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The  VANGUARD --   2013

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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

Tour de France -- 2012 -- A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover --

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord
[ from Psalm 122 ] .

All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth unto such as keep his covenant and his testimonies [ Psalm 25:10 ].

If you are on the wrong road, progress means doing an about-turn and walking back to the right road; and in that use, the man who turns back soonest is the most progressive. — C.S. Lewis

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4

Resurrexit sicut dixit, Alleluia!: The Easter Vigil, also called the Paschal Vigil or the Great Vigil of Easter, serves as the first official mass of the celebration of the Resurrection. Historically, it is during this service that people were baptized and that adult catechumens were received into full communion with the Church. The Easter Vigil includes a blessing of water, which is a sign of purification (and of baptism). Holy water, that is, water that has been ceremonially blessed, is a sacramental, set aside as an outward and visible sign of an inward (and invisible) truth. The Mass begins after the fall of darkness between sunset on Holy Saturday and sunrise on Easter -— most commonly in the evening of Holy Saturday. In the Roman Catholic and the Anglican Communions, the Easter Vigil is considered by many as the most important service of the liturgical year, as well as being the first celebration of the Eucharist during the fifty-day long celebration of the Resurrection. Very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulcher, bringing the spices which they had prepared and they found not the body of the Lord Jesus. Luke 24:1, 3

And they {the angels} say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou ? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid him. And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou ? Whom seekest thou ? [John 20:13-15a (KJV)]
Alleluia, the Lord is risen; the Lord is risen indeed, Alleluia !!!

Christus ist auferstanden ! -- Er ist wahrhaftig auferstanden !!!

This is the the day the Lord has made -- Let us rejoice and be glad in it: Christians celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead. Before theologians had explained the death of Jesus in terms of various atonement theories, the early Church saw the resurrection as the central evidence to the final redemptive act of God in history. This event marks the central point of faith in the confession of the early and universal (catholic) Church, and it was the focus of Christian worship. Observed on the first day of each week since the first century (Acts 20:7; Sunday was officially proclaimed the Christian sabbath in AD 321).

If you take away the Resurrection of Jesus {from Paul's first letter to the church at Corinth, Chapter 15}, you make nothing of the faith. [I]f Christ has not been raised, your faith is vain … but in fact Christ was raised from the dead into life ! The best testimony of the Resurrection of Christ is that its effects span last two millenniums, changing the life of the earth. The Resurrection of the Messiah is the grand event of the ages, toward which all previous history moved, and in which all subsequent history finds its meaning.

Is 1 Cor 15:3b-5 -- A Pre-Pauline Pericope or Post-Pauline Interpolation ???
  . . . hoti Christos apethanen huper ton hamartion hemon kata tas graphas,
kai hoti etaphe,
kai hoti egegertai te hemera te trite kata tas graphas,
kai hoti ophthe Kepha, eita tois dodeka.
That Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
That he was buried;
That he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures;
That he appeared to {his disciples -- the twelve or ??} ....

The connective hoti ("that") introduces each article of the confession of faith: (that which follows I believe ...)

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

April 20, 1861 -- Great Moments of Untimely History: Scarcely a week had passed since the War Between the States had begun with the firing upon Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Thaddeus Lowe chose this day to arrive in South Carolina, only to be surrounded by a group of incredulous South Carolinians. You see, Mr. Lowe was a wizard of the air and had arrived in Oz, but unlike the women and men of the Emerald City, these citizens thought Lowe was a spy. He managed to persuade the admiring crowd that this ending to a 500-mile hot-air trip from Cincinnati, Ohio (aka not-Kansas), was merely an innocent finish to an ærial œdessy, which had sorely stressed his strange ship.

April 20, 1898: President McKinley signed a congressional resolution recognizing Cuba's independence from a sovereign Spain. He also signed the Joint Resolution for War with Spain. It authorized U.S. military intervention to aid Cuban independence. Remember the Maine !

The U.S. North Atlantic Fleet, under the command of Rear Admiral William T. Sampson, was ordered to begin the blockade of Cuba on the 21st. The fleet with the armored cruiser New York steamed out of Key West, Florida, at 6:30 a.m. the next morning on April 22, 1898. The fleet had hardly left port when it pursued and the USS Nashville captured a Spanish merchant vessel, Buenaventura, which did not have such a good journey that day. Congress also on this date authorized the creation of the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, popularly known as the Rough Riders, and with which one of its leaders would ride into the White House.

