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The  VANGUARD --   2014

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We began our We completed our 17th Year online in May 2014
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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links
Luxembourg

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

Tour de France -- 2012 -- A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- http://www.au-chateau.com/auChateauNews74.php (Winter 2014-15)

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord
[ from Psalm 122 ] .

All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth unto such as keep his covenant and his testimonies [ Psalm 25:10 ].

If you are on the wrong road, progress means doing an about-turn and walking back to the right road; and in that use, the man who turns back soonest is the most progressive. — C.S. Lewis

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4


Beloved, we are now the sons of God, but it doth not yet appear what we shall become;
however, we know that, when He shall return, we shall be like Him; for we shall see Him as He is
[1 John 3:2].

Le 25 janvier -- Conversion de St Paul, Evêque et docteur de l'Eglise (AD 34): Sur la route de Damas, à la tête d’une troupe de fanatiques, chemine un homme de trente ans, qu’on appelle alors Saul (plus exactement Shaoul). Juif de race, grec de fréquentation, et politiquement romain, il a bénéficié de trois cultures, il connait le grec, l'araméen et l’hébreu. Il revendique une double citoyenneté, celle de Tarse et celle de Rome. À Tarse, sa ville natale, il n’a fréquenté que les écoles de grammaire, puis il est allé chercher à Jérusalem sa culture supérieure à l’école de Gamaliel. Moins tolérant que son maître il s’est vite mué en persécuteur des chrétiens. On le voit garder les vêtements de ceux qui lapident Etienne, ravager l’Eglise de Jérusalem et obtenir un mandat officiel pour engager des poursuites contre les chrétiens de Damas. http://missel.free.fr/Sanctoral/01/25.php « Il n'y a ni hommes ni femmes, ni Juifs ni Grecs, ni hommes libres ni esclaves, vous êtes tous un en Jésus-Christ » (Saint Paul, Épître aux Galates). http://www.herodote.net/00420125.htm

"I am Jesus, the one you are persecuting. Get up and go into the city, where you will be told what to do."

Only one feast commemorates a moment of conversion, but it was an event not to be forgotten. When Saul arose from the dust before Damascus, he found himself without eye-sight. So he entered the city physically disabled, and forever changed. In fast, he awaited instruction. Back in 1989-1990, we witnessed the opening of the Berlin Gate and the collapse of the Iron Curtain. Everybody was amazed, but too few recognized in these events the hand of God. http://www.irondequoitcatholic.org/index.php/Main/FeastOfSaintPaulsConversion see Acts of the Apostles 9:1-22; 22:3-16

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

January 25th: Each year on January 25 the Sorbic children of the eastern Germany celebrate Vogelhochzeit. On the evening of January 24th the children put out a plate by the window. In the morning they find the plate filled with candy that the birds (Vogel) have brought as a thank you to the children for feeding them during the winter. On the 25th children dress up in traditional wedding costumes and march in processions to celebrate the wedding of the birds -- Vogelhochzeit -- and a high time is had by all.

January 25, 1579: The Union of Utrecht brought together seven northern and Protestant provinces of the Netherlands against the spanish-influenced Catholics of the southern low countries. Known as the United Provinces, they become the foundation of the Dutch Republic, recognized only after over 100 years of conflict. The Treaty of Utrecht was signed in 1713, marking the end of the conflict. A timeline is HERE

January 25, 1759: Born this day, Robert Burns, the bard of Scotland, also known as the plough man's poet. He is the object of celebratory Burns Suppers, held annually. Across the globe people will rever the birth of Robert Burns, some 250 years ago, with Scottish Whiskæ, dancing, pipes, poetry and of course haggis, neeps and tatties.

Scots Wha Hae -- Robert Burns

Click to see Picture 
Burns Cottage in Alloway Scotland

Robert Burns died on July 21st in the year 1796 at age 37.

from: http://Mcallister.com/

Scots, wha hae wi Wallace bled,
Scots, wham Bruce has aften led,
Welcome to your gory bed,
Or to victorie!

Now's the day, and now's the hour;
See the front o' battle lour;
See approach proud Edward's power -
Chains and slaverie!

Wha will be a traitor-knave?
Wha can fill a coward's grave?
Wha sae base as be a slave?
Let him turn and flee!

Wha for Scotland's king and law
Freedom's sword will strongly draw,
Freeman stand, or freeman fa'
Let him follow me!

By oppression's woes and pains!
By your sons in servile chains!
We will drain our dearest veins,
But they shall be free!

Lay the proud usurpers low!
Tyrants fall in ev'ry foe!
Liberty's in ev'ry blow! -
Let us do - or die!


We have moved most of our Burns and Scotland information from this page to HERE; however the Burns memorial association in Atlanta celebrated its 100th year in 2010 (kicking off festivities beginning October 13th). The cornerstone of the only replica of the Burns Cottage was laid November 5, 1910, in DeKalb County GA, near the Emory Campus.

Championnats internationaux de ski, à Chamonix
 

January 25, 1924: The first Winter Olympics begin at Chamonix in the French Alps. Spectators were thrilled by the ski jump and bobsled as well as 12 other events involving a total of six sports. The International Winter Sports Week, as it was known, was a great success, and in 1928 the International Olympic Committee (IOC) officially designated the Winter Games, staged in St. Moritz, Switzerland, as the second Winter Olympics. The 2006 Olympics were held just over the Alps in Torino (Turin); in 1968, about 2 hours down the road at Grenoble; In 1992 Albertville, France saw the Winter Olympics (25 air miles east of Aix-les-Bains). The cities of Grenoble, Annecy and Nice have already stated their intention to bid to host the Winter Games in 2018. More about this area is HERE

January 25, 1985: The United States Postal Service issued the 7-cent Abraham Baldwin stamp in first day of issue ceremonies on the campus of the University of Georgia. The stamp's release was coordinated to mark the 200th anniversary of the chartering of the University of Georgia. Click Here to view the stamp and read about its story. On campus, a variety of souvenir first day covers were prepared with first day of issue cancellations. see examples here.

