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The  VANGUARD --   2016

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit"

 
We begin our 20th Year online in May 2016
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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links
Luxembourg

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage -- Irish Copper Colonial Coinage (US)

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- http://www.au-chateau.com/auChateauNews80.php (New: Summer 2016 )

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3
Passover - Pesach


Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !
This is none other than the dwelling place of God, and this is the Gate of Heaven
This is the Gate of the Lord, the Righteous shall enter into it


And, on the last day, I know that I shall stand, in my own flesh, and see God, my Redeemer [Job 19:25-27].
 Psalm 27:1, 5-13 Dominus illuminatio

1 The Lord is my light and my salvation;
whom then shall I fear ? 
the Lord is the strength of my life;
of whom then shall I be afraid ?

5 One thing have I asked of the Lord;
one thing I seek; 
that I may dwell in the House of the Lord 
all the days of my life;
6 To behold the fair beauty of the Lord 
and to seek Him in his temple.
7 For in the day of trouble 
He shall keep me safe in His shelter; 
He shall hide me in the secrecy of His dwelling
and set me high upon a rock.
8 Even now He lifts up my head 
above my enemies round about me.
9 Therefore I will offer in His dwelling an oblation
with sounds of great gladness; 
I will sing and make music to the Lord.
10 Hearken to my voice, 
O Lord, when I call; 
have mercy on me and answer me.
11 You speak in my heart and say, 
Seek my face.
Your face, Lord, will I seek.
12 Hide not Your face from me, 
nor turn away Your servant in displeasure.
13 You have been my helper;
cast me not away; 
do not forsake me, 
O God of my salvation.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

January 21, 1844: A Lt. William Tecumseh Sherman (an Ohio citizen), then stationed at Charleston SC, received orders to report to Marietta, GA. A young officer Sherman would help take depositions in Alabama and Georgia with respect to personal losses of horses and equipment by militia members. During this assignment, the then 23-year-old officer had a chance to familiarize himself with the area of northwest Georgia, which he would visit again under vastly different circumstances. Exactly, twenty-one years later in 1865 Gen. Sherman and his staff left Savannah for Beaufort, South Carolina. General Sherman's Carolina excursion was now underway, his stroll through the great State of Georgia now having ended.

Pictured is the Rhett Butler home, located in the historic district of beautiful Beaufort, South Carolina. Rhett was a famous blockade runner, whose life was made into a movie in 1939. Rhett also maintained a summer home in Atlanta, which he visited from time to time. The structure in Beaufort still stands, while the residence in Atlanta has come and gone like the wind.

Interestingly, on January 21, 1733, James Edward Oglethorpe and a few SC Rangers left the Port of Beaufort, by boat heading for Savannah. Oglethorpe and his small party sailed southward along the inland coastal waterway, spending the night on one of Carolina’s barrier islands – most likely Trench’s Island (today a place named after William Hilton who was never there). Their destination was the mouth of the Savannah River, at which point they would sail upriver looking for a site for the Georgia colony’s first settlement. After Hilton Head, Tybee might seem a little desolate.

Rhett House in Beaufort SC
Beaufort SC

January 21, 1947: The "Three Governors Affair" became a two-governor rivalry on this day when M.E. Thompson became lieutenant governor. Outgoing governor Ellis Arnall, who still claimed the office and refused to recognize the General Assembly's naming of write-in candidate Herman Talmadge, resigned as governor. With Arnall's resignation, Thompson claimed that under the state constitution, he now became governor. Talmadge, however, insisted that the legislature constitutionally had elected him the governor. The case ended up in the Georgia Supreme Court, which on March 19 ruled in Thompson's favor. No cries that he was selected, not elected were heard, we just weren't as smart back then.

Of interest, but probably forgotten by most, was that during this event students from Georgia Tech and others gathered at the State Capitol to protest the rough justice evident. My father was one of the radicals present at the "march."

January 21, 1990: The East German party, the SED, changes its name to the PDS. The SED (Socialist Unity Party of Germany) was the name of the communist party of East Germany until 1990. In preparation for {re}unification, the Party, wishing to continue as a viable entity; but, realizing the negative implications of its identity with the East German regime, changed its name to a more media-friendly PDS (Party of Democratic Socialism). The PDS has had seats in parliament after each election since the unification. The name change harkens to the days when the Socialist Party of the United States and the Democrat Party merged and chose to use a name that did not have the nasty implications of a national socialist party (not to mention its murderess reputation).

It was 41 years earlier on January 28, 1949, that the first party congress of the SED within the Soviet Zone of occupation in Germany (later the DDR) closed. It chose a Politburo of which Herren Pieck, Grotewohl und Ulbricht were members. Pieck would become the first head of the East and Ulbricht later became the second.

January 22, 1733: James Oglethorpe and a small party of Carolina Rangers traveled up the Savannah River looking for a location for the newly arrived Georgia colonists to settle. [See map at this link] In so doing, he followed a decision by the Georgia Trustees of November 9, 1732, that the first settlement -- which was to be named Savannah -- be located on that river. About fifteen miles upstream from the mouth of the Savannah, Oglethorpe found an area along the south bank that rose high over the river. As Oglethorpe wrote the Trustees about the site:

"The river there forms a half moon, along the South side of which the banks are about 40 foot high and upon the top a flat which they call a bluff. The plain high ground extends into the country five or six miles and along the riverside about a mile. Ships that draw twelve foot water can ride within ten yards of the bank."

The site Oglethorpe had found was known as Yamacraw Bluff, the name derived from the small group of native Yamacraws who lived there. The bluff had been a popular place for traders from the Carolina Colony in the past. In 1732 John and Mary Musgrove had opened a trading post upon the bluff. Using the Musgroves as translators, Oglethorpe met Yamacraw chief Tomochichi and asked for permission to settle a town on the bluff. Tomochichi agreed. Most likely, his decision was based on self-interest -- this tribe was small, poor, exiled from the other Creeks and now dependent on British imports. A preliminary verbal agreement was reached (though a formal treaty would not be signed until May 21). Oglethorpe then left to rejoin the colonists at Beaufort, leaving some of the Carolina rangers behind to build a stairway up the side of the bluff. He would return February 1st with the first colonists.

