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The  VANGUARD --   2014

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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
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Luxembourg

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

Tour de France -- 2012 -- A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- http://www.au-chateau.com/auChateauNews73.php (Fall 2014)

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord
[ from Psalm 122 ] .

All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth unto such as keep his covenant and his testimonies [ Psalm 25:10 ].

If you are on the wrong road, progress means doing an about-turn and walking back to the right road; and in that use, the man who turns back soonest is the most progressive. — C.S. Lewis

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4


Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

October 19th commemorates the end of one war and the start of another. In 202BC the 30 year's of the Punic Wars came to an end (Carthage, Hannibal and Rome's struggles cease with the Battle of Zama). Some 1500 years later (1337), Edward III, King of all England will begin the 100 Years War with France because Philippe VI annexed some land in southern France (in Gascon called Guiana), which they both claimed. Technically: En l’abbaye de Westminster, le roi d'Angleterre, Édouard III, revendique publiquement le trône de France occupé par son cousin, Philippe VI. Édouard III, fils d'Isabelle (la fille du dernier roi de France Philippe le Bel), se déclare héritier légitime du trône de France. It turned, I believe, on a conflict of laws issue, Salic Law or Norman. By the treaty of Brétigny (8 May 1360), Aquitaine was given to the English, who called it La Guyenne and created a principality there in 1362. But the war would continue another 9 decades.

Then the English were defeated at Castillon in 1453 in Guyenne [Castillon-la-Bataille, Gascony]. While the war was effectively over, no one realized it at the time. Following Henry VI's episode of insanity in 1453 and the subsequent outbreak of the Wars of the Roses, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their claim to the French throne and lost all their land on the continent (except for Calais). No formal treaty was ever signed to end the conflict that had cost so many lives.

Coincidentally, the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire completed a siege of Constantinople in 1453, with a victory for the Islamic forces that ended the Roman Empire of the East. En le 19 Octobre 1768, la Turquie (Ottoman Empire) déclare la guerre à la Russie pour défendre les libertés polonaises. The beginning of the end: le 19 Octobre 1812, Napoléon Ier commence à évacuer Moscou, et l'armée américaine débarque aux Philippines, qui est occupée par les Japonais en le 19 Octobre 1944.

Interestingly, today is the feast day in at least the Catholic Church of the Old Testament prophet Joël, where his name appears once in the text. In The Acts of the Apostles {written by Luke whose feast day is the 18th of October} Peter states (v2:16 and following) that we had begun to witness on the first day of Pentecost what had been spoken of by this prophet. ... I will pour out My Spirit on all mankind; And your sons and daughters will prophesy, Your old men will dream dreams, Your young men will see visions [Joel 2:28]. And from Zechariah v12:10 "I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn." The promise is not restricted to the first Pentecost. This appears from Peter's own nearby words: "The promise is (not only) unto you and to your children, (but also) to all that are afar off (both in space and in time), even as many as the Lord our God shall call" (Acts 2:39). So here all means upon all flesh.

October 19, 1781 -- Dateline-YORKTOWN, VIRGINIA: In a stunning reversal of fortune that may signal the end of fighting in the American colonies, Charles Lord Cornwallis today signed orders surrendering his British Army to a combined French and American force outside the Virginia tobacco port of Yorktown. Cornwallis' second-in-command, Charles O'Hara, attempted to deliver Cornwallis' sword to French general, Count Rochambeau. But Major General Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, Comte de Rochambeau, directed M. O'Hara to the American field commander and Commander-in-Chief, General George Washington, who (in turn) coolly steered Britian's man to Washington's own second in command, Major General Benjamin Lincoln. from http://www.pbs.org/

Note the flag in the picture painted by Trumbull; the 13th star is in the middle, and differs from the flag shown in his picture about Saratoga. See links starting from HERE -- Many more paintings of the battle: http://www.britishbattles.com/battle-yorktown.htm



Painted after-the-fact

October 20, 751: Pepin the Short, son of Frankish hero Charles Martel (you may remember that Martel defeated the muslim Saracens at Tours in October of 732) and father of Charlemagne, deposes the last of the Merovingian kings and becomes the first king of the Carolingian dynasty. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II, who later asked for his help when threatened by Lombards of northern Italy. Pepin defeated the Lombards, then ceded the territory he captured back to his Pope, laying the foundation for the Catholic holdings, today called the Papal States. Interestingly, Charlemagne made his capital in Aachen, and on this date in 1944, the US First Army took the German city of Aachen, taking 10,000 enemy prisoners.

October 20, 1774: The Articles of Association are adopted by the delegates of the several colonies of New-Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode-Island, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, the three lower counties of Newcastle, Kent and Sussex on Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, and South-Carolina, deputed to represent them in a Continental Congress http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/contcong/10-20-74.htm The blockade of Boston Harbor was one of the grievous acts for which the articles were drawn. This is also the date in 1803 when the Congress ratifies a treaty initiated by President Thomas Jefferson to purchase a wee bit o` France, the Louisiana Territory.
 
October 21 -- Feast Day of Sainte Cordula: Little is known of young Cordula, a very early Christian in Köln (Cologne). She is said to have been a member of the group following of Sainte Ursula. Sainte Cordula is believed to have been martyred by the invading Huns. The Huns brutally murdered Ursula, the daughter of a British king, King Dionotus of Cornwall, along with eleven thousand others (from Britain?) in Cologne. Cordula's relics originally were in a shrine in the Johanniterkirche in that ancient city. Saint Albertus Magnus spoke of her as a Sainte in 1278. This designation, recorded by Albert Magnus, precedes the practice of canonization by the Pope. Today there is a shrine im Domschatz von Osnabrück (circa 1447). Other relics are at churches in the towns of Königswinter und Rimini.