January 26, 1881: This day marks the birth of Walter Krueger in Flatow, Germany (now in Poland). Krueger came to the United States as a child. He entered the U. S. army in 1898 and became the Chief, U.S. Tank Corps in Europe in World War I. In 1943 General Krueger was made commander of the U.S. 6th Army in Australia. He was a military leader in the U.S. island-hopping strategy in the Pacific which resulted in the ultimate defeat of the Japanese Imperial Forces throughout South-east Asia.

January 2006 -- Double Leopard: Florin is the name applied to several coins from 13th Century Europe and about 50 years later from England, as well as more modern coinage. The word comes through the French word florin from the Italian fiorino, Fiorino being the Italian name of a gold denomination issued by the kingdom ruling today's Firenza (Florence) in 1252, weighing about fifty-four grains. This coin bore on the obverse a lily, from which it took its name of the flower, on the reverse in Latin is the name of the city Florentia. Florin and Florence seem to have been used interchangeably in English as the name of this coin used in trading. The Florentine florin held a substantial commercial reputation throughout Europe, and similar coins were struck in Germany, other parts of Italy, France, and elsewhere. The English gold florin was introduced by Edward III in order to have a medium for trade, acceptable on the Continent.

The coinage he produced, however, came along well after Florence had stopped its issues, and the British versions were lightweight (i.e. overvalued). Until 1857, a double leopard, the name for the coin, was suspected (value was 6 shillings or 72 pence), but no known examples existed. In that year two children found two at once; today the coins both reside in the collection of the British Museum. In January 2006, the third example was found, in an undisclosed location in southern England. The first two were found at Newcastle within the Tyne Riverbank. Note: there is some confusion about whether the coin found was a double florin -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Florin_English -- It appears that Coin World may have confused things. The 72p coin is indeed called a double leopard, but appears also to be called a florin. see also http://www.finds.org.uk/medievalcoins/late_denoms.php

The issue was declared on January 27, 1344. In all a ton of gold was converted (120,000 pieces of each of three denominations could have been struck), but all coins are quite rare today due to melting by the mint. Production ceased on July 10th, and the coin was declared no longer legal tender by August 20th, simply because the issue was not accepted by the merchants overseas. Each of the three known examples of the double leopard have slight design differences (varieties). The coins' reverse legend in Latin states: IHC TRANSIENS PER MEDIUM ILLORUM IBAT (Jesus passing through the midst of them, went on his way - Luke 4:30 (Vulgate)). It may well be an illusion to Edward's passage unharmed through the midst of the French fleet at the Battle of Sluys in June 24, 1340, in the early stages of the Hundred Years’ War. see generally http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~munro5/MONEYLEC.htm Great Britain introduced the double florin during Queen Victoria's reign as a silver coin. Its value was 4 shillings or 48 pence.

About 250 Years ago -- January 27th: Der Komponist Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wurde am 27.  Januar 1756 in Salzburg geboren. Schon als Knabe reiste er durch ganz Europa und wurde als Wunderkind mit Violine und am Klavier berühmt. Er schuf 675 Werke vielfältigster vokaler und instrumentaler Gattungen und beeinflusste damit die Musikgeschichte bis heute nachhaltig. Mozart starb im Alter von 35 Jahren in Wien am 5. Dezember 1791 und wurde auf dem Marxer Friedhof beigesetzt.

January 27, 1785 -- an early Chartered Partner: The Georgia legislature enacted into law Abraham Baldwin's proposed charter for the University of Georgia. In so doing, Georgia became the first state to charter a state university. The act's preamble declared:

When the minds of the people in general are viciously disposed and unprincipled and their conduct disorderly a free government will be attended with greater confusions and evils more horrid than the wild uncultivated state of nature. It can only be happy where the public principles and opinions are properly directed and their manners regulated. This is an influence beyond the reach of laws and punishments and can be claimed only by religion and education. It should therefore be among the first objects of those who wish well to the national prosperity to encourage and support the principles of religion and morality and early to place the youth under the forming hand of society that by instruction they may be molded to the love of virtue and good order [emphasis added]. Sending them abroad to other countries for their education will not answer these purposes; it is too humiliating an acknowledgment of the ignorance or inferiority of our own, and will always be the cause of so great foreign attachments, that upon principles of policy it is inadmissible.

This country, in times of our common danger and distress, found security in the principle and abilities which wise regulations had before established in the minds of our countrymen. That our our present happiness, joined to the pleasing prospect, should conspire to make us feel ourselves under the strongest obligations to form the youth, the rising hope of our land, to render the like glorious and essential services to our country.


 

January 27, 2000: The United States Mint released the new golden dollar coin on January 27, 2000. The obverse of the coin depicts Sacagawea and her infant son, Jean Baptiste. Sacagawea was the Native American who helped guide the Lewis and Clark expedition during much of its journey across the west from 1804 to 1806. In 2007, after several years of limited mintage, the Sacagawea coin will again be minted in quantities sufficient for general circulation. Congress has required the continuation of the Sacagawea Dollar during the life of the Presidential Coin Program (see below). The Sacagawea Dollar reverse will bear a new design each year, starting in 2009, to recognize Native Americans for their contributions to the history and development of the United States. In response to the law enacted in 2005, the mint produced Presidential dollars of similar size and metallic composition. Coins for 2007 thru 2011 have been issued. http://www.us-coin-values-advisor.com/presidential-dollar-coin.html More years of obverse design changes will follow, but these will no longer be of high mintage or for regular public release.

Reverse of all Presidential $ coins

January 28th Feast Day of Saint Karl: Karl der Große or Charlemagne was born near Aachen in about 742. He was the king of the Franks. (The Franks were a Germanic people who had extended their influence over parts of modern France and Belgium by this date in history.) On Christmas day of the year 800 he was crowned emperor of an empire which would become known as the Holy Roman Empire at some periods in history and as the German Empire at other periods. He established his capital at Aix-la Chapelle (or Aachen in modern Germany). He spread Christianity and developed efficient educational and political systems in his empire. He built many churches and was a devout Christian. The cathedral he built in his capital city of Aachen remains. He was declared a saint in 1165 at the urging of the emperor, Friedrich Barbarossa (predating the formal process of canonization). The declaration, made by the bishop of Köln had the formal approval of Pope Paschal III. Paschal III, however, was an antipope. The man who came to be recognized as the official pope, Alexander III, opposed the sainthood designation for Karl. After 1176, a compromise permitted the title, but did not officially sanction it. Relics of Karl der Große (Charlemagne -- ca. 742-814) may be viewed in the Cathedral at Aachen.

