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The  VANGUARD --   2016

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit"

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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage -- Irish Copper Colonial Coinage (US)

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

Tour de France -- 2012 -- A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- (New: Summer 2016 )

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3
Passover - Pesach

This is none other than the dwelling place of God, and this is the Gate of Heaven
This is the Gate of the Lord, the Righteous shall enter into it

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

October 25th This is the day to celebrate the consecration of a church for which the dedication date is unknown. What we see carried out here physically within these walls must be carried out spiritually within our hearts; what we look to accomplish here with stones and wood {brick and mortar}, must be achieved in our bodies, by the Grace of God. Saint Augustine's Ancient Sermon on the Subject -- We live in hope of the City of God, the new Jerusalem, which replaces the old [Text References: Hebrews 11:10, 13:14; Revelation 21:2-22:5].

Et civitatem sanctam Hierusalem Novam vidi {Iohannes evangelista} descendentem de caelo a Deo paratam sicut sponsam ornatam viro suo (Vulgate) -- Und ich, Johannes, sah die heilige Stadt, das neue Jerusalem, von Gott aus dem Himmel herabfahren, bereitet als eine geschmückte Braut ihrem Mann (Luther) -- Et je {Jean} vis descendre du ciel, d'auprès de Dieu, la ville sainte, la nouvelle Jérusalem, préparée comme une épouse qui s'est parée pour son époux (French LS). from -- (just in case you are having trouble understanding the French or the German texts).

The 25th is also the feast day for Saint Minias, a martyred soldier (250AD) for making converts in the reign of Emperor Trajanus Decius. An abbey on one of the highest hills near Florence bears his name.

October 25, 1760: On this day British King George II in London died. George II followed his father, George I as Elector of Hanover (Holy Roman Empire) and King of England. George II was born in Hanover, Germany like his father and grew up on the Continent. Unlike his father, he learned English before he became the ruler of Great Britain. A keen music fan, George II was the patron of Georg Friedrich Händel, whom he brought to London. The King was succeeded by his grandson, George III, who failed to retain the American colonies.

October 26, 1576: Today marks the passing of Friedrich III in Heidelberg, Germany. He was the Elector of the Palatine Region of the Rhine River (an Elector being one who could help chose the next leader of the Holy Roman Empire). He became a Protestant in 1546. He assisted the advance of Protestant faith in Germany, France and in non-Spanish Netherlands (Holland). Many of the Huguenot refugees from France fled to the Palatinate region before later immigrating to the American Colonies and fighting another Elector's great-grandson.

October 27, 1553: The Spanish theologian, Michael Servetus, was burned at the stake for heresy and blasphemy in Geneva, Switzerland. He had offended both the Catholic and Protestant churches with speculations about the nature of the Trinity. Servetus had made repeated attempts to meet with and influence the Swiss reformer, John Calvin. Calvin found him too offensive. Calvin is reported to have stated that if Servetus ever came to Geneva, he would not allow him to leave, alive. In Lyon (France) Servetus was put on trial by an Inquisition. He escaped, however, and was burned only in effigy. Having made his way to Geneva, he was recognized there and again put on trial for heresy. The City Council found him guilty and sentenced him to death. Calvin (modern scholarship reveals) did not want him put to death, and certainly not by fire; but, in Geneva he was burned alive on October 27, 1553.

In contrast on October 27, 2001, Herr Dr. Helmut Kohl, former West-German Chancellor, received the Westphalian Peace Prize in recognition of his effort to reunite East and West Germany. With the opening of Parliament on Monday October 26, 1998, Dr. Kohl ended his 16 years in office. He was the longest serving chancellor in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany, even surpassing Konrad Adenauer's record as the longest serving post-war chancellor. His efforts as Germany's chief statesman after the Wall fell in November 1989 secured reunification. He first formally presented his 10-point plan for a unified nation on November 28, 1989.

October 28th: Today is the feast day of Jude, the Apostle and author of the New Testament book of Jude. The Apostles Jude and Bartholomew are traditionally believed to have been the first to bring Christianity to Armenia, and are therefore venerated as the patrons of the Armenian Apostolic Church. According to tradition, Saint Jude suffered martyrdom about 65 AD in Beirut, in the Roman province of Syria, together with the apostle Simon the Zealot, with whom he is usually connected. One tradition holds that sometime after his death, Saint Jude's body was brought from Beirut to Rome and placed in a crypt in St. Peter's Basilica which was visited by many devotees. Now his bones are in the left transept of St. Peter's Basilica under the main altar of St. Joseph in one tomb with the remains of the apostle Simon the Zealot. St. Jude is often depicted with a flame above his head, representing his presence at Pentecost, when he was said to have received the Holy Spirit with the other Apostles.

Chi-Rho, the alpla and omega  
(Le Labarum ) en françaisLe 28 octobre 312: Constantinus imperius æmulum Maxentio victorii, qum ad Tiberim pontem extra urbem (Milvius) — Constantin bat son rival Maxence au Pont Milvius, sur le Tibre, à la sortie de Rome. Before the battle (night of the 27th), he had a vision of a Cross and words written in the sky in the common Greek:

EN TOUTO NIKA (conquer by this -- Nike being a messenger of victory) or roughly in Latin In hoc signo vinces means "In this sign conquer (be invincible)" -- « Par ce signe tu vaincras (traduction française) ». In response he had this sign placed on his forces. He adopted the Labarum Chi and Rho, together the symbol for Christ, after his victory, thereby beginning the steps toward conversion of the Roman government to the Faith. Less than one hundred years later, the Rome of the western empire could not defend its eternal city, let alone rule an empire.

So these events set up a penetrating question from Malcolm Muggeridge: What if the church in the West had pinned its hopes on the Roman Empire ? Think about Byzantium as you ponder !!! While Jerome, Salvianus and other apologists saw the sacking of Rome in 410 as an omen of the end of the world, and responded either by withdrawal or a call to recover the faith (read culture of the time) of the Empire, the great African bishop (Augustine) took up his pen to reach another conclusion.

Augustine (354-430) laid out his approach to the new situation by writing that great classic of Western civilization, The City of God. In this world, the wheat and tares grow together; love struggles with selfishness for dominion. In the City of God in heaven, there is only perfection, joy, peace, and love. But this does not even describe the church, for there are wolves within and sheep without, and not even the Christians themselves can attain moral perfection. Thus, Augustine countered the moralistic utopianism of most other apologists and, therefore, undermined the foundation for a supposed revival of imperial fervor. We ought not to confuse our nostalgia with the revival of religion. Only in eternity will truth, beauty, goodness, and love triumph finally. Therefore, in this world we participate on a human level with our neighbors, and do our best to evangelize and participate in the City of Man as salt and light, but we must never confuse the City of Man with the City of God. Without Faith there is no sacrifice {of the heart}, without sacrifice there can be no salvation {forgiveness, justification ...}.

As Henry Chadwick puts it,

Augustine saw the Church existing for the Kingdom {City} of God, the true eternal city, beyond the rise and fall of all empires and civilizations. So even a Christian Rome, which could not be the city of God, could claim no exemption from the chaos and destruction brought by the barbarians. And, Augustine never supposed that the interests of the Christian Roman empire and the kingdom of God could be more or less identical. In relation to the church, he thought, the government had a positive function to preserve peace and liberty. Even the barbarians who attacked the empire were not necessarily enemies to the City of God. It could be the western church's task to convert its new barbarian masters.