Sometime after the short war had ended, McKinley went on down to Buffalo town. But he didn't stay too long -- "hard times, hard times, hard times" [John Renbourn, White House Blues].

April 20, 1942 -- Not so Great Moments in French History: Pierre Laval, the premier of Vichy France, in a radio broadcast, established a policy of true reconciliation with Germany, ignoring the fact that la terreur had begun again. Three years later, on April 20, 1945, Allied Forces (the U.S. 7th army) took control of the German cities of Nuremberg and Stuttgart. Other Americans liberated Buchenwald, where 350 Americans were imprisoned at Berga (a sub-camp within Buchenwald) following their capture during the Battle of the Bulge (December 1944). The horror of their treatment, which was real, paled in comparison to that reported of others who died in Buchenwald and other German death camps. Oh, one other fact, a coincidence, perhaps, Dictator Adolf Hitler, of the National Socialist Party was born in Braunau, Austria on April 20th (1889).

April 21, 753BC: Rome was founded. This traditional date for the founding, saw Romulus establish a refuge for runaway slaves and murderers. They in turn kidnapped neighboring Sabine women for wives. Archæological evidence simply indicates that the founders of Rome were Italic people who occupied the area south of the Tiber River in the 8th Century BC. They were Émigrés from Greece or perhaps Troy or celts or phœnicians or an outgrowth from the Etruscan culture or native tribes from a much earlier period -- in reality, probably a mixture of all these peoples.

April 21, 1732: King George the Second signs the Charter for the Georgia Colony. Because of the need for additional tweaking of the contractual arrangement, Parliament would not approve it for another few months (GO HERE to learn about some of the technical problems that Lord Percival saw with the Charter). Within the year the Colony would be in place.

On this day in 1899 (coincidence ??), a large granite boulder replete with a plaque honoring Chief Tomochichi was dedicated in Savannah. After the Chief's death, Oglethorpe had directed that his good friend be buried in Percival Square in Savannah. The large granite stone and brass plaque dedicated in 1899 marks Tomichichi's gravesite on southwest side of Wright Square (formerly Percival Square). It had been requested by the Colonial Dames and furnished from Stone Mountain outside Atlanta. The inscription reads: In memory of Tomo-chi-chi, The Mico of the Yamacraws, The companion of Oglethorpe, And the Friend and Ally of the Colony of Georgia. The Georgia Society of the Colonial Dames of America was organized in Savannah on April 25, 1893. For those of you in Savannah, the stone with a plaque is directly across from the Wachovia Bank. Plaque in close view.

The Corporate Georgia Charter barely lasted 20 years. On April 23, 1752, in London, Georgia's Trustees made the last grant of land, paid final bills, signed a deed surrendering Georgia to the Crown and defaced the seal -- thus ending Georgia's status as a trustee-governed colony. Georgia would now function as a royal colony operated by the British government.

Le 21 avril 1836: À San Jacinto, les volontaires texans de Sam Houston battent l'armée mexicaine de Santa Anna. Ils ont pu se préparer à la bataille grâce à la résistance désespérée de Fort Alamo. Le Texas devient pour quelques années un pays indépendant avant de se rattacher aux États-Unis.   Remember Goliad; Remember the Alamo !!!   In just a few months the Texican's hopes had gone from desperation to jubilation. General Santa Anna, President of Mexico, lost the battle of San Jacinto. Silently and tensely, the men bending low, the Texas battle line swept across the prairie and swale that was No Man's Land. A soldier's fife piped up with Will You Come to the Bower, a popular celtic tune of the day. That was the only music of the battle.

Will you come to the bower o'er the free boundless ocean,
Where stupendous waves roll in thundering motion,
Where the mermaids are seen and the wild tempest gather,
To loved Erin the green, the dear land of our fathers
Texas Navy Flag 
Sometimes slow to load Will you come and awake our lost land from its slumber
And her fetters we'll break, links that long are encumbered.
And the air will resound with hosannahs to greet you
On the shore will be found gallant Irishmen to greet you.

Mirabeau Lamar led a cavalry charge through enemy lines for the decisive victory. Born in Georgia, Lamar immigrated to Texas in 1835, joining the fight for independence. After the conflict, Lamar became attorney general, secretary of war, vice-president and, finally, president of the Republic of Texas in 1838. Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar (1798-1859), son of John and Rebecca (Lamar), was born near Louisville, Georgia, on August 16, 1798. He grew up at Fairfield, his father's plantation near Milledgeville. Among his accomplishments was the decision to make Austin the Texas capital city. He is also known as the Father of Texas Education: “A cultivated mind is the guardian genius of democracy” -- or as they say at UT, Disciplina Præsidium Civitatis Lamar County and the town of Lamar in Aransas County were named for him. In 1936 the Texas Centennial Commission placed statues of him in the Hall of State in Dallas and in the cemetery at Richmond. The commission also marked the site of his home near Richmond and the place of his residence as president in Austin, and built a miniature replica of his home on the square at Paris. Remember Goliad; Remember the Alamo !!