Le 28 Janvier 1077: Depuis qu'au XIXe siècle, le chancelier Bismarck, en conflit avec l'Église catholique, lança: «Je n'irai pas à Canossa !», l'expression «aller à Canossa» signifie que l'on se rend aux injonctions de l'adversaire. Elle rappelle une fameuse querelle entre le pape et l'empereur d'Allemagne qui se dénoua le 28 janvier 1077 par une humiliation feinte de ce dernier. http://www.herodote.net/histoire01280.htm Canossa (Province of Reggio Emilia), a commune and castle town in Emilia-Romagna (north-central Italy), remains famous as the place where the Holy Roman Emperor (Henry IV) was once thought to have performed his penance, standing three days bare-headed in the snow before the castle gate where Pope Gregory VII was sheltered, so as to reverse his excommunication. His walk to Canossa is sometimes used as a symbol of the changing relationship between the medieval Church and State, but more often refers to a public personal humiliation. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03298a.htm The castle is an abandoned ruin today; it was about 20 years old when the King stood before its gates.

January 28, 1672: Col. William Stephens, first president of Georgia, was born in England. There, he was elected to the House of Commons in 1702 and served until 1727 (the last five years joined by James Oglethorpe). In 1736, Stephens' was hired to go to South Carolina and survey a land grant on the Savannah River. From there, he traveled went to Savannah, where he met Oglethorpe. He accompanied Georgia's founder back to England later that year. In London, the Trustees of the Georgia Colony had read Stephens' journal of his travels in America. Impressed, they hired him in April 1737 to serve as the Secretary for Georgia and keep the Trustees informed on military, civil and other concerns in the Colony. They had become disturbed at how Oglethorpe overspent his instructions.

Therefore, in 1740, the Trustees divided Georgia into two parts. The northern half was known as the County of Savannah. Stephens was named as its president. The southern half was the County of Frederica, with the office of president temporarily left vacant. In 1742, Stephens was elevated to president of the entire colony, a post he held until he resigned in 1750. Spending his last days at his Beaulieu plantation near Savannah, Stephens died at age 81 in August 1753. Bewlie, is where the French landed on September 12, 1779, in an ill-fated attempt to take back Savannah during the Revolution from http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-jan/jan28.htm.

January 28, 1733: Georgia colonists celebrated this day -- a Sunday -- as a day of thanksgiving for their safe arrival as well as for General Oglethorpe's success in obtaining permission from Chief Tomochichi to settle on Yamacraw Bluff on the Savannah River. The fête took place in the military barracks at Beaufort in the Royal Colony of South Carolina, just up the road (except there was no road and they traveled by boat).

January 29, 1761: Today marks the birth of Albert Gallatin in Geneva, Switzerland. Gallatin would immigrate to America. He won election to the United States Senate in 1793. However, he was disqualified, because of his length of citizenship, after he had already taken the Oath of Office. Entering the House of Representatives in 1795, serving in the fourth through sixth Congresses, he went on to become majority leader. He was the Nation's fourth Secretary of the Treasury in 1801, appointed by Jefferson. During his tenure the Nation was able to purchase the Louisiana Territory, while reducing its debt. He played a significant role in negotiating the end of the War of 1812.http://www.answers.com/topic/albert-gallatin see also The Writings of Albert Gallatin. Henry Adams, editor. (3 volumes, 1879); Adams, Henry. Life of Albert Gallatin (1879).


January 29, 1845: Edgar Allen Poe's poem The Raven was first published, in the New York Evening Mirror. Our version of that poem may be found HERE

To this day I do not know the land to which lost information goes.
To what virtual nether-world, is orphaned data shipped, stacked or ...
Is it beyond the reach of mortal souls, beyond the ether, slurped into black holes?
For as sure as there is C, plus Pascal, Lotus, Ashton-Tate and more,
You too, one day may these basic facts ponder, lost on some antediluvian shore,
Still pleading; “Abort, Retry, Ignore?”

January 29, 1934: Today is the death date for Fritz Häber in Basel, Switzerland. As a professor of physical chemistry at the Technische Hochschule of Karlsruhe (like Basel near the French/German Border), he invented a method of synthesizing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. The need for nitrogen-based fertilizer in Germany and elsewhere was very great, but the natural supplies of ammonia (as well as phosphate) came from Guano, which had to be imported from Chile. World political problems (compounded because ammonia also was a resource in the making of high-explosives) turned this into a risky as well as expensive undertaking. In 1909, Häber took his discovery to the Badische Anilin- and Soda-Fabrik (BASF) where he and Carl Bosch developed a method of ammonia mass production, the Häber-Bosch Process. He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1918 for his work. The discovery gave Germany access to technology necessary to feed the population and arm its soldiers. During the outset of the Nazi years (1933) he stopped his research in Germany and accepted a position at the University of Cambridge in England. Only a year later Herr Häber died in Basel Switzerland of heart failure en route to a winter holiday in Italy for his health.

January 29, 1936: Georgia born Tyrus Cobb became one of the first five inductees in a new Major League Baseball Hall of Fame established at Cooperstown, N.Y. Cobb joined Walter Johnson, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner and Christy Mathewson in being honored that day.

January 30th: Every year on this day, white roses are laid at the foot of a king's statue in London -- the last English Saint recognized in the Anglican tradition. Winston Churchill in his histories of England, has written of him a fitting epitaph: He cannot be claimed as the defender of English liberties, nor wholly of the English Church, but none the less he died for them, and by his death preserved them not only to his son and heir, but to our own day. The Speechwriters' Saint -- http://LaRocheUSA.org/SaintCharles/SaintlyKings.htm.

Le 30 janvier 1965: Le Royaume-Uni célèbre en grande pompe les funérailles du plus grand Anglais du siècle et sans doute du plus grand génie politique de l'ère moderne, Sir Winston Churchill. Le héros de la Victoire sur le nazisme est inhumé à Bladon, près du château natal de Blenheim, dans le comté d'Oxford.