The African bishop, therefore, saw the crisis [of the fall of Rome] as an opportunity. If Rome, the City of Man, is ultimate destination, the Gothic invasion would intolerable. If, on the other hand, the City of God is the eternal (and heavenly) destination (Revelation 21:2), outliving the rise and fall of earthly empires, the invasion is an unparalleled missionary opportunity. After all, instead of having to take the Gospel to the pagans, it is the pagans themselves who are coming to the missionaries! It all depends on how one looks at the problem / opportunity. from

October 28, 1868: Thomas Edison applied for his first patent, an electrical vote recorder. The Democrat party cries foul, claiming that since Edison is a Republican from New Jersey, no doubt he will try to steal the election from the party bosses. Trust us to count the votes fairly by hand. Mr. Edison could not be reached for comment.
October 29, 1914: Turkey declared war, taking the side of Germany and Austria, and closing the Dardanelles to the allied opposition. This cut Russia off from Britain and France. It was Winston Churchill's plan to take back the Dardanelles (1915), when he headed the ministry of the British Navy (First Lord of the Admiralty). That plan failed because of the lack of high-level political support. Failure put an end to his first career as a military strategist and sent him into his first (but not last) political exile.
October 29, 1914: Louis Alexander is forced to resign as the premier Admiral of the British fleet. Alexander had been born with the family name Battenberg in Graz, Austria, the son of Fürst (Prince) Alexander of Hessia. He had been naturalized as a British subject in 1868 and became a leader of several significant British naval campaigns from 1882 through the time of World War I. He worked with Winston Churchill to mobilize the British fleet prior to this Great War. Despite his outstanding loyal service, Louis was forced to resign as First Sea Lord on October 29, 1914, due to his German origins (a post which Churchill later filled and from which he would leave in disgrace). They did not force the King to resign, even though his German Cousin ruled the enemy empire. Never forget that he who laughs last ....

In 1917 Louis Alexander renounced all of his German titles and took on the new name of Mountbatten. He became the English Marquess of Milford Haven. He married Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt. Their son, the second Marquess would provide invaluable service to the Crown and Prime Minister Churchill in World War II. Their grandson is Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who married his cousin Queen Elizabeth II. The current heir to the English throne is a direct descendent of Louis.

Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt's full name was Victoria Alberta Elizabeth Matilda Mary, born to Princess Alice of Great Britain, Grand Duchess of Hesse. Victoria was the grand-daughter of the English Queen Victoria. Her sister was Alexandra ("Alix") Fedorovna (a Tsarina of Russia).

Paquebot Normandie 
light blue varietyle 29 octobre 1932 -- Mise à l'eau du SS Normandie: Le plus grand paquebot du monde (312 mètres) sort des chantiers navals du Havre (lancé à Saint-Nazaire ?). Fleuron de la compagnie générale transatlantique, il peut recevoir 1972 passagers. Réquisitionné par les États-Unis pendant la guerre le Normandie finira sa vie à New-York en 1942, ravagé par un incendie. In English:

October 30, 1775: Twelve British regulars and 30 militiamen conduct a raid on the American camp at Longeuil (Québec). The surprised Americans are soon put to flight and their provisions are confiscated. see,_Quebec

During the Battle for Quebec (1755-1760), a part of the French troops had their winter quarters in Longueuil. Soldiers stayed on the farms. Officers lived at the fort. The British occupied French Canada in 1760. At the beginning of the English regime, the population of Longueuil remained low with only 708 inhabitants who were farming 2798 arpents [a measure of land]. In 1781, Charles William Grant, son of David-Alexandre Grant and Marie-Charles-Joseph Le Moyne inherited the Seigniory and became the fifth baron. The Barony of Longueuil became the only French one in Canada later recognized by England. The barony of Longueuil played an important role during the American invasion in 1775.

In the American Revolution of 1774-1776, British General George Carleton tried to drive out American troops located in the Fort at Longueuil. Americans attempted to encourage Canadians to seek independence from the British as well. They sent 1800 men under the command of General Montgomery to invade Canada. General Carleton, commanding the British troops in Canada, tried to drive them out in a battle on the south shore. Longueuil became part again of the military history when the Americans besieged Saint-Jean. Some 300 took up position in Longueuil, where on October 30, 1775, they confronted Carleton and his soldiers who had to retreat (leaving Montreal to take refuge in Québec City). Defeated in front of the capital city, the Bostonians retreated to Longueuil. There they settled a part of their forces for the winter of 1776. -- So, Greenfield Park's early historical origins are tied closely to the history of Longueuil.

October 30, 1864: Toward the end of the War Between the States, the town of Helena, Montana, is founded when four Georgia prospectors discover gold at Last Chance Gulch. Lewis and Clark's travels brought them close to the bonanza -- In less than two weeks fires would be ablaze in Georgia to mark the event.

A few years earlier, sometime in late 1848: Some of the first gold shipments from California arrived at the mint in Philadelphia. This event resulted in some coins minted with the letters Cal in the back; however, a Gold Medal of Zachary Taylor's victory at Buena Vista (February 23, 1847) is the only object that can be traced to the very first shipment. Once thought to be lost, it was rediscovered and was auctioned in October 2006. It broke records for a medallion, because of its uniqueness and tie with the first California gold. Read about some other Gold Rushes in the USA -- HERE.

The Special Delivery Stamps of 1944:   Rotary Press - Perf 11 x 10½ - 200 Subject Electric Eye Plates --
Scott E17 - The 13¢ Messenger on Motorcycle stamp of 1944 Scott E18 - The 17¢ Messenger on Motorcycle stamp of 1944
E17 - The 13¢ Messenger on Motorcycle
October 30, 1944
E18 - The 17¢ Messenger on Motorcycle
October 30, 1944

October 30, 2005: The City of Dresden's (Saxony, Germany) baroque cathedral (Frauenkirche-The Church of Our Lady) has been rebuilt after 60 years. Allied forces fire-bombed the city centre during World War II. This attack destroyed the church and much of the old city. Reconstruction of the structure began in 1994, something impossible under the previous communist regime. This day marks the day of its rededication. Earlier, Coventry Cathedral (England) gave the Frauenkirche a cross made from medieval nails from the roof of the English cathedral, destroyed by German bombing in 1940, during the Battle of Britain. Money for rebuilding came from the German government, the state of Saxony, the city of Dresden, the Protestant church and private donations, including some from the British people. Our page on -- Dresden

October 31, 994: Death arrives for Saint Wolfgang (924 – 994). Wolfgang (pronounced Vulfgawnk) was born in Pfullingen, Germany (5 miles SE of Tübingen in the modern state of Baden-Württemberg) to a noble family. He was able to study at the monastic school of Reichenau and the cathedral school of Würzburg. In 956 he became a teacher at the cathedral school of Trier / Trèves. Wolfgang entered the Benedictine order in and was ordained a priest in 968. He was then sent as a missionary to the Magyars (modern Hungary). In 972 he was made the Bishop of Regensburg. In his capacity as Bishop in Regensburg he counseled and taught the man who would become Holy Roman Emperor, Heinrich II (1014 – 1024). Saint Wolfgang, active in the development and reformation of a number of monasteries, also possessed the gift of healing.

Later in life, Saint Wolfgang became a hermit for a period of 7 years on the body of water now called the Lake of Wolfgang (in modern Austria -- Wolfgangsee). He died in 994 at Pupping, Austria. He was buried in Regensburg at the monastery of Saint Emmeram. His tomb was regarded almost from the beginning as a holy place. Miracles were reported worked there. He was canonized in 1052 by Pope Leo IX.