Kölner Dom
DIVINIS FLAMMEIS VISIONIB. FREQVENTER
ADMONIT. ET VIRTVTIS MAGNÆ MAI
IESTATIS MARTYRII CÆLESTIVM VIRGIN
IMMINENTIVM EX PARTIB. ORIENTIS
EXSIBITVS PRO VOTO CLEMATIVS V. C. DE
PROPRIO IN LOCO SVO HANC BASILICA
VOTO QVOD DEBEBAT A FVNDAMENTIS
RESTITVIT SI QVIS AVTEM SVPER TANTAM
MAIIESTATEM HVIIVS BASILICÆ VBI SANC
TAE VIRGINES PRO NOMINE. XPI. SAN
GVINEM SVVM FVDERVNT CORPVS ALICVIIVS
DEPOSVERIT EXCEPTIS VIRCINIB. SCIAT SE
SEMPITERNIS TARTARI IGNIB. PVNIENDVM

The authenticity of this text is accepted beyond the shadow of a doubt by the most eminent epigraphists . . . It belongs indisputably to the fifth century at the latest, and very probably to the fourth. This brief text is very important, for it testifies to the existence of a previous basilica, dating perhaps from the beginning of the fourth century, if not from the pre-Constantinian period. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15225d.htm The church devoted to Ste. Cordula in the village Schoten near Antwerp in Belgium is being restored, Pictures HERE. Interestingly, a Protestant German theologian, Paul Tillich, died (1965) on Ste. Ursula's Feast Day in Chicago. Tillich sought to integrate traditional Christianity and modern life. He was an early opponent to the Nazis. He also was the first non-Jewish person to be barred from academic appointments in Germany. He immigrated to the United States and taught in New York and later at the University of Chicago.

October 21, 1797: The 44-gun 204-foot U.S. Navy frigate USS Constitution, also known as Old Ironsides, was launched in Boston's harbor. The Constitution was never defeated in 42 battles. A new crew of 216 set sail in 1997 during the vessel's 200th birthday.

The planks for the Constitution's hull come from a species of live oaks that grew along the Georgia Coast in the 18th Century. Overlooking the Frederica River, on Saint Simons Island, Gascoigne Bluff was a favorite Native American campground. During the American colonial era, the landing at the bluff became Georgia's first naval base and bears the name of the man, Gascoigne, who first surveyed the local coast for England. When the Spanish fleet sailed up from the settlement of St. Augustine to attack Oglethorpe's settlement at Fort Frederica, they landed first at Gascoigne. http://www.gacoast.com/navigator/gascoigne.html

When the Spanish first arrived on St. Simons in the 1500s, they found a Mocama Native village named Guadalquini, the original name of St. Simons Island, on its south end near today's lighthouse, also located near Gascoigne Bluff. There, the Spanish established a mission called San Buenaventura de Guadalquini, which operated from 1605–1684. At the northern end of the island near Cannon's Point from 1661–1684 was the Spanish mission Santo Domingo de Asao/Talaje, which had been relocated from Darien. The island gets its name from a short-lived Yamassee Indian village known as San Simon, which was established near Fort Frederica by refugees during the late 1660s to 1684. English settlers anglicized the name to St. Simons.

A native uprising resulted in the deaths of five Franciscan missionaries, known by the name Georgia Martyrs. A relief of the martyrs hangs in the Catholic church dedicated to Saint William (2300 Frederica Road) which may be found on St. Simons Island near Bloody Marsh (no connection). One priest, Father Veráscola, was executed on the Island. http://clara.franciscan.edu/georgiamartyrs/index.htm Only the missionaries at San Pedro, thanks to a barking dog and the arrival of a Spanish ship, did not experience the gruesome and nightmarish fates of their fellow Franciscans. Interest in the five Georgia martyrs stirred in the 1970's, when the memory of them rose wraith-like following an archaeological excavation that unearthed remains of Santa Catalina Mission on Saint Catherines Island. Directed by Dr. David Hurst Thomas the dig yielded medals, rosaries, crosses and other artifacts. The archaeologists discovered a large cemetery beneath the floor of the former mission chapel. from http://diosav.org/files/franciscan_martyrs_georgia.pdf

Saint William of Montevergine or William of Vercelli (Italian: Guglielmo) (Latin: Gulielmus) (1085 – 25 June 1142) was a Christian hermit and the founder of the congregation of Montevergine, or the Williamites. Roger I of Sicily took him under his patronage, and the saint founded many monasteries, both of men and of women, in that kingdom. There are several other Saints of the name William. The one on St. Simons is dedicated to William (Guillaume de Dangeon) born in Nevers, France in the mid-12th century. Educated by his uncle Peter, Archdeacon of Soissons, he eventually became the Archbishop of Bourges, dying in 1209AD. “William rejected the vanities of the world and devoted himself to exercises of piety and the acquisition of knowledge.”

Known as Avaricum, Bourges was the Roman capital of Aquitania of the celtic Bituriges, north of the Garonne River. The Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Bourges (dedicated 13th century soon after his death), one of the glories of French design, un chef d'oeuvre gothique, is remarkable in that it has no transept. Would it not have been one of St. William's chief projects (Henri de Sully the former archevêque began the new structure) ? The Romanesque carved portals from about 1160-70, probably part of the façade of an earlier cathedral on the site, have been reused on the south and north doors. The interior Cathedral fell victim to Huguenot destruction in 1562, as both sides of the war of religion went mad.

October 21, 1908: A Saturday Evening Post advertisement for the first time extolled the virtue of a two-sided analog information storage device. It was a Columbia Records project, a giant black CD if you will. From there it is no small step to the modern musical storage and delivery devices of today: See you on the flip-side.

October 22nd-Inauguration Day: In 1836 Sam Houston, onetime military leader, became the very first President of the nation called the Republic of Texas. He would live to see Texas enter the Union of the United States. He would live to see the time when Texas tried to leave the Union. Also installed on this date in 1978, is a Polish-born Cardinal, who would honor his predecessor by taking on the title of Pope (Bishop of Rome) and name John Paul II. He like Sam Houston would change history through profound personal leadership skills. October 22nd has become the feast day for the late head of the Roman Catholic Church.