It was only 23 years earlier (1942) that Churchill's government, after three days debate, won an overwhelming vote of Confidence. The discussion was brought on by Rommel's temporary success in the desert of Cyrenaica; however, it was Churchill's view that the Nazi position at Benghazi, specifically, and in North Africa, generally, was unsustainable, an opinion soon proven correct. Meanwhile, the British position worsened on the Malayan peninsula, Singapore soon to be lost.

It was necessary above all to warn the House and the country of the misfortunes which impended upon us. There is no worse mistake in public leadership than to hold out false hopes soon to be swept away. The ... people can face the peril or misfortune with fortitude ... but they bitterly resent being deceived or finding that those responsible for their affairs are themselves living in a fool's paradise. I felt it vital ... to discount future calamities by describing the immediate outlook in the darkest terms. {emphasis added}

"It is because things have gone badly and worse is yet to come that I demand a Vote of Confidence. If a Member has helpful criticisms to make, or even severe corrections to administer, that may be perfectly consistent with [showing] respect [for the Administration] ... There is no objection to anything being said in plain English [on the floor of the House], or even plainer ... But no one should be mealy-mouthed in debate, and no one should be chicken-hearted in voting .... Everyone in these rough times must do what he thinks is his duty." Churchill, Winston S. The Hinge of Fate: Book One The Onslaught of Japan. Houghton Mifflin Co. (Riverside Press Cambridge). Boston (1950) pp 61, 66.

A fine sentiment for today, too.

From http://guests.travelpod.com/travel-photo/leeandal/fjorging_on/1124306280/churchillxs_grave.jpg/ ... we find a picture of Churchill's grave today, and the words Churchill ... planned his own funeral. Knowing Charles de Gaulle would be at his service, he planned to have his body carried by train out of London, leaving from Waterloo Station.

London terminus at St. Pancras Which brings to mind the question: Should the Eurostar London terminus at St. Pancras be renamed to align it more closely politically, historically and emotionally with the name of the current terminal, just south of the Thames River, Waterloo? In the past the French have pointed out that the Waterloo station name was a wee bit unfriendly, requesting (perhaps apocryphally) that the name be changed. Anyway, after some to and fro, one may recall a reader's letter in The Times, saying in effect, that one could always roughly translate Waterloo into French -as- Eau de Toilette. In any event, if the Eurostar would travel round the north of the Thames, cutting through densely populated urban areas, ending up at the most northern station in London (St-Pancras), then the French should feel free to have the train route south swing around Paris and terminate at Gare Austerlitz in the south of the city.

Saint Pancras is also known as Pancritas or Pancratius. His memorial day is May 12th. As a fourteen-year-old orphan, Pancratius born (circa 290 at Phrygia (a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey)) was brought to Rome by his uncle, Saint Dionysius. As a convert to Christianity, he suffered martyrdom (beheaded circa 304 on the Via Aurelia during Diocletian's persecution) with Saints Nereus, Achilleus and Domitilla for publicly proclaiming his faith. Pope Vitalian sent his relics from the cemetery of Calepodius in Rome to England (and his relics were presented as a gift to the king of Northumberland), as part of the evangelization of England, so that the English church would have access to relics of the greater Church. Saint Augustine of Canterbury dedicated his first structure in England to Saint Pancras, and subsequent churches throughout England are similarly named for Pancras. It is reported that his relics later were interred in the Saint Pancras church, Rome, but were destroyed in 1798; his head is still in the Lateran Basilica. http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintp02.htm

The Saint Pancras Station was designed by Gilbert Scott. The main engineer on the project was W. H. Barlow. Built in 1868 the ribs of the Gothic shaped roof continue in an unbroken line from platform level to the ridge at the top. The building is 243 feet wide, 600 feet long and the point of the arch is 100 feet above rail level (about 8 stories). Once known only as the main London terminal of the York & Midland Railway. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RAstpancrasST.htm see also http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/S._Pancras_Station.html St-Pancras has become an International terminal with a direct link to Europe, serving not only Midland Mainline, but also Eurostar and Thameslink trains.

January 31, 1813: Military officer, explorer and sometime politician John C. Frémont was born in Savannah, Georgia. His early life largely remains a mystery. His father was a French émigré. Frémont became an officer in the U.S. Army's Topographical Engineers, later marrying the daughter of U.S. Senator Thomas Hart Benton. With Benton's influence, Frémont undertook three major expeditions of the West (1843-46). On January 16, 1847, he was appointed civil governor of California. Between 1848 and 1853, Frémont undertook two more expeditions of the West, also serving one year as U.S. Senator from California. In 1856, he became the first Republican candidate for US President, losing to Democrat James Buchanan. With the outbreak of the War Between the States, President Lincoln appointed Frémont major general in command of volunteers in the Western Department. Acting unilaterally, Frémont placed Missouri under military command and issued an order freeing the slaves of all supporters of the Confederacy. Refusing Lincoln's order to revoke the actions, Frémont was relieved of command. After the war, he served as territorial governor of Arizona (1878-1881). Frémont passed away in New York City on July 13, 1890.

January 31, 1879: Fifteen years after burning Atlanta, former Union general William T. Sherman returned. As noted in the diary of Atlanta merchant Samuel P. Richards, Gen. Sherman has just honored our city by a visit to see how nicely we have builded it up after his burning it. Atlanta and Environs: A chronicle of Its People and Events, Franklin M. Garrett, (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1969 reprint of 1954 original volume), Vol. I, p. 953.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

To paraphrase Winston Churchill: The facists abhor freedom in their country, and they despise it in others

Does a connection between moral confusion and ignorance of history exist ? Some 25% of those surveyed in Great Britain (5 years ago), said World War II British prime minister Winston Churchill was a mythical figure who never lived. Apparently. Winston Churchill never tried to warn the British people that Adolf Hitler was dangerous, and that appeasing him was wrong. Little wonder that some persons now-a-days have very funny views about terrorism, the welfare state, cultural heritage .. .. .. not funny as in "ha, ha," but funny as in odd. Surveys also reveal that King Arthur existed and led a round table of knights at Camelot. Sherlock Holmes became a successful sleuth in foggy London. Moreover, Robin Hood lived in Sherwood Forest, robbing the rich to give to the poor; Eleanor Rigby was a real person, whom the Beatles chronicled. see http://www.dakotavoice.com/2008/02/winston-churchill-was-myth.html