[Note Letters, diaries, and records of this time show dates based on the Julian calendar (referred to as "Old Style") then in effect in Britain and the American colonies. The Gregorian calendar ("New Style") was adopted in 1752. Thus, January 22, 1732/33, (Old Style) represents February 2, 1733, under the calendar now in effect. For a fuller explanation, click HERE.]

January 22, 1905 (9th under Russian Calendar -- same song different verse): Russian Orthodox Father George Gapon led a small procession of workers in St. Petersburg (about 200,000) upon the Winter Palace to present grievances to the Czar of all Russia, Nicholas II (1894-1917). Father Gapon had intended to have a peaceful march, but troops on the scene fired into the crowd, killing or wounding hundreds. Thus began the Russian Revolution of 1905. All across Russia, government officials were attacked, peasants seized private estates and workers’ strikes virtually paralyzed the economy. In St. Petersburg, a council (soviet) of workers’ delegates threatened to take over the entire government. Czar Nicholas consented to the adoption of a constitution and election of a parliament (Duma). The first Duma met in 1906. This was a case of too little, too late. Under the stress of World War I, Nicholas would abdicate and a new Revolution took place, leading to a communist takeover lasting many decades. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSsunday.htm

Le 22 janvier 1963: Le traité d'amitié franco-allemand de l'Elysée, à Paris {Elysée Treaty}, consacre le rapprochement des deux anciens ennemis. Il est signé par le général de Gaulle, président de la cinquième République Française, et le chancelier allemand (Bundesrepublik), Konrad Adenauer. Il ne serait pas peu raisonnable de faire la charge que c'était la première vraie paix entre les nations en au moins 1000 ans. voi http://www.herodote.net/jour0122.htm

Le 23 janvier 1002: Meurt l'empereur d'Allemagne Otton III (19 ans) et avec lui le rêve d'un empire chrétien fondé sur les valeurs évangéliques. His death left a political vacuum ultimately filled by Henry II over the objections of many. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_III,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

January 23, 1775: Georgia's Commons House of Assembly elected Noble Wimberly Jones, Archibald Bulloch and John Houstoun as delegates to the Second Continental Congress. On May 10, 1775, the members of the Second Continental Congress met at the State House in Philadelphia. There were several new delegates including: John Hancock from Massachusetts, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, and Benjamin Franklin from Pennsylvania. Just a few weeks earlier a shot was heard around the world, from Lexington and Concord and the roads home to Boston. On the same day Ethan Allen took possession of the strong fortress of Ticonderoga.

Le 23 janvier 1806: Ce jour meurt William Pitt the Younger. Premier ministre de Grande-Bretagne à l'âge de 24 ans, en 1783, William Pitt disparaît en pleine tourmente, sans avoir eu le temps de cueillir la récompense de ses efforts. Son ennemi, Napoléon 1er, est au faîte de la puissance. Nul ne se doute encore qu'à Trafalgar, quelques mois plus tôt, il a perdu toute chance de vaincre un jour l'Angleterre.

William Pitt the Elder, First Earl of Chatham, also known as the Great Commoner, dominated the political scene influencing government from within and without. He is remembered for his vocal criticism of harsh British policy levied against the American colonies and his skills as a wartime leader during the Seven Years' War. The City of Pittsburgh, PA bears his name. The memory of William Pitt is kept alive in this city by the interest the name itself creates. There is a bust of him in the City-County Building and Carnegie Institute owns one of his noted portraits. from http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/neighborhoods/point/point_n104.html

The City of Pittsburgh has adopted the Pitt coat-of-arms for its seal and the motto -- Benigno Numine, which implies a benign divine Providence, as in:

nil Claudiæ non perficient manus,
quas et benigno numine Iuppiter
defendit et curæ sagaces
expediunt per acuta belli.
[Horace Q. HORATI FLACCI CARMINVM LIBER QVARTVS IV:75]

In his letter to William Pitt dated "Pittsbourgh, 27th November, 1758," acquainting the Prime Minister with his conquest of the area, General Forbes says in part - I have used the freedom of giving your name to Fort Du Quesne {former French fortification}, as I hope it was in some measure the being actuated by your spirits that makes us Masters of the place . . . . The letter is not in the General's own hand, but in that of one of his clerks; but Forbes would have been cognizant of its form. from http://www.phlf.org/phlfnews/essays/Pittsburg.html You can't raise the cane back up, when it's in the field !!!

Forbes was successful where General Braddock had failed and died. Some of you may remember that General Washington accompanied the unsuccessful man, marking Washington as a failure or worse. Pitt the Elder believed England's future lay in America and not Europe. He poured money into the colonies to shore up their defenses during the French-Indian War. These expenses, and Britain's post-war inept efforts to recoup its money led to the American Revolution, where Washington's reputation was restored in full. During the month of January 2006, The History Channel has aired a series (2006) on the French-Indian War and its implications on World events and follow-on American War of Independence.

Le 23 Janvier, 1835: Un jeune inconnu, Alexis de Tocqueville, a publié le premier volume de son meilleur ouvrage le plus connu, La démocratie en Amérique. Le livre devient un immense succès. Un héritier lointain de Montesquieu, Tocqueville propose une vision révolutionnaire de la perspective du long de l'histoire. "In républican governments, men are all equal; equal they are also in despotic governments: in the former, because they are everything; in the latter, because they are nothing." -- Montesquieu (Les hommes sont tous égaux dans le gouvernement républicain; ils sont égaux dans le gouvernement despotique; dans le premier, c'est parce qu'ils sont tout; dans le second, c'est parce qu'ils ne sont rien)
 
Le 24 janvier 41: L'empereur Caligula est assassiné. Il laisse la réputation d'un dément et les chroniqueurs rapportent qu'il fit entre autres folies désigner son cheval au rang de sénateur. Perhaps the best thing that can be said of him, he died early before he could do more damage.