The battlefield is east of today's Houston. San Jancinto, Texas is in a different location, just south of Lake Livingston and East of Huntsville.

The San Jacinto Monument, which stands 15 feet taller than the Washington Monument, was completed in 1939. Actually out of respect, the actual obelisk portion of the monument is shorter than Wahington's; however, when put on its base it stands higher -- indeed the tallest in the world. The San Jacinto Museum of History is housed in the base of the monument. The San Jacinto Monument and Museum remains open seven days a week, from 9 a.m. to 6 in the evening.

Remember Goliad; Remember the Alamo !!

Directions Link

April 22, 1507 -- Great Moments in English History: This day Henry Tudor took the crown and name King Henry VIII of England following, the death of his father, Henry VII. He married Catherine of Aragon, his brother's widow and the aunt of Charles V (the Holy Roman Emperor). Their daughter Mary, would become the Queen of England (Phillip her husband). But, to paraphrase a famous announcer, there is more to this story. While one can argue that this Tudor ruler was no saint, reformation with both a small "r" and big “R” did occur during his reign and that of his children (Elizabeth was his second daughter). These changes forever affected the World, not to mention England. He was no steward of the Kingdom. He was its defender and protector, flawed as he may have been.

Elizabeth would follow "bloody" Mary, although Elizabeth's executions and forfeitures might be actually greater in scope. She would execute Mary, "Queen of Scots," her cousin and a claimant to the throne after 18 years in custody and the failure of the Babington Plot, hatched by Phillip II of Spain. -- However, Mary's son James would become King of England, as well as Scotland, and he would elevate her memory and memorial to a prime place in Westminster Abbey. A complicated and sad story -- a chart showing her kinship to Elizabeth:,_Queen_of_Scots see also,_Queen_of_Scots (Mary/James to George I).

April 22, 1915 -- Great Moments in German History: Chlorine gas is used for the first time on the Western Front. It is released preceding a German attack at Ypres. The age of chemical and germ warfare was upon us all. Its results so tragic, but also so strategically unfruitful, that the combatants in Western Europe, during World War II, did not resort to its use.

April 22nd (1980) also marks the passing of chemist, Fritz Strassmann in Mainz, Germany. With his partners Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner he discovered nuclear fission in 1938. Their discovery set the Allies into a frantic project to apply the technology to a bomb, fearing that Germany was very close to such an achievement. After the war, Strassmann became a professor of inorganic and nuclear chemistry at the University of Mainz, an ancient city, in the new American Zone of Occupation along the Rhine. The beast of a Nazi Bomb had been slain before it hatched, probably by Hitler himself, who knew that he would have won or lost the war in Europe with conventional weapons, long before nuclear deployment would be practical against the USA.

April 23rd -- Of dragons and such: Saint George is the patron saint of England. His emblem, a red cross on a white background, is the flag of England and part of the Union Jack, today. It was adopted by Richard I, the Lion Heart (Cœur de Lion (1189-99 AD)). He brought it to England at the end of 12th century. The king's soldiers wore it on their tunics to avoid confusion in battle. You perhaps know Richard best for his theatrical appearances in various renditions of Robin Hood, where he arrives to save the day and vindicate the legendary men of Nottinghamshire. see also

Flag of the sovereign Nation of GeorgiaSaint George replaced Edward the Confessor as the national patron saint. St. George's Day is celebrated on April 23rd, so, in a sense, this is England's national holiday. However, unlike other countries, England does not today have a formal national celebration to mark this occasion (although in 1415 it technically adopted this as a national day). St. George's Day, however, is recognized in many locales by parades and other festivities. It is also a feast day in the English Church (Anglican Communion). see generally

In addition, Saint George is a tradition in many nations -- see e.g. What comes to mind today is the Nation of Georgia, which since the Fall of 2006 has been fighting for its political life against an ex-KGB agent. The latest incident is the Russian invasion of several break-a-way provinces and assault on civilian targets in August 2008.