King Cœnwulf lived from 796-821: Ruler of Mercia, East Anglia and Kent, he became Britain's the most powerful leader of the time. A gold coin of this KING, lost 1,200 years ago on a river bank in Biggleswade, became the most valuable British coin when it was acquired in February 2006 by the British Museum for £357,832. The coin carries his name, title and an image of him and, on the reverse, an intriguing inscription DE VICO LVNDONIAE (from the trading place of London). Gareth Williams, the museum's Anglo-Saxon coin curator, said that it was used as currency (and was not just a presentation piece) because of this unexpected inscription. The use of the word vicus, meaning a trading center, rather than civitas, the city seat of authority, furnishes a strong indication that the coin was actually used as a store of value in commercial transactions (money). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/ The trading center of or place at London lay outside the city walls of the old Roman city.

The coin was previously owned by an American, who bought the rarity at auction in 2005; however, British authorities prevented its export and eventually the estranger negotiated its sale. “The Cœnwulf gold coin is incredibly significant as a new source of information on Anglo-Saxon kingship in the early ninth century,” said Gareth Williams, Anglo-Saxon coin curator at the British Museum. “We are delighted to have acquired this piece for the national collection.” The coin is on display at the British Museum’s Money Gallery. http://www.24hourmuseum.org.uk/nwh_gfx_en/ART33937.html

Biggleswade is a real life market town on the River Ivel in Bedfordshire, England. The area around Biggleswade is thought to have been inhabited from around 10,000 BC, with arrowheads dating from this period found in the region. In Roman times, a loop road known as the White Way passed through Biggleswade (possibly along the course of the present-day Drove Road), linking up with the Ermine Way at Godmanchester. In the Fifth century AD, Saxon invaders settled here - the name Biggleswade is thought to be derived from Biceil, an Anglo-Saxon personal name and Waed, the Saxon word for ford. The Great Northern Railway opened in 1850, and Biggleswade was the third town in Bedfordshire to have a mainline station (on the East Coast Main Line) after Bedford & Dunstable. Nearby is the Shuttleworth Collection of vintage æroplanes.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !



February 1, 1733: Today, we celebrate February 12, 1733 as the anniversary of the founding of Georgia. However, all letters, diaries, and records of the time indicate that the colonists arrived on February 1, 1732/33 (the new year did not start until mid-march then). That is, the Old Style represents the same day in history as a number 12 days later on the New Style Calendar. The leader of this expedition to organize a new settlement was James Edward Oglethorpe, tenth and last child of Theophilus and Eleanor Oglethorpe. Read about all the other events that happened on February 12th -- the official founding day of Georgia: http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-feb/feb12.htm

On January 22, 1733, James Oglethorpe and a small party of Carolina Rangers had traveled to the Savannah River looking for a townsite on which the newly arrived Georgia colonists could settle. [See map at this link] In so doing, he had followed the instructions of the Georgia Trustees (November 9, 1732) that the first settlement -- to be named Savannah -- be located on that river. About fifteen miles upstream from its mouth, Oglethorpe found an area along the south bank that rose high over the river. As Oglethorpe wrote the Trustees about the site:

"The river there forms a half moon, along the South side of which the banks are about 40 foot high and upon the top a flat which they call a bluff. The plain high ground extends into the country five or six miles and along the riverside about a mile. Ships that draw twelve foot water can ride within ten yards of the bank."

The site Oglethorpe had found (Yamacraw Bluff) was name the small group of native Yamacraws who lived there. The bluff had been a popular place for traders from the Carolina Colony in the past. In 1732 John and Mary Musgrove had opened a trading post upon the bluff. Using the Musgroves as translators, Oglethorpe met Yamacraw chief Tomochichi and asked for permission to settle a town on the bluff. Tomochichi agreed. Most likely, his decision was based on self-interest -- this tribe was small, poor, exiled from the other Creeks and now dependent on British imports. A preliminary verbal agreement was reached (though a formal treaty would not be signed until May 21). Oglethorpe then left to rejoin the colonists at Beaufort, leaving some of the Carolina rangers behind to build a stairway up the side of the bluff. He would return February 1st with the first colonists.

[More: Letters, diaries, and records of this time show dates based on the Julian calendar (referred to as "Old Style") then in effect in Britain and the American colonies. The Gregorian calendar ("New Style") was adopted in 1752. Thus, January 22, 1732/33, (Old Style) represents February 2, 1733, under the calendar now in effect. For a fuller explanation, click HERE.]

February 1, 1788: The Georgia legislature awarded Augusta inventor William Longstreet and his associate Isaac Brigs a patent for a steam engine. In 1807, their engine was used to power a boat on a five-mile journey against the current on the Savannah River. Only days before, Robert Fulton had successfully sailed his new steamboat -- the Clermont -- from New York City up the Hudson River to Albany. Never-the-less, the first steam-powered (steam and sail) vessel to cross the Atlantic was the SS Savannah. Read about America's first steam boat inventor HERE -- it may not be who you think it should be.

February 2, 1804: Former Georgia governor and signer of the Declaration of Independence George Walton died in Augusta, Ga. Click HERE for biographical information about the Georgia signers. All: http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/signers/ There is a Walton connection to steam power, too. Can you find it? Hint 1: follow the links on this Website. Hint 2: George Walton lived where in Georgia ?

Groundhog Day: En Amérique du nord, une légende probablement d'origine amérindienne a fait du 2 février le jour de la Marmotte -- à midi, ce jour-là, la marmotte sort de son terrier et inspecte les environs. Si elle aperçoit son ombre et juge que le ciel est suffisamment ensoleillé, elle flâne et prend son temps avant de retourner se mettre à l'abri pour tout juste six semaines, autrement dit jusqu'à l'arrivée du printemps. Si elle trouve le ciel trop couvert et rentre rapidement à l'abri, c'est le signe d'une arrivée plus tardive du printemps !

"Si mon ombre je vois, aujourd'hui ... Quand mon ombre je vois, Six semaines supplémentaires d'hiver seront là !"  It's a Canadian custom, too.