On this date in 1957, history records that the US received its first official casualties in Vietnam. These would not be the last in a conflict that took lives for over 15 more years. During the interim period (October 22, 1962), US President John F. Kennedy, after counsel from the former President, Dwight D. Eisenhower, announced that American reconnaissance planes had discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba. He ordered a naval quarantine of the Communist nation. A half century later, the Cuban people still look to the Castro family for leadership, while Kennedy died in Dallas Texas about a year later. Ten years after (October 22, 1972), in Saigon, Henry Kissinger and South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu meet to discuss a proposed cease-fire that had been worked out between Americans and North Vietnamese in Paris. The Christmas bombing campaign was not far away.

And if you are Canadienne, also on this day in 1692 at Verchères Québec, Madeleine Jarret de Verchères (1678-1747) began an heroic stand. She gathered about 20 local habitant farmers into her family's fortified home, Fort Dangerous. As an Iroquois attack begins, she fires cannon to warn other families. Her father François, a militia colonel is away in Montreal. The 14 year old will defend the fort against an Iroquois siege for the next 8 days, with only 2 militia and her young brother under her command. This takes place within the Jarret seigneury about 32 km east of Montreal on the St. Lawrence River opposite Repentigny. One might call her the Jeanne d'Arc of Québec, except she was not martyred by the English.
 
October 22, 1956: Hungarian students planned a solidarity demonstration, which would begin an unsuccessful attempt to regain freedom from a Soviet dominated government and Europe. Two days earlier the Polish government (Gomulka) had revolted (although it would later return to the fold). The efforts in Hungary would fail. No one would come to their aid against the the Russian Soviet tanks of November 4th. Other events overshadowed the world stage. No it wasn't the olympics.

At the same time (October 22nd), the English and French were meeting at a Château in Sévres (Marquise de Pompadour) near Paris, to plan to regain the Suez Canal. Egypt had nationalized the resource. Interestingly, on this date the French hijacked a plane in order to capture the Invisible One, a socialist Algerian Revolutionary, while Jordan held elections, where candidates supporting Egypt took power. President Eisenhower did not however, lend support to the invasion of Egypt, possibly fearing Egypt would fall into the Soviet sphere of influence. The Suez Crisis ended quickly with all sides agreeing to a cease-fire on November 6, 1956, at the behest of the US and the UN. http://history.acusd.edu/gen/text/suez.html By coincidence, Konrad Adenauer, Germany's chancellor, stayed in Paris on November 6 1956, while negotiating the Treaty of Rome, which would create the common market and eventually the EU. A chastened British minister, Anthony Eden, rang to tell his opposite number, Guy Mollet, that he had caved to US pressure and agreed to a ceasefire. Now is the time to build Europe, Adenauer said to console him. In this pivotal moment, Nassar became a martyr (though he didn't die). Incidently, on this date in 1962, France released its Algerian Prisoner and lost its hold on this nation of Moslem faith. http://www.guardian.co.uk/egypt/story/0,,1819115,00.html

Five years earlier in 1951, Iran and Great Britain severed diplomatic relations after the nationalization of British oil interests without compensation. Speaking of Iran, the Shah came to NYC on this date in 1979 to receive vital cancer treatments. He would soon die of his disease and the United States would have itself a hostage crisis, the effects from which we still suffer. For example on October 23, 1983, the Beruit Bombing killed 299 US and French servicemen while on a "Peacekeeping" mission.

October 23, 1794 (an American saint): Physician Richard Banks was born in Elbert County, Georgia. One of thirteen children, Banks was the only one to attend college. After attending both the University of Georgia (for one year) and the University of Pennsylvania, he received his M.D. degree. Only practicing in Philadelphia for a year, he returned to rural northwest Georgia and set up shop not far from his original home. He was skilled and popular. Eventually, he moved to larger offices on Gainesville, Georgia. Despite having limited medical facilities, Banks performed numerous successful surgeries, some which had never been done before (like removing a parotid gland). Even though he was among the most talented physicians of his day, Banks never sought publicity or fame for his work, preferring to quietly help his neighbors and friends. After thirty-five years of such dedicated service, Banks died in Gainesville on May 6, 1856.

Fame of a type was to be his, however, in death. The Georgia General Assembly named a new county in his honor on December 11, 1858. Banks County was created in 1858 from parts of Franklin and Habersham counties. Although Royston, in Franklin County, was Ty Cobb's birthplace according to some and Narrows (in Banks County) according to most others (all agree on the birthdate of December 18, 1886), Banks County can clearly lay claim to having the most notable resident who ever played baseball. http://www.bankscountyga.org/history.htm

Another notable Banks County icon, built circa 1793, Fort Hollingsworth, served after the American Revolution to protect against native attacks. Located on Wynn Lake Road in northern Banks County (then Habersham), the fort still stands in remarkable condition. It is on the list of National historic sites and one of the oldest remaining structures in the State, in use today as a private residence. http://roadsidegeorgia.com/site/hollingsworth.html
 
Flag of the sovereign Nation of GeorgiaGeorgia on my Mind: The Rose Revolution brought to power the Mikhail Saakashvili government in Georgia, which has been trying for several years to pursue closer relations with western Europe. The Russian response has been to raise energy prices and to support several break-away provinces within Georgia (Ossetian conlict and Abkhazian war). Russia has taken a closer look at Georgians residing in Russia (and killing some), to assure that they are legally in the country and not members of organized crime. Georgia's leaders, in turn had looked closely for and found Russian spies, and generally ratcheting-up the tensions by not towing the Soviet proper political line. They lost this game in 2008, the defenses are now being rebuilt, but territory has been lost.

Provinces and Regions in dispute Russia has objected to using UN Security Council to punish Iran. http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/ap/world/4279068.html Russia has desired to carefully approach the North Korea nuclear problem; yet, Moscow was quick to react in closing its border with Georgia, as a counteraction to the detainment of Russian military officers there in 2006. Moscow completely banned the flow of people, goods and money to and from Georgia since February 2006, generally hurting the Georgian economy. http://www.charlotte.com/mld/charlotte/news/world/15823706.htm. Contrast China's attitude toward North Korea after its nuclear test and the effect it had to temper, at least initially, a growing crisis. The lesson of Hungary (October 23rd in 1956) is clear: Liberty can be delayed but it cannot be denied. http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/1023/p06s01-woeu.html The Autonomous Republic of Adjara is a region on the Black Sea coast of the lesser Caucasus Mountains, traditionally populated by ethnic Georgians of the Suni Moslem faith, also seeking to leave Georgia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajaria Read what was printed in Russia about this region over three years ago, when being a tourist was safer -- http://www.kommersant.com/t363467/r_2/n_13/Georgia/.

