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The  VANGUARD --   2018

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit"

We will begin our 22nd Year online in May 2018
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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage -- Irish Copper Colonial Coinage (US) -- Seventeenth Century British Copper

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- US Gold Coinage (a small sample) -- (New: Spring 2018 )

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3
Passover - Pesach

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; 
walk in that way and find rest for your souls

This is none other than the dwelling place of God,
and this is the Gate of Heaven
This is the Gate of the Lord, the Righteous shall enter into it

And, on the last day, I know that I shall stand,
in my own flesh,
and see God, my Redeemer [Job 19:25-27].
Dieu entendre moi
cri de mon cœur - étrangère
dans mon propre pays {Psalm 69}

Unto Thee {alone}
will I cry, O Lord my Rock
{and my Redeemer}

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord  Psalm 122.

Beloved, we are now the sons of God, but it doth not yet appear what we shall become;
however, we know that, when He shall return, we shall be like Him; for we shall see Him as He is [1 John 3:2].

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes ! 20, 1628: The Clan Mackay (motto: Manu Forti - with a strong hand), a Scottish clan from the country's far north in the Scottish Highlands, has roots in the old province of Moray. The traditional seat of the Mackays was at Castle Varrich (14th Century). Clan MacKay fought under William Wallace at the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1296) to vanquish the English. The clan served with Robert Bruce (1314) at the Battle of Bannockburn. Several hundred years of inter-clan warfare follows. Even as James of Scotland becomes King of England, the clans still are fighting against British foes. On June 20, 1628, Chief of Clan Mackay, Donald, became Baron Reay (of Reay) in the Peerage of Scotland by Charles I, which Donald supports during the English Civil War (as a result Lord Reay died in exile in Denmark in 1649). At Fort Fredrika (St. Simons Island, GA), 100 years later, a group of Highlanders led by Charles MacKay from Durness (Diuranais) Scotland help James Oglethorpe ambush invading Spanish forces in July 1742, thereby securing control of Southern Georgia (north of the Altamaha River) for the British Empire.

From The Correct History of Clann MacAoidgh (The Clan Mackay), Dr. Gary Mckay (1999).

Around 710 A.D., three separate tribes leave Ireland from a region known as Dalriada and land in what is now known as Argyll and the southern Hebrides. One of the tribes is known as the C'nel Lorne, the progenitors of Clann MacAoidh (son of Hugh). The C'nel Lorne are descended from Ædh, grand-son of the Irish King N'iall. In the 12th Century, the Mac Ædh/Mac Æd/Mac Heths (all variations of the Gælic pronunciation of the time) become a virtual separate kingdom around the Moray Firth on Scotland's middle north eastern coast; but, within 100 years, a series of losses causes a migration north and west into the Highlands into the region of the Strathnaver (Cape Wrath at the north coast to Caithness {Keith} border). To finish, Clann M'hic Aoidgh is one of the most famous and certainly oldest of the true Gælic Clanns.

If you are blood-related to Clan MacKay, as am I, then you may count King Niall of Ireland, King David of Scotland, and of course, Macbeth as your ancestors. A history of Scotland is HERE. Interestingly, Niall once took Saint Patrik hostage, yet Niall's great-great grandson is Saint Columba. One may include in Niall's list of relations (and your cousins) today's British Royal family. Research suggests as many as 1 in 12 men in Ireland (and up to 3 million worldwide) descend directly from King Niall, bolstering the oft-cited claim that the ancient warlord founded a dynasty that dominated Ireland for centuries. National Geographic News

June 20, 1661: On this day, a fleet of canoes carrying Westo, or Chichimeco, native raiders descended the Altamaha River to attack and destroy the Spanish mission to the Guale of Santo Domingo de Talaje near present-day Darien, GA. The survivors from the mission fled to Sapelo Island and later re-established a town on the north end of Saint Simons Island. The Westo / Chichimeco, armed with muskets from Virginia and (later) South Carolina traders, preyed for the next two decades on Spanish missions in Georgia and other native villages in search of slaves they could capture and sell to the British for inter alia more weapons.

It is a little known fact that the Spanish rulers established more missions along the Georgia and Florida coasts than they did along the Pacific Coast of California (and at an earlier time). A short explanation and list of Georgia missions can be found: HERE -- A Coastal Map: HERE. Santa Isabel (Mission Santa Isabelle de Utinahica) was different — a spartan, tenuous foothold in the vast unexplored interior — linked to the coast 100 miles away by a wild river and overland Indian trails. Mission Santa Isabelle probably was staffed by a single friar. His flock, the Utinahica tribal unit, were one of a dozen or so native chiefdoms in the Southeast at the time, a part of the Timucua people, who are the ancestors of the modern Creek nation. The exact site is unknown, but it is somewhere between the Ocmulgee and Oconee rivers at the point where the streams merge to form the Altamaha, about 150 miles south of today's Atlanta (near Jacksonville in Telfair County).

June 20, 1793: Eli Whitney applied for a patent for his new invention, the cotton gin. The patent was granted in March 1794, and Whitney and a partner began manufacturing gins. The invention was very successful, but their business sense was not as keen. Instead of outright sale of gins, they proposed a fee system where cotton crop planters paid Whitney's partnership the equivalent of 40 percent of the cotton ginned. Planters balked, and because the cotton gin was of fairly simple design, other companies began offering copies. The partnership failed, but the cotton gin went on to change the economic and political history of the South.

As an example -- Georgia merchant, planter (ROSNY Plantation), politician and lawyer, ROBERT WATKINS, began cotton ginning on his farm, which is now taken up by Bush Field (Augusta Port Authority). In 1796, Robert published the following announcement in the Augusta Chronicle (July 16, 1796): "MACHINE FOR CLEANING COTTON BY ROLLERS. The subscriber begs leave to inform the cotton planters of Georgia and South Carolina, that he has constructed a machine for cleaning cotton by rollers, which he will lay before the public, in the following manner:

Six __??__ or shares will be allowed for each county in this state and South Carolina, at 60 dollars per share; as many persons as __??__ may be concerned in a share, and the purchasers shall have the privilege of making as many as they think proper; but all the machines belonging to a share, may be kept in one place only, and within the limits of the county for which the share is taken. After the first of September a model of this machine may be seen at Petersburg, and after the 12th of the same month, at Augusta. Three or four disinterested persons of respectability will be appointed, at both places, to view the operation of the machine, and if they adjudge it competent for cleaning cotton in the most expeditious manner without injuring the staple, the purchasers must pay the money before they can see it.