We must remember what the prognosticator of all things under ground has said: "Anyone foreshadowing, predicting or even actually celebrating the arrival of the new millennium during the next 6 or 8 weeks will be doing so on good evidence and authority." -- Punxsutawney Phil (1997)

In special burgs exist well-known groundhogs of l'ordre français des avocats du breaux de météo, not just Punxsutawney Phil (made famous by the movie Groundhog Day) in Pennsylvania; but, General Beauregard Lee in Lilburn, Georgia (suburban Atlanta) and Wiarton Willie in Wiarton, Ontario. Representing Wisconsin we have Jimmy the Groundhog in Sun Prairie; Staten Island Chuck in New Jersey and New York; Shubenacadie Sam was introduced in Nova Scotia and Balzac Billy resides in Balzac, Alberta. And they make different predictions, too. In 2010 two articles from The Wall Street Journal revealed several more names (histories and locations), including the fact that Marmot day is a new holiday in Alaska. Look for them !

February 2, 1899: Members of Atlanta's Young Men's Library Association had launched a campaign earlier to encourage city official to fund a public library for Atlanta residents. After the president of Y.M.L.A. saw reports of Andrew Carnegie funding libraries in other cities, the organization invited Walter M. Kelley, who represented Carnegie Steel Corporation interests in the Southeast, to sit on the board of directors of the Y.M.L.A. Subsequently, members encouraged Kelley to use his influence with Carnegie to obtain financial support for a library in Atlanta. On Feb. 2, 1899, Carnegie wrote Kelley the following letter:

"In reply to yours just received, it will give me great pleasure to present Atlanta with $100,000 to build a free public library, provided the city finds a site and agrees to maintain it at a cost of not less than $5000 per year.

"I leave the subject with you and will provide the money as you spend it, but everything must be attended to be the authorities of Atlanta. I can do nothing but provide the money and look to you to give proper attention to the matter.

"I have especial pleasure in doing some of the South, a portion of the country to which I have been much attached and in whose problems I am deeply interested."

Source: Franklin M. Garrett, Atlanta and Environs: A Chronicle of Its People and Events. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1969 (reprint of the original 1954 work), Vol. II, p. 376.

Andrew Carnegie, an immigrant from Dunfermline, Scotland set up 2,500 libraries in Great Britain and North America. He performed many other acts of Charity. Believing it a sin to die with great wealth, he set up a foundation that still provides money today. All four of the older Scottish universities received bequests, as did Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University). He forgot not his birthplace -- the most sacred spot to me on earth. Among his endowments, Pittencrieff House and its gardens were acquired for Dunfermline.

Rise and Shine its Groundhog Day all over again

Le 2 février -- la fête de la Chandeleur (Candlemass): La Chandeleur commémore la Présentation de Jésus au Temple, à Jérusalem, 40 jours après sa naissance. Ce faisant, ses parents se conformaient à une coutume hébraïque qui voulait que les premiers-nés fussent consacrés au Seigneur. La Chandeleur était autrefois appelée «Purification de la Vierge Marie» car elle rappelait le rituel des relevailles consécutives à tout accouchement. http://missel.free.fr/Sanctoral/02/02.php

February 2nd celebrates the Feast of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple {or he older name Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary; another popular name for the day used to be “Candlemas,” which came from an early church custom of carrying candles in procession as part of the observance}. Nunc dimittis is a principle part of the reading, and often the focus of the sermon.

Portes, levez vos frontons !
élevez-vous, portes éternelles:
qu'il entre, le Roi de Gloire !

Qui est ce roi de gloire ?
C'est le Seigneur, le fort, le vaillant,
le Seigneur, le vaillant des combats.
Portes, levez vos frontons !
levez-les, portes éternelles:
qu'il entre, le Roi de Gloire !

Qui donc est ce Roi de Gloire ?
C'est le Seigneur, Dieu de l'univers;
C'est lui, le Roi de Gloire. [Psaume 23]

Nunc dimittis servum tuum, Domine
(The Canticle of Simeon)

 29 

Now thou dost dismiss thy servant, O Lord, according to thy word in peace:

nunc dimittis servum tuum Domine secundum verbum tuum in pace

 30 

Because my eyes have seen thy salvation,

quia viderunt oculi mei salutare tuum

 31 

Which thou hast prepared before the face of all peoples:

quod parasti ante faciem omnium populorum

 32 

A light to the revelation of the Gentiles and the glory of thy people Israel.

lumen ad revelationem gentium et gloriam plebis tuae Israhel

Found in St. Luke's Gospel (Chapter ii, v.29-32), Nunc dimittis is the last Canticle in the historical sequence of three great sacred songs of the New Testament, the other two being the Magnificat (Canticle of Mary) and the Benedictus (Canticle of Zachary-Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel). All three canticles are in use in the Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox and Anglican denominations.

February 3, 865: Saint Ansgar was born on September 8, 801 in Corbie (This small town is situated 15 km (9.3 mi) up river from Amiens, in the Département of Somme and is the main town of the Canton of Corbie). In 823 he became a teacher in the newly founded monastery in Corvey in Westphalia (modern Germany). In 829 he founded the first Christian church in Sweden. He returned to Germany in 831 and became the first bishop of Hamburg. He continued his work of christianization in Denmark and Sweden, but after attacks by the Vikings not only was Christianity halted in those lands, but Hamburg itself was destroyed (845). He retreated to become Bremen's first bishop. From there he continued his efforts to bring Christianity to the Scandinavian countries. He died in 865 in Bremen. Through his efforts he is known as the Apostle of the North. He was canonized by Pope Nicholas I. He is the patron saint of Denmark. February 3rd, which marks his death, is the feast day of St. Ansgar.

The first ripples of controversy, about the presence of Christ in the Eucharist, came in the ninth century, when a monk from the French Abbey of Corbie wrote against his abbot, St. Paschasius (785-860). Ratramnus (d. 868) held that Christ's Body in the Eucharist cannot be the same as Christ's historical body once on earth and now in heaven because the Eucharistic is invisible, impalpable and spiritual. He wanted to hold on to the Real Presence but stressed the Eucharist as symbolic rather than corporeal. His book on the subject was condemned by the Synod of Vercelli, and his ideas, it is held, influenced all subsequent theories that contradicted the traditional teaching of the Church.