The Magyars, a people from the Ural-Altai region, moved forward in 895 into the Avarian Wilderness on the Theiss. Attempts to convert them were made by [1] the Court of Byzantium, as well as by [2] St. Wolfgang, then a monk sent from Maria Einsiedeln (l'abbaye bénédictine), [3] by Piligrim, Bishop of Passau, who, as successor of the Bishops of Lorch, wished to be Metropolitan of all Pannonia, and [4] by Adalbert of Prague. Thus it was brought about that the Magyar ruler Géza, great grandson of Arpad, and his wife Sarolta were favourably inclined to Christianity. The real Apostle of the Magyars, however, was Géza's great son, St. Stephen. The technical title goes to Saint Astericus Anastasius [(Astrik-Anastaz) (Slavic, Radla)] Apostle of the Magyars (c.955-c.1036), First Archbishop of Gran, Hungary, born Bohemia. He entered the Benedictine Order and co-operated with King and Saint Stephen in establishing the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary, being sent by the latter to beg papal approval for the organization of the Church there and to ask for he crown of that kingdom. In 1000 he crowned Stephen, first King of Hungary.

In German folklore rain on St. Wolfgang's day (October 31st) is regarded as promising a good year -- An St. Wolfgang Regen verspricht ein Jahr voll Segen.

Le 31 octobre 1512: Le est inaugurée la fresque de la chapelle Sixtine. L'œuvre maîtresse de Michel-Ange est saluée par tous les contemporains. Vasari écrit  : «Chacun eut l'impression d'un univers en mouvement et demeura muet d'admiration». Derrière l'admiration légitime des Italiens de goût se profile l'indignation du petit clergé allemand vis à vis d'une entreprise très coûteuse et fort peu évangélique. La bombe de Martin Luther explosera cinq ans plus tard.

Turm-SchlosskircheLe 31 octobre 1517: Un moine affiche sur la porte de l'église de Wittenberg (Saxe) 95 thèses où il dénonce les scandales de l'Église de son temps. Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the wooden doors of the Hofkirche in Wittenberg (All Saints was the castle church). The church still stands, though the original doors are gone. The doors have been replaced with bronze doors with the 95 theses embossed onto them ... see Numbers 21:4-9 and Enchiridion piarum precationum: cum Passionali ut uocant, quibus accessit nouum calendarium cum cisio iano uetere & nouo, atque alijs quibusdam, ut patet ex indice, Martin Luther (1543-a book of Holy days and prayers) And he broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for until those days the people of Israel had burned incense to it; it was called Nehushtan   see 2 Kings 18:1-6.

Since the inception of the Reformation, until the latter part of the 19th century, the Protestant church would have correctly been called “the church transformed,” but not since. In fact, we find ourselves in need of a new reformation. Many Christians today know nothing of this great time-period in the history of Christ’s church.

On October 31, 1731, the 214th anniversary of the posting 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant Salzburger citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. A total of 21,475 citizens refused to recant their beliefs and were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Frederick William I of Prussia, traveling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia. The rest settled in other Protestant states in Europe and the British colonies in America, along with many other refugees fleeing the French incursion into Germany.

Interestingly in 2007, this day will see the ancient church, Emmaus Kirche, arrive at its new home in the eastern part of Germany (Saxony) near Leipzig. The 700 ton (750 tonnes) stone structure is moving a few miles from Heuersdorf to Borna out of necessity Its former home is being swallowed by an open pit lignite (brown-coal) mine. This village church dates from the Middle Ages (circa 1297) of Romanesque style, one of many old buildings being lost in the area. The Kirche will squeeze into Martin Luther Square in Borna on Reformation Day (October 31st), when Lutherans traditionally remember 16th-Century reformer. Reuters story; Der Spiegel (an English version with much detail) and The Path less Travelled -- Deutsche Welle

The historic importance of Wittenberg reflects the seat of the Elector of Saxony, a dignity held by the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg and the town's close connection with Martin Luther at the dawn of the Protestant Reformation; several of its buildings are associated closely with the events of this time. Part of the Augustinian monastery in which Luther dwelt, first as a monk and later as owner with his wife and family, is preserved and considered to be the world's premier museum dedicated to Luther. Unlike many other historic German cities during World War II, Wittenberg was spared destruction during the war. The Allies agreed not to bomb Wittenberg. Wittenberg was occupied by Soviet forces, and became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1949.

October 31, 1860: Girl Scout founder Juliette [Daisy] Gordon Low was born in Savannah. Her family traveled extensively, a habit she would carry on into adulthood. While traveling in England, she met and married William Low in 1886. His family's fortune was based in cotton, as merchants (factors) in Savannah. The marriage (some report) was not a happy one, and Juliette continued her pre-marriage traveling habit. Her husband died in 1905, leaving her the money and even more time for travel and discovery. While in England in 1911, she met Robert Baden-Powell, war hero and founder of the Boy Scouts. When over 6000 young girls tried to enlist as Boy Scouts, Baden-Powell asked his sister to organize a Girl Guide organization based on similar principles. It was at this juncture that Juliette Gordon Low entered the picture. She recognized a need for such a girl's organization and it quickly became the central focus of her life.

Ms. Low helped to establish the first troops in Scotland and London, then soon decided to bring the Girl Guide organization home. The first meeting in America took place at the Low home in Savannah on March 12, 1912. The popularity of the organization spread rapidly, thanks largely to Low's tireless efforts to promote and attract influential sponsors for the organization. The Girl Scouts of the United States of America was officially incorporated in Washington, DC in 1915, with Juliette Gordon Low elected as national president. Upon her resignation in 1920, she was designated with the title Founder. Her birthday was proclaimed Founder's Day. She continued to work with the organization, culminating with the Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. hosting the Fourth International Camp in its brand new training center. The conference (held in 1926) was attended by both Low and Baden-Powell, plus delegates from twenty-nine countries. Daisy died in Savannah less than a year later, on January 17, 1927, and was buried in Laurel Grove Cemetery.

During her life she had seen the Girl Scouts grow from that first meeting of eighteen girls to an international organization with a membership of approximately 148,000 girls and women. In 1948, two days before what would have been her 88th birthday, the U.S. Post Office Department issued a 3-cent commemorative stamp honoring Juliette Gordon Low. First day of issue ceremonies for the stamp were held in Savannah.

Native Yamacraw Chief Tomochichi is buried and memorialized today on Wright Square in Savannah. Wright Square was originally Percival Square, named after the Earl of Egmont who was influential in the Georgia Colony's founding. Renamed to honor James Wright, who was the Georgia Colony's last Royal Governor, the square also has a monument to William Washington GORDON. He was a mayor of Savannah, a Supreme Court Justice for the State of Georgia and he established the Central of Georgia Railroad. As you may have surmised, he was also father of Juliette Gordon Low, founder of The Girl Scouts of America. The location, also known as the courthouse square fronts the US Post Office (circa 1899). "wrightsquareinformationpage.html"

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !
Beloved, we are now the sons of God, but it doth not yet appear what we shall become;
however, we know that, when He shall return, we shall be like Him; for we shall see Him as He is [1 John 3:2].

Premier Novembre — C’est sa fête Toussaint (Festum Omnium Sanctorum): Called Allerheiligentag, All Saints Day in Germany remains one of several legal holidays ( Die Feiertage) in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Northrhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, as well in Austria. In Zeiten der Verfolgung durch die römischen Kaiser galt besonderes Ansehen vor allem den Märtyrern, die für ihr christliches Bekenntnis ihr Leben geopfert hatten. Christen wollten sich in der Nähe der Märtyrergräber bestatten lassen. Bei der Auferstehung am Jüngsten Tag wollte man in ihrer Nähe sein. An der Stelle mancher Gräber von Märtyrern erbaute man später Kirchen.