Saint George's slaying of the dragon is perhaps an allegorical allusion to his stand for his Christian faith against Diocletian's persecutions; however, unlike the outcome of the dragon's tale, St. George was beheaded (303-5 ?) and the beast, pagan Rome, remained alive for a little while longer. St. George is considered the patron Saint of those martyred during the crusades to Palestine.

As might be expected, there are other Saints named George. Indeed, there are other Saint Georges from England. The two that come to immediate mind are George Swallowel who was martyred at Durham in 1594 (his remembrance day is July 24th) and George Napper, martyred at Oxford in 1610 (his remembrance day is November 9th). Can you think of more ???

April 23, 1564: William Shakespeare, English poet and playwright of the Elizabethan and early Jacobin periods, was born. He died on the same date 52 years later. In between, he added more than 1,700 words to the English language; yet, this son of an illiterate glove maker left school at age 12. Be not afraid of greatness: some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them. -- from Act II, Scene 5 of the Twelfth Night.

William Shakespeare died in Stratford-on-Avon, England on April 23, 1616. This is the same day that Miguel de Cervantes (b.1547), Spanish poet and novelist, died in Madrid. Cervantes is to the Spanish language (Castille et en Andalousie) as Shakespeare was to his own native tongue -- there are no other peers. See Shakespeare et Cervantès au paradis des poètes A more modern poetic celtic tragedy of éire follows next.
Le dimanche de Pâques du 23-24 avril 1916: Les Irlandais se soulèvent contre le colonisateur britannique. Les «Pâques sanglantes» de Dublin annoncent l'indépendance de l'Eire, cinq ans plus tard. --

William Butler Yeats (June 13th, 1865 - January 28th, 1939):

Easter 1916

Too long a sacrifice
Can make a stone of the heart.
O when may it suffice?
That is Heaven's part, our part
To murmur name upon name ...
I wrote it out in a verse --
MacDonagh and MacBride
And Connolly and Pearse

Slow to Load
Now and in time to be
Wherever green is worn
Are changed, changed utterly:
A terrible beauty is born.

More Lyric about the Easter Irish Insurrection

Take away the blood-stained bandage from off an Irish brow
We fought and bled for Ireland and will not shirk it now
We have held in her struggle, in answer to her call
And because we sought to free her we are placed against a wall

April 24, 1184 BC: This is the last day of the siege where-upon combined Greek City-State forces (coalition of the willing) sacked Troy, after inventing and employing the first Trojan Horse, using it to bypass programmed defenses and gain access to a secure area. This would set off a series of counter-measures, arguably ending with the Viking raids on France and England.

Virgil describes a detonating meteor in such terms that I feel reasonably sure that either he had seen and heard, or else he had had direct conversations with others who had seen and heard, a splendid example of these meteors. The passage is in the second book of the Æneid. The city of Troy was captured and was burning. All was in confusion. The family of Æneas was gathered ready for flight, but Anchises would not go. An omen, lambent flames on the head of his grandson, began on to shake his purpose to perish with his country. He prayed for more positive guidance. It is Æneas who describes the scene "Hardly had the old man spoken when across the darkness a star ran down from the sky carrying a brilliant light torch We saw it go sweeping along above the roof of the house. It lighted up the streets, and disappeared in the woods on Mount Ida. A long train, a line of light, remained across the sky, and all around the place was a sulphurous smell. A heavy sound of thunder came from the left. Overcome now, father raised his hands to heaven, addressed the gods and worshipped the sacred star. Now, now, he cried, no longer delay." This story is, of course, all legendary, but Virgil's description of the scene is true to life as conceived by pagan Rome in his day.

So, it is only natural, one would suppose, that on the same day exactly 2250 years later (in 1066), Halley's comet was seen and thought to be an omen portending real change. Indeed, later in October of that year, Harold II of England died at the Battle of Hastings against Norseman (Normans) from France. England had a new sovereign. The comet is shown on the famous Bayeux Tapestry. The accounts, which have been preserved, indicate it as having appeared to be four times the size of Venus and to have shone with a light a fourth of that of the Moon.

Thor of Asgard

There is evidence that some of the Norse predecessors were migratory Thracians (a name given them by the Greeks), an aggressive refugee boat-people, whose ancestors came from the ancient city of Troy. The famous Trojan War was fought between the Greeks and Trojans with their allies. Troy eventually was devastated from 10 years of fighting. The Greeks sacked the city, historically referred to as the Fall of Troy.