This machine is easily constructed; any persons knowing how to use common carpenter's tools, is capable of doing the wood work, and almost any smith can, by having patterns, make the iron work with ease-- the whole expense of making one is very trifling; two or three persons are sufficient for attending one of any size. -- ROBERT WATKINS"

At the same time, Longstreet was working on his machine. "The most famous manufacturer in Augusta was the merchant William Longstreet. By 1788 he and Isaac Briggs obtained a patent for exclusive use of their steam engine. Four years later he had a working model of the machine. It could be used for operating saw mills, grist mills or even for propelling a boat. It ran without wheels, cogs or cranks, and was capable of 45 stokes per minute. With a few weeks of tinkering, his little engine could do 155 strokes per minute. If only he could figure a use for it ... When he heard about Eli Whitney's cotton gin, Longstreet adapted his engine to a gin of his own design and claimed that it was superior to Whitney's. To vouch for his gin, he appointed a blue ribbon committee consisting of George Walton {kin to Robert, both kin to this Webmaster}, John Course, ROBERT WATKINS, Thomas Cumming and John Catlett. Robert Watkins, honestly stated that Longstreet's machine was no better than other gins. Longstreet's real interest was to put his engine on the water ... After years of effort, the inventor succeeded in actually propelling a boat on the river [in 1808]." from Story of Augusta, Edward J. Cashin, The Reprint Company Publishers, Spartanburg, SC (August 1991): Hardcover reprint of the volume originally published by Richmond County Board of Education, Augusta, Georgia ©1980 (Whitney's story is on the few pages previous to Longstreet's).

An Isaac Briggs, was the secretary of the Georgia Convention that ratified the US Constitution (which gathering began December 25, 1787) -- When Congress established the position of Surveyor-General an Isaac Brigs was the first appointed to that position -- same person ? The answer is yes. Until about 1803 a young Isaac Briggs had land in Georgia in Richmond County; afterwards he was "based" in Maryland. Today, the papers from his life reside at the University of Maryland. Thomas Jefferson personally paid him for surveys of the west that Congress refused to fund. Briggs performed some of the original survey work on the Mississippi and Alabama territories after they were ceded by Georgia.

William Longstreet (of Dutch Heritage), the inventor, was the grandfather of General James Longstreet, Lee's controversial "war horse" leader. And James, he was General Grant's lifelong friend from the time they were classmates at West Point. Grant had another good friend who stayed with him through thick and thin. This friend, General William T. Sherman, visited Georgia a few times in his life. Continuing in "the small world department," a descendent of Mr. Watkins married a descendent of one of the MacKay's of New Inverness Georgia and Fredrika. Thus, may I claim King Niall as a direct heritage, like millions of others. Also, my wife's great-grandfather served under Longstreet: He was discharged at Appomattox Court House along with my great-great grandfather in 1865.

Pfarrei und Kirche 
St. Alban BodenheimJune 21 ca. 406: June 21 is Saint Alban's day. Legend, more than historical certainty, attests to the martyrdom of Alban in Mainz {Mayence}. He is said to have died by decapitation during an attack by the Vandals in about 406. He is sometimes confused with another St. Alban a martyr of England from an earlier period (the English Saint Alban was, along with saints Julius and Aaron, one of three converts who lost their heads overlooking the Roman town of Verulamium, province of Britannia. This British Alban's feast is celebrated on June 22nd in the Eastern and Western churches).

The first structure dedicated to Alban (im Döllwang etwa zwölf Kilometer südlich von Neumarkt and about 20 miles north of Ingolstadt) was begun in 1074AD at the behest of Bischof Gundekar II von Eichstätt. The Kirche was im Bau on and off for another 800 years. It still remains, whereas the Benedictine Monastery Church of St. Alban, later serving one of the oldest parishes in Köln, was destroyed by allied bombing during World War II. The ruins have been left standing in the northern portion of the Kölner Altstadt, citi-centre of Cologne, as a reminder of the horrors of war. The first structure dated from the Frankish period in a Roman cemetery. Several more were built on the site.'s_Abbey,_Mainz

The Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, designed by German architect Oswald Mathias Ungers, is an easy ten-minute walk away from the river, in the very heart of old Cologne. The elegant but severe museum cube, faced with basalt lava and sandstone tuff from the Eifel hills nearby, is bordered by the ruins of the Gothic church of St. Alban and the Gürzenich, a trade center dating from the 17th century that was enlarged after World War II (with an annex by architect Rudolf Schwarz).

Rome was not plundered in a day: Who can question the action of the Holy Ghost ? Especially when it took five ballots. It would be presumptuous to do so; but, to assume that the decision made is the work of the Spirit, is itself a position taken in shifting sand. It appears to this observer that the progressive powers and prelate principalities, which have set adrift the Episcopal Church, USA for the last 30 years or more (as they have tried to do in many other denominations), continue to determine policy, unabated by declining numbers and undaunted by the good counsel of others in the Anglican Communion. In reply to the frequent query: “Will you leave the Episcopal Church in the light of its apostasy ?” leaders in the American Anglican Council (AAC) and of the Anglican Communion Network (ACN) usually reply: “The Episcopal Church has left us. We have not left it. Thus we are going nowhere, for we are where we should be.” [a call to radical orthodoxy -- Further they {the reformers} use and treat the 1979 Book as though it truly were The Book of Common Prayer and The Formulary for them]

Former US Ambassador to the United Nations, the Rev. John Danforth said: “If we can't hold ourselves together, it's hard to see how we can [be] a force to hold the world together; and, if we can't exchange the peace with one another, it is hard to explain to [other] people how we purport to be agents of [His] peace.” Who can question that thought ? So it is unsurprising that the outside world views all of this as they would a football match during the World Cup, if their home team is not out on the field.

While it is true that some bishops of the Episcopal Church have more in common with a crystal-gazing Californian housewife than George Herbert, it is also true that Anglican dioceses in the developing world have been hijacked by poisonously bigoted Bible-bashers [in the US one might say Bible-thumpers]. from

The head of the Anglican Communion, Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams has said, in a statement on June 19th, the day after Bishop Jefferts-Schori’s election as the 26th Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, USA, “she will bring many intellectual and pastoral gifts to her new work and I am pleased to see the strength of her commitment to mission and to the (United Nations’) Millennium Development goals.” However, he noted also that “her election will undoubtedly have an impact on the collegial life of the Anglican Primates; and it also brings into focus some continuing issues in several of our ecumenical dialogues.”

For “the actor in a sacramental act, the validity of the sacramental act is not dependent on the holiness or qualities of the actor,” Jefferts-Schori has explained. To think otherwise she states is the “heresy of Donatism.” Compare and contrast the views of another Bishop: “It’s Gnosticism to think that you have new hidden information no one else has,” saying “the vast majority of Anglicans have not accepted the concept of the ordination of women as bishops and the vast majority of Catholic Christians around the world don’t accept women’s holy orders at all. To think that she is going to educate people ... [against] what the Catholic Church has believed for over 2000 years is feminist hysterics.” The bidding war is on. see generally It is a reflection of our age; at its core is a pagan heart that assumes it has the ultimate revelation.

