plaques mark the pews of George and Martha Washington, John and Abigail Adams, Betsy Ross and others.

September 5, 1774: The first Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia, a secret session in Carpenter's Hall, with representatives from every colony except Georgia. Tensions had affected the relations between the colonies and the government of Great Britian, the British taking singular exception to the 1773 tea soirée held in Boston harbor. The party convinced Britain to pass the Intolerable Acts. Peyton Randolph of Williamsburg, Virginia, chaired this premier Congress.

September 5, 1781: The British arrived off Virginia and found 26 French warships, under the command of Admiral François de Grasse (François Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, comte de Grasse ), in three straggling lines. Rear Admiral Thomas Graves waited for the French to form battle lines and then fought for 5 days. Outgunned and unnerved he withdrew to New York. The French had defeated the British fleet, trapping Cornwallis in Yorktown. The French had some 37 ships and 29,000 soldiers and sailors at Yorktown, while Washington had some 11,000 men engaged in the siege of the enemy. In 1881 a medal the USA issued a medal for the 100th anniversary celebration (a must see link).

September 5, 1793: In the French Révolution, terror was officially acknowledged as a tool against counter-revolutionary tendencies. The National Convention instituted harsh measures to repress activities of those with which it disagreed. One delegate, desiring that the middle-class Girondist (moderates) leaders should be sentenced to death cried, It is time for equality to wield its scythe over all the heads. Very well, Legislator, place Terror on the agenda! The Convention agreed to the arrest all suspects (dissenters), to try them swiftly in peoples' courts known as the Revolutionary Tribunals and to sentence uniformly with a penalty of death, the version français of the Sentencing Act (USA).
September 6, 1620: Today a small sailing vessel holding 101 colonists and 48 crew members sails from Plymouth, England. The leadership of thirty-five colonists aboard ship, Separatists from Leiden, Holland (later known as the Pilgrims), would help draft the an agreement off a cold New England coast that fall, named after the ship in today's history books -- the name: Mayflower -- the date: November 11, 1620. Less than 100 years before on this date in 1522, the Victoria, one of the surviving ships of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition, returns to Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the world. On this date in 1628, a group known to history as the Puritans settled in Salem, which will later become part of Massachusetts Bay Colony.

September 6, 1651: Meanwhile, back in England, a civil war is underway. Cromwell's forces had executed Charles the First and had been in effective control of the country, when Charles the Second arrived from France to pursue his claim (because he was the son of the last Royal). Charles and his Scottish army lost to Cromwell's forces at the Battle of Worcester on September 3, 1651. He became a wanted man with a price on his head, destined, if caught, to death by reason of his treason. By September 6th Charles was about to be caught at the Boscobel Estate. Charles hid his regal self among the thick limbs and greenery of an oak tree in Boscobel woods all day in a terrific rainstorm. That night, he slipped back into the estate house. Charles spent the night hidden within. Years later, as his ship carried him to Dover for his triumphal return to England, Charles II relayed the story to Samuel Pepys. While we were in this tree we saw soldiers going up and down in the thicket of the wood, searching for persons escaped. After the Restoration of the Monarchy, the tree earned the title of “Royal Oak.” Within about 50 years, it had been all but killed by souvenir seekers. From one of its acorns a younger tree, the Son of Royal Oak, grew up beside it. Visitors still flock to it today to recall its history.

The defeat at Worcester, saw one of this webmaster's forefathers sold as an indentured servant (shipped off to Massachusetts Colony in New England) for his role in supporting the rightful heir. This Scotsman later married his master's daughter and after serving his term of years migrated to Connecticut, then later to New Jersey. One of his descendants married a soldier who fought with Washington and spent winters in Valley Forge. Later descendants found their way to North Georgia to land given as payment for their service. Eventually, a descendant of one of the Pilgrims married a descendant of the Scottish soldier -- small world isn't it.

September 6, 1757: Marie Jean Paul Joseph Roche Yves Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de LAFAYETTE, a French soldier who served in the Americas, enters the world at the castle (Château) of Chavagnac, in Auvergne, 6 Septembre 1757. He passed away in Paris, May 20, 1834, but not before surviving two Revolutions and a Reign of Terror as well as visiting Milledgeville GA on his farewell tour..

September 6th (continued): In 1901, an anarchist named Leon Czolgosz shot and fatally wounded US President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. Strangely enough on this date in 1970, Jimi Hendrix played his last concert, at the Love and Peace Festival, close by the border of East Germany (and a few air miles across the water from Denmark), on the Isle Of Fehmarn, (Puttgarden) West Germany. The concert site is north and east of Lübeck and Kiel. Mr. Hendrix and his Cry of Love band last played in Atlanta on July 4th of that year; he last appeared onstage in a jam session with Eric Burdon and War on September 16th (two days before his death).

Freedom, give it to me.
That's what I want now --
Freedom, that's what I need now.
Freedom to live --
Freedom, so I can give ....

One More -- September 6, 1991: After 51 years of occupation, the Soviet Union on this date recognizes the independence of the Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. At the same time Saint Petersburg would regain officially its name. Russia's second largest city, which had been retitled Leningrad in 1924, again bears the name of its founder. For sixteen years Putin was an officer in the KGB, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel (including a stint in East Germany), before he retired on August 20, 1991, but he had already secured his new appointment. On 28 June 1991, Putin had become the Executive Director of the Committee for External Relations under the Saint Petersburg Mayor's Office. He served in that post until 1994.