24 January 76 AD: Birth of Publius Ælius Hadrianus (Cæsar-Roman Emperor (117-138)). Although born a Roman, Italica, Spain has been referred to as Hadrian's patria. Italica is located in a region in southern Spain named Santiponce in Bateica (old world Andalucia), just four miles north of Seville. Hadrian ordered the construction of a wall in Northumberland, which today bears his name, in order to keep out the barbarians after the first Roman withdrawal from the land of the Picts (Cruithni), which the Romans called caledonia. The Picts were not the Scots (Scotti), who came from Ireland somewhat later and called their gælic nation Alba.

The construction of Hadrian's Wall in 122 was supervised by Aulus Platorius Nepos, Governor of Roman Britain. The line of the wall from the Tyne to the Solway lies south of what is now Scotland's border, but a few outposts beyond it were retained. Indeed in 139-42 A.D. the Roman army advanced northwards, abandoning Hadrian’s Wall and erected the Antonine Wall across the Forth/Clyde isthmus. Soon, thereafter, they returned to Hadrian's fortifications, which while recommissioned proved less than effective. And, indeed, history was a wee bit more complicated than that: http://web.archive.org/web/20120317230214/http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/timeline.htm.

Lo más significativo con todo, que destaca de esta ciudad de las restantes de la Bética, es el que dos de sus hijos accedieron a trono consecutivamente: Trajano ( 97 - 117 d.C.) y Adriano ( 117 - 137 d.C.). http://www.hispalis.net/turismo_y_cultura/monumentos/italica/italica.html

Hadrian could be said to be a master-architect / city planner in his own right. He vastly increased the Roman style throughout his empire, and in so doing, affected the European style to this very day. Because Hadrian was born in Spain (as a Roman citizen), should he, often credited with being the architect of the Pantheon in Rome, then be considered a foreign architect as far as concerns Italy ?? Compare, Maxentius, perhaps born in Syria, like his mother Eutropia; his father Maximian was born in (today's) Serbia. Constantine too was born in Serbia, although his mother Helena was born in (today's) Turkey. The architecture of Eutropia and Helena had an unprecedented effect on Italian styles, later. And what of the rest of the WEST ??

The Panthéon in Paris, designed by Jacques-Germain Soufflot (1755-1792), was finished, in the midst of the French Revolution. The Constituent Assembly of the Révolution decided by decree to transform the church (église Sainte-Geneviève) into a secular temple to accommodate the remains of the great men of France. The pattern was thoroughly Roman, a pattern which the counter-revolutionary, Napoleon, followed slavishly, because it was the art of power in building. More about the Roman influence in Architecture is found HERE (with many examples pictured).

Le 24 janvier 661: Ali, le propre gendre du prophète Mahomet, est assassiné par des opposants. Sa mort sera à l'origine du plus grave schisme de l'islam, celui qui oppose les shiites et les sunnites. Ces désaccords nous infestent maintenant aujourd'hui. Est il la seule coïncidence qu'Ali et le fou Caligula partagent le même destin sur le même jour ???

The study of etymology can be an interesting pastime. The word assassin, originally applied by Crusaders to members of a secret order of Islam, has a broader meaning today. The most important members of that order were those who actually did the killing. Having been promised paradise in return for dying in action, these murderers, yearned for paradise, by being given a life of pleasure (for a while) that included the use of hashish. Thus from this practice for a select few, came the name for the secret order as a whole. After passing through French or Italian, the word came into English use. It is recorded in 1603 with reference to the Muslim Assassins. http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=assassin But, in fact, the word for dagger-men (or violent-men), Sicarii, looks like it is related more and is from a much older time. Indeed, there are other explanations that work equally well. http://www.ismaili.net/histoire/history06/history610.html Judas ISCARIOT would indeed be an assassin at heart.

The etymology of the name CALIFORNIA is much more uncertain. Some writers have pretended that it comes from arabic and relates to the caliphate ??? Others say it has a derivation from the two Latin words calida fornax, or, in the Spanish language, caliente fornalla -- “a hot furnace.” This story, however, is doubted by Michael Venegas, a Mexican Jesuit, in his Natural and Civil History of California (2 vols. Madrid, 1758). In his opinion, the early Spanish explorers did not name new-found lands in such a pedantic fashion. “I am therefore inclined to think,” says he, “that this name owed its origin to some accident; possibly to some {native} words spoken ... and misunderstood,” as happened in many other situations, including the name of Hightower Trail. found at http://www.zpub.com/sf50/sf/hbann1-1.htm

We do know, however, that California is called the Golden State. The famous bridge in San Francisco is known as the Golden Gate Bridge. These names apply because an immigrant at Sutter's Mill found gold in a stream on -- you guessed it -- January 24th (1848). John Marshall, while inspecting the construction of a mill on the south fork of the American River, being built for Captain John Sutter, spotted a gold nugget. Marshall, Sutter and their workers tried to keep the discovery quiet, but gold-seekers quickly began pouring into California. In four years the population of settlers rose from 20,000 to 200,000.

Many people are surprised to learn that for centuries, gold, silver, copper and diamonds have been found in northern Michigan. In particular, gold has been found in over 100 places. Douglass Houghton, the first state geologist, initially discovered it, while camped near the present site of Negaunee in 1845. Houghton returned from a solo excursion with rock specimens carrying enough free gold to fill an eagle’s quill {not a protected species then}. Fearing that his men would desert him to search for gold, he kept the find a secret, although Houghton showed the metal to a trusted associate, Samuel Worth Hill, (the veteran mineral explorer whose penchant for spicy language has been immortalized in the euphemism What the Sam Hill !). Houghton drowned later that year (1845) when his canoe capsized in a storm near Eagle Harbor. The exact location of his gold find died with him. http://www.geo.msu.edu/geo333/gold.html

January 24, 1908: The Boy Scouts movement begins in England with the publication of the first installment of Robert Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys. The name Baden-Powell was already well known because of his heroism, and thousands of English boys eagerly bought the handbook. By the end of April, the serialization of Scouting for Boys was completed. Scores of impromptu Boy Scout troops had sprung up across Britain.