Toussaint est un raccourci qui désigne la fête de « tous les martyrs et de tous les saints ». Cette fête a été instituée en 610 par le pape Boniface IV afin d'honorer Marie et les martyrs romains dont il avait fait transférer les corps des catacombes au panthéon d'Agrippa, reconverti en église. L'Occident a fixé la Toussaint au 1er novembre et fait du lendemain, 2 novembre, la Fête des morts. Par cette disposition, l'Église place symboliquement l'ensemble des défunts sous la protection des saints. Gregory III (731-741) consecrated a chapel in the Basilica of St. Peter to all the saints and fixed the anniversary for November 1st. A basilica of the Apostles already existed in Rome, and its dedication was annually remembered on May First. Gregory IV (827-844) extended the celebration on November First to the entire Christian Church. A vigil seems to have been held as early as the feast itself. {English} Commémoraison des fidèles défunts:

« La mort a été engloutie dans la victoire. Ô Mort, où est ta victoire ? Ô Mort, où est ton dard venimeux ? »
[Première lettre de saint Paul Apôtre aux Corinthiens (XV, 54-58).]
« En vérité, je te le dis, dès aujourd’hui tu seras avec moi dans le paradis » [Luc 23, 46].
Jésus lui dit: « Moi, je suis la résurrection et la vie. Celui qui croit en moi, même s'il meurt, vivra ; et tout homme qui vit et qui croit en moi ne mourra jamais.
Crois-tu cela ? »

Elle répondit: « Oui, Seigneur »
« Lazare, viens dehors !»
[Suite du saint Évangile de notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ selon Saint Jean (XI, 1-45)]

Scriptum est in Gestis Pontificalibus", inquit Alcuinus lib. de Divin. Offic." quod S. Bonifacius PP". (IV.)" quandam domum Romæ, Pantheon nomine, quæ erat consecrata in honore omnium dæmoniorum, eliminatis omnibus spurcitiis, sacraverit Ecclesiam in honore sanctæ Dei Genitricis, omniumque Sanctorum. Unde constitutum est, ut plebs universa per totum orbem in Kl. Novembribus, sicut in die Natalis Domini, ad Ecclesiam in honore omnium Sanctorum ad Missarum solennia convenire studeat, illud attendentes, ut quidquid fragilitas humana per ignorantiam aut negligentiam in solennitatibus Sanctorum minus plene peregisset, in hac sancta observatione solveretur -- The Pantheon, which was dedicated to the Roman Pantheon of gods (honore omnium dæmoniorum), was rededicated to all the Saints by Pope (and Saint) Boniface IV. During the pontificate of Boniface, Mellitus, the first Bishop of London, went to Rome "to consult the pope on important matters relative to the newly established "English" Church (the tonsure crisis). The feast day for St. Boniface is May 25th.

Quiberon Bay near Brest 
Edward MoranNovember 1, 1777: The Ranger, commanded by John Paul Jones, sailed from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the first to display the Stars and Stripes at sea. En route to Nantes, the ship captured 2 brigantines, sending them into French ports as prizes -- the first time the new flag presided over combat at sea. On February 14, 1778, the French fleet gave a reply of 9 guns (Admiral La Motte Piquet) in answer to a salute of 13 guns given by John Paul Jones as he entered Quiberon Bay near Brest. This is the first recognition of the Stars and Stripes given by a foreign power. The painting of the Ranger is of its entrance to the French Bay. Edward Moran (American, 1829-1901), its painter, is perhaps best known for his 19th century representations of ships and the coast. He is not to be confused with Thomas and Edward Percy Moran who respectively had western and historical works, nor with Henry Marcus Moran (1877-1960) a commercial artist of the early 20th century (Pittsburgh PA).

Only a dozen years before on this day (November 1st) in 1765, The Stamp Act had gone into effect, prompting resistance from American colonists, setting off a chain of events leading toward a revolution against British rule. Also on this date in 1783 (plus one day), the Continental Army dissolved and George Washington made his Farewell Address to his officers at Rocky Hill, New Jersey. He had a Christmas fare-the-well on December 4th in NYC (Fraunces Tavern -- 54 Pearl Street, New York City).

Today November 2: is the "day of the dead" (Feast of All Souls (fête Tous Ames)) - Blue Öyster Cult, among others, played yesterday in 2014 at a festival, named in honour of this event, held at England Brothers Park – Pinellas Park, FL -- guess which song they featured. In Brazil, Dia de Finados is a public holiday that many Brazilians celebrate by visiting cemeteries and churches. In Spain, festivals and parades are frequently held, where people gather at cemeteries and pray for their deceased loved ones at the end of the day. Similar observances occur elsewhere in Europe, and similarly themed celebrations appear in many Asian and African cultures.; Dead Like Me

November 2, 2003 -- Un-issued Hepburn: The Hepburn stamp (part of a set of 5 honoring movie stars) was withdrawn at the last moment in 2001 because one of Hepburn's sons objected to the design - possibly because the image showed his mother smoking (She died of cancer in 1993). Germany destroyed all copies of the withdrawn stamps, except for 30 stamps that never returned. A Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman stamp in the original German set was also withdrawn around this time. The issued set substituted stamps depicting Greta Garbo and a reel of film. The other 3 stamps (issued in the set) were for Marilyn Monroe, Jean Gabin and Charlie Chaplin. A 37¢ USA Hepburn stamp (sans cigarette), issued without incident in June 2003, already circulated.

Some if not all of the missing 30 Hepburn stamps appear to have been used on domestic mail in late 2003. One can not sure how, as the DM (Deutsche Mark) officially ceased to be legal tender on December 31, 2001. Existing postage stamps in every €uro country remained valid only until June 30, 2002. These two Hepburn 110 pfennig examples passed through the German mail system nearly 18 months after they became invalid. from

Two copies have been found, one postmarked November 3rd. A leading German stamp auctioneer, Heinrich Köhler, offered a November 2nd cancelled stamp, illustrated nearby, for sale. The stamp had a hefty auction estimate of €20,000 ($A32,275 -- $24,000+US) The €20,000 estimate proved super-conservative. The final invoice price for the stamp was €69,437.60 (which includes a 17% commission and 16% VAT on the commission). That is $A112,056 -- a price level even major 19th Century rarities often fail to realize today.

November 2, 1920: This is election night. Technology advances allowed commercial radio broadcasts to cover the US national election for the first time. The announcers at KDKA AM in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, read telegraph ticker results, without commentary or critical social analyses, as the returns arrived. At night, this station could be heard over most of the Eastern United States by the small group that had radio receivers (and who had tuned to the broadcast). KDKA's license -- the first radio commercial broadcast license -- was issued October 27, 1920, and on September 20, 1921, something else happened.

Harding's Republican landslide came from carrying all states except those in the deep South, which as usual voted the solid Democrat party line. Both major parties' candidates hailed from Ohio. The third party socialists ran Eugene Victor Debs (of Indiana), who barely received 900 thousand votes (3.4% of the total cast). Back then democrat-voting states were called the red states, which was the way it was generally until the TV networks changed things in Y2K. Just as it was 90 years ago, November 2nd is the national election day in 2010. You have (for now) a choice in listening to and even watching the results arrive on the Internet, TV, as well as radio. Those oversees can tune in, too.