Hera, the greek mother-goddess name means protectress. It is related to the word “hero,” which originally meant a “defender or protector.” In contrast “heresy” is generally thought of as “an opinion of private men different from that of the catholick and orthodox church [Samuel Johnson].” It derives from Old French heresie, earlier from the Latin hæresis, meaning a “school of thought, philosophical sect.” Often used, the Latin hæresis is employed by early Christian writers to mean an “unorthodox sect or doctrine.” The word is in Greek, hairesis, “a taking or choosing,” It derives from haireisthai “take, seize,” of earlier unknown origin. The Greek koinos was used in New Testament books and the forms of haireisthai are used to refer to the Sadducees, Pharisees {Scribes}, and even the Christians, as sects of Judaism. In the English Bible translations, however, the English word used is usually sect. The meaning “religious belief opposed to the orthodox doctrines of the universal [Catholic] Church” evolved in liturgical latin in the Dark Ages.

This discussion is no academic exercise. Money and Power are at stake. For instance, look at what has happened in Savannah. Founded in 1733, with the establishment of the Georgia colony, Christ Church (Anglican tradition) is the longest continuous parish in Georgia. Early rectors include the English evangelists John Wesley and George Whitefield. Although the greek-revival structure (looks a lot like Église Saint Pothin in Lyon) is much later (1838), Christ Church still is located on its original site on Johnson Square (28 Bull Street). A great experience recounted, well-written and moving: Unfortunately, the Presiding Bishop had her way (au chemin de l'honneur) and this congregation lost its historic home. No, the building was not torn down, the existing congregation lost it to a competing group in the appeal process. The case was settled in May 2012 because the Congregation could not afford further appeals, while the presiding bishop had unlimited endowment money into which to tap: The Anglican parish left at the end of the summer in 2013.

June 21, 1919: In protest against the unexpected and harsh conditions in the proposed Treaty of Versailles and against the continuing naval blockade of his nation, German Chancellor Scheidemann resigns. Also in protest, sailors of the interned German fleet scuttle their 50 warships in the harbor, at Scapa Flow. Note: The United States Senate declined to ratify the Versailles treaty and the USA arranged a separate treaty

Ship Rajah -- Antoine Roux, Marseilles June 22, 1807: The British demand to search an American military vessel, which demand was declined. The British man-of-war Leopard fired upon, then boarded the U.S. frigate Chesapeake. James Barron, the American commander, was convicted following a court-martial for this incident. The tribunal found Barron unprepared for action. This incident, along with a few others, led to War in June of 1812. A little-known side-bar: Stephen Decatur, a judge in the military trial, died in a duel some eight years after that war began. The survivor of the duel was James Barron.

Shown below, right: US Brig Rajah of Beverly {Salem, Massachusetts} -- Captain Josiah Lovett: There was a 120 ton ship (built secretly for the pepper trade circa 1795 sailing at least until 1808) and a larger vessel (maiden voyage circa 1818 -- 250 tons on the route to Sumatra via Marseille). This picture is attributed to the heavier one; but note the US Flag, which looks to be from an earlier time. The painting is thought to be by Antoine Roux, Jr. (1799-1872). Several French artists of ships bear the Roux name, and Antoine Roux, Sr. was very famous and could have done this picture, too. The painting probably was based on a stop at Marseilles.

The county seat of DeKalb County GA is Decatur, Georgia. It was named for American hero Commodore Stephen Decatur (1779-1820), a distinguished officer of the U. S. Navy, perhaps best remembered for his saying: Our country, in her [relations] with foreign nations may she always be right; but our country, right or wrong. Also well known is his daring raid (1804) to burn the U.S. frigate Philadelphia, which had been captured by moslem pirates and held at Tripoli harbor. He later served with honor in command of the warships USS United States and USS President during the War of 1812. Commodore Decatur's success against the North-african pirate-states (Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli -- June 30, 1815) won for him a premier place in the pantheon of American heroes. The town of Decatur GA was incorporated on December 10, 1823.

June 23, 1683: English Quaker William Penn, an advocate of peace and religious toleration, signs a treaty with Natives of Pennsylvania. Voltaire said the agreement was the only treaty never sworn to and never broken. The treaty was with the Lenni Lenape, a name that belongs to the Algonquian language family, a tribe which the English called the Delaware., see also A legend about the Leni Lenape

The name DELAWARE was given to the people who lived along the river that in turn was named after Lord Thomas Leighton WEST, 3rd Lord de la Warr, one-time governor of the Jamestown {Virginia} colony. The name Delaware later came to be applied to almost all Lenape people. In their language, LENAPE (len-NAH-pay) means something like The People. The Lenapi were among the first Natives to come in contact with the Europeans (Dutch, English, & Swedish) in the early 1600s. The Delaware often are called the Grandfather tribe for its role as a peacemaker, settling disputes among rival tribes. Also known for fierceness and tenacity as warriors, the tribe's preferred path became peaceful relations with other tribes and the new strangers to the land, a characteristic we still have not learned.

June 24th: During the reign of the French King Clovis, the annual summer-solstice pagan event became a religious celebration of the birth of Saint John the Baptist, who is known as the Precursor of Christ, the light of the world – thus the link with the solstice and the bonfires. The festival of Saint-Jean-Baptiste had particular importance for France. The King of France would light the bonfire in the nights of June 23 and 24 in Paris. Once in America, those of French heritage continued to celebrate, by then in a very pious, religious festival with processions, such as in the streets of Quebec City. St-Jean Baptiste became the patron saint of French Canadians as a result of the centuries of recognition and influence from the time of early colonization (1615).

The Catholic Cathedral of St. John the Baptist sits in historic downtown Savannah, Georgia. Founded in 18th Century by French colonists, it stands in contrast to the Huguenot Church in Charlestown SC, established by refugee Protestants from France. Savannah was tolerant of many faiths at this time. Other places in the Colonies of Britain were not. Possibly/probably these were French from Canada (Arcadian) who found comfort in Georgia following their exile after the French & Indian War. Also of interest:

The Christmas Eve issue (2008) of The Wall Street Journal had an article in the last section about the chapel at the Église St-Jean-Baptiste (Picture on the page that is HERE). It begins by saying that Bourbourg is a town typical of the region, which until now was not alone a reason to get off the road from Calais to Dunkerque to visit. The attraction featured involved the intersection of sculpture and architecture, a merger of beauty and functionality, the work of Anthony Caro.