You may recall that, while working his ticket in Northumberland, on July 25, 1907, Baden-Powell took a diverse group of 21 adolescents to Brownsea Island in Dorsetshire where they set up camp for a fortnight. With the aid of other instructors, he taught the boys about camping, observation, deduction, woodcraft, boating, lifesaving, patriotism and chivalry. Many of these lessons were learned through inventive games that were very popular with the boys. The first Boy Scouts' camp meeting proved a great success, so he went into syndication in 1908. You may read more Here.

Le 25 janvier -- Conversion de St Paul, Evêque et docteur de l'Eglise (AD 34): Sur la route de Damas, à la tête d’une troupe de fanatiques, chemine un homme de trente ans, qu’on appelle alors Saul (plus exactement Shaoul). Juif de race, grec de fréquentation, et politiquement romain, il a bénéficié de trois cultures, il connait le grec, l'araméen et l’hébreu. Il revendique une double citoyenneté, celle de Tarse et celle de Rome. À Tarse, sa ville natale, il n’a fréquenté que les écoles de grammaire, puis il est allé chercher à Jérusalem sa culture supérieure à l’école de Gamaliel. Moins tolérant que son maître il s’est vite mué en persécuteur des chrétiens. On le voit garder les vêtements de ceux qui lapident Etienne, ravager l’Eglise de Jérusalem et obtenir un mandat officiel pour engager des poursuites contre les chrétiens de Damas. http://missel.free.fr/Sanctoral/01/25.php « Il n'y a ni hommes ni femmes, ni Juifs ni Grecs, ni hommes libres ni esclaves, vous êtes tous un en Jésus-Christ » (Saint Paul, Épître aux Galates). http://web.archive.org/web/20040605014607/http://www.herodote.net/00420125.htm

"I am Jesus, the one you are persecuting. Get up and go into the city, where you will be told what to do."

Only one feast commemorates a moment of conversion, but it was an event not to be forgotten. When Saul arose from the dust before Damascus, he found himself without eye-sight. So he entered the city physically disabled, and forever changed. In fast, he awaited instruction. Back in 1989-1990, we witnessed the opening of the Berlin Gate and the collapse of the Iron Curtain. Everybody was amazed, but too few recognized in these events the hand of God. http://web.archive.org/web/20101205002638/http://www.irondequoitcatholic.org/index.php/Main/FeastOfSaintPaulsConversion see Acts of the Apostles 9:1-22; 22:3-16

January 25th: Each year on January 25 the Sorbic children of the eastern Germany celebrate Vogelhochzeit. On the evening of January 24th the children put out a plate by the window. In the morning they find the plate filled with candy that the birds (Vogel) have brought as a thank you to the children for feeding them during the winter. On the 25th children dress up in traditional wedding costumes and march in processions to celebrate the wedding of the birds -- Vogelhochzeit -- and a high time is had by all.

January 25, 1579: The Union of Utrecht brought together seven northern and Protestant provinces of the Netherlands against the spanish-influenced Catholics of the southern low countries. Known as the United Provinces, they become the foundation of the Dutch Republic, recognized only after over 100 years of conflict. The Treaty of Utrecht was signed in 1713, marking the end of the conflict. A timeline is HERE

January 25, 1759: Born this day, Robert Burns, the bard of Scotland, also known as the plough man's poet. He is the object of celebratory Burns Suppers, held annually. Across the globe people will rever the birth of Robert Burns, some 250 years ago, with Scottish Whiskæ, dancing, pipes, poetry and of course haggis, neeps and tatties. The Scots came from Ireland after the time of the Roman Empire, when the British Isles were left to fend for themselves. The English, who themselves were post-Roman invaders, recognized the Gælic word Alba for the northern area (?? from the Latin "white" meaning sunrise??) and the term Albion gradually became a literary reference to the entire land, a lang time gone:

Scots Wha Hae -- Robert Burns

Click to see Picture 
Burns Cottage in Alloway Scotland

Robert Burns died on July 21st in the year 1796 at age 37.

from: http://Mcallister.com/

Scots, wha hae wi Wallace bled,
Scots, wham Bruce has aften led,
Welcome to your gory bed,
Or to victorie!

Now's the day, and now's the hour;
See the front o' battle lour;
See approach proud Edward's power -
Chains and slaverie!

Wha will be a traitor-knave?
Wha can fill a coward's grave?
Wha sae base as be a slave?
Let him turn and flee!

Wha for Scotland's king and law
Freedom's sword will strongly draw,
Freeman stand, or freeman fa'
Let him follow me!

By oppression's woes and pains!
By your sons in servile chains!
We will drain our dearest veins,
But they shall be free!

Lay the proud usurpers low!
Tyrants fall in ev'ry foe!
Liberty's in ev'ry blow! -
Let us do - or die!


We have moved most of our Burns and Scotland information from this page to HERE; however the Burns memorial association in Atlanta celebrated its 100th year in 2010 (kicking off festivities beginning October 13th). The cornerstone of the only replica of the Burns Cottage was laid November 5, 1910, in DeKalb County GA, near the Emory Campus.