Russia has been opposing break-away moslem-faith ethnic groups in its own country, while of course supporting them in Georgia (Abkhazia and South Ossetia). Also, Russia has taken the side of Serbia against the break-away country of Kosovo. Russia held a high-level meeting with the leaders of two breakaway republics in Georgia on Friday (February 16, 2008), and vowed to increase its support for the separatists if and when Kosovo declared its independence, and was recognized by the West (which has happened). http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/16/world/europe/16breakaway.html?ref=todayspaper Now in August 2008, while the World was looking elsewhere to view the Olympics, Russia has invaded Georgia and targeted civilians as well as the Georgian forces.

South Ossetia, the breakaway Georgian county and scene of a portion of the bitter conflict, announced on September 11, 2008, that it will seek to become part of the Russian Federation. So, Russian troops won't be leaving (big surprise) Georgian soil. President Sergei Bagapsh of Abkhazia (the other province in revolt) said that his coastal area intends become a fully independent state under international law, its sovereignty to date recognized only by Russia and Nicaragua. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/ The Ukraine and Crimea are next on the list of do-overs, as the region heads for a free-for-all again. Look for the Crimea, upon occupation to voluntarily return to the Russian Federation.

The Russia-Georgia conflict has focused attention on other potential flash-points that have their origin in the Soviet era, which ended in the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. If Moscow has decided, contrary to its previous policy, that the right of national self-determination (ie. protecting ethnic Russians) is to take precedence over maintaining the post-Cold War borders, Serbia and Georgia might not be the only two countries to see their borders forcibly redrawn.

Speaking of Revolutions: This week (in 2012) marks the eleventh year of the public release (10/23/2001) of the iPod, a now multi-GB device that let a thousand songs be at your finger tips. Perhaps the most mainstream cultural effect rising from an effective portable MP3 song-player, which offers a high degree of individual control, is the podcasting phenomena. Song-playing on the iPod is evolving into video, too; but audio-music is the main reason for success. I had always loved music, but hadn't really heard much for a while as I had fallen into a busy life. The iPod came along, and because it could carry so much music, I began to rip my CD collection to iTunes. I began to listen to music again, it was like rediscovering parts of my own personality. http://www.macworld.co.uk/, ipod-fête-ans-existence And, now since 2007, we have had the iPhone (G2, G3 and G4 versions), and more-lately new iPad and G5 versions. The latest ipad version was released October 23, 2013, along with other produits.

October 24, 2001 -- Release date: United We Stand A Flag stamp -- 34¢ self-adhesive definitive stamps, convertible booklets of 20, coils of 100 and coils of 10,000, Washington, DC 20066 (also released in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Connecticut, and a couple of post offices around Washington, DC (located in Maryland and Virginia)). Distributed nationwide beginning November 5th. In the 5 6 years since its release, postage costs have increased five seven cents.

Also to note on this date, one of the World's great disappearing acts: On October 24, 1795, the sovereign nation of Poland vanishes, divided between Austria, Prussia and Russia. It would reappear briefly after The Great War (WW I), then disappear again. It was not until the late 1980's that a portion of the original Polish Nation would come forth, through the united efforts of a polish Pope and an outspoken labour leader.

October 24, 1260: The new Cathedral of Chartres is dedicated in the presence of King Louis IX. UNESCO has recognized this structure as a World Heritage Site. Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres is a particularly fine examples of French Gothic architecture. The building, a medieval Roman Rite Catholic church, sits about 50 miles southwest of Paris. The best way to reach it is by train from the Montparnasse station in SW Paris.

The Cathedral became the focus in the town of Chartres. It was the center of the economy, a most famous landmark and the origin of almost every activity that would be today provided by civic authorities. A center for pilgrimage, since at least 876 the Cathedral's site has held a tunic that was said to have belonged to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Sancta Camisia, presented to the church by Charles the Bald. It has changed hands and been besieged several times. It was taken in 1591 by Protestant Henri, King of Navarre, who was crowned there three years afterwards as his most Catholic Majesty, Henry IV, the first ruler from the House of Bourbon. He chose it over the Cathedral at Reims, where his rival had lived. He is buried at Saint-Denis.

Most of the original stained glass windows survive, while the architecture has seen only minor changes since the early 13th century. The building's exterior is dominated by heavy flying buttresses. These allowed the designers to increase the window size significantly. The west end is dominated by the Rose window centered between two contrasting spires – a 105-metre (349 ft) plain pyramid completed around 1160 and a 113-metre (377 ft) early 16th-century Flamboyant spire on top of an older tower. Equally notable are the three great façades, each adorned with hundreds of sculpted figures illustrating key theological themes and narratives, as well as the contemplative floor-tile design, a labyrinth.

Today's structure sits on a site occupied by several previous churches and fronts what was once a Roman forum. Nothing survives of the earliest known church, which was destroyed during an attack on the city by the Danes (Vikings) in 858AD. No doubt there were earlier structures there, perhaps a Roman Temple and something from pre-Roman times, a pattern seen in other places with a long history of occupation. The evidence of which were removed when the crypt was dug or just burned and crushed by the course of time.
 
October 24, 1914: Louis Alexander is forced to resign as the premier Admiral of the British fleet. Alexander had been born with the family name Battenberg in Graz, Austria, the son of Fürst (Prince) Alexander of Hessia. He had been naturalized as a British subject in 1868 and became a leader of several significant British naval campaigns from 1882 through the time of World War I. He worked with Winston Churchill to mobilize the British fleet prior to this Great War. Despite his outstanding loyal service, Louis was forced to resign as First Sea Lord on October 29, 1914, due to his German origins (a post which Churchill later filled and from which he would leave in disgrace). They did not force the King to resign, even though his German Cousin ruled the enemy empire. Never forget that he who laughs last ....