A mid-reign George III SovereignJune 1348 (10th or 24th): Saint George was adopted by Edward III as principal patron of the king's new order of chivalry, the Knights of the Garter. An old story recounts that while the King was dancing with the Countess of Salisbury at a magnificent court ball, the lady lost her garter. As Edward III retrieved it and handed it to her, he noticed several people smiling and indulging in remarks. Becoming angry, he exclaimed in French: Honi soit qui mal y pense (Dishonour be to him who thinks evil of it). Then, he added that he would make the little blue garter so glorious that everyone would wish to wear it. This tale may or may not be true; yet, the Order was founded by King Edward III with its emblem being a dark blue garter, edged in gold, on which are printed the French words that the King spoke.

Some of the founding members include # 1 Edward, Prince of Wales. Known since 1569 as the Black Prince. The hero of the battles of Crécy and Poitiers, he died in his father's lifetime; # 2 Henry (Plantagenêt), styled of Lancaster. Earl of Derby, afterwards Duke of Lancaster, he served in the wars against the Scots, the Dutch, and French, Admiral of the Fleet and Steward of England -- An earlier Henri Plantagenêt was Henry II, King of England; # 3 Thomas (Beauchamp), 3rd Earl of Warwick, Marshal of England, he fought at the battles of Crécy and Poitiers; # 4 Sir John de Grailly, Vicomte de Benanges et Castillon, Captal (i.e. Governor) de Buch, he fought under the Black Prince at Poitiers.

St. George's Day is celebrated on April 23rd, so, in a sense, this is England's national holiday. In modern times, Saint George was chosen by Baden-Powell, founder of the Scouting movement, to be the association's patron. On Saint George's Day, scouts are instructed to remember their Promise and the Scout Law. In the handbook Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell recounted that the Knights of the Round Table had adopted Saint George as their patron because he was the only one of all the saints who had been a horseman.

In addition to being the Patron Saint of England (Cry God for Harry, England and St. George ! [Henry V, Act 3, Scene 1]), George is the Patron Saint of Aragon, Lithuania, Palestine, Portugal, Germany and Greece. He is the Patron Saint of Catalonia, where legend has it that, after killing the dragon, he gave the princess a red rose and, as a result, on April 23rd it is traditional (especially in the City of Barcelona) for men to give their sweethearts or wives a red rose and the lady in question reciprocates the gesture with the gift of a book. He is also the Patron Saint of Moscow, Istanbul, Genoa and Venice (where he is second in veneration only to Saint Mark), as well as being the Patron Saint of the State of Georgia.

Saint George is the traditional patron of the Orthodox Church. see Constantinople (now pronounced Istanbul) has been the center of the Eastern Christian Church since Constantine moved the Roman capital there in the 4th century. To this day, the city remains the home of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, who is recognized as the first among equals of all Orthodox spiritual leaders. The Orthodox Patriarchate was briefly headquartered in the Church of the Holy Apostles in the 15th century, but that office soon was transferred to the Theotokos Pammacaristos Church (now Fethiye Mosque). It remained there until 1586, when it moved to St. George Church. The building of Saint George had been part of a monastery before it acceded to the Orthodox Patriarchate.

June 24, 1497: John Cabot in the ship Matthew discovers North America, securing England's claims to the New World. He is from Genoa, but is sailing for the English King, Henry VII. He sets a big foot in Canada, eh.

He was a man of vision, too. John Cabot sought to reach Asia by sailing west across the north Atlantic. He estimated that this would be better than the longer Columbus route. In England, Cabot received the backing which Spain and Portugal had refused him. The merchants of Bristol agreed to support his scheme. They had sponsored probes into the north Atlantic from the early 1480s, looking for possible trading opportunities. Some historians think that Bristol mariners might even have reached Newfoundland and Labrador before Cabot arrived on the scene. English King Henry VII hired John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) to explore the New World for England. That is all we will really know.

It is a mystery what Cabot found on his first successful voyage and even when the discovery occurred, other than to say sometime during June-July 1497 he landed somewhere along the coast of what today is a Canadian province. There is simply no surviving first-hand account of what happened. Cabot would disappear on his last voyage for the English, in search of Japan. -- a fascinating tale told here !!!

The Berlin Airlift begins June 26, 1948

June 24, 1948: West Berlin, Germany, physically located entirely within communist-held East Germany, was isolated completely from the Western world on this day. Joseph Stalin, premier of Soviet Union, who had already cut rail and road access to the city for three months, now blocked all ground and water entry. He cut electric power to the Western sector. Within a few days, the great Berlin Airlift began. U.S. planes flew up to 13,000 tons of goods per day into the city for the next 10 months. Stalin lifted the blockade on May 23, 1949. Berlin--Retracing the Cold War begins at: See also USAFE Berlin Airlift Web Site; more here too. The organization of CARE was involved in the process of giving humanitarian aid, in the face of Soviet domination.

Airlift Map of Germany and Berlin

More Choices -- June 25th: It is sometimes difficult what to choose, if anything, about a day in history. Surely there is something worthy to ponder about every day; but, then one must always ask why ? On June 25, 1876, George Armstrong Custer and the 265 men under his command lost their lives in a skirmish with thousands of native peoples. The Battle of Little Big Horn, often referred to as Custer's Last Stand, concerns several different actions that took place that day in close proximity to one another.

A guerrilla movement in South Korea (ROK) had been quashed, after two years of extensive conflict. Is it coincidence that on the same date in 1950, what has become known as the Korean War began when North Korean troops (DPRK) crossed the 38th parallel at 11 places ? The Security Council of the United Nations called for an immediate cessation of hostilities, and asked the DPRK troops to head back north. At the end of June 1950, the DPRK had taken Seoul and threatened complete dominance of the theater. It was not until July 8th that General Douglas MacArthur became supreme commander of the opposition alliance and the tide turned. Yet even then, it took some effort to get organized, as by September 8th, at its farthest advance, North Korea held most of the Korean peninsula, except for a UN beachhead around Pusan in the southeast. By October 31st the counter-offensive had reached Manchuria and the Chinese border. Intervention by the Peoples Republic (the PRC had a million volunteers to through into the fight) pushed back. The Allied advance retreated to the 38th parallel, where the stalemate that we have today ensued. The war still goes on after 60 years -- in 2010 North Korea sunk a South Korean ship. The US cautions restraint.

Charles Messier (June 26, 1730 - April 12, 1817): The great nebulæ discoverer and cataloger Charles Messier had a long life and accomplished much. He almost discovered Halley's comet, but due to a math error by another, he was looking somewhere else. However, he did find another comet on August 14, 1758, which he followed and carefully observed with telescopes until November 2, 1758. During these observations (on August 28, 1758), he discovered another comet-like patch in the constellation called Taurus. Evidently, it turned out that this patch was not moving, not a comet, but a nebula. He measured its position on September 12, 1758, and it later became the first entry, M1, in his soon-to-be famous catalog. Moreover, this objéct later turned out to be one of the most interesting objects in the sky, the remnant of the supernova of 1054, now commonly called the Crab nebula. It was also this first discovery of a comet-like nebula that triggered Messier to both look for comets with telescopes (thereby inventing comet hunting, a new discipline of astronomy in those days) and to compile his catalog of nebulous-like objects which might be mistaken for comets.