Championnats internationaux de ski, à Chamonix
 

January 25, 1924: The first Winter Olympics begin at Chamonix in the French Alps. Spectators were thrilled by the ski jump and bobsled as well as 12 other events involving a total of six sports. The International Winter Sports Week, as it was known, was a great success, and in 1928 the International Olympic Committee (IOC) officially designated the Winter Games, staged in St. Moritz, Switzerland, as the second Winter Olympics. The 2006 Olympics were held just over the Alps in Torino (Turin); in 1968, about 2 hours down the road at Grenoble; In 1992 Albertville, France saw the Winter Olympics (25 air miles east of Aix-les-Bains). The cities of Grenoble, Annecy and Nice have already stated their intention to bid to host the Winter Games in 2018. More about this area is HERE

January 25, 1985: The United States Postal Service issued the 7-cent Abraham Baldwin stamp in first day of issue ceremonies on the campus of the University of Georgia. The stamp's release was coordinated to mark the 200th anniversary of the chartering of the University of Georgia. Click Here to view the stamp and read about its story. On campus, a variety of souvenir first day covers were prepared with first day of issue cancellations. see examples here.

January 26, 1881: This day marks the birth of Walter Krueger in Flatow, Germany (now in Poland). Krueger came to the United States as a child. He entered the U. S. army in 1898 and became the Chief, U.S. Tank Corps in Europe in World War I. In 1943 General Krueger was made commander of the U.S. 6th Army in Australia. He was a military leader in the U.S. island-hopping strategy in the Pacific which resulted in the ultimate defeat of the Japanese Imperial Forces throughout South-east Asia.

Domentijan states that Sava died between Saturday and Sunday, most likely on 14 January [O.S. 27 January] 1235. Today, January 27th is his feast day. Sava was laid to rest first at the Holy Forty Martyrs Church (Bulgaria). Sava's body was returned to Serbia after a series of requests, and then was entombed in the Mileševa monastery, which had been built by Vladislav in 1234. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Sava (very detailed in English) "Dođite, čeda, poslušajte mene" means "come my beloved and listen to me"- I think. These (Serbian and Croatian) are not languages about which I know anything. The church is at Mileševa and fresco at Studenica Monastery, Serbia (pictured below).

Radite vazda i slozno i mudro,
Pa da nam srecan bude srpski rod;
Vi cete sami i potomci vasi
Vasega truda uzivati plod.


Dodjite, čeda, poslusajte mene,
Strahu Gospodnjem naucicu vas,
Pokazacu vam kako radit treba,
U cemu je propast, u cemu je spas!
Labor always in harmony, and wisely,
So we're happy to be Serbian people {fruit};
{and} you will, yourself and your children,
Enjoy the fruits of your effort.

Come my beloved, listen to me,
I will teach you the fear of the Lord,
[which is the beginning of Wisdom]
I'll show you how to labor {live} properly,
What would be your downfall,
What will be your salvation!
Note: the direct reference to wisdom
and the use of the imagery of the concept "fruit"
which brings to mind Biblical passages
about bearing good not worthless
fruit (people who ignore God) ...

"Yet I planted you a choice vine,
A completely faithful seed
How then have you turned yourself before Me
Into the degenerate shoots of a foreign vine
[Jeremiah 2:21] ?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Serbian_saints

Duchy of Saint Sava (Latin: Ducatus Sancti Sabae, Serbian Cyrillic: војводство Светог Саве[a]) was a Serbian late medieval political state which existed amid the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. It was ruled by Stjepan Vukčić and his son Vladislav, of the Kosača noble family, and included parts of modern-day Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia.

Stjepan titled himself "Vojvoda of Saint Sava", after the first Serbian Archbishop, Saint Sava. Vojvoda in German translation is Herzog ("duke"), and this would later give the name to the present-day region of Herzegovina, as the Ottomans used Hersek Sancağı ("Sanjak of the Herzog") for the province which was transformed into an Ottoman sanjak. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duchy_of_St._Sava

The Church of Saint Sava (Serbian: Храм светог Саве/Hram svetog Save[a]) is a Serbian Orthodox church located on the Vračar plateau in Belgrade. It is one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world and ranks among the largest church buildings in the world. The church is dedicated to Saint Sava, the founder of the Serbian Orthodox Church and an important figure in medieval Serbia. It is built on the Vračar plateau, on the location where his remains were burned in 1595 by Ottoman Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha. From its location, it dominates Belgrade's cityscape, and is perhaps the most monumental building in the city. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_of_Saint_Sava

January 2006 -- Double Leopard: Florin is the name applied to several coins from 13th Century Europe and about 50 years later from England, as well as more modern coinage. The word comes through the French word florin from the Italian fiorino, Fiorino being the Italian name of a gold denomination issued by the kingdom ruling today's Firenza (Florence) in 1252, weighing about fifty-four grains. This coin bore on the obverse a lily, from which it took its name of the flower, on the reverse in Latin is the name of the city Florentia. Florin and Florence seem to have been used interchangeably in English as the name of this coin used in trading. The Florentine florin held a substantial commercial reputation throughout Europe, and similar coins were struck in Germany, other parts of Italy, France, and elsewhere. The English gold florin was introduced by Edward III in order to have a medium for trade, acceptable on the Continent.

The coinage he produced, however, came along well after Florence had stopped its issues, and the British versions were lightweight (i.e. overvalued). Until 1857, a double leopard, the name for the coin, was suspected (value was 6 shillings or 72 pence), but no known examples existed. In that year two children found two at once; today the coins both reside in the collection of the British Museum. In January 2006, the third example was found, in an undisclosed location in southern England. The first two were found at Newcastle within the Tyne Riverbank. Note: there is some confusion about whether the coin found was a double florin -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Florin_English -- It appears that Coin World may have confused things. The 72p coin is indeed called a double leopard, but appears also to be called a florin. see also http://web.archive.org/web/20090803183206/http://www.finds.org.uk/medievalcoins/late_denoms.php

The issue was declared on January 27, 1344. In all a ton of gold was converted (120,000 pieces of each of three denominations could have been struck), but all coins are quite rare today due to melting by the mint. Production ceased on July 10th, and the coin was declared no longer legal tender by August 20th, simply because the issue was not accepted by the merchants overseas. Each of the three known examples of the double leopard have slight design differences (varieties). The coins' reverse legend in Latin states: IHC TRANSIENS PER MEDIUM ILLORUM IBAT (Jesus passing through the midst of them, went on his way - Luke 4:30 (Vulgate)). It may well be an illusion to Edward's passage unharmed through the midst of the French fleet at the Battle of Sluys in June 24, 1340, in the early stages of the Hundred Years’ War. see generally http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~munro5/MONEYLEC.htm Great Britain introduced the double florin during Queen Victoria's reign as a silver coin. Its value was 4 shillings or 48 pence.