Within two centuries the issue had reached such a point of gravity that a formal declaration was evoked from the Holy See. In 1079, Archdeacon Berengar of Tours who favored Ratramnus' position and wrote against what he considered the excessive realism of Paschasius, was required by Gregory VII to accept the following declaration of faith in the Eucharistic presence:

I believe in my heart and openly profess that the bread and wine placed upon the altar are, by the mystery of the sacred prayer and the words of the Redeemer, substantially changed into the true and life-giving flesh and blood of Jesus Christ our Lord, and that after the consecration, there is present the true Body and Blood of Christ which was born of the Virgin and, offered up for the salvation of the world, hung on the cross and now sits at the right hand of the Father, and that there is present the true Blood of Christ which flowed from His side. They are present not only by means of a sign and of the efficacy of the sacrament, but also in the very reality and truth of their nature and substance. 

This profession of faith in the Real Presence was quoted verbatim by Pope Paul VI in his encyclical Mysterium Fidei. Approaching transubstantiation, Hildebert of Tours in 1134 defined the concept in the terms adopted by the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215. The Holy Father quoted this profession of faith in the Real Presence in 1965, during the sessions of the Second Vatican Council. The reason was because he saw a resurgence of the Eucharistic heresies which began to invade the Catholic Church almost a thousand years ago. http://www.therealpresence.org/archives/Eucharist/Eucharist_022.htm

Le 3 février 1468: Meurt à Mayence un certain Johannes Gensfleisch, plus connu sous le nom de Gutenberg. Il nous a légué un cadeau merveilleux, l'imprimerie. À prix réduit et une version imprimée de la bible dans la langue commune ont contribué à la réforme du 16ème siècle. Guttenberg veröffentlichte auf Deutsch und Latein und würden französisch auch schätzen, weil er in Mainz wohnte. Ein kann nicht betonen, wieviel einfacheres es lesen und studieren soll, wenn Sie in Ihrer Muttersprache sind. One also should not discount how important books at a reasonable cost would expand the available audience for a message, especially in late 15th century Europe, a time and place starved for new ideas.
 
On the 3rd of February, 1735, the Unitas Fratrum or Moravians arose early in the London lodging house and prayed heartily in one accord. Then they prepared to go aboard the transatlantic vessel . . . . http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/mora-ch3.htm
 
In the 1730's a voyage across the Atlantic was a very different thing from what it is in this year of grace 1904. To-day a mighty steamship equipped with powerful engines, plows its way across the billows with little regard for wind and weather, bearing thousands of passengers, many of whom are given all the luxury that space permits, a table that equals any provided by the best hotels ashore, and attendance that is unsurpassed. Then weeks were consumed in the mere effort to get away from the British Isles, the breeze sometimes permitting the small sailing vessels to slip from one port to another, and then holding them prisoner for days before another mile could be gained. Even the most aristocratic voyager was forced to be content with accommodations and fare little better than that supplied to a modern steerage passenger, and those who could afford it took with them a private stock of provisions to supplement the ship's table.
 
And yet the spell of adventure or philanthropy, gain or religion, was strong upon the souls of men, and thousands sought the New World, where their imagination saw the realization of all their dreams. Bravely they crossed the fathomless deep which heaved beneath them, cutting them off so absolutely from the loved ones left at home, from the wise counsels of those on whom they were accustomed to depend, and from the strong arm of the Government under whose promised protection they sailed, to work out their own salvation in a country where each man claimed to be a law unto himself, and where years were to pass before Experience had once more taught the lesson that real freedom was to be gained only through a general recognition of the rights of others.
 
February 3, 1865: Confederate Vice-president Alexander Stephens [photo & info] attended the Hampton Roads Peace Conference as one of three southern commissioners to discuss the possibility of ending the War Between the States with U.S. President Lincoln and Secretary of State William Seward. The meeting, which took place aboard a ship off the coast of Virginia, ended without success. Stephens, imprisoned after this time, was later released. After the War he would serve Georgia in the Congress and as its Governor. More HERE
 
February 3, 1964: Four days before the Beatles landed in the U.S., “I Want to Hold Your Hand” and Meet the Beatles! were both certified Gold by the RIAA. One year later - Yes, this is the day that the Music died. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Day_the_Music_Died "The Day the Music Died" is a phrase coined by Don McLean in his song "American Pie". It refers to February 3, 1959, when Buddy Holly, Richie Valens (La Bomba) and The Big Bopper died in an airplane crash. The phrase may also refer to a BBC musical/comedy series or the second and final album by a group called Beneath the Sky.

More on the third: In 1377, more than 2,000 people of the Italian city of Cesena were slaughtered by Papal Troops. In 1637, so-called Tulip Mania, a speculative financial (commodities) bubble collapses in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands) after government intervention. Of course, everyone remembers that the Colony of Massachusetts issued the first paper money in Americas on this date in 1690. Nearly 100 years later (1787) Shay's Rebellion was crushed. In 1870, the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted. In 1947, the lowest temperature in North America is recorded in Snag, Yukon Territory, Canada. At this temperature the number looks better in Celsius than Fahrenheit. In 1947, the village of Snag boasted a population of 8 to 10 natives and fur traders. It also had an airport where the temperature of minus 63 degrees C (minus 81.4 degrees F) was recorded. A day later but a few years earlier in 1936, the element Radium becomes the first radioactive metal to be made synthetically. Thirty-three years later (1969) Monsieur Yasser Arafat takes over as chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). In an entirely unrelated matter, after 35 years have passed (2004) something called Facebook, now a mainstream online social network, was founded by Mark Zuckerberg.

February 4, 856: The feast day of Saint Hrabanus Maurus is celebrated on February 4th in Fulda, Mainz and Limburg. Maurus entered the monastery at Fulda (now in Germany) at age 10. In 801, he began study with Alcuin at the monastery in Tours (France). He then returned to Fulda and became the headmaster of the school there. He was ordained a priest (814) and later (822) became the abbot of the Fulda monastery. Maurus led Fulda to become one of the outstanding educational institutions of the times. In 845, he became the Archbishop of Mainz (Mayence). During his lifetime he alternated periods of intense practical activity with periods of reflection and writing. Hrabanus died on February 4, 856. Hrabanus Maurus recognition as a saint predates the formal practice of beatification and canonization. Hrabanus is referred to as blessed by many, never-the-less.
 