Thousands left Troy immediately after its Fall. Others remained for about 30 to 50 years. Then an estimated 30,000 Trojans/Thracians suddenly abandoned what was left of Troy. The city would lay vacant for nearly 500 years (to about 700 BC). Homer (a Greek writer/poet of the eighth century BC) and various sources (Etruscan, Roman, Merovingian and later Scandinavian) tend to confirm the departure. Most from Troy crossed the Mediterranean Sea into Italy, possibly becoming the dominating influence in the development of Rome.

A minority of Trojans, mainly said to be chieftains and warriors, about 12,000 in all, moved north to navigate the Black Sea. They went into the Mare Mœtis or shallow sea, where the Don River ends (today in the Caucasus region of southern Russia). These émigrés established a kingdom about in 1150 BC.The Romans would later refer to the inhabitants as Sicambrians. The locals (nomadic Scythians) named the Trojan conquerors the Iron people, or the Æsir. They built the famous fortified city Æsgard or Asgard, described as Troy in the north. Various other sources collaborate this tradition, stating that the Trojans landed on the eastern shores with their superior weaponry, and claimed land.

Some historians suggest that Odin, who was later worshipped among the pagan pantheon by the Vikings, was actually a Thracian / Æsir leader who reigned in Sicambria from the city of Æsgard in the first century BC. Odin, indeed appears to be a Thracian ruler, who led a migration in about 70 BC with thousands of followers from the Black Sea region to Scandinavia. By the Viking era (800 years later), Odin and the Æsir had become gods, and Asgard/Troy was the home of the gods (such as Thor) -- the foundation for a Viking tradition. (link is no longer open-access)

It is well-argued that King Henry II, of England, and his progeny descend in some portion from these migrating peoples from Troy; and again, records dating back over a 1000 years show how King Priam of Troy, descends from Abraham and, of course Adam. Through Henry II's mother, Queen Maude, the King also can claim the ancient Royal Scots of Dalriada and related Irish line of Kings. The current royal family also directly descends from the Scots of Dalriada, through this line, by way of the House of York (White Rose), Mary, Queen of Scots, James I, Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, the Duke of Brunswick (Hanover) and his son George I, King of England. Go HERE for more information about this lineage.

And of Troyes in France: There is also a line of thought which says that some of the Sicambrians (called Franks) also migrated to an area west of the River Danube and settled in Germaniæ (named by the Romans after the Scythian phrase meaning genuine ones), near today's Köln along the River Rhine. It was from the time of King Meroveus, who was named Guardian of the Franks, that this line became known as the Merovingians. These in turn became the first truly French rulers. Indeed, one of the founders of the Frankish French Kings, clearly claimed to be a descendant of ancestors who once resided in ancient Troy. In any event, the French city of Troyes, was named by the Franks -- after a former abode -- Troy ?? Did the Romans title the City of Paris (Lutetia Parisiorum) for the Parisii people named after Prince Paris, the son of King Priam of Troy, based upon their knowledge of history ? More about Troyes in France is HERE.

April 24th: Today is the feast Day of St. Marianus von Regensburg. Marianus Scotus (? - 1083) was born in Ireland (his Gælic name was Muiredach). He left his home on a Pilgrimage to Rome but only got as far as Germany (Ratisbon). He became a Benedictine monk in Bamberg. He then moved to Regensburg where he founded the Monastery of St. Peter and became its Abbot. Others from Regensburg can be found here.

April 25th: Eusèbe de Césarée rapporte que Saint Marc l'évangéliste (Fête: 25 avril) aurait été le fondateur de l'Eglise d'Alexandrie (Egypte): Pierre établit aussi les églises d'Egypte, avec celle d'Alexandrie, non pas en personne, mais par Marc, son disciple. Car lui-même pendant ce temps s'occupait de l'Italie et des nations environnantes; il envoya don Marc, son disciple, destiné à devenir le docteur et le conquérant de l'Egypte (Histoire ecclésiastique Livre II, chapitre XVI), ce qu'un texte arménien fixe à la première année du règne de Claude (41) et saint Jérôme la troisième (43); Eusèbe dit qu'il établit son successeur, Anien, la huitième année du règne de Néron (62). (Cæsarea in Palestine)

April 25th is the feast day of Saint Mark. Because he founded the Church at Alexandria Egypt in 41 or 43AD, he is the patron saint of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt, headquartered there. The great Saint and Martyr preached in Egypt, Libya, Cyprus, some areas in Asia and Rome. He is well-honored by Venice in its great structure. This painting by Bellini (1429-1507), shows the Coptic building as it looked in the middle ages; however, we can also see St. Mark preaching before the church. So it really is a fantastic painting, full of color and detail (like the long-necked creature at the right and the obelisk to the left). I particularly like the mountains behind a town built on the Delta of the Nile -- doesn't look right for Venice either.

