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The  VANGUARD --   2015

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit."

 
We complete our 18th Year online in May 2015
". . . One Nation under God . . . ."



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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links
Luxembourg

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

Tour de France -- 2012 -- A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- http://www.au-chateau.com/auChateauNews75.php (Spring 2015)-NEW

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות) -- More Verses and Selections

Puisque l'Esprit nous fait vivre, laissons-nous conduire par l'Esprit

« Je vous dis tout cela pendant que je demeure encore avec vous ; mais le Défenseur, l'Esprit Saint que le Père enverra en Mon nom, Lui, vous enseignera tout, et il vous fera souvenir de tout ce que Je vous ai dit » -- Suite du saint Évangile de notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ selon Saint Jean (XIV 25-26).

"I tell you all this while I still remains with you; The Advocate, the Holy Spirit whom the Father will send in My name, He shall teach you all things and will remind you of all which I have told you."

http://infocatho.cef.fr/.../cefpentecote/pente064paul.html


Memorial Day 2015 - May 25th -- Our page is HERE

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

May 25, 735: Bede (The Venerable), father of English history, dies. In addition to his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731), biographies of abbots and Scriptural commentaries, Bede wrote the primary source document about how Celtic and Roman Christianity clashed at the Synod of Whitby in 664. For the full story in context of the times -- Go HERE to read more. His feast day is celebrated by some on the 27th of May, but for most in the English Church it is today the 25th. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. Thus he prayed on the floor, and when he had named the Holy Ghost, he breathed out his soul. All declared that they had never seen any one die with such great devotion and tranquillity -- reported by a witness, soon to be a Saint, too.

May 26th -- day known most for tolerance: May 26, 1232 -- Pope Gregory IX sends the first Inquisition team to Aragon, Spain.   1328 -- William of Ockham was forced to flee from Avignon by Pope John XXII.   1521 -- Martin Luther was banned by the first Edict of Worms because of his religious beliefs and writings. eventually, he had to flee this part of Germany in order to save his life.   1538 -- The City State of Geneva threw out John Calvin and his followers, whom were deemed zealots. Calvin was exiled from Geneva for three years and lived in Strasbourg. http://www.herodote.net/histoire05213.htm

The great reformer, Martin Luther, preached in Leipzig on Pentecost Sunday in 1539. Also on this Pentecost Sunday, in 1539, explorer Hernando DeSoto sailed up Old Tampa Bay and named the springs he found there ”Espiritu Santo” (Holy Spirit) in honor of the religious holiday. http://fcit.usf.edu/florida/docs/d/desoto.htm   Archbishop Cranmer had insight into this; his 1539 translation of Acts 2:1 is as follows -- “When the fifty days had come to an end, they were all with one accord in one place.” See also: http://www.mariancalendar.org/mother-of-god-of-rzevsk-okovtsy-selizharovsky-tver-russia/ (another 1539 discovery) No one can agree on what date Pentecost occurred (25, 26 and 28 are the most popular choices, but Europe was on 2 different calendars then) But, as usual, I digreß

1637 -- The first Battle of Pequot at New Haven, CT. Some 500 Natives died.   1647 -- A new law banned Catholic priests from the Colony of Massachusetts. The penalty for a second offense was death .   1691 -- Jacob Leiser and co-conspirator Jacob Milborne were hanged for Treason on orders of Governor Henry Sloughter of Colonial New York. They led a popular non-English (Dutch) uprising (1688) in support of William and Mary’s accession to the English Crown (against James II).   1797 -- Gracchus Babeuf et un acolyte, Darthé, sont guillotinés à Vendôme. Leur mort met un point final à la «Conjuration des Égaux». http://www.herodote.net/histoire05262.htm   1798 -- The British killed about 500 Irish insurgents at the Battle of Tara.