In 1917 Louis Alexander renounced all of his German titles and took on the new name of Mountbatten. He became the English Marquess of Milford Haven. He married Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt. Their son, the second Marquess would provide invaluable service to the Crown and Prime Minister Churchill in World War II. Their grandson is Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who married his cousin Queen Elizabeth II. The current heir to the English throne is a direct descendent of Louis.

Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt's full name was Victoria Alberta Elizabeth Matilda Mary, born to Princess Alice of Great Britain, Grand Duchess of Hesse. Victoria was the grand-daughter of the English Queen Victoria. Her sister was Alexandra ("Alix") Fedorovna (a Tsarina of Russia). http://www.regiments.org/biography/royals/1863vicH.htm

October 25th This is the day to celebrate the consecration of a church for which the dedication date is unknown. What we see carried out here physically within these walls must be carried out spiritually within our hearts; what we look to accomplish here with stones and wood {brick and mortar}, must be achieved in our bodies, by the Grace of God. Saint Augustine's Ancient Sermon on the Subject -- We live in hope of the City of God, the new Jerusalem, which replaces the old [Text References: Hebrews 11:10, 13:14; Revelation 21:2-22:5].

Et civitatem sanctam Hierusalem Novam vidi {Iohannes evangelista} descendentem de caelo a Deo paratam sicut sponsam ornatam viro suo (Vulgate) -- Und ich, Johannes, sah die heilige Stadt, das neue Jerusalem, von Gott aus dem Himmel herabfahren, bereitet als eine geschmückte Braut ihrem Mann (Luther) -- Et je {Jean} vis descendre du ciel, d'auprès de Dieu, la ville sainte, la nouvelle Jérusalem, préparée comme une épouse qui s'est parée pour son époux (French LS). from http://scripturetext.com/revelation/21-2.htm -- (just in case you are having trouble understanding the French or the German texts).

The 25th is also the feast day for Saint Minias, a martyred soldier (250AD) for making converts in the reign of Emperor Trajanus Decius. An abbey on one of the highest hills near Florence bears his name.

October 25, 1760: On this day British King George II in London died. George II followed his father, George I as Elector of Hanover (Holy Roman Empire) and King of England. George II was born in Hanover, Germany like his father and grew up on the Continent. Unlike his father, he learned English before he became the ruler of Great Britain. A keen music fan, George II was the patron of Georg Friedrich Händel, whom he brought to London. The King was succeeded by his grandson, George III, who failed to retain the American colonies.

October 26, 1576: Today marks the passing of Friedrich III in Heidelberg, Germany. He was the Elector of the Palatine Region of the Rhine River (an Elector being one who could help chose the next leader of the Holy Roman Empire). He became a Protestant in 1546. He assisted the advance of Protestant faith in Germany, France and in non-Spanish Netherlands (Holland). http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_III._(Pfalz) Many of the Huguenot refugees from France fled to the Palatinate region before later immigrating to the American Colonies and fighting another Elector's great-grandson.

October 27, 1553: The Spanish theologian, Michael Servetus, was burned at the stake for heresy and blasphemy in Geneva, Switzerland. He had offended both the Catholic and Protestant churches with speculations about the nature of the Trinity. Servetus had made repeated attempts to meet with and influence the Swiss reformer, John Calvin. Calvin found him too offensive. Calvin is reported to have stated that if Servetus ever came to Geneva, he would not allow him to leave, alive. In Lyon (France) Servetus was put on trial by an Inquisition. He escaped, however, and was burned only in effigy. Having made his way to Geneva, he was recognized there and again put on trial for heresy. The City Council found him guilty and sentenced him to death. Calvin (modern scholarship reveals) did not want him put to death, and certainly not by fire; but, in Geneva he was burned alive on October 27, 1553.

In contrast on October 27, 2001, Herr Dr. Helmut Kohl, former West-German Chancellor, received the Westphalian Peace Prize in recognition of his effort to reunite East and West Germany. http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Oct27.html With the opening of Parliament on Monday October 26, 1998, Dr. Kohl ended his 16 years in office. He was the longest serving chancellor in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany, even surpassing Konrad Adenauer's record as the longest serving post-war chancellor. His efforts as Germany's chief statesman after the Wall fell in November 1989 secured reunification. He first formally presented his 10-point plan for a unified nation on November 28, 1989.

Chi-Rho, the alpla and omega  
(Le Labarum ) en françaisLe 28 octobre 312: Constantinus imperius æmulum Maxentio victorii, qum ad Tiberim pontem extra urbem (Milvius) — Constantin bat son rival Maxence au Pont Milvius, sur le Tibre, à la sortie de Rome. Before the battle (night of the 27th), he had a vision of a Cross and words written in the sky in the common Greek:
français

EN TOUTO NIKA (conquer by this -- Nike being a messenger of victory) or roughly in Latin In hoc signo vinces means "In this sign conquer (be invincible)" -- « Par ce signe tu vaincras (traduction française) ». In response he had this sign placed on his forces. He adopted the Labarum Chi and Rho, together the symbol for Christ, after his victory, thereby beginning the steps toward conversion of the Roman government to the Faith. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08717c.htm Less than one hundred years later, the Rome of the western empire could not defend its eternal city, let alone rule an empire.

So these events set up a penetrating question from Malcolm Muggeridge: What if the church in the West had pinned its hopes on the Roman Empire ? Think about Byzantium as you ponder !!! While Jerome, Salvianus and other apologists saw the sacking of Rome in 410 as an omen of the end of the world, and responded either by withdrawal or a call to recover the faith (read culture of the time) of the Empire, the great African bishop (Augustine) took up his pen to reach another conclusion.