About 250 Years ago -- January 27th: Der Komponist Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wurde am 27.  Januar 1756 in Salzburg geboren. Schon als Knabe reiste er durch ganz Europa und wurde als Wunderkind mit Violine und am Klavier berühmt. Er schuf 675 Werke vielfältigster vokaler und instrumentaler Gattungen und beeinflusste damit die Musikgeschichte bis heute nachhaltig. Mozart starb im Alter von 35 Jahren in Wien am 5. Dezember 1791 und wurde auf dem Marxer Friedhof beigesetzt.

January 27, 1785 -- an early Chartered Partner: The Georgia legislature enacted into law Abraham Baldwin's proposed charter for the University of Georgia. In so doing, Georgia became the first state to charter a state university. The act's preamble declared:

When the minds of the people in general are viciously disposed and unprincipled and their conduct disorderly a free government will be attended with greater confusions and evils more horrid than the wild uncultivated state of nature. It can only be happy where the public principles and opinions are properly directed and their manners regulated. This is an influence beyond the reach of laws and punishments and can be claimed only by religion and education. It should therefore be among the first objects of those who wish well to the national prosperity to encourage and support the principles of religion and morality and early to place the youth under the forming hand of society that by instruction they may be molded to the love of virtue and good order [emphasis added]. Sending them abroad to other countries for their education will not answer these purposes; it is too humiliating an acknowledgment of the ignorance or inferiority of our own, and will always be the cause of so great foreign attachments, that upon principles of policy it is inadmissible.

This country, in times of our common danger and distress, found security in the principle and abilities which wise regulations had before established in the minds of our countrymen. That our our present happiness, joined to the pleasing prospect, should conspire to make us feel ourselves under the strongest obligations to form the youth, the rising hope of our land, to render the like glorious and essential services to our country.


 

January 27, 2000: The United States Mint released the new golden dollar coin on January 27, 2000. The obverse of the coin depicts Sacagawea and her infant son, Jean Baptiste. Sacagawea was the Native American who helped guide the Lewis and Clark expedition during much of its journey across the west from 1804 to 1806. In 2007, after several years of limited mintage, the Sacagawea coin will again be minted in quantities sufficient for general circulation. Congress has required the continuation of the Sacagawea Dollar during the life of the Presidential Coin Program (see below). The Sacagawea Dollar reverse will bear a new design each year, starting in 2009, to recognize Native Americans for their contributions to the history and development of the United States. In response to the law enacted in 2005, the mint produced Presidential dollars of similar size and metallic composition. Coins for 2007 thru 2011 have been issued. http://www.us-coin-values-advisor.com/presidential-dollar-coin.html More years of obverse design changes will follow, but these will no longer be of high mintage or for regular public release.

Reverse of all Presidential $ coins

January 28th Feast Day of Saint Karl: Karl der Große or Charlemagne was born near Aachen in about 742. He was the king of the Franks. (The Franks were a Germanic people who had extended their influence over parts of modern France and Belgium by this date in history.) On Christmas day of the year 800 he was crowned emperor of an empire which would become known as the Holy Roman Empire at some periods in history and as the German Empire at other periods. He established his capital at Aix-la Chapelle (or Aachen in modern Germany). He spread Christianity and developed efficient educational and political systems in his empire. He built many churches and was a devout Christian. The cathedral he built in his capital city of Aachen remains. He was declared a saint in 1165 at the urging of the emperor, Friedrich Barbarossa (predating the formal process of canonization). The declaration, made by the bishop of Köln had the formal approval of Pope Paschal III. Paschal III, however, was an antipope. The man who came to be recognized as the official pope, Alexander III, opposed the sainthood designation for Karl. After 1176, a compromise permitted the title, but did not officially sanction it. Relics of Karl der Große (Charlemagne -- ca. 742-814) may be viewed in the Cathedral at Aachen.

Le 28 Janvier 1077: Depuis qu'au XIXe siècle, le chancelier Bismarck, en conflit avec l'Église catholique, lança: «Je n'irai pas à Canossa !», l'expression «aller à Canossa» signifie que l'on se rend aux injonctions de l'adversaire. Elle rappelle une fameuse querelle entre le pape et l'empereur d'Allemagne qui se dénoua le 28 janvier 1077 par une humiliation feinte de ce dernier. http://www.herodote.net/histoire01280.htm Canossa (Province of Reggio Emilia), a commune and castle town in Emilia-Romagna (north-central Italy), remains famous as the place where the Holy Roman Emperor (Henry IV) was once thought to have performed his penance, standing three days bare-headed in the snow before the castle gate where Pope Gregory VII was sheltered, so as to reverse his excommunication. His walk to Canossa is sometimes used as a symbol of the changing relationship between the medieval Church and State, but more often refers to a public personal humiliation. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03298a.htm The castle is an abandoned ruin today; it was about 20 years old when the King stood before its gates.

January 28, 1672: Col. William Stephens, first president of Georgia, was born in England. There, he was elected to the House of Commons in 1702 and served until 1727 (the last five years joined by James Oglethorpe). In 1736, Stephens' was hired to go to South Carolina and survey a land grant on the Savannah River. From there, he traveled went to Savannah, where he met Oglethorpe. He accompanied Georgia's founder back to England later that year. In London, the Trustees of the Georgia Colony had read Stephens' journal of his travels in America. Impressed, they hired him in April 1737 to serve as the Secretary for Georgia and keep the Trustees informed on military, civil and other concerns in the Colony. They had become disturbed at how Oglethorpe overspent his instructions.