February 4, 999: The first German Pope during the Holy Roman Empire, Gregory V, died on this date. Boniface II, an earlier Gothic Pope, reigned from 530-532. Gregory V was the first Pope with West Germanic origins. Gregory V's name was Brun von Kärnten. We are not certain of the exact date and specific location of his birth. Like his East Germanic predecessor, Boniface II, Gregory too struggled with an anti-pope who was elected by an opposing faction. Gregory V's benefactor and protector, the Emperor Otto, had the anti-pope captured and deported. Pope Gregory V had crowned Otto in his role as Emperor on May 21, 996.
 
February 5, 1597: Twenty-six Japanese Christians are crucified for their faith in Nagasaki, Japan. By 1640, thousands of Japanese Christians had been martyred; but, some survived, mostly in Nagasaki. Until Japan was reopened to the West in the 19th Century this fact was a well-hidden secret. More is HERE. Just a few years earlier on this date in 1576, Henry of Navarre converted to the Roman Catholic denomination in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. He would die by assassination a few years later. It would be the Bourbon line, which he established, that would revoke the rights and freedoms of its Protestant citizens -- an action that ended in the French Revolution and its rejection of faith in anything but government (clearly a problem still). Navarre (Capital City of Pau) united with France when he became King.

February 5, 1649: The rightful claimant of the throne of England and Scotland, King Charles II, was declared King of Scotland, by its Parliament. This move was not followed by the Parliament of England or the Parliament of Ireland. Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on January 30, 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. The English Parliament did not proclaim Charles II as king, and instead passed a statute that made any such proclamation unlawful. England entered the period known to history as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. The Parliament of Scotland, however, proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649 in Edinburgh. He was crowned King of Scotland at Scone on the first day of January in 1651. Following his defeat by Cromwell at the Battle of Worcester on September 3, 1651, Charles fled to mainland Europe and spent the next nine years in exile in France, the United Provinces and the Spanish Netherlands. Charles later became the English King and sovereign of Ireland after Cromwell's revolution had ended.

Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the "Exclusion Crisis" Charles's brother and heir (James, Duke of York) remained a Roman Catholic. This crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, and ruled alone until his death on February 6, 1685. Following the discovery of the "Rye House Plot" (to murder Charles and James) in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. He converted to Roman Catholicism on his deathbed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_II_of_England

Interestingly, on this date in 1778, the sovereign state of South Carolina becomes the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation. As you may know the Carolina's and Charles' Towne were named after the English King. Charles, Prince of Wales, will (may) be the third King Charles in British/English history. On this date in 1919, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and D.W. Griffith launched a new movie making concern named United Artists.

February 6th -- Feast Day of Saint Amandus von Maastricht (? – ca. 680): Saint Amandus was born near Nantes (modern France) in the late 6th century. Resisting his family's plan for his secular life, Amandus fled and entered a monastery. After years living in isolation as a hermit / monk, Amandus was consecrated as a missionary bishop. His first work was in Flanders. Later he worked among the pagans in Tirol and Kärnten (modern Austria). In 649 he became the Bishop of Maastricht. After a number of years, he took up again his missionary activity, but now among the Basque people (southern France / northern Spain). Amandus died in about 680 in an area that is now part of Belgium. His designation as a Saint predates the formal recognition by the Bishop of Rome.

Maastricht developed from a village of Belgic peoples, conquered by the Romans in the Gallic Wars. It became a Roman settlement and small garrison town with a fortress (castrum). Later it took on the distinction of a Christian religious centre, developing into an early industrial city. The name Maastricht derives from the Latin Trajectum ad Mosam (or Mosæ Trajectum), meaning 'crossing at the Meuse,' referring to a permanent bridge built by the Romans under Augustus for the garrison on a road between Bavay and Cologne. An Armenian-born Saint Servatius, Bishop of Tongeren, died in Maastricht in 384 and was buried there along the Roman road, outside the castrum. Only fragments from the early Roman occupation exist. According to Gregory of Tours, it was a bishop named Monulph who built the first stone church on the grave of Servatius (circa 570), the site of the present-day Basilica of Saint Servatius. The city remained an early Christian diocese until it lost its position to nearby Liège in the early portion of the 8th century. The picture shows some foundation corner stones of a Roman structure that have been incorporate into the Basilica of Our Lady. It was within the castrum and probably sits in the place of a Roman temple, however no archeological work has been done under the church. Our Lady may well have been the first formal worship center of the Christian faith in Maastricht, although the original structure is long gone. http://www.maastrichtportal.nl/home.html?lang=2

French and American Defensive Cooperation and Frendship

February 6, 1778: The United States won official recognition from France as the two nations signed a treaty of aid in Paris. The Franco-American Treaty of Alliance bound the 2 powers together “forever against all other powers.” It was the first alliance treaty for the fledgling U.S. government and the last until the 1949 NATO pact. England promptly declared war on France for this action.

Pre-War French and British Friendship

February 6, 1952 -- a fair tax proposal: Governor Herman Talmadge signed several joint resolutions of the Georgia General Assembly, including:

  • A resolution calling on Congress to call a convention to propose a constitutional amendment to repeal the Sixteenth Amendment and instead allow a maximum rate of 25% (percent) for federal income, transfer, gift, or inheritance taxes. Click HERE to read resolution.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls
 
A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure: http://www.catholic-convert.com/

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from:
http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-jan.htm -- http://timelines.ws/days/01_01.HTML -- http://www.herodote.net/jour0101.htm -- http://www.440.com/twtd/archives/jan01.html -- http://www.treas.gov/education/history/events/01-jan.shtml -- http://missel.free.fr/calendrier.php?mois=1&annee=2010 -- http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/features/twich/01.html -- http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Jan1.html

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December



More Flags -- Flag Day
Early GA Flag Gwenn Ha Du 
qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at the time.