19th Century tolerance -- May 26, 1831 -- Death of Georg Hermes in Bonn, Germany: Georg Hermes was a Roman Catholic theologian who was a follower of the systems of Immanuel Kant. He originated a theological system called Hermesianism by which he sought to prove the rational necessity of Christianity: Einleitung in die christkatholische Theologie (1819-29). He was ordained a priest in 1799 and became a professor of dogmatic theology at the Universities of Münster and Bonn. After his death he fell out of favor and his writings were listed on the Roman Catholic Index of Forbidden books. Pope Gregory XVI and the first Vatican Council condemned his theology. Compare René Descartes' Cogito, ergo sum with Credo, in unum Deo.   May 26, 1868: Michael Barrett, Irish nationalist, was executed in the last British public execution. Some believe that his martyrdom was unnecessary.

Love, Love American Style -- May 26, 1930: The United States Supreme Court ruled that buying liquor did not violate the Constitution.   1959 - Pittsburgh Pirates pitcher, Harvey Haddix, threw a no-hitter for 12 innings; but still recorded a loss to the Braves 1-0 in the 13th inning. Milwaukee Braves slugger Joe Adcock whacked in a run to win the game; however, one must remember that an error had let the game continue to this point. The Pirates tolerated this failure, so Haddix won game seven in the 1960 World Series in Pittsburgh, giving the Pirates a World title, the first in a long, long time.

May 27, 1819: Julia Ward Howe, writer of the Battle Hymn of the Republic, arrivée. JW was born on the feast day of Augustine of Canterbury, first English Archbishop and the Apostle to the Anglo-Saxons. En 596, ce moine bénédictin fut envoyé en Angleterre par le pape, Grégoire 1er (le Grand), afin de convertir les Anglo-Saxons. Il débarqua sur l'île avec une quarantaine de moines et il prêcha l'Évangile sans violenter les cultes païens. Il baptisa Éthelbert, le roi saxon du Kent, et créa ensuite l'évêché de Cantorbéry. Augustin est considéré comme le fondateur de l'Église anglaise. The tomb of Gregory's envoy bears this epitaph: Here rests Augustine, first archbishop of Canterbury, who being sent hither by {Pope} Gregory {the Great}, Bishop of Rome, reduced King Ethelbert and the {English} nation from the worship of idols to the faith of Christ.

Better than Reality TV -- May 27, 1873: Survivor won the Preakness Stakes at Pimlico race track in Baltimore, Maryland. This event concluded the first Run for the Black-Eyed Susans. Today the horse race continues as the second jewel in racing’s Triple Crown, two weeks after the Kentucky Derby and before the Belmont Stakes (New York). The Black-Eyed Susan is the state flower, however it normally does not bloom until June that far north. The coverlet (or blanket) of Susans that the victorious received was made from daisies with the centers painted black. In 2006 the 131st race was run on May 20th at about 6:10pm local time (EDT).

Bernardini captured the 131st Preakness Stakes by 51/4 lengths over Sweetnorthernsaint. As with the 1995 Donn, the overarching story wasn't who won but the life-threatening breakdown of a standout horse -- in this case unbeaten Kentucky Derby winner Barbaro, who fractured his right hind leg just over an eighth-mile into the 13/16-mile race. http://www.courier-journal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060522/SPORTS08/605220395

In 1957 (May 27th), Brunswick Records released That’ll be the Day, by The Crickets (featuring Buddy Holly). On September 14th, the tune became the most popular record in the U.S. It was their first hit. Two previous releases had gone nowhere on Decca Records in 1956. Just a day later, the Dodgers and Giants (U.S. Baseball teams) were permitted to move from New York City to California -- that was the day we said goodbye, and for some the day baseball died. Finally, four years and a day later, in 1961, Ricky Nelson reached the top spot on Billboard's pop-singles chart with Travelin’ Man.
 
Great moments in history - May 28, 1918: : This date saw the first American offensive action of the Great War (WWI) take place at Cantigny, France -- It was a small offensive operation but successful -- Lafayette we are here.

Crown of 1716 Some years earlier, George I of Great Britain, arrived in Osnabrück, Kingdom of Hanover (now Germany) on May 28, 1660. The English Parliament's "Act of Settlement" (1701) named George (then the first Elector of Hanover in the Holy Roman Empire) third in line to the crown rather than James Edward. At the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the Whig party urged him to accept the British titles and crown. George did not know English. Because George's ministers did not know German, he dealt with them in French. George remained the ruler of Hanover, in addition to being the British King, which German realm he visited frequently. On such a visit he died in Osnabrück (Osnabrueck) in 1727. George the First was followed on the throne by his son, George II and great-grandson, George III.