Therefore, in 1740, the Trustees divided Georgia into two parts. The northern half was known as the County of Savannah. Stephens was named as its president. The southern half was the County of Frederica, with the office of president temporarily left vacant. In 1742, Stephens was elevated to president of the entire colony, a post he held until he resigned in 1750. Spending his last days at his Beaulieu plantation near Savannah, Stephens died at age 81 in August 1753. Bewlie, is where the French landed on September 12, 1779, in an ill-fated attempt to take back Savannah during the Revolution from http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/thisday/gahistory/01/28.

John Morel owned Bewlie after Stephens. A portion of the plantation became the Colonial Shipyard because of its water access and abundant Live Oak resources:Marker pictured; see also https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2014/12/19/mts-dec-19-64/ John Morel is listed as having been at the Tondee Tavern on the evening of July 29,1774, a meeting where the Patriots of the Colony would set in motion, Georgia's response to the ongoing crisis with Britain. Five-Hundred (500) barrels of rice were sent in relief of the Boston Patriots (following their tea party). At this meeting was my cousin George Walton and a few other Colonial notables, such as Messieurs Habersham and Houstoun.

January 28, 1733: Georgia colonists celebrated this day -- a Sunday -- as a day of thanksgiving for their safe arrival as well as for General Oglethorpe's success in obtaining permission from Chief Tomochichi to settle on Yamacraw Bluff on the Savannah River. The fête took place in the military barracks at Beaufort in the Royal Colony of South Carolina, just up the road (except there was no road and they traveled by boat).

January 28, 1733: Georgia colonists celebrated this day -- a Sunday -- as a day of thanksgiving for their safe arrival as well as for General Oglethorpe's success in obtaining permission from Chief Tomochichi to settle on Yamacraw Bluff on the Savannah River. The fête took place in the military barracks at Beaufort in the Royal Colony of South Carolina, just up the road (except there was no road and they traveled by boat).

January 29, 1761: Another Swiss immigrant was born on this day in January, which marks that of Albert Gallatin in Geneva. Gallatin would immigrate to America. He won election to the United States Senate in 1793; however, he was disqualified, because of his length of citizenship, after he had already taken the Oath of Office. Entering the House of Representatives in 1795, serving in the fourth through sixth Congresses, he went on to become majority leader. He was the Nation's fourth Secretary of the Treasury in 1801, appointed by Thomas Jefferson (3rd US President). During Gallatin's tenure, the Nation was able to purchase the Louisiana Territory, while reducing its debt. He played a significant role in negotiating the end of the War of 1812. see also The Writings of Albert Gallatin. Henry Adams, editor. (3 volumes, 1879); Adams, Henry. Life of Albert Gallatin (1879).

Gallatin (lying on the Cumberland River), was established in 1802 as the permanent seat of Sumner County, in what is called the Middle Tennessee region. The town was named after Albert Gallatin, then Secretary of Treasury to presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Interestingly, Andrew Jackson became one of the first to purchase a lot when the town was surveyed and platted in 1803. He built the first General Store for the town on the traditional open square.

January 29, 1845: Edgar Allen Poe's poem The Raven was first published, in the New York Evening Mirror. Our version of that poem may be found HERE

To this day I do not know the land to which lost information goes.
To what virtual nether-world, is orphaned data shipped, stacked or ...
Is it beyond the reach of mortal souls, beyond the ether, slurped into black holes?
For as sure as there is C, plus Pascal, Lotus, Ashton-Tate and more,
You too, one day may these basic facts ponder, lost on some antediluvian shore,
Still pleading; “Abort, Retry, Ignore?”

January 29, 1934: Today is the death date for Fritz Häber in Basel, Switzerland. As a professor of physical chemistry at the Technische Hochschule of Karlsruhe (like Basel near the French/German Border), he invented a method of synthesizing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. The need for nitrogen-based fertilizer in Germany and elsewhere was very great, but the natural supplies of ammonia (as well as phosphate) came from Guano, which had to be imported from Chile. World political problems (compounded because ammonia also was a resource in the making of high-explosives) turned this into a risky as well as expensive undertaking. In 1909, Häber took his discovery to the Badische Anilin- and Soda-Fabrik (BASF) where he and Carl Bosch developed a method of ammonia mass production, the Häber-Bosch Process. He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1918 for his work. The discovery gave Germany access to technology necessary to feed the population and arm its soldiers. During the outset of the Nazi years (1933) he stopped his research in Germany and accepted a position at the University of Cambridge in England. Only a year later Herr Häber died in Basel Switzerland of heart failure en route to a winter holiday in Italy for his health.

January 29, 1936: Georgia born Tyrus Cobb became one of the first five inductees in a new Major League Baseball Hall of Fame established at Cooperstown, N.Y. Cobb joined Walter Johnson, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner and Christy Mathewson in being honored that day.

January 30th: Every year on this day, white roses are laid at the foot of a king's statue in London -- the last English Saint recognized in the Anglican tradition. Winston Churchill in his histories of England, has written of him a fitting epitaph: He cannot be claimed as the defender of English liberties, nor wholly of the English Church, but none the less he died for them, and by his death preserved them not only to his son and heir, but to our own day. The Speechwriters' Saint -- http://LaRocheUSA.org/SaintCharles/SaintlyKings.htm.

Le 30 janvier 1965: Le Royaume-Uni célèbre en grande pompe les funérailles du plus grand Anglais du siècle et sans doute du plus grand génie politique de l'ère moderne, Sir Winston Churchill. Le héros de la Victoire sur le nazisme est inhumé à Bladon, près du château natal de Blenheim, dans le comté d'Oxford.