The French National Anthem 
is created 
by Rouget de I'Isle Seventeen-Hundred Fifty Years Later -- the 25th of April: En 1792, à la suite de la déclaration de guerre du Roi à l'Autriche, un officier français en poste à Strasbourg, Rouget de Lisle compose, dans la nuit du 25 au 26 avril, chez Dietrich, le maire de la ville, le Chant de guerre pour l'armée du Rhin.

Ce chant est repris par les fédérés de Marseille participant à l'insurrection des Tuileries le 10 août 1792. Son succès est tel qu'il est déclaré chant national le 14 juillet 1795. Don't become confused; Marchons, marchons -- Qu'un sang impur does not mean "March on, march on, all hearts resolved". It is more of a vivid farming image [Entendez-vous dans nos campagnes]. That being the case, I would invite you to take a few minutes to ponder the Declaration of July 4th. What is the difference; a few years and a few thousand miles ?

The gothic Cathedral at Strasbourg, France (Straßburg Frankreich) dominates the old city centre along the River Rhein. Indeed, it was the world's tallest building from 1625 to 1847 ( In this city, at the villa of the Mayor, Captain Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, an officer of Republican France, wrote this song of war during the night of April 25-26. Later the composition became known as La Marseillaise, the national anthem of France.

April 26, 1607: Ships under the command of Captain Christopher Newport sought shelter in Chesapeake Bay. The forced landing led to the founding of Jamestowne on the James River, the first successful English settlement on the North American continent. An expedition of English colonists, including Capt. John Smith, went ashore at Cape Henry, Virginia, to establish the first permanent English settlement in the Western Hemisphere. The first Anglican worship service was held three days later. Once thought lost by tidal creek shifts, the real Jamestowne lives again through archæological studies. Captain Newport would return several times, including the voyage that resulted in a shipwreck on Somers Island.
The Eagle has landed; another first for France -- April 26, 1803: Over 2,300 meteorite stones, weighing between one quarter ounce and 20 pounds, fell upon the people of l'Aigle, a village in Normandie, France. The meteorites rained down along an 8-mile-long strip of land near this town, 100 miles west of Paris. No one was hurt. It was the first time scientists could verify that stones could come from outer space,, but meteorites have been sought after and perhaps worshipped for centuries (such as at Mecca). Another rock with a bit of history behind it is the stone which is in the base of the royal throne of England, which comes from the Scots and was said to be that stone upon which Jacob placed his head in the desert, when he had his vision. Many would argue that the Stone of Scone is made from the same type of material from its Scottish homeland, not Palestine; but then maybe, just perhaps, the English who took the "stone" stole an impostor. The original may yet be hid.

The worship of an unwrought stone once established has wonderful vitality. For example, the Greek writers speak of such a worship in their day among the Arabian tribes. When Mohammed, with his intense iconoclasm, came down upon Mecca and took the sacred city, he either for reasons of policy, or from feeling, spared the ancient worship of this black stone. Entering into the sacred enclosure, he approached and saluted it with his staff (where it was built into the corner of the Kaaba), made the sevenfold circuit of the temple court, returned and kissed the stone, and then entered the building and destroyed the 360 idols within it. To-day that stone is the most sacred jewel of Islam. Towards it each devout Moslem is bidden to look five times a day as he prays. It is called the Right Hand of God on Earth. It is reputed to have been a stone of Paradise, to have dropped from heaven together with Adam. Or, again, it was given by Gabriel to Abraham to attest his divinity.

April 26, 1865: At Durham Station, North Carolina, the terms of the surrender of Confederate Army of Tennessee under General Joseph E. Johnston were finalized. Confederate soldiers would turn in their firearms and be paroled at Greensboro. Privately owned horses and mules could be retained. Officers could keep their side arms. Transportation for the Confederate men would be arranged by the Federal authority where possible. The men would be allowed one rifle for every five men to hunt game on their way home. Because Georgia fell under Johnston's jurisdiction, April 26 marked the end of the struggle in Georgia. This was just a handful of days after Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House and thousands now were headed home to Georgia, many not knowing what they would find after Sherman's rampage.