November 3rd: This day commemorate the translation of the relics of Saint George, from Nicomedia, where he suffered under Emperor Diocletian, to the city of Lydda in Palestine. The suffering of this saint is generally celebrated on April 23rd. Anticipating his martyrdom, St. George asked for his relics to go to Palestine, where his mother had been born and where he had distributed his large estate to the poor. During the reign of Emperor Constantine the Great, the pious built a beautiful church to George in Lydda and, upon the consecration of that church, the relics of that Saint were interred there. Innumerable miracles have occurred from these miracle-working relics of Saint George, the great-martyr of Christ.

Reichenau AbbeyToday is also the Feast Day of Saint Pirmin (ca. 690 - 753), a Western-Goth born in Aragon (Spain) (some say of Anglo-saxon descent because of his strong Irish leanings in matters of Faith). Pirmin became a traveling bishop in 720AD. In art, Saint Pirmin is depicted as a monk with three dead snakes before him. Sometimes he is shown walking with Count Sintlatz on the island of Reichenau. The Stadt Pirmasens in Germany is named for him. He is entombed in Hornbach, Germany. His designation as a saint precedes the practice of formal canonization by a pope. His feast day is revered particularly in Chur, Freiburg im Breisgau and Speyer. Kaundorf - Chapelle St. Pirmin He is also closely related with the martyr Meinrad.

in [unum] Deum Patrem omnipotentem, Creatorem cæli et terræ,
et in Iesum Christum, Filium Eius unicum, Dominum nostrum,
qui conceptus est de Spiritu Sancto, natus ex Maria Virgine,
passus sub Pontio Pilato, crucifixus, mortuus, et sepultus,
descendit ad inferos, tertia die resurrexit a mortuis,
ascendit ad cælos, sedet ad dexteram Patris omnipotentis,
inde venturus est iudicare vivos et mortuos.
Credo in Spiritum Sanctum, sanctam Ecclesiam catholicam,
sanctorum communionem,
remissionem peccatorum,
carnis resurrectionem,
vitam æternam.

A contemporary of Charles Martel and Boniface (when the Saracens invaded Spain), Pirmin organized monastic institutions in southwestern Germany, awakened a new religious and scholarly life by the banks of the Rhein in germaniæ superior and established several important monasteries (l'Ordre des Bénédictins) throughout his primature, such as at Reichenau, Gegenbach, Hornbach, l'Abbaye de Murbach en Alsace, Neuweiler, Schwarzach and Amorbach. His book de singulis libris canonicis scarapsus, written between 710-724AD, contains the earliest appearance of the text of the Apostles' Creed in its currently accepted Latin form. His name can also be found spelled Priminius, as the first abbot of the Reichenau Abbey (picture right is of Saint Georg Minster at Reichenau (

November 3, 1860 -- "never the twain shall meet" : The Territorial Enterprise, a Nevada newspaper, resumes publishing in Virginia City. The owners published the first issue of the paper, printed in Virginia City, from the corner of A Street and Sutton Avenue, then located within the heart of a booming business district. The paper had started two years before in Genoa, Nevada. Yes, Samuel Clemens, aka Mark Twain, got his big break (as a writer) with the Territorial Enterprise. The New York Saturday Press released Mark Twain's premier fictional tale The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County on November 18, 1865 (written while in California). Biologists have since opined that the frog named Dan’l Webster by Twain was a California red-legged frog, currently endangered.

On Sunday May 29, 1864 Mark Twain, having quit the Territorial Enterprise boarded a stagecoach to begin his journey out of the Nevada Territory to San Francisco; no duel was fought. The Territorial Enterprise wished him well, writing "Mark Twain leaves this morning for San Francisco. Sorry to see you go, Mark, old boy—but we cannot expect to have you always with us. Go then, where duty calls you, and when the highest pinnacle of fame affords you a arresting place remember that in the land of silver and sagebrush there are a host of old friends that rejoice in your success." Thanks to his time in Nevada, Twain was able to enter easily into the Bohemian literary society of San Francisco in May, 1864 and "required no apology … His work as a writer on the Territorial Enterprise had given him wide notoriety, and in previous visits to San Francisco he had been treated as a celebrity"
The famous Lion of Belfort commemorating the Victory was designed by the same person who designed the Statue of LibertyNovember 4, 1870: The 100-day siege of the massive fortification overlooking the City of Belfort begins. Belfort would be permitted, in the end, to remain with France, and became an independent entity (department), while the rest of Alsace-Lorraine came under German control one again. More about Belfort and its lion may be found on our site HERE.

There is another Lion of Belfort located in Paris at Place Denfert-Rochereau, (also on our map for Maréchaux Sud) named for Pierre Marie Philippe Aristide Denfert-Rochereau (1823-1878), who led the resistance of Belfort to a siege during the Franco-Prussian War. It is an RER stop and Métro stop (lines 4 and 6), too. Formerly known as Place d'Enfer (where one can find the Catacombs of Paris) until D-R's death, it was renamed after the hero. The smaller sculpture you will find at this square in the middle of traffic also was crafted by Auguste Bartholdi, to replicate the one on the mountain at Belfort. Both sculptures face east in defiance of the invading German hordes. The German nation has its own monument over-looking the Rhine (Niederwald Memorial in Hesse), facing west towards France, in defiance of earlier French invasions.

"Treason doth never prosper: what's the reason ??  For if it prosper, none dare call it treason" - Sir John Harington -- How times change

November 5, 1605 -- some 410 years earlier than today: A conspiracy of eleven men, led by one Guy Fawkes, tried to return England to Roman Catholicism, in part because King James had sent many of the Jesuit order into exile. The conspirators plotted to kill the King and all the British legislature by blowing up the Houses of Parliament on November 5th. They failed in their execution, the plot was discovered. The following November 5th (1606), Parliament established a national day of thanksgiving. Guy Fawkes Day or Bonfire Night has been celebrated every year since with fireworks and the burning of a Guy Fawkes’ effigy.

"Please to remember the 5th November:
Gunpowder Treason and Plot.
We know no reason why Gunpowder Treason
Should ever be forgot."

le 5 novembre 1898 -- Première wireless Xmission: Eugène Ducretet offre une démonstration publique de transmission sans fil avec l’aide de l’ingénieur Ernest Roger. Situé au 3ème étage de la Tour Eiffel, il émet jusqu’au Panthéon, où le message est reçu en morse {code télégraphe}. This successful experiment was to save the Tower that would otherwise have been dismantled, after the 1900 Universal Exhibition. On March 31st in the year 1889, this famous Paris landmark had opened to the dismay of some. At 985 feet high, it was the highest structure in the world until 1930, when a building in NYC was built with a pretty fair view of Lady Liberty, also built by the man who built the Tour Eiffel.

À Paris, le 5 novembre 1906: Aujourd'hui, Marie Curie devient professeur à 39 ans. La physicienne française d'origine polonaise Marie Curie devient la première femme professeur à la Sorbonne. Marie Curie succède en fait à son mari, Pierre Curie, mort prématurément au mois d'avril, à la chaire de physique. Elle enseignera tout en continuant ses recherches et recevra son deuxième prix Nobel en 1911. She was born November 7th in the year 1867.

November 6, 1879: Officially, Canada celebrates Thanksgiving Day for the first time. The holiday changed to the week of Armistice Day after World War I, then moved to the second Monday of October in 1957. In an unrelated matter (but near Canada), on this date in 1944, in the State of Washington, the Hanford facility produces Plutonium, the radioactive explosive component in the Nagasaki weapon. Plutonium appears to be at the core of the first nuclear bomb produced by North Korea and exploded in October 2006.

On November 6, 1528: Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and several other survivors of the shipwrecked expedition of Panfilo de Navarez landed their crudely constructed rafts somewhere on the upper Texas coast. Most scholars believe that the location de Vaca named in his journal La Isla de Malhado, or “Misfortune Island,” was what we call today Galveston Island.