It was only 23 years earlier (1942) that Churchill's government, after three days debate, won an overwhelming vote of Confidence. The discussion was brought on by Rommel's temporary success in the desert of Cyrenaica; however, it was Churchill's view that the Nazi position at Benghazi, specifically, and in North Africa, generally, was unsustainable, an opinion soon proven correct. Meanwhile, the British position worsened on the Malayan peninsula, Singapore soon to be lost.

It was necessary above all to warn the House and the country of the misfortunes which impended upon us. There is no worse mistake in public leadership than to hold out false hopes soon to be swept away. The ... people can face the peril or misfortune with fortitude ... but they bitterly resent being deceived or finding that those responsible for their affairs are themselves living in a fool's paradise. I felt it vital ... to discount future calamities by describing the immediate outlook in the darkest terms. {emphasis added}

"It is because things have gone badly and worse is yet to come that I demand a Vote of Confidence. If a Member has helpful criticisms to make, or even severe corrections to administer, that may be perfectly consistent with [showing] respect [for the Administration] ... There is no objection to anything being said in plain English [on the floor of the House], or even plainer ... But no one should be mealy-mouthed in debate, and no one should be chicken-hearted in voting .... Everyone in these rough times must do what he thinks is his duty." Churchill, Winston S. The Hinge of Fate: Book One The Onslaught of Japan. Houghton Mifflin Co. (Riverside Press Cambridge). Boston (1950) pp 61, 66.

A fine sentiment for today, too.

From http://guests.travelpod.com/travel-photo/leeandal/fjorging_on/1124306280/churchillxs_grave.jpg/ ... we find a picture of Churchill's grave today, and the words Churchill ... planned his own funeral. Knowing Charles de Gaulle would be at his service, he planned to have his body carried by train out of London, leaving from Waterloo Station.

London terminus at St. Pancras Which brings to mind the question: Should the Eurostar London terminus at St. Pancras be renamed to align it more closely politically, historically and emotionally with the name of the current terminal, just south of the Thames River, Waterloo? In the past the French have pointed out that the Waterloo station name was a wee bit unfriendly, requesting (perhaps apocryphally) that the name be changed. Anyway, after some to and fro, one may recall a reader's letter in The Times, saying in effect, that one could always roughly translate Waterloo into French -as- Eau de Toilette. In any event, if the Eurostar would travel round the north of the Thames, cutting through densely populated urban areas, ending up at the most northern station in London (St-Pancras), then the French should feel free to have the train route south swing around Paris and terminate at Gare Austerlitz in the south of the city.

Saint Pancras is also known as Pancritas or Pancratius. His memorial day is May 12th. As a fourteen-year-old orphan, Pancratius born (circa 290 at Phrygia (a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey)) was brought to Rome by his uncle, Saint Dionysius. As a convert to Christianity, he suffered martyrdom (beheaded circa 304 on the Via Aurelia during Diocletian's persecution) with Saints Nereus, Achilleus and Domitilla for publicly proclaiming his faith. Pope Vitalian sent his relics from the cemetery of Calepodius in Rome to England (and his relics were presented as a gift to the king of Northumberland), as part of the evangelization of England, so that the English church would have access to relics of the greater Church. Saint Augustine of Canterbury dedicated his first structure in England to Saint Pancras, and subsequent churches throughout England are similarly named for Pancras. It is reported that his relics later were interred in the Saint Pancras church, Rome, but were destroyed in 1798; his head is still in the Lateran Basilica. http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintp02.htm

The Saint Pancras Station was designed by Gilbert Scott. The main engineer on the project was W. H. Barlow. Built in 1868 the ribs of the Gothic shaped roof continue in an unbroken line from platform level to the ridge at the top. The building is 243 feet wide, 600 feet long and the point of the arch is 100 feet above rail level (about 8 stories). Once known only as the main London terminal of the York & Midland Railway. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RAstpancrasST.htm see also http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/S._Pancras_Station.html St-Pancras has become an International terminal with a direct link to Europe, serving not only Midland Mainline, but also Eurostar and Thameslink trains.

January 31, 1813: Military officer, explorer and sometime politician John C. Frémont was born in Savannah, Georgia. His early life largely remains a mystery. His father was a French émigré. Frémont became an officer in the U.S. Army's Topographical Engineers, later marrying the daughter of U.S. Senator Thomas Hart Benton. With Benton's influence, Frémont undertook three major expeditions of the West (1843-46). On January 16, 1847, he was appointed civil governor of California. Between 1848 and 1853, Frémont undertook two more expeditions of the West, also serving one year as U.S. Senator from California. In 1856, he became the first Republican candidate for US President, losing to Democrat James Buchanan. With the outbreak of the War Between the States, President Lincoln appointed Frémont major general in command of volunteers in the Western Department. Acting unilaterally, Frémont placed Missouri under military command and issued an order freeing the slaves of all supporters of the Confederacy. Refusing Lincoln's order to revoke the actions, Frémont was relieved of command. After the war, he served as territorial governor of Arizona (1878-1881). Frémont passed away in New York City on July 13, 1890.

January 31, 1879: Fifteen years after burning Atlanta, former Union general William T. Sherman returned. As noted in the diary of Atlanta merchant Samuel P. Richards, Gen. Sherman has just honored our city by a visit to see how nicely we have builded it up after his burning it. Atlanta and Environs: A chronicle of Its People and Events, Franklin M. Garrett, (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1969 reprint of 1954 original volume), Vol. I, p. 953.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure: http://www.catholic-convert.com/

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from (original URL may have changed):
http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-jan.htm -- http://timelines.ws/days/01_01.HTML -- http://www.herodote.net/jour0101.htm -- http://www.440.com/twtd/archives/jan01.html -- http://www.treas.gov/education/history/events/01-jan.shtml -- http://missel.free.fr/calendrier.php?mois=1&annee=2010 -- http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/features/twich/01.html -- http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Jan1.html

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December



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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at that moment.