TIMBRE N° 1782-- EMISSION: 19 février 1973 -- RETRAIT: le 7 septembre 1973 {TIRAGE : 3,5 millions (série)} Amiral français, de Coligny, qui fut l'un des chefs des huguenots pendant les guerres de religion. Né à Châtillon-sur-Loing (aujourd'hui Châtillon-Coligny), issu par sa mère de la maison ducale de Montmorency, il se distingua lors des guerres menées sous François Ier et Henri II contre l'empereur Charles Quint. Craignant l'influence grandissante de l'amiral, la reine mère Catherine de Médicis fit alliance avec les Guise et obtint de son fils qu'il ordonne le déclenchement de la persécution contre les protestants, connue dans l'histoire sous le nom de massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy (1572). Amiral Coligny en fut une des premières victimes.

September 7, 1821: Simón Bolívar as President, helped found the Republic of Gran Colombia, a federation of states encompassing much of present day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Ecuador, with Francisco de Paula Santander as Vice President. Just a year later on this date in 1822, Brazil declared its independence from the Kingdom of Portugal. A believer in constitutional government, Santander led the federalist opposition to Bolívar, who, on Sept. 24, 1828, suspended the VP. That night Bolívar barely escaped assassination. Convicted without proof of complicity in the plot, Santander was sentenced to death, but was instead banished. After Bolívar’s death and the dissolution of the republic of Greater Colombia, he returned and served (1832–36) as president of Nueva Granada.

September 7, 1881: Soldier (Seven Pines, Drewry’s Bluffs, The Seven Days Battles, Malvern Hill, Chancellorsville, Petersburg), lawyer, poet (The Marshes of Glynn), blockade runner, writer (antiwar novel Tiger-Lilies (1867)) educator (The English Novel and the Principle of its Development (posthumous: 1883)), musician (Peabody Symphony) and general observer of the times, Sidney Lanier passed away this day at the young age of 39 (tuberculosis caught when a POW). Born on High Street in Macon, Georgia, he died in the mountains near Asheville, North Carolina and is buried in Baltimore, not far from where he was imprisoned (Point Lookout, Maryland). Today, people wonder why the popular manmade lake north of Atlanta is named for him. Lake Lanier is one of 464 lakes in 43 states constructed and operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. The lake was named for him to honor his tribute to the Chattahoochee River in his poetry, The Song of the Chattahoochee.

Lanier still makes waves today. In 2009, after decades of dispute and litigation, a Federal District Court ordered the Corps of Engineers to operate the project without regard for the city of Atlanta's need for adequate water supplies. Georgia has appealed, however before negotiating from a position of extreme weakness -- three years later no progress has been announced. In other news, a new cable-stayed bridge was built over the Marshes of Glynn in order to replace the previous Sidney Lanier Bridge in Brunswick (Glynn County), Georgia. The new bridge is the longest spanning bridge in Georgia, allowing larger ships to enter the port of Brunswick. Lanier was also honored by the U.S. Postal Service, which produced an 8-cent commemorative stamp (February 3, 1972: William A. Smith was the designer).

September 8, 1775 not 1776 as some report: The Virginia Gazette reports this day that the impact of the Hurricane of Independence from the Carolina's into Nova Scotia, after a week of destruction along the American east Coast. It looks like the path of a classic Cape Verde storm, but it is first reported from the West Indies. An estimated 4,170 people, from North Carolina northward, die in the storm as it batters the American mainland.

Previous September 8th's in Canada: In 1760 at Montreal Quebec - Philippe de Rigaud de Vaudreuil (1698-1778) signed letters of capitulation, surrendering Montréal and New France. Sir Jeffrey Amherst and Sir William Johnson command a force of 20,000 British troops. He asks that his 2,000 soldiers be allowed to march out of the city with their guns and banners. Amherst refuses, and that evening, the British flag replaces the fleur-de-lis of the French monarch at the Place d'Armes. The Chevalier de Lévis burns his battle flags to save his troops from the humiliation of their transfer to the enemy. This date marks the beginning of Regime Militaire as Frederick Haldimand 1718-1791 assumes the governorship, as well as the end of the French-Indian War in North America. Minor fighting continues, however in Canada as pockets of resistance are cleared. The Seven Years War continues in other parts of the world until February 10, 1763. The British will agree to give the French fair treatment, including freedom of worship, freedom to trade furs on an equal basis with the British, freedom of emigration and continued property rights; however, in effect Britain with the deportation of many Canadiens, breaks this agreement, after the Treaty of Paris ending the conflict is signed (1763).

In 1755 at Lake George, New York, Baron Ludwig August Dieskau (1701-1767), a German-borne soldier in the service of the French monarch, ambushes Sir William Johnson and his 1,000-man relief army en route to Fort Edward, 80 km north of Albany. Dieskau is shot in the knee and captured, but the action halts the British thrust northward with their Mohawk allies. With winter coming, Johnson starts building Fort William Henry on the portage road at the southern end of Lake George. Dieskau's army retreats to Crown Point and starts building Fort Carillon ten miles to the south, were Lake George joins Lake Champlain.

In 1632 at Riverport, Nova Scotia, Isaac de Razilly (1587-1635) reaches land, commanding three ships, to take possession of Acadia because the Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye restored it to France. He is accompanied by his cousin Charles de Menou d'Aulnay, his nephew, Claude de Razilly and by the Denys brothers, Nicholas and Simon. The Scots at Fort Charles surrender the territory and fifteen French families build a settlement at La Have. So, the Capuchin Order opens the first boarding school in New France.

More of September is HERE.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls
A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure:

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from: -- -- -- -- -- -- --

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December

More Flags -- Flag Day
Early GA Flag Gwenn Ha Du 
qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

Search -- First  Search all URLs

Hightower Trail Historical Weather Conditions
More Overseas

We do our part

© 2008-2014 & 1999 - 2007
All rights reserved
Last updated: 20 août 2014
1530 EDT

The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at the time.