The French Revolution began with the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, and 4 years later, this culminated in the Year of Terror in France, 1793-1794. That year, the French King Louis XVI was guillotined on January 21, and Messier's friend, Assembly President Bouchart de Saron, on April 20, 1794, shortly after he had calculated the orbit of Messier's comet discovered on September 27, 1793, and Messier could notify him secretly that he had found the comet on the calculated path. The terrorism ended when finally Robbespierre himself was guillotined on July 27, 1794. During this time of unrest, Messier lost his salaries and pension, and had to ask for a loan even for oil for his lamp. His family lost its estate during 1793. Messier left France for Italy, but returned to Paris in 1795.

June 27th - a follow-up: The UN Security Council, during the temporary absence of the Soviet representative, who could have vetoed the whole idea, asked members of the United Nations to furnish assistance to the Republic of Korea (ROK-South Korea). The U.S. at once intervened to help stem the illegal North Korean advance that had begun on the 25th. The President ordered the Air and Naval Forces to go to the immediate aid of the South Koreans. He also sent the fleet to Taiwan, in order to keep things cool there. see also Actual hostilities occurred from June 27, 1950 to July 27, 1953. Interestingly, in 2008, on this day, North Korea blows up the cooling tower of one of its nuclear facilities alleged to be used for nuclear bomb making. Most in the media rejoiced at this action as showing North Korea's sincerity about Peace in our Time.

In the morning of the 27th (1950) in Texarkana, Texas, employees at the Red River Arsenal saw an unidentified bright aluminum-colored objéct silently dart across the sky (7:50am local time), heading due south -- a mystery never solved. It was not the only thing going on in 1950: --

June 28th -- A busy date in history, indeed: In 1119, a battle at Sarmada (Syria) saw Emir Ilghazi defeat the French Crusaders. The massacre led to the name of the battle, ager sanguinis, Latin for "the field of blood." Just a few survived, including Walter the Chancellor (of Antioch), who later wrote a first-hand account of the slaughter. The Serbs would lose their independence to the Turks on this day in 1389, blaming the Albanians (a sin never forgiven, which continues in the penance imposed on Kosovo today). In 1914, Arch-Duke Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungary Empire, would be killed in the Balkans (Sarajevo) by Serbian nationalists, leading to the First World War. Exactly five years later (1919) at Versailles, the Allies would impose terms and conditions on the Germans that would lead to the next World-wide conflict. Indeed, Marshall Foch (Head of Allied Forces) is reported to have remarked that the treaty was not one of peace, but only an Armistice for twenty years. Hitler would later relish the change in circumstances by imposing his peace on the French Nation in the same place (June 25, 1940); but, today in Nazi history (June 28, 1934), Hitler would fly to Essen to attend a wedding. But, this is just a prelude to what will be known as the Night of the Long Knives (30th June), which decapitates the SA. By the way, the Serbs aligned with whom during WWII ???
June 28, 2009: Pope Benedict XVI announced that scientific tests (carbon 14) may confirm what Catholic tradition has always held, specifically that the body of the Apostle Paul lies under the papal altar in the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls. The announcement was made today in the basilica during the homily of the First Vespers of the Feast Day of Saints Peter and Paul, which brought the Pauline Year to a close, a year that celebrated 2,000 years since the birth of the Apostle of Tarsus.

June 29, 1721: On Saint Peter's feast day (today called the Solemnity of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Apostles), some eleven years before the Georgia Colony was established, Johann De Kalb was born in Hüttendorf, (near Erlangen and Nuremburg). In 1777, De Kalb accompanied the Marquis de Lafayette (Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier) and a group of French soldiers to America to fight the British. The Continental Congress made De Kalb a major general in the Continental Army. Major General Johann Kalb, Baron De Kalb, fatally wounded in battle at Camden, South Carolina, died in 1780. In 1822, the Georgia General Assembly recognized the contributions of this Revolutionary War hero by creating DeKalb County. Two sites with information about these two men and other foreign born patriots, who came over to support the American cause: --

French army trained, the Baron de Kalb came to America with earned rank and a title. Yet, he was not a Baron by birth. Born of country farming stock, from a small town of huts, soon he realized that one goes nowhere in the French Army without a title. So Monsieur Baron De Kalb fought with the French during the French Indian War. He was eager to join the American cause against the British; yet, when captured by the British, as he lay dying, it is said that he was treated with profound respect and given top-rate medical treatment in the field.

June 29, 1995: The U.S. Postal Service released a set of 20 Civil War commemorative stamps. Three of the stamps featured Georgia-related subjects: Stand Watie (Georgia-born Cherokee native and Confederate general), General Joseph E. Johnston (who commanded most of the Confederate defense during Sherman's Atlanta Campaign and who later was Confederate commander for Georgia and the Carolinas), and General William T. Sherman (who in 1844 as a young Army officer was stationed in Marietta for six weeks, but is better remembered for his fiery march through Georgia 20 years later).

June 30, 1688: The Immortal Seven issue the Invitation to William of Orange (continuing the English rebellion from Rome), which would culminate in what would be called the "Glorious Revolution" in the same year. His wife Mary would also become his co-ruler, but would not produce an heir. Her sister Anne would follow (she married the Prince of Denmark, who although Protestant could not become King), also childless at her death. Both were the daughters of the deposed James II who fled from Britain. George I of Hannover would follow as King.

Through King James I by way of Elizabeth (Queen of Bohemia) and her husband Duke of Brunswick (then the head of the House of Hanover), George it turns out was a cousin to the Stuart rulers (of whom Anne was the last). He also was of the lineage of King Henry I of England (Henry being a son of William I, England's first Norman King). Thus, on October 20, 1714, Georg Ludwig, Elector of Hanover, was crowned King George I of merry olde England and the rest of Great Britain on the Stone of Scone.

The signatories to the original invitation were:

Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds, known at his death as Earl of Danby and Marquess of Carmarthen; Charles Talbot, 1st Duke of Shrewsbury, later Earl of Shrewsbury; William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire (later Earl-he had espoused The Hon. Rachel Russell (1674–1725), daughter of William, Lord Russell on June 21, 1688); Richard Lumley, 2nd Viscount Lumley and later, 1st Earl of Scarborough; The Lord Bishop of London (Henry Compton); Admiral of the Fleet Edward Russell, 1st Earl of Orford; Viscount Henry Sydney (Sydney), who wrote the Invitation, later Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1692–3) --- again bringing to mind the famous maxim: If Treason prospers, none dare call it Treason.