Augustine (354-430) laid out his approach to the new situation by writing that great classic of Western civilization, The City of God. In this world, the wheat and tares grow together; love struggles with selfishness for dominion. In the City of God in heaven, there is only perfection, joy, peace, and love. But this does not even describe the church, for there are wolves within and sheep without, and not even the Christians themselves can attain moral perfection. Thus, Augustine countered the moralistic utopianism of most other apologists and, therefore, undermined the foundation for a supposed revival of imperial fervor. We ought not to confuse our nostalgia with the revival of religion. Only in eternity will truth, beauty, goodness, and love triumph finally. Therefore, in this world we participate on a human level with our neighbors, and do our best to evangelize and participate in the City of Man as salt and light, but we must never confuse the City of Man with the City of God. Without Faith there is no sacrifice {of the heart}, without sacrifice there can be no salvation {forgiveness, justification ...}.

As Henry Chadwick puts it,

Augustine saw the Church existing for the Kingdom {City} of God, the true eternal city, beyond the rise and fall of all empires and civilizations. So even a Christian Rome, which could not be the city of God, could claim no exemption from the chaos and destruction brought by the barbarians. And, Augustine never supposed that the interests of the Christian Roman empire and the kingdom of God could be more or less identical. In relation to the church, he thought, the government had a positive function to preserve peace and liberty. Even the barbarians who attacked the empire were not necessarily enemies to the City of God. It could be the western church's task to convert its new barbarian masters.

The African bishop, therefore, saw the crisis [of the fall of Rome] as an opportunity. If Rome, the City of Man, is ultimate destination, the Gothic invasion would intolerable. If, on the other hand, the City of God is the eternal (and heavenly) destination (Revelation 21:2), outliving the rise and fall of earthly empires, the invasion is an unparalleled missionary opportunity. After all, instead of having to take the Gospel to the pagans, it is the pagans themselves who are coming to the missionaries! It all depends on how one looks at the problem / opportunity. from http://www.modernreformation.org/

October 28, 1868: Thomas Edison applied for his first patent, an electrical vote recorder. The Democrat party cries foul, claiming that since Edison is a Republican from New Jersey, no doubt he will try to steal the election from the party bosses. Trust us to count the votes fairly by hand. Mr. Edison could not be reached for comment.
 
October 29, 1914: Turkey declared war, taking the side of Germany and Austria, and closing the Dardanelles to the allied opposition. This cut Russia off from Britain and France. It was Winston Churchill's plan to take back the Dardanelles (1915), when he headed the ministry of the British Navy (First Lord of the Admiralty). That plan failed because of the lack of high-level political support. Failure put an end to his first career as a military strategist and sent him into his first (but not last) political exile. http://www.chu.cam.ac.uk/archives/gallery/dardanelles/

Paquebot Normandie 
light blue varietyle 29 octobre 1932 -- Mise à l'eau du SS Normandie: Le plus grand paquebot du monde (312 mètres) sort des chantiers navals du Havre (lancé à Saint-Nazaire ?). Fleuron de la compagnie générale transatlantique, il peut recevoir 1972 passagers. Réquisitionné par les États-Unis pendant la guerre le Normandie finira sa vie à New-York en 1942, ravagé par un incendie. In English: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Normandie.

October 29, 2005: Le président iranien Mahmoud Ahmadinejad a persisté vendredi dans son appel à «rayer Israël de la carte», le jour où des centaines de milliers de ses compatriotes descendaient dans la rue aux cris de «mort à Israël» à l'occasion de la journée «antisioniste» annuelle. «Ils sont libres de dire ce qu'ils veulent», a déclaré le président ultra-conservateur, réagissant au tollé suscité par ses propos chez les Occidentaux. Vendredi, le président Ahmadinejad était dans la foule réunie à Téhéran à l'occasion de l'annuelle «journée de Qods» (Jérusalem), instituée par Ruhollah Khomeiny, le fondateur de la République islamique, pour dénoncer «les crimes sionistes». http://www.letemps.ch/template/international.asp?page=4&article=166602

October 30, 1775: Twelve British regulars and 30 militiamen conduct a raid on the American camp at Longeuil (Québec). The surprised Americans are soon put to flight and their provisions are confiscated. see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longueuil,_Quebec

During the Battle for Quebec (1755-1760), a part of the French troops had their winter quarters in Longueuil. Soldiers stayed on the farms. Officers lived at the fort. The British occupied French Canada in 1760. At the beginning of the English regime, the population of Longueuil remained low with only 708 inhabitants who were farming 2798 arpents [a measure of land]. In 1781, Charles William Grant, son of David-Alexandre Grant and Marie-Charles-Joseph Le Moyne inherited the Seigniory and became the fifth baron. The Barony of Longueuil became the only French one in Canada later recognized by England. The barony of Longueuil played an important role during the American invasion in 1775.

In the American Revolution of 1774-1776, British General George Carleton tried to drive out American troops located in the Fort at Longueuil. Americans attempted to encourage Canadians to seek independence from the British as well. They sent 1800 men under the command of General Montgomery to invade Canada. General Carleton, commanding the British troops in Canada, tried to drive them out in a battle on the south shore. Longueuil became part again of the military history when the Americans besieged Saint-Jean. Some 300 took up position in Longueuil, where on October 30, 1775, they confronted Carleton and his soldiers who had to retreat (leaving Montreal to take refuge in Québec City). Defeated in front of the capital city, the Bostonians retreated to Longueuil. There they settled a part of their forces for the winter of 1776. -- So, Greenfield Park's early historical origins are tied closely to the history of Longueuil.

October 30, 1864: Toward the end of the War Between the States, the town of Helena, Montana, is founded when four Georgia prospectors discover gold at Last Chance Gulch. Lewis and Clark's travels brought them close to the bonanza -- http://helenacvb.visitmt.com/. In less than two weeks fires would be ablaze in Georgia to mark the event.

A few years earlier, sometime in late 1848: Some of the first gold shipments from California arrived at the mint in Philadelphia. This event resulted in some coins minted with the letters Cal in the back; however, a Gold Medal of Zachary Taylor's victory at Buena Vista (February 23, 1847) is the only object that can be traced to the very first shipment. Once thought to be lost, it was rediscovered and was auctioned in October 2006. It broke records for a medallion, because of its uniqueness and tie with the first California gold. Read about some other Gold Rushes in the USA -- HERE.