The term misfortune for the island is understandable. While de Vaca and other crewmen, including a Moor named Esteban, survived, they were quickly enslaved by the native tribes. These were probably the members of the Karankawa Nation. De Vaca slowly gained acceptance as a shaman or medicine man by practicing what scant medical knowledge he possessed as a European commoner.

After several years, the small group of Spaniards finally managed to escape, wandering across the interior of the southwest in search of other Spaniards. Their long journey carried them through Central Texas, the Big Bend, Chihuahua, and Sonora. They eventually stumbled into a Spanish outpost on the Gulf of California, fascinating their countrymen with rumors of Seven Cities of Cibola, cities of the natives laden with gold and silver. These unsubstantiated rumors, which de Vaca repeated in reports to the Viceroy and King, convinced the Spanish to mount a full-fledged search.

On the same date in 1869, in New Brunswick, New Jersey, Rutgers College defeats Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey), 6-4, in the first official intercollegiate American football game. Moving ahead to this date in 1934, Memphis, Tennessee becomes the first major city to join its power system to the Tennessee Valley Authority. Memphis was outside the Tennessee Valley and its decision (public referendum) was challenged in the courts, with the constitutionality of TVA and the service agreement upheld. A year later, on November 6, 1935, Edwin Armstrong presents his paper "A Method of Reducing Disturbances in Radio Signaling by a System of Frequency Modulation" to the New York section of the Institute of Radio Engineers.
November 7, 1801: Dr. Volta présente sa pile électrique à M. Bonaparte. The Italian scientist Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta, noble son of Don Filippo and Donna Maddalena dei Conti Inzaghi, presented the first apparatus to produce a continuous electric current, the original battery, to the Institut de France, a command performance for the first counsul of France.  Napoléon Bonaparte will later present him with a gold medal, make him a member of the Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur and furnish him with the title of Count (1810) for these results. In 1881 the important electrical unit of potential, the volt, was named in his honor along with a moon crater. Volta is buried in the city of Como. At the Tempio Voltiano near Lake Como is a museum devoted his work, where Count Volta's original instruments and papers are on display.

November 7, 1805: Great joy in camp we are in view of the ocean, this great Pacific Ocean which we been so long anxious to see. And the roreing or noise made by the waves brakeing on the rockey shores (as I suppose) may be heard distinctly. So wrote William Clark after the Lewis & Clark Expedition (Corps of Discovery) sighted what they thought was the Pacific Ocean for the first time (but it was technically a bay). The expedition voted to build a fort near the Pacific Ocean on the south side of the bay near the city that John Jacob Astor would later found (present-day Astoria, Oregon). They had started building Fort Clatsop (named after a local native tribe) by December 7, 1805. They moved in on Christmas Eve. The winter in 1805/06 was cold and wet. Between November 4, 1805, and March 25, 1806, the party had only twelve days without rain. Unfortunately, the long-standing reconstructed life-sized model of Fort Clatsop burned to the ground in October 2005.

November 7, 1917: (On October 25 under the older Julian calendar then used by Russia), the provisional government of Premier Aleksandr Kerensky fell to communist forces led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. Comrade Lenin called his followers Bolsheviks, meaning “the majority,” when they democratically held, for a short period of time, the majority of a revolutionary committee. The Bolsheviks became a majority of the ruling group, but they were only a small part of the total Russian population. Decades of czarist neglect and the devastation of World War I had wrecked the Russian economy. In March 1917, Czar Nicholas II abdicated. Kerensky's provisional government struggled to maintain power, until the Bolsheviks stormed Petrograd and seized all government operations. Lenin and his lieutenant, Leon Trotsky, soon confiscated private real property (land reform) and nationalized private industry (expropriation outright or aggressive progressive taxation is another type of reform that all true socialists use in the name of change).

In March 1918, an exhausted Russia withdrew from World War I by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the German Empire. Bloody civil war continued to rage in Russia for the next two years as the anti-Bolshevik White Army battled the Communists for control. Accordingly, on November 7, 1963, the film “It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World” premiered at Hollywood’s new Cinerama Théâtre in a lengthy 195 minute version. Just as entertaining today as way back then, the classic decries the capitalist west's bourgeois obsession with cars, competition and ill-gotten gain.

America did not tell the millions of men and women who came from every country in the world and who--with their hands, their intelligence and their heart--built the greatest nation in the world: “Come, and everything will be given to you.” She said: “Come, and the only limits to what you'll be able to achieve will be your own courage and your own talent.” America embodies this extraordinary ability to grant each and every person a second chance.

November 7, 2007: Renewing the French-American Alliance, by Nicolas Sarkozy, President of France, presented before a joint session of the US Congress, November 07, 2007 [Text of Speech in English].

† The Orthodox Church celebrates November 8th as the Synaxis of the Chief Captains of the Heavenly Host, Michael and Gabriel, and of the other Bodiless Powers of Heaven see
" The holy Scriptures, from beginning to end, are filled with mentions and descriptions of the Heavenly Host: not to believe in angels is not to believe in the Bible. In the heavens they behold the face of God, eternally hymning His glory. They are intimately involved with mankind as well: an angel is appointed guardian over every nation, and over every individual Christian. The Archangels Michael and Gabriel, whom we especially commemorate today along with all the other bodiless powers, have served as messengers to man. "Michael" means "Who is like God?";"Gabriel" means "God is mighty." Gabriel especially was appointed to announce the coming of Christ in the flesh.

"There is no reckoning the number of the Heavenly Host, though we know that they are a great multitude. They are ranked in nine orders, called Thrones, Cherubim, Seraphim, Dominions, Powers, Authorities, Principalities, Archangels and Angels. "Angel" means "herald" or "messenger" and is properly applied only to those who serve as messengers from God to man; but the name is often applied to the entire host of bodiless powers.

"Though bodiless, the angels are finite in knowledge, extension and power. The angel Lucifer, once the highest of them all, desired to be like God Himself, and was cast forever from the presence of God, along with countless others who followed him. These we now know as Satan and the demons. (Needless to say, they are not commemorated today). "

† Indicates a Saint or day whose commemoration is at least "Doxology rank" (Great Doxology sung at Matins); there is generally some dispensation from fasting when these days fall on fast days. In Eastern Christianity (the Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite), a Synaxis (Greek: Σύναξις; Slavonic: Собор, Sobor) is an assembly for liturgical purposes, generally through the celebration of Vespers, Matins, Little Hours, and the Divine Liturgy. Synaxis can also refer to a common commemoration of a number of saints in a single service, such as the Synaxis of the Seventy Apostles, or as here the Holy Angels of various orders. Each individual saint may have his or her own separate feast day, but they are all commemorated together on their synaxis. Most every synaxis is observed as a fixed feast on the same day every year.