The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. As Lord Bishops he was one of the Wardens of the City. The See of the diocese is in the City, where the Bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Paul. The church was founded as a Bishopric cathedral in 604 AD and fully was rebuilt from 1675, following the Great Fire of London (1666). The location of Londinium's original cathedral is uncertain. In 1688 this was a very new structure, a Christopher Wren church. The Bishop of London remains one of the 26 Lords Spiritual in the House of Lords. He has been regarded as the "King's Bishop," historically having a considerable influence with members of the Royal Family and leading politicians of the day. Until the American Revolution, The Lord Bishop of London oversaw the work of the Anglican Church in the 13 Colonies. Henry Compton was nominated on December 6, 1675 and confirmed on February 8, 1676. Henry Lord Bishop Compton died in office on the 7th of July 1713. .Alaska Statehood 2:30pm local time June 30, 1958 
49th Star pinned to Federal Courthouse Flag

June 30, 1785: After a short and unexpected illness, Georgia founder James Edward Oglethorpe passed away at age 88+. At his side was Elizabeth, his wife of 41 years. His death came at Cranham Hall, an Essex estate inherited by his wife prior to their marriage. Only 100 feet away from Cranham Hall is the Parish Church of All Saints, where the Oglethorpe family had maintained membership for four decades. Not only was the general's funeral service held here, but a burial vault for the church's most famous parishioner was created beneath the floor at the center front of the church.

Two of the members of the Corporation of Georgia were Thomas and John LaRoche, was one also Oglethorpe's kin ? John is clearly French, but what of Thomas ? Lady Eleanor Wall's father was Richard WALL of Rathkenny in Tipperary and her mother, Catherine [de la] ROCHE. Catherine's father was Lord Roche. It is said that she was born in Ireland, so one might think she is from that line, upon which Sir Walter Raleigh and his Queen took revenge. In support is : which also claims that Thomas was of Scottish heritage, too. John Drummond of the Scottish Drummond Bank was also a corporate member and treasurer of the royally chartered concern. A few years later an Isaac LaRoche would marry an Elizabeth Drummond, both of Georgia -- Coincidence, or perhaps a not unsubstantial clue about my heritage.

June 30, 1908: An explosion near the Tunguska River in Siberia instantly vaporized much of what occupied some 300 square kilometers, an area that encircled the impact site of an estimated 60 meter diameter stony meteorite. Because the site was remote, it was many years before the first research expeditions were made into the area

The Last Indian-head Cent

A year later on the other side of the world, another explosion of sorts, when 35,000 Baseball fans help to dedicate a new Sports Stadium. The largest assemblage ever gathered at any Ball Park to date, anywhere, enjoyed ideal weather conditions and impressive ceremonies, including concerts by two (count 'em two) marching bands. Brief speeches, as one might expect, preceded the game. The Pittsburgh Pirates hosted the Chicago Cubs, when Forbes Field opened on June 30th (1909). -Do you know which team prevailed that fateful day ? Forbes Field is long gone (last game June 28, 1970), although the home plate that Maz crossed in 1960 still rests in place and under glass at CMU. Indeed, the next ballpark (Three Rivers Stadium) also has been razed. In its place is Heinz Field..

First Lincoln-head cent

June 30, 1958 -- Alaska Statehood: New star added to flag on the US Courthouse in Anchorage.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; 
walk in that way and find rest for your souls

1er juillet -- C'est sa fête à Thierry: Thierry (ou Théodoric) est le fils d'un brigand de l'époque de Clovis, roi des Francs. Théodoric est converti par l'évêque de Reims, Rémi, celui-là même qui baptisa le roi. Son père l'ayant poussé au mariage, il persuade son épouse, le soir même des noces, de consacrer chacun leur vie à Dieu dans un monastère ! Théodoric fonde plus tard l'abbaye du Mont d'Hor, près de Reims, et a la joie d'y accueillir son père repenti.

Translation: Thierry (or Théodoric) is the son of a brigand in the era of Clovis, the King of the Franks. Théodoric is converted by the bishop of Rheims, Remi, the same Bishop who baptized the king. {So overcome he is at his conversion}, he even persuades his wife, on the evening of their wedding, to devote their lives to God in a monastery! Théodoric later founds the abbey of Mont d'Hor, close-by to Rheims, and has the joy of accepting his repented father there.

History records many Kings and church leaders with this same name (including a half dozen Saints). The abbey at Mont d'Hor near Reims, France is the key to identifying the person who died in 533 AD. see (english) and (french)

July 1, 1847: A new Postal Act and rates go into effect. The faces of founding fathers Benjamin Franklin and George Washington were featured on the first Federal postage stamps. Following a Congressional directive, the Post Office issued a Franklin five-cent stamp (July 7th) and a Washington 10-cent stamp (July 2nd). A picture of the first two British stamps (from May 1840) can be found HERE.

Le 1er juillet 1867: La reine Victoria signe l'Acte de l'Amérique du nord britannique par lequel est créée la Confédération canadienne sous sa forme actuelle, avec la réunion du Canada à deux autres colonies britanniques: le Nouveau-Brunswick et la Nouvelle-Écosse. Cette date est devenue fête nationale au Canada. Happy Birthday Canada !!!

Surveyor, engineer, author and inventor of standard time zones, Sandford Fleming emigrated to Quebec from Scotland, on April 24, 1845. One of the foremost railway engineers of his time, he was in charge of the initial survey for the Canadian Pacific Railway, the premier Canadian railway to span the continent. He designed the first Canadian postage stamp, the threepenny issue featuring castor canadiensis (beaver), issued in 1851. Queen Victoria knighted Sir Fleming in 1897. From 1880 until his death in 1915, he served as Chancellor of Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario, Canada). The Chancellor is the highest officer and the ceremonial head of the University. Modeled after similar positions at Scottish universities, the office was created in 1874 and first filled in 1877, Fleming was the second o hold that position.

July 1, 1948: The 5-cent subway ride came to an end in New York City. The price doubled to a dime this day. The buses and trolleys went up to seven cents. Boston, too, raised rates in 1948. It's a shame how the people have to pay and pay. The first commercial flights began on July 1, 1948, from the airport that was formally dedicated as New York International Airport on July 31, 1948. It was re-dedicated on December 24, 1963 as John F. Kennedy International Airport.

Le 2 juillet 1214: Dans le Poitou (à La Roche-aux-Moines), le roi de France Philippe II, dit Philippe Auguste, bat le roi d'Angleterre Jean sans Terre après l'avoir dépouillé de ses possessions continentales. Grâce à cette victoire, les Capétiens reprennent l'initiative dans le conflit qui les oppose à la dynastie des Plantagenêts depuis l'époque d'Aliénor d'Aquitaine.