Exactly when Georgians began celebrating April 26 as Memorial Day is unclear, but the language of an 1874 legislative act clearly recognizes that April 26 already was being commemorated as an unofficial holiday. The day of observance may be traced to the wives and sweethearts of southern soldiers living after the conflict in Columbus, Georgia. They organized a memorial association on April 12, 1866, and began a campaign to have a special day for paying honor to those who died defending the life, honor and happiness of the Southern woman. Three days later, the Atlanta Ladies' Memorial Association organized, and on April 26, 1866, this association held a Confederate memorial observance at Oakland Cemetery. Today (that is every April 26th), the Confederate Constitution can be viewed from 9 am to 5 pm on the third floor of the University of Georgia's Library.

April 26, 2006 -- The legacy lives on: Even after 20 years, the legacy and fear about Chernobyl continues in France, at least so says Roland Desbordes, the head of the Commission for Research and Independent Information about Radiation (CRIIRAD). He indicated that there were two ways of looking at the effects from the release of radioactivity. First, one can examine the increase in background radiation during the accident. Studies were done long ago and the results were understated. Today there is general scientific agreement about the actual release levels. The second impact however, health effects, is still in dispute, with the government hiding or ignoring the evidence.

CRIIRAD filed a legal complaint for the harm that has occurred (March 2001) and the organization had hoped for indictments. The Courts have recognized a complaint for involuntary assault and battery. Besides seeking compensation, he hopes that those who placed obstacles in the way of the truth will be publicly revealed. Si la même catastrophe se produisait aujourd'hui, les autorités françaises réagiraient-elles de la même manière? Despite progress, he still does not trust the government to tell the truth, because of the fear of panic. There is always, in France, a monopoly of the information that benefits of the authorities and an absence of expertise for the populace. -- « Il-y-a toujours, en France, un monopole de l'information au profit des autorités et une absence d'expertises pluralistes. » (en français -- very interesting reading)
April 27, 1749: Today is the first performance (other than practice) of Handel's music for fireworks at Green Park, London. Under contract from King George II (Great Britain), Georg Fredick Handel composed the festival work, in order to celebrate the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle bringing to a close the War of the Austrian Succession. Both the monarch and treaty were unpopular with the public, but Handel's music, as always, proved to be an instant success. Handel wrote his Music for the Royal Fireworks for wind instruments, but it quickly was adapted into a full orchestral piece. Twenty-four years later, the British Parliament passed the infamous Tea Act, designed to prop-up the British East India Company, by granting it a monopoly over the North American tea trade, and to raise revenues to pay for the defense of the Colonies against the French in the most recent encounter. It was an unpopular move, that eventually led to the first Barbary War, when the US was forced to defend itself on the Seas, instead of relying on the British presence (and bribe money). On this date in 1805, United States Marines engaged the Tripolitan city of Derne (the reference to the shores of Tripoli in the Marines' Hymn). Interestingly in 1810, Beethoven composed his famous piano piece, Für Elise on April 27th; and two years later on the same date, United States troops capture York, the capital of Ontario (present day Toronto, Canada). Not to be outdone, the President of the United States Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in 1861.

April 27, 1861: At the outset of the War Between the States, Richard B. Russell, Sr. was born near Marietta, GA. He attended the University of Georgia, obtaining an undergraduate degree in 1879 and a law degree in 1880. Russell began the practice of law in Athens. In 1882 was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives. Russell was committed to education, serving on the local boards of education in Athens, Winterville and in the village (and later town) of Russell. During his six years in the General Assembly, Russell supported creation of the Georgia Institute of Technology (then the Georgia School of Technology or Georgia Tech) and the Georgia Normal and Industrial College for Women at Milledgeville (now Georgia College and State University). He served on the governing boards of the University of Georgia and the new college for women at Milledgeville. He also served on the first Board of Regents for the new University System of Georgia (1932-33). However, Russell is probably best remembered for his judicial career. He served as both prosecuting attorney and later judge of the western superior court circuit, judge on the Georgia Court of Appeals and chief justice of the Georgia Supreme Court (1926-1938). During his career, Russell also ran unsuccessful races for governor, U.S. Representative, and U.S. Senator. He died in Russell, Ga. on Dec. 3, 1938. He was the father of the long-time United States Senator from Georgia from 1933 to 1971, Richard B. Russell, Jr.

Great Moments in the English Navy -- April 28, 1789: The mutiny on HMS Bounty took place this day. On the voyage home to England from Tahiti, a rebel crew took over the British vessel. Fletcher Christian led the mutiny. He set Captain William Bligh and 19 loyal officers and sailors adrift in a launch in the South Pacific, thousands of miles from civilization. The Bounty returned to Tahiti, but eventually set sail bound for its final resting place, Pitcairn Island. A trilogy about the event (one of several classics) is now a few generations old. If you have not read Men Against the Sea (1933-Nordoff and Hall), you should endeavor to find a copy at a local library. The three-book novel is one of the great written works in English, describing teamwork and struggle. There are several movies covering this fabled event -- Clark Gable, Marlin Brando and Mel Gibson portraying Christian, can you name the Bligh's.