Le 29 mai 1453: Ce figure traditionnellement parmi les dates clé de l'Histoire occidentale. Ce jour-là, la ville de Constantinople tombe aux mains du sultan ottoman Mehmet II. http://www.herodote.net/14530529.htm Constantinople, capital of Eastern Christianity since Constantine founded it in 324AD, falls and this event ends the Byzantine Empire. Muslim rulers began referring to the city as Istanbul, turned its lavishly decorated Christian cathedral, named Hagia Sophia, into a mosque and changed the course of history.

May 29, 2005: The Dutch had a referendum on the new EU constitution on June 1, 2005. One day before the vote, the preference was „Nr -- zullen wij niet ja stemmen.” This rejection by the Dutch, along with the French vote of May 29th, have caused pan-European leaders to rethink the strategies for achieving political, as well as, economic union. The proposed EU constitution envisions that the ratification process would continue until November 2006. To date, 10 countries have made a decision -- the French and Dutch having cast negative votes, one may well think the matter is dead for now. Once all have spoken, a special summit would then be called to discuss what to do next, but only if 20 of the 25 members had approved the treaty. The economic problems of the second decade of the 21st century has muddied the water.
 
Rouen After a year -- Le 30 mai 1431: Ste. Jeanne d'Arc est brûlée vive à Rouen, Normandie, sur la place du Vieux-Marché, après avoir été abandonnée par son roi. http://www.herodote.net/histoire05301 It is a traditional feast day for the French, and not much recognized by the English, who once questioned her:

... Chez moi, on m’appelait Jeannette .... Quel âge avez-vous ?

A peu près dix-neuf ans. J’ai été baptisée en l’église de Domrémy [Domrémy-la-Pucelle, Vosges, Lorraine] par maître Jean Minzet, à ce que je crois. C’est de ma mère que j’ai appris Pater noster, Ave Maria, Credo. Je n’ai appris ma créance d’ailleurs que de ma mère. Quand je fus grande, après l’âge de raison, en général je ne gardais pas les bêtes, mais j’aidais à les mener au pré. Je ne suis venue en France que sur l’ordre de Dieu. Puisque Dieu le commandait, il le convenait faire. Si j’eusse eu cent pères et cent mères, et si j’eusse été fille de roi, je serais partie. http://missel.free.fr/Sanctoral/05/30.php

May 30, 1922: The Lincoln Memorial (carved from Georgia marble by Daniel Chester French, who earlier created the monument of James Oglethorpe in Savannah) was dedicated on Memorial Day in Washington, D.C. from http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-may/may30.htm The Lincoln Memorial was dedicated by Chief Justice William Howard Taft. The Memorial has 48 sculptured festoons above the columns representing the number of states in the Union at the time of its dedication. The 36 Doric columns in the Lincoln Memorial represent the number of stars in the Flag at the time of Lincoln’s death on April 15, 1865. The limestone and marble edifice, which is situated at the western end of the Mall, was designed by Henry Bacon in the style of a Greek temple. On May 18, 1923, the Gold Medal of Honor of the American Institute of Architects was awarded to Bacon by then President Warren Harding. The presentation was made on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial he had begun planning in 1915 during the Wilson administration.

Memorial Day in the United States (since 1968) is now set for the last Monday in May; the traditional date is May 30th. Memorial Day in 2005 was remembered on the 30th. In 2006 the government holiday fell on the 29th -- returned to the 30th in 2011.   Two More -- Links -- Send a Memorial Day e-card: http://www.usmemorialday.com/

May 31, 1578: Italian archæologist Antonio Bosio is credited with discovering the catacombs in Rome, once used by Christians. Some have called them places of refuge or worship, but the faithful appear to have used them chiefly for burial, worship mainly connected with burial rites. Today most of the catacombs are controlled by the Roman Catholic Church, some open to the public. A Jewish presence in Rome dates to the second century before Christ. The Jewish catacombs closely resemble the better known Christian ones, except for two differences in style. The corridors in the Christian sepulchers are very narrow, where the corridors in the Jewish catacombs are broader. The other difference is that the so-called Kokim-tombs, more closely resemble the chamber-type tombs found in Judæa, which the Mishna describes in detail. The Kokim-tombs are closed to public viewing. http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diaspora/rome.html