On this date in 1214: In the Poitou area of France (at La Roche-aux-Moines), King Philip II of France, called "Philippe Auguste" beats the English King John of England, for a time stripping away England's continental possessions. With the victory, the Capetians dynasty has achieved an advantage in the conflict with the Plantagenets (Normans), for the first time since the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to John's father (her second).

The marshland called the Poitevin Marsh (French Marais Poitevin) lies on the Gulf of Poitou, on the west coast of France, just north of La Rochelle and west of Niort. By the Treaty of Paris of 1259, King Henry III of England recognized his loss of continental Plantaganet territory to France (including Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Poitou); however, this was not the end of the fighting in France.

The Siege of Calais was fought in early 1558 during the Italian War of 1551–1559. The Pale of Calais had been ruled by England since 1347, during the Hundred Years War. By the 1550s, England was ruled by Mary I of England and her husband Philip II of Spain. When the Kingdom of England supported a Spanish invasion of France, Henry II of France sent Francis Duke of Guise against English-held Calais, defended by Lord Thomas Wentworth, Baron Wentworth. Following failure in mid-1557, a renewed attack captured the outlying forts of Nieullay and Rysbank and Calais was besieged. When the city capitulated, England lost its last claim in France. Calais would again be in the news during World War II.

During the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries Poitou was a hotbed of Huguenot (French Calvinist) activity among the nobility and bourgeoisie and was severely impacted by the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598). Many of the Acadians who settled in what is now Nova Scotia beginning in 1604 and later to New Brunswick, came from the region of Poitou. After the Acadians were deported by the British beginning in 1755, some of them eventually took refuge in Québec. A large portion of these refugees also migrated to Louisiana in 1785 and eventually became known as Cajuns (see Cajuns).

La Grand'Goule est sûrement l'animal mythique le plus célèbre de la région de Poitiers. It was a kind of dragon or snake on wings with pestilential breath, the body covered with scales (sometimes described as metallic), a tail clipped from a scorpion. Patronese Sainte Radegonde reportedly struck down the animal from the Clain River (late 6th century) -- en lui lançant un pain béni (that is she gave it the helping hand back to Hell) ! The region of Poitou was called Thifalia (or Theiphalia) in the sixth century.

July 2, 1505: An apocryphal German downpour (Regenguß) launches the Protestant Reformation. While returning from a trip to visit his parents, a violent thunderstorm near Stotternheim catches Martin Luther out in the open (then a law student). Fearing for his life, he is said to have wailed, "Help me, St. Anne! I will become a monk!" Within two weeks, he made good on his vow.

July 2, 1937: Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan left Lae in Papua, New Guinea and disappeared forever. They failed to arrive at their scheduled stop at Howland Island. Radio operators received messages from Earhart saying that they had to be close and were circling, searching for land. The radio connection ended. The two were never heard from again, perishing in the Pacific Ocean attempting the first round-the-world flight at the equator. Earhart's twin-engine Lockheed Electra, had taken off from Oakland, California, bound for Miami on May 21. Thereafter, they flew across the Atlantic from Brazil to Africa, then on to Calcutta (on June 17).

Amelia Earhart loved the challenges and triumphs that the aviation industry brought. During her breath-taking career she set numerous men’s and women’s records for speed, altitude and distance. Her talent, strength of character and determination made her a worldwide role model for individuals of all ages. Earhart began in her home town of Atchison, Kansas. from

Le 3 juillet -- C'est sa fête à Saint Thomas, Apôtre: Thomas, d'un mot hébreu qui signifie jumeau, est l'un des douze apôtres du Christ. Ses amis l'ayant assuré que le Christ était ressuscité après la crucifixion et qu'ils l'avaient vu, il déclare ne vouloir les croire qu'à la condition de le voir aussi, ainsi que de toucher ses plaies. Peu après, le Christ ressuscité se manifeste à lui et exauce ses vœux. Thomas, bouleversé, confesse sa foi. Mais le Christ le réprimande pour n'avoir pas voulu croire sans voir. Après l'Ascension du Christ, Thomas évangélisera les Malabares des Indes. Un grand nombre de ceux-ci se disent encore aujourd'hui «chrétiens de Saint Thomas».

My mouth shall speak the praise of the Lord; and let all flesh bless His holy name for ever and ever !  [Psalms, Chapter 145]
Que tes œuvres, Seigneur, te grâce rendent,
et que tes fidèles te bénissent !
Qu'ils disent la gloire de ton règne,
qu'ils fassent le récit de tes merveilles.

Le Seigneur est vérité en ses paroles,
amour en toutes ses œuvres;
il retient tous ceux qui tombent,
il redresse tous ceux qui sont courbés.
{Psaume 144- Louis Segond (1910)}
Your works, O Lord, praise Thee,
Thy saints {faithful people} bless Thee !
They tell the glory of Thy kingdom,
they recite Thy wonders.

The Lord is Truth in His words,
Love in all His works;
He makes upright those that fall,
For who are bowed down, He raises up all.

July 3rd - This is the feast day of Saint Thomas, the Apostle. Thomas, in Hebrew means twin, and, indeed, some time he is a man living in two worlds - the visible and the spiritual. His friends (other Apostles) have assured him that Christ has resurrected. After crucifixion they had seen the Lord. Thomas states that he can not believe until he also sees and touches the wounds. Soon thereafter, the Risen Christ appears to him in answer to his wishes. Thomas, visibly moved, falls to his knees confessing Faith. But Christ reminds him that belief without seeing is itself a blessing. After the Ascension of Christ, Thomas is said to have evangelized the Malabares in India (the entire south-western coast of the Indian peninsula). The faithful there today, still call themselves Saint Thomas Christians.

July 3, 2008 -- Quebec City: On July 3, 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded a settlement at Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning “place where the river narrows.” In formation about its early history found HERE. The high point of the 400th anniversary celebration was on July 3, the official date of Champlain's [le Sieur de Champlain (Samuel Champlain de Brouage)] arrival. Dignitaries from France and elsewhere attended a high Mass within the Quebec Basilica. Afterward, a mammoth gathering took place on the Plains of Abraham, which in 1759 was the scene of a fierce battle between the French and the British for control of the city. It now is a 266-acre urban park. Music and dancing was followed by a nighttime fire sculpture and a torchlight parade.

July 3, 1754: Colonel George Washington turned over control of a small stockade, Fort Necessity, in southwestern Pennsylvania (near what would become known as Pittsburgh, but was then called Fort Duquesne). The loss to the French, left them in full control of the Ohio Valley. Washington’s infamous encounter marked the beginning of the French and Indian War (also called the 7 Years' War). Britain broke off diplomatic relations with France as the disputes in the New World intensified (July 8, 1755). Washington’s written statement upon capitulation caused a great scandal, because of the non-genteel actions he was forced to admit. He would revisit the Fort a year later after another defeat. Never-the-less, 21 years later, almost to the day, Washington would get command of the American Army, such as it was.