The mutineers, shipped off to uninhabited Pitcairn Island, soon fell to drinking and fighting. Only one man and several women and children survived. The man, Alexander Smith, discovered the ship's neglected Bible, repented and transformed the community. This Bible is still on display in a Pitcairn church.

Stung by the seven year itch -- April 29, 1941: The Boston Bees agreed to rename this National League team the Braves, the name used prior to 1935. Casey Stengel was the brave bee keeper from 1938 thru 1940 and beyond. In 2006, the team owner pawned off this asset, because Baseball no longer fit its corporate vision for entertainment. Too bad, it thought more highly of Court TV and reruns than America's historic pastime.

April 29, 1990: The official demolition of the Wall begins near Mr. Brandenburg's gate (in Berlin). Bits and pieces of it had been removed beginning in November 1989. The last state job of the East German border guards was the Wall's removal. Es gibt nur ein Berlin ... General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!

I noticed words crudely spray-painted upon the wall, perhaps by a young Berliner: "This wall will fall. Beliefs become reality." Yes, across Europe, this wall will fall. For it cannot withstand faith; it cannot withstand truth. The wall cannot withstand freedom.
American President Ronald Reagan was right, his critics were wrong.

April 30, 311: The Roman co-ruler, commonly called Galerius, publicly issued an edict of tolerance, thereby ending the violent persecutions under Diocletian. A year later in Milan, the act is confirmed and enlarged by Constantine the Great. Christianity would become the dominating force in the Empire in the years to come.

Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Cæsar, tetrarch and later Augustus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution and asked for prayers for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died shortly thereafter.
April 30, 1562: Off the Coast of Florida near what would become (under the Spanish) Saint Augustine, a French privateer and explorer first sights the New World. A Huguenot of the city of Dieppe, Jean Ribault was a successful captain for Admiral Gaspar de Coligny's navy. Coligny selected him to establish a Huguenot colony in Florida. Actually, it was to be a French colony, populated by persons of the Protestant faith (Huguenots), to stand in opposition to the Spanish, as well as to prove the loyalty of the Huguenots to the greater French cause.

With Rene Laudonnière as his lieutenant, Ribault reached the St. Johns River on April 30, 1562. Ribault selected a place to settle beside what is today known as Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, calling it Charlesfort. Today we know it as Paris Island. Returning to Europe to get supplies, Ribault discovered the French ports closed by the religious war between Protestants and Catholics. Seeking help from England, Ribault went to London, where he was arrested. By the time he was released, a new settlement near present-day Jacksonville (Fort Caroline) was under the command of Laudonnière, even though the Charlesfort effort had failed.

Spain sought the destruction of Fort Caroline. Spanish forces under Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and the relief effort under Ribault left Europe virtually at the same moment, the Spanish greatly outnumbering the French, but in ships of poorer quality. The French arrived a ahead of the Spanish fleet and beat off the first attack. Ribault went on the offensive, but a hurricane wrecked most of the his fleet. The Spanish, meanwhile, during the height of the storm, marched overland and caught the French offguard. A massacre ensued. Ribault later surrendered what was left of his men and he was executed by Menéndez, along with those who were not or would not become Catholic again on October 12, 1565 (Le massacre de Matanzas Inlet).
Great Moments in Banking History -- Think about it -- April 31, 1728: The Scottish Royal Bank invents first the overdraft when a Mr. William Hogg overdraws his account by 1000 Pounds sterling ($125,000 in today's value) {This week history in Scotland -- actually it was 31 May according to the Hogg Family page}

April 31, 1851: The town of Hazelton, Pennsylvania is first incorporated. Want to know more? On April 31, 1864, the Secretary of War requested Governor Seymour to furnish one or two regiments of militia to guard deserters, stragglers, etc., being forwarded to the army. Two days later Major-General Dix, by the authority of the President, called on the Governor for one or two more regiments to occupy the defenses of the New York Harbor from History of New York. After April 31, 1991, the gold córdoba became the sole legal currency of Nicaragua and was pegged to the United States dollar at a rate of US$1 = 5 gold córdobas, a rate it maintained throughout 1992 -- More Here.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls
A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at the time.