Le 31 mai -- C'est la fête de la Visitation de Marie: Cette fête catholique rappelle la visite de la Vierge Marie à sa cousine Élizabeth. Celle-ci, bien que très âgée, portait en son sein, depuis cinq mois un enfant qui fut plus tard connu sous le nom de Jean-Baptiste car il baptisa les Juifs dans le Jourdain. Marie venait d'apprendre qu'elle était elle-même enceinte de Jésus et sa cousine la salua par les mots célèbres (Évangile selon Saint Luc, I, 42):

«Tu es bénie entre toutes les femmes et le fruit de ton sein est béni . . . .»

Ces paroles sont entrées dans la deuxième partie de la prière:

«Je vous salue Marie».

Marie y répondit par le cantique du Magnificat:

Mon âme exalte le Seigneur
et mon esprit s'est rempli d'allégresse
A cause de Dieu, mon Sauveur,
parce qu'il a porté son regard sur son humble    
servante
. . . .
My soul exalts in the Lord
and my spirit overflows with joy
Because of God, my Savior,
for his regard for his humble
maidservant . . . . [Luke 1:46-48]

Mais, tout en reconnaissant l’importance de cet arrière-plan de l’Ancien Testament dans le Magnificat, il est également essentiel de noter que le Cantique de Marie est écrit à partir d’une perspective post-Résurrection. C’est une hymne de la communauté du Nouveau Testament. Luc l’a incorporée dans son évangile, probablement avec quelques légers changements, autour des années 80-90. Elle manifeste la foi de la communauté qui se répandait déjà rapidement à travers le monde, la plupart de ses membres venaient des couches les plus pauvres de la société. http://www.secretariadojmv.org/inter/frances/temas_de_formacion/la_spiritualite_du_maginificat.htm

Ce dialogue plein de tendresse a inspiré les artistes, les peintres et les compositeurs au cours des siècles. http://missel.free.fr/Sanctoral/05/31.php

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls
Memorial Day: http://LaRocheUSA.org/Chain.htm

Avons-nous oublié 
oublié la France ?June 1, 1943: A civilian flight from Lisbon to London was shot down. All those aboard died, including an actor known as Leslie Howard (b. 1893). He perished over the Bay of Biscay, when the British Overseas aircraft was attacked by Luftwaffe fighters. His last on-screen role was that of the Spitfire's designer, R. J. Mitchell, in the 1942 film The First of the Few (released in the U.S. as a trimmed version titled Spitfire in 1948). Leslie Howard perhaps is best remembered to Americans as Ashley Wilkes in Gone With The Wind (1939), which premiered in Atlanta in 1939, the screenplay of the novel written by Margaret Mitchell. A year after his death, Allied forces were in the final stages of preparation of an assault along the Normandy coast of France

June 2, 1944: Allied forces were in the final stages of preparation of an assault along the Normandy coast of France. As part of that effort, on June 2nd the provisional Free French government is established, with General DeGaulle as its recognized leader. Generals Giraud and de Gaulle reached an agreement on the new constitution (le gouvernement provisoire de la République français) on the 3rd. The role of the heavy bombers from 2-5 June in preparation for the invasion of Normandy, included the continuation of attacks against transportation and airfield targets in Northern France and the institution of a series of blows against coastal defenses, mainly located in the Pas de Calais coastal area, in order to deceive the enemy about which sector was to be invaded (Operation COVER). Operation Gambit (2-6 June 1944) was one of the smaller operations for the D-Day landings. Ten men in two British mini-submarines spent three days on the sea-floor along the Normandy beaches so that they could transmit a sonar signal to guide the DD tanks onto the beach.