The Special Delivery Stamps of 1944:   Rotary Press - Perf 11 x 10½ - 200 Subject Electric Eye Plates -- http://www.1847usa.com/
Scott E17 - The 13¢ Messenger on Motorcycle stamp of 1944 Scott E18 - The 17¢ Messenger on Motorcycle stamp of 1944
E17 - The 13¢ Messenger on Motorcycle
October 30, 1944
E18 - The 17¢ Messenger on Motorcycle
October 30, 1944

October 30, 2005: The City of Dresden's (Saxony, Germany) baroque cathedral (Frauenkirche-The Church of Our Lady) has been rebuilt after 60 years. Allied forces fire-bombed the city centre during World War II. This attack destroyed the church and much of the old city. Reconstruction of the structure began in 1994, something impossible under the previous communist regime. This day marks the day of its rededication. Earlier, Coventry Cathedral (England) gave the Frauenkirche a cross made from medieval nails from the roof of the English cathedral, destroyed by German bombing in 1940, during the Battle of Britain. Money for rebuilding came from the German government, the state of Saxony, the city of Dresden, the Protestant church and private donations, including some from the British people. Our page on -- Dresden

October 31, 994: Death arrives for Saint Wolfgang (924 – 994). Wolfgang (pronounced Vulfgawnk) was born in Pfullingen, Germany (5 miles SE of Tübingen in the modern state of Baden-Württemberg) to a noble family. He was able to study at the monastic school of Reichenau and the cathedral school of Würzburg. In 956 he became a teacher at the cathedral school of Trier / Trèves. Wolfgang entered the Benedictine order in and was ordained a priest in 968. He was then sent as a missionary to the Magyars (modern Hungary). In 972 he was made the Bishop of Regensburg. In his capacity as Bishop in Regensburg he counseled and taught the man who would become Holy Roman Emperor, Heinrich II (1014 – 1024). Saint Wolfgang, active in the development and reformation of a number of monasteries, also possessed the gift of healing.

Later in life, Saint Wolfgang became a hermit for a period of 7 years on the body of water now called the Lake of Wolfgang (in modern Austria -- Wolfgangsee). He died in 994 at Pupping, Austria. He was buried in Regensburg at the monastery of Saint Emmeram. His tomb was regarded almost from the beginning as a holy place. Miracles were reported worked there. He was canonized in 1052 by Pope Leo IX.

The Magyars, a people from the Ural-Altai region, moved forward in 895 into the Avarian Wilderness on the Theiss. Attempts to convert them were made by [1] the Court of Byzantium, as well as by [2] St. Wolfgang, then a monk sent from Maria Einsiedeln (l'abbaye bénédictine), [3] by Piligrim, Bishop of Passau, who, as successor of the Bishops of Lorch, wished to be Metropolitan of all Pannonia, and [4] by Adalbert of Prague. Thus it was brought about that the Magyar ruler Géza, great grandson of Arpad, and his wife Sarolta were favourably inclined to Christianity. The real Apostle of the Magyars, however, was Géza's great son, St. Stephen. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02121b.htm The technical title goes to Saint Astericus Anastasius [(Astrik-Anastaz) (Slavic, Radla)] Apostle of the Magyars (c.955-c.1036), First Archbishop of Gran, Hungary, born Bohemia. He entered the Benedictine Order and co-operated with King and Saint Stephen in establishing the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary, being sent by the latter to beg papal approval for the organization of the Church there and to ask for he crown of that kingdom. In 1000 he crowned Stephen, first King of Hungary.

In German folklore rain on St. Wolfgang's day (October 31st) is regarded as promising a good year -- An St. Wolfgang Regen verspricht ein Jahr voll Segen.

Le 31 octobre 1512: Le est inaugurée la fresque de la chapelle Sixtine. L'œuvre maîtresse de Michel-Ange est saluée par tous les contemporains. Vasari écrit  : «Chacun eut l'impression d'un univers en mouvement et demeura muet d'admiration». Derrière l'admiration légitime des Italiens de goût se profile l'indignation du petit clergé allemand vis à vis d'une entreprise très coûteuse et fort peu évangélique. La bombe de Martin Luther explosera cinq ans plus tard.

Turm-SchlosskircheLe 31 octobre 1517: Un moine affiche sur la porte de l'église de Wittenberg (Saxe) 95 thèses où il dénonce les scandales de l'Église de son temps. Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the wooden doors of the Hofkirche in Wittenberg (All Saints was the castle church). The church still stands, though the original doors are gone. The doors have been replaced with bronze doors with the 95 theses embossed onto them ... see Numbers 21:4-9 and Enchiridion piarum precationum: cum Passionali ut uocant, quibus accessit nouum calendarium cum cisio iano uetere & nouo, atque alijs quibusdam, ut patet ex indice, Martin Luther (1543-a book of Holy days and prayers) And he broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for until those days the people of Israel had burned incense to it; it was called Nehushtan   see 2 Kings 18:1-6.

Since the inception of the Reformation, until the latter part of the 19th century, the Protestant church would have correctly been called “the church transformed,” but not since. In fact, we find ourselves in need of a new reformation. Many Christians today know nothing of this great time-period in the history of Christ’s church. LeaderCall.com

Interestingly in 2007, this day will see the ancient church, Emmaus Kirche, arrive at its new home in the eastern part of Germany (Saxony) near Leipzig. The 700 ton (750 tonnes) stone structure is moving a few miles from Heuersdorf to Borna out of necessity http://www.heuersdorf.de/English1.html. Its former home is being swallowed by an open pit lignite (brown-coal) mine. This village church dates from the Middle Ages (circa 1297) of Romanesque style, one of many old buildings being lost in the area. The Kirche will squeeze into Martin Luther Square in Borna on Reformation Day (October 31st), when Lutherans traditionally remember 16th-Century reformer. Reuters story; Der Spiegel (an English version with much detail) and The Path less Travelled -- Deutsche Welle