November 8, 1575: -- French Catholics and Huguenots sign yet another treaty, creating lasting peace. A year later, all the provinces of the land of Holland would unite in the Pacification of Ghent in the face of Spanish occupation. The 17 provinces of the Netherlands formed a federation to maintain peace. In 1620: The King of Bohemia was defeated at the Battle of White Mountain, Prague. Together with Hapsburg support in Bohemia, the Catholics defeated the Protestants at White Mountain. Weeks of plunder and pillage followed in Prague. In 1647: Pierre Bayle (died in 1706), French-Dutch theologian, philosopher, and writer, was born. He authored the Historical and Critical Dictionary. He is reported to have remarked: “If an historian were to relate truthfully all the crimes, weaknesses and disorders of mankind, his readers would take his work for satire rather than for history.” In 1685: Fredrick William of Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, offering French Huguenots refuge from the rampage of the Sun King. In 1793 (picture left): At the end of the French Révolution, the former french fortress-palace, Louvre, opened in Paris as an art salon and history museum. The structure was originally started as a massive tower in the early thirteenth century. French Kings and their massive entourage had used a rebuilt and expanded Louvre as a palatial residence, while they were in town. Foundations of the tower (tour), today have been revealed and are part of the tour one can take within.
Another illustration on link November 9, 1780: In the Battle of Fishdam Ford a force of British and Loyalist-Tory troops attack the South Carolina Patriot militia. Although surprised, the militia prevails. Brigadier General Thomas Sumter, of the militia was said to have skedaddled from his tent upon the initial engagement. He played no significant role that day. Just five years earlier on November 10, 1775, the institution called The US Marines is first founded at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia by the man with two first names, Samuel Nicholas. A tun is a barrel. Traditionally a tun was a large barrel containing 256 gallons of wine (later 252 - which is slightly over 1 ton in weight plus the weight of the large barrel). The Mayflower was “a bark of one hundred eighty tuns burden.” That meant she could take on a cargo of 180 tun-sized barrels (taking into account both size and weight) without foundering. Samuel became the first officer commissioned (by the Second Continental Congress) in the United States Continental Marines (now the United States Marine Corps). By tradition he is considered to be the first Commandant of the Marine Corps. He led the first landing of Marines on foreign soil in 1776. Three ships in the United States Navy have been named the USS Nicholas in his honor. Every year on this date a Marine detachment places a memorial wreath in his graveyard in Philadelphia.

Freedom November 9, 1989: It was crystal clear, the Berlin Wall was no longer a political obstacle, and soon, would not remain a physical one either. East Germany now permitted free exchange between the eastern and western portions of the divided city. Communist East Germany threw open all its borders, allowing its citizens to travel freely for the first time in over 40 years. As a practical matter, border security no longer had relevance because of recent changes that now furnished unhindered passage through Czechoslovakia. On November 10, 1989, approximately 600,000 East Germans came to West Berlin for a visit, some to shop, some to meet family and friends, some just to stand there to witness that moment in history. East and West German citizens began to dance atop the Wall, as the Stasi (guards of the East) stood unsure about what to do next with their lives. On the evening of November 11, 1989, the first concrete slab was removed from The Wall to the cheering of thousands (some cite the 10th for this event, and by the 11th a goodly number of wall samples had been taken already): -- -- Our short Berlin page,

Interestingly, the once feared and still-hated Stasi were involved with the physical reunification of Berlin. The last job of the east-german secret homeland security police was the removal of The Wall. On July 21, 1990, an estimated 150,000 persons attended an outdoor rock-'n-roll concert in East Berlin to celebrate the dismantling of the Berlin Wall. A big chunk of the Berlin Wall was unveiled as a monument in Monterey California (USA) on Wednesday, November 02, 2005, as top military officers waxed poetic about freedom, sacrifice and the strange turns of a long, twilight struggle that many believed would never end. The monument is one of the largest pieces of The Wall now on display in the United States. It consists of three 12-foot sections, still painted with a mural, as well as the graffiti associated with the most lasting symbol of the divide between communist tyranny of the east and the democratic West.

During the 20th year remembrance in 2009, former East German citizen, now the current Chancellor, Angela Merkel, of a united Germany spoke about the importance of the event for European freedom, along with former Soviet Union leader, General Secretary Mikhail S. Gorbachev. Chancellor Helmut Kohl who oversaw the reunification could not attend the evening functions. Also present was Lech Walesa. The former shipyard worker and Solidarity trades union leader, who led a fight against Moscow-backed Communism in Poland, symbolically pushed over (8:32pm local time) the first in a line of about 1000 colorful, giant dominos to illustrate how a legitimate labor movement was able to change the course of history. Absent were the late Pope of Polish descent (now Saint) and an American President who assisted greatly the effort. Mrs. Merkel said recently that she was one of those to walk into the West that night, then returned to go to work the next day. Today she repeated her walk with Gorbachev and Walesa, a moment that most certainly we will never see again. -- Das Christentum darf nicht in die Welt des Mythos und der Gefühle verbannt werden, sondern es muß in seinem Anspruch respektiert werden, die Wahrheit über den Menschen ans Licht zu bringen und die Kraft zu besitzen, Männer und Frauen geistlich umzuwandeln, so daß sie ihrer Sendung in der Geschichte nachkommen können. -- The Church Universal must never become relegated to the world of myth and sentimentality, but its message that it reveals the light of truth must find respect, as well as its power to transform the spiritual life of women and men, in order to fulfill its historic mission.

"We have worked our fingers to the bone for this country, and we are not standing by to see it all fall into ruins.
The truth has come to light. A nation that can not keep their young at home, has no future."

"We, the people, demand:

1.) The right to free access of information.
2.) We demand the right to open political discussions.
3.) We demand the freedom of thoughts and creativity.
4.) We demand the right to maintain a plural ideology.
5.) We demand the right to dissent.
6.) We demand the right to travel freely.
7.) We demand the right to exert influence over government authority.
8.) We demand the right to re-examine our beliefs.
9.) We, the people, demand the right to voice an opinion in the affairs of state."

Quote is from East Germany in 1989 -- it is interesting how history repeats itself in many variations -- WE The People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessing of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this, Constitution for the United States of America.

" have decided implement a regulation that allows every citizen of the German Democratic East Germany through any of the border crossings," said Guenter Schabowski {government spokesman}. He appeared scarcely to believe his own words and we were all dumbfounded. What did he just say? Schabowski was asked when the new rule would take effect. "That comes into effect...according to my information.... immediately, without delay," Schabowski stammered, shuffling through the papers spread in front of him as he sought in vain for more information. It later emerged that the announcement was not supposed to be released until 4 a.m. the next morning. He also meant to say East Germans could apply for visas in an orderly manner at the appropriate state agency. The sudden rush to the border, which so overwhelmed the guards there, was the last thing he had in mind. (Deshalb ... um ... wir haben heute beschlossen, ... um ... um eine Verordnung, dass jeder Bürger der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik ermöglicht ... um ... um ... um ... zu verlassen Osten Deutschland umsetzen durch eines der Grenzübergänge) -- see also

November 10, 1975: The bulk-transport freighter (iron ore -- taconite), Edmund Fitzgerald, sank beneath the waves of Lake Superior with all hands on board (29 officers and crew). She encountered heavy weather. In the early evening of November 10th, the ship suddenly foundered approximately 17 miles from the entrance to Whitefish Bay, west of Sault Ste. Marie. The Edmund Fitzgerald lies broken in two sections under 530 feet of water. Interestingly, today in 1483 is the birth date of Martin Luther (Eisleben, Germany). He was baptized the next morning on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours. Originally organized as the Continental Marines on November 10, 1775 (Second Continental Congress), as naval infantry, the Maine Corps has served in every American armed conflict. Most would say with distinction.

The legend lives on from the Chippewa on down
Of the big lake they call Gitche Gumee,
Superior, they said, never gives up her dead
When the gales of November come early. 

La légende vit dessus du Chippewa à travers les temps
Du grand lacqu’ils appellent Gitche Gumee,
Supérieur, disaient-ils, renonce jamais ses morts
Lorsque les vents forts de Novembre tôt viennent.