Exactly 24 years later (July 3, 1778), the Wyoming Massacre occurred during the American Revolution in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. As part of a British campaign against settlers on the frontier, 360 American settlers, including women and children, were killed at an outpost called Wintermoot's Fort. They were drawn out of the protection of the fort and ambushed, a far worse Crime of War than that with which the French had charged Washington.

July 3, 1863: The last Southern wave was repulsed at the Battle of Gettysburg at 4 p.m. in Pennsylvania. The confrontation ended after three days with a major victory for the Northern troops. Confederate forces retreated. The final action was Pickett’s Charge against the center of the Union line. It left many of the 13,000 Confederate troops dead on the field. Lt. General James Longstreet gave Major General George Pickett the assent for the assault. The Union and Confederate armies suffered an estimated 51 thousand casualties in the three-day clash. It was the bloodiest event that the country yet had seen. General Lee ultimately took responsibility for the failure that day. I thought my men were invincible. The fighting in the small Pennsylvania town marked a pivotal point in the Union’s march to victory all-but-assuring the outcome of the War Between the States.

July 3, 1878: John Wise piloted the first dirigible (a balloon that could be steered) over Lancaster, Pennsylvania. On the same day in 1885, Karl Benz drove the premier automobile. He was however not Pennsylvania Deutsch, so his ride took place in Germany. And actually the first driver was his wife, Mercedes Bertha. Sort of a Mannheim steam roller event.

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

Back on June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia had proposed to the Second Continental Congress a resolution calling for a Declaration of Independence: That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. The Continental Congress delayed the vote on the resolution until July. On June 11, 1776, the Congress appointed three concurrent committees in response to the Lee Resolution: one to draft a declaration of independence, a second to draw up a plan "for forming foreign alliances," and a third to "prepare and digest the form of a confederation." On July first and third, the approval came and the Congress adopted the Resolution. On July 4th the deed was done, signed and sealed. Delivery was by publication. Celebrate American Independence on July 4th. Our 4th of July Page:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

The Declaration of Independence was first printed by John Dunlop in Philadelphia on the 5th. 200 copies were prepared July 5-6 and distributed to the states. Colonel John Nixon gave the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence to a crowd gathered at Independence Square in Philadelphia on July 8th. The reading was announced by the Liberty Bell. The instrument had the inscription: proclaim liberty throughout all the land onto all the inhabitants thereof, which is a paraphrase alluding to, inter alia, Luke 4:15-21 and Isaiah 61:1-2.

Sometimes the image fails to show

July 4, 1889: Georgia dedicated its new state capitol building, when the Capitol Commission presented a new domed building to Governor John B. Gordon. Commissioners have another present. Having been authorized $1,000,000 to spend, they reported that construction came in under budget, so they returned $118.43 to the state treasury. The new capitol was so large that there was room for all three branches of state government, with empty rooms left over.

July 4, 1895: The words to "America the Beautiful" appeared for the first time in The Congregationalist, a Boston magazine; the author was Katherine Lee Bates (Born in Falmouth, August 12, 1859-Died March 28, 1929. Buried in Oak Grove Cemetery, Falmouth), a Wellesley professor, American Poet, Playwrite, who penned the classic words in 1893. She wrote a 2nd version in 1904. Her final version was written in 1913.

"One day some of the other teachers and I decided to go on a trip to 14,000-foot Pikes Peak. We hired a prairie wagon. Near the top we had to leave the wagon and go the rest of the way on mules. I was very tired. But when I saw the view, I felt great joy. All the wonder of America seemed displayed there, with the sea-like expanse."; see also

But wait, some years earlier on July 4 1831, Dr. Samuel Francis Smith, a Baptist minister, first introduced the song "America" in services at Park Street Church, Boston (or possibly Worcester, Massachusetts). He had composed it in half an hour, taking the tune from a German songbook, completely unaware that the melody was the same as that of "God Save the King," the British national anthem.

Perhaps Leonard Bernstein's most famous work is West Side Story, a musical first presented in on Broadway at the Winter Garden Theater in New York City. The stage version of West Side Story opened in previews/tryouts on August 20, 1957 in Washington D.C. The Premier date in NYC was September 26, 1957. One of the notable tunes, written by Bernstein with lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, was America -- it is perhaps a less grand version of its counterparts, but still conveys a freedom theme.

More July 4th: The Post Office Department announced that the eighteenth and final stamp of the Liberty Series would be issued on July 4, 1956, in conjunction with the 180th observance of Independence Day; although, eight more issues were eventually added. This 10-cent issue featured Independence Hall and was released at a special ceremony at Independence Square in Philadelphia.

July 4, 1959: A 49-star flag was raised for the first time at the Capitol in Washington, D.C., in honor of Alaska, which had become the 49th state of the Union on June 30, 1958.

July 4, 1960: A new 50-star U.S. flag flew over Georgia today reflecting Congress's granting of statehood to Hawaii. For more about our Flag's history -- go here.

On July 4, 1964, work resumed on the vast carving, surely one of the most extraordinary projects ever conceived. When one views Stone Mountain, one sees the world's largest mass of exposed granite. The stone's uniformity of texture is dazzling, The stone's uniformity of texture is dazzling, its pale gray critter [sic-gritter] superb.

More Images of Georgia Buildings

July 5, 1742: Manuel de Montiano, the then governor of Spanish Florida, used an incoming tide to sail his flotilla of 36 ships and 2,000 men past a fort on the southern tip of St. Simons Island into the safety of the harbor out of reach of British cannons. Realizing Fort St. Simon had been outflanked, Oglethorpe ordered his troops to spike the cannons. At midnight, they lowered the British flag and retreated under cover of darkness to Fort Frederica. The long-feared Spanish invasion of Georgia had begun. From this ignominious beginning, however, a bloody victory would be won.

July 5, 1864: Arriving at the Georgia town of Roswell, just north of Atlanta, Union General Kenner Garrard's cavalry found the bridge across the Chattahoochee had been burned. Garrard then ordered his men to burn all mills and industrial buildings in Roswell. According to his report, one of the cotton mills that he destroyed had over $1 million in machinery and employed over 400 women. The invaders captured and deported these civilian female workers for treason for the duration of the war; but, many could never return home.

More of July HERE

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; 
walk in that way and find rest for your souls

A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure:

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from (original URL may have changed): -- -- -- -- -- -- --

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December

More Flags -- Flag Day
Early GA Flag Gwenn Ha Du 
qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

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Last update: June 19, 2018
0720 EDT

The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at that moment.