The historic importance of Wittenberg reflects the seat of the Elector of Saxony, a dignity held by the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg and the town's close connection with Martin Luther at the dawn of the Protestant Reformation; several of its buildings are associated closely with the events of this time. Part of the Augustinian monastery in which Luther dwelt, first as a monk and later as owner with his wife and family, is preserved and considered to be the world's premier museum dedicated to Luther. Unlike many other historic German cities during World War II, Wittenberg was spared destruction during the war. The Allies agreed not to bomb Wittenberg. Wittenberg was occupied by Soviet forces, and became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1949. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wittenberg

October 31, 1860: Girl Scout founder Juliette [Daisy] Gordon Low was born in Savannah. Her family traveled extensively, a habit she would carry on into adulthood. While traveling in England, she met and married William Low in 1886. His family's fortune was based in cotton, as merchants (factors) in Savannah. The marriage (some report) was not a happy one, and Juliette continued her pre-marriage traveling habit. Her husband died in 1905, leaving her the money and even more time for travel and discovery. While in England in 1911, she met Robert Baden-Powell, war hero and founder of the Boy Scouts. When over 6000 young girls tried to enlist as Boy Scouts, Baden-Powell asked his sister to organize a Girl Guide organization based on similar principles. It was at this juncture that Juliette Gordon Low entered the picture. She recognized a need for such a girl's organization and it quickly became the central focus of her life.

Ms. Low helped to establish the first troops in Scotland and London, then soon decided to bring the Girl Guide organization home. The first meeting in America took place at the Low home in Savannah on March 12, 1912. The popularity of the organization spread rapidly, thanks largely to Low's tireless efforts to promote and attract influential sponsors for the organization. The Girl Scouts of the United States of America was officially incorporated in Washington, DC in 1915, with Juliette Gordon Low elected as national president. Upon her resignation in 1920, she was designated with the title Founder. Her birthday was proclaimed Founder's Day. She continued to work with the organization, culminating with the Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. hosting the Fourth International Camp in its brand new training center. The conference (held in 1926) was attended by both Low and Baden-Powell, plus delegates from twenty-nine countries. Daisy died in Savannah less than a year later, on January 17, 1927, and was buried in Laurel Grove Cemetery. http://www.girlscouts.org/who_we_are/history/low_biography/

During her life she had seen the Girl Scouts grow from that first meeting of eighteen girls to an international organization with a membership of approximately 148,000 girls and women. In 1948, two days before what would have been her 88th birthday, the U.S. Post Office Department issued a 3-cent commemorative stamp honoring Juliette Gordon Low. First day of issue ceremonies for the stamp were held in Savannah.

Native Yamacraw Chief Tomochichi is buried and memorialized today on Wright Square in Savannah. Wright Square was originally Percival Square, named after the Earl of Egmont who was influential in the Georgia Colony's founding. Renamed to honor James Wright, who was the Georgia Colony's last Royal Governor, the square also has a monument to William Washington GORDON. He was a mayor of Savannah, a Supreme Court Justice for the State of Georgia and he established the Central of Georgia Railroad. As you may have surmised, he was also father of Juliette Gordon Low, founder of The Girl Scouts of America. The location, also known as the courthouse square fronts the US Post Office (circa 1899). "wrightsquareinformationpage.html"

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !
 
Beloved, we are now the sons of God, but it doth not yet appear what we shall become;
however, we know that, when He shall return, we shall be like Him; for we shall see Him as He is [1 John 3:2].

Premier Novembre — C’est sa fête Toussaint (Festum Omnium Sanctorum): Called Allerheiligentag, All Saints Day in Germany remains one of several legal holidays ( Die Feiertage) in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Northrhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, as well in Austria. In Zeiten der Verfolgung durch die römischen Kaiser galt besonderes Ansehen vor allem den Märtyrern, die für ihr christliches Bekenntnis ihr Leben geopfert hatten. Christen wollten sich in der Nähe der Märtyrergräber bestatten lassen. Bei der Auferstehung am Jüngsten Tag wollte man in ihrer Nähe sein. An der Stelle mancher Gräber von Märtyrern erbaute man später Kirchen. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allerheiligen

Toussaint est un raccourci qui désigne la fête de « tous les martyrs et de tous les saints ». Cette fête a été instituée en 610 par le pape Boniface IV afin d'honorer Marie et les martyrs romains dont il avait fait transférer les corps des catacombes au panthéon d'Agrippa, reconverti en église. L'Occident a fixé la Toussaint au 1er novembre et fait du lendemain, 2 novembre, la Fête des morts. Par cette disposition, l'Église place symboliquement l'ensemble des défunts sous la protection des saints. Gregory III (731-741) consecrated a chapel in the Basilica of St. Peter to all the saints and fixed the anniversary for November 1st. A basilica of the Apostles already existed in Rome, and its dedication was annually remembered on May First. Gregory IV (827-844) extended the celebration on November First to the entire Christian Church. A vigil seems to have been held as early as the feast itself. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01315a.htm {English} Commémoraison des fidèles défunts:

« La mort a été engloutie dans la victoire. Ô Mort, où est ta victoire ? Ô Mort, où est ton dard venimeux ? »
[Première lettre de saint Paul Apôtre aux Corinthiens (XV, 54-58).]
« En vérité, je te le dis, dès aujourd’hui tu seras avec moi dans le paradis » [Luc 23, 46].
Jésus lui dit: « Moi, je suis la résurrection et la vie. Celui qui croit en moi, même s'il meurt, vivra ; et tout homme qui vit et qui croit en moi ne mourra jamais.
Crois-tu cela ? »

Elle répondit: « Oui, Seigneur »
« Lazare, viens dehors !»
[Suite du saint Évangile de notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ selon Saint Jean (XI, 1-45)]

http://www.cyberhymnal.org/htm/f/a/fallthes.htm

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls
 
A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure: http://www.catholic-convert.com/

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from:
http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-jan.htm -- http://timelines.ws/days/01_01.HTML -- http://www.herodote.net/jour0101.htm -- http://www.440.com/twtd/archives/jan01.html -- http://www.treas.gov/education/history/events/01-jan.shtml -- http://missel.free.fr/calendrier.php?mois=1&annee=2010 -- http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/features/twich/01.html -- http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Jan1.html

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December



More Flags -- Flag Day
Early GA Flag Gwenn Ha Du 
qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at the time.