In the Ojibwe language, the lake is called Gichigami, meaning "big water". It is also written "Gitche Gumee" as recorded by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in The Song of Hiawatha. The lake was named le lac supérieur, or "Upper Lake," in the seventeenth century by French explorers because it was located above Lake Huron (in terms of the direction of the flow).

Voiron on November 10-11: The annual fair of Saint-Martin dates from 1356. The streets are packed with hundreds of booths and this capital of the Chartreuse (département de l'Isère et la région Rhône-Alpes) welcomes over 200,000 guests. The counts of Savoy still reigned at that time the town of Voiron was granted the right to enjoy a weekly market every Wednesday, and an annual fair November 11th, the feast day Saint Martin. Originally, the fair facilitated exchanges between the neighboring village communities. At a later time when an extra day was added, most participants were bakers, traders of livestock, clothiers, farmers, cheese makers, millers, jewelers from all over France. The only years the fair was not held were 1714 and 1715 due to livestock epidemics affecting a large proportion of the herds. Today, the fair no longer relies on animals, and the clothiers (makers of cloth) have been replaced by the merchants of clothing (chinois ?). "Fête Saint Martinus" has become a time for the artists in the region to sell their efforts, too. More about Voiron is HERE. It was a Tour host-city in 2010.
November 11th -- Feast Day for Saint Martinus (317-397), Apostle to the Gaulois, Bishop of Tours: St. Martin's story is a mixture of history and legend. During the Middle Ages and up to most recent times, he is regarded as the most popular Saint of France (also known as Martin the Merciful and The Glory of Gaul). Modern detractors claim that his war against celtic beliefs destroyed the old culture. His premier biographers were Grégoire de Tours and Sulpice Sévère; and, it is also to these two men that we owe the preservation of the many legendary exploits of the Saint.

Martin was born at Savaria, Pannonia (modern Szombathely, Hungary). His father, a senior officer (tribune) in the Imperial Horse Guard, later served at Ticinum, in Cisalpine Gaul (modern Pavia, Italy). As a lad he found himself enrôlé in the Roman Legions, serving in Italy and Gallia. Soldier Martin, after a vision, decided to leave the army and to convert. After baptism, he began Christian service under the famous Saint Hilaire, bishop of Poitiers. After having founded the monastery of Ligugé, Martin took up the position of bishop at Tours (370AD). He occupied this station for 26 years, yet he continued to live as a monk within the monastery of Marmoutier, which he founded also in the Loire River Valley.

He devoted his life to the destruction of the pagan temples and rebuilding them as churches. On November 8th he died. Three days later was buried at Tours. It is said that two thousand monks and nuns gathered for this funeral. His successor at Tours built a chapel over his crypt, which was replaced by a fine basilica (much destroyed during the religious wars in France). A restored basilica rested on this site until its destruction during the French Revolution. A modern one has been built there since.

After the death of Saint Martin, Tours became one of the great centers for pilgrimage in Europe. The burial vault of St. Martin constituted the most valuable relic in France. The Mérovingien and Carolingian Kings made it a symbol of their dynasties. It is the word for his burial structure that becomes the modern word chapelle. So today, in France, more than 450 communes and nearly 5,000 churches are dedicated to him. Portions of the above are my translation from an old French-Canadian source about saint days. He is the first confessor who was not a martyr to be named a Saint in the West. Saint Martin also is commemorated on November 8th in the Greek and Slavic Synaxaria; his primary feast in the West, where he is especially honored, is on November 11th.

On November 11, 1620 a group of ship passengers signed an important paper.

Haveing undertaken, for ye glorie of God, and advancemente of ye Christian faith, and honour of our king & countrie, a voyage to plant ye first colonie in ye Northerne parts of Virginia, doe by these presents solemnly & mutualy in ye presence of God, and one of another, covenant & combine our selves togeather into a civill body politick; for our better ordering & preservation & furtherance of ye ends aforesaid; and by vertue hearof, to enacte, constitute, and frame shuch just & equall lawes, ordinances, acts, constitutions, & offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meete & convenient for ye generall good of ye Colonie:  unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.  In witnes wherof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cap-Codd ye .11. of November, in ye year of the raigne of our soveraigne Lord king James of England, France, & Ireland ye eighteenth, and of Scotland ye fiftie fourth. Ano: Dom. 1620. 

These Pilgrims disembarked on November 21st at what is today known as Provincetown -- More Here

November 11th also marks the anniversary of the signing of the Armistice in the Forest of Campiègne by the Allies and the German forces in 1918. On the day the Great War ended, word reached Georgia in the morning. Governor Dorsey declared a State holiday, closing all State offices. Atlanta Mayor Candler gave city employees a vacation for the afternoon. The Atlanta City School System held impromptu patriotic ceremonies, before releasing its charges and changing student test scores. Area businesses closed. Crowds filled the streets Downtown all day long, with several, also impromptu, parades. Similar immediate celebrations occurred throughout the State as, Georgians marked the end of the War to end all wars.

Atlanta held a properly planned grand parade on November 12th to commemorate Germany's surrender to the Allies. Three hundred veterans who had fought in Europe headed the procession, followed by soldiers from Camp Gordon and other military facilities and thousands more (10,000 were said to have paraded) -- relatives and friends of the veterans, the police, fire-fighters and some of the rest of the civilian population. Georgia cities throughout the State held victory celebrations for the end of Great War. For more information, go HERE

November 11th, Armistice Day, first was observed by Presidential Proclamation as a legal holiday in the United States a year later (1919). On the 11th of November 1920, an unknown soldier of the World War was laid to rest within a tomb under the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile at the high-point of the Champs-Élysées. In 1921 on the 11th day of November, President Harding dedicated the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington. In 1938 Congress enacted a bill, which dedicated every November 11 to world peace. Kate Smith performed Irving Berlin's famous tune for the first time that same year. Ms. Smith had introduced the song on her Thursday, November 10, 1938, radio show (aired live the day before Armistice Day). It was a fitting tribute to its composer, who gave all royalties from the very popular and emotional, God Bless America to the Boy Scouts of America.

The Armistice is memorialized also in France {la date de la grande fête de l'Armistice en France}, England (where the Red Poppy of Flanders Fields serves as the symbol of Remembrance Day for the English, as well as for a lot of brave Scotsmen, Welshmen and Irishmen that died in both conflicts) and Canada, encompassing an observation for all the dead.

A Veterans Day observance was held in Emporia, Kansas on November 11, 1953. On May 24, 1954, Congress passed a bill to change the name (from Armistice Day) to Veterans Day. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed this bill into law by on June 1, 1954, and later he prepared the first Presidential Proclamation under the new law. The day was officially set aside to pay tribute to honor (all U.S.) Veterans on the 11th day of November of each year.
In 1997, the State dedicated a monument honoring Georgia's World War I Veterans. You can find it today in front of the Floyd Veterans Memorial Building, across the street from the State Capitol. The memorial's design, which mirrors that of the Federal World War I memorial, lists the names of the 1,937 Georgians who died during that conflict. The monument wall displays a map, showing how the war unfolded, plus quotes from President Woodrow Wilson and General John J. Pershing, as well as poems associated with the Great War.

Oh, by-the-way, for those who keep track of these things, General W.T. Sherman held the first Georgia tailgate barbecue after, unfortunately, igniting the city of Rome (1864). More HERE. It is not true that this was the first time You Light up my Life was performed in Georgia. It is true that one reason people came to this area of North Georgia (before the War between the States) was to visit the Tumlin Indian Mounds. More HERE.

More of November begins HERE

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
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We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from (original URL may have changed): -- -- -- -- -- -- --

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Last update: October 25, 2016
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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at that moment.