"The men of Normandy had faith that what they were doing was right; faith that they fought for all humanity; faith that a just God would grant them {His} mercy on this beachhead, or on the next. It was the deep knowledge -- and pray God that we have not lost it -- that there is a profound, moral difference between the use of force for liberation and the use of force for conquest." R. Reagan (June 6, 1984)

For more D-Day resources: http://www.ddaymuseum.org/index.html
http://www.americandday.org/
http://www.dday.org/home.html
http://www.isidore-of-seville.com/d-day/
http://www.6juin1944.com/ -- Great Pictures {click: L'Espace Historique}
http://www.Normandy1944.info/ -- A great Website that continues to attract more and more people -- voila, a new server for them in 2006



Poem by Mary E. Frye
http://www.6juin1944.com/cimetier/index.html
Do not stand at my grave and weep
I am not there, I do not sleep.
I am a thousand winds that blow
I am the diamond glints on snow.
I am the sunlight on ripened grain
I am the gentle autumn's rain.
When you awaken in the morning hush,
I am the swift uplifting rush
Of quiet birds in circled flight
I am the soft star that shines at night.
Do not stand at my grave and cry.
I am not there, I did not die. (1932)
Ne tenez et sanglotez pas près ma tombe
Je me trouve là pas,  je ne dors pas.
Je suis mille vents qui soufflent
Je suis le étincellement des diamants sur neige.
Je suis ce faisceau lumineux lors du blé mûri
Je suis une pluie douce d'automne.
Quand vous vous réveillez est matin se tait,
Je suis l'envol vif-argent
D'oiseaux silencieux qui tourbillonnent
Je suis l'étoile tendre qui scintille dans la nuit.
Ne venez et pleurez pas sur ma tombe
Je ne suis pas là,  je ne suis pas mort.


Apparently, there is more to this poem than first meets the eye -- Absent de mon corps, présent avec Dieu.

". . . we trust in the words of the Almighty God, which are inscribed in the chapel nearby: 'I give unto them eternal life, that they shall never perish . . . .' [Je leur donne la vie éternelle; et elles ne périront jamais, et personne ne les ravira de ma main. {Jean 10:28}]" http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/05/20020527-1.html

The Battle of Midway: June 4-6, 1942 -- http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/midway/midway.htm See also http://www.aspecialdayguide.com/yorktown/index.htm.

The Battle of Midway was Japan’s first major defeat in World War II, it losing four aircraft carriers. The carrier USS Yorktown was hit by 3 Japanese bombs and put on tow to Pearl Harbor (June 7th). Three days later, it slipped beneath the waves in waters 16,650 feet deep, after a torpedo attack. Fifty-six years later a team led by oceanographer Robert Ballard found (May 19, 1998) it. He has also discovered the wrecks of the luxury-liner HMS Titanic and the Nazi warship Bismarck.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

New England Rocks -- June 1, 1638: The first damaging earthquake recorded in the american colonies occurs at the Plimoth settlement (Plymouth, Massachusetts). Roger Williams, the founder of Rhode Island, mentioned (in a letter to John Winthrop) that the 1638 earthquake was the fifth that the natives (probably of the Narraganset tribe) had felt in eighty years. Williams goes on to state that the natives had a word for earthquakes. The Abnaki's of northern New England, who speak the Algonquin language, as do the Narraganset, say that this word is NANAMKIPODA. When translated it simply means "when the earth shakes." The very fact that the Native Americans of New England have a word for earthquake shows that, if not a common occurrence, earthquakes do occur there from time to time. http://www.bc.edu/research/westonobservatory/ Just 19 years later -- to the day -- the first Quakers arrived in New Amsterdam (later called New York), beginning the tradition of making NYC a stopping place for movers and shakers.

June 1, 1959: The Battle Of New Orleans, as sung by Johnny Horton, peaked at the number one position on the pop music singles charts in the U.S.A. There it stayed for six weeks.

... Remember New Orleans I say,
Where Jackson show'd them Yankee play,
And beat them off and gain'd the day,
And then we heard the people say
"Huzza !" for Gen'ral Jackson, ["oho-ray"]
  We fired our guns and the British kept a coming
There wasn't nigh as many as there was a while ago.
We fired once more and they began to runnning
Down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico! {hut tut trey 4 ....}

Chorus from "The Battle of New Orleans" by Jimmy (James Morris)
Driftwood, voted as one of the 10 most popular American songs.

Jimmy Driftwood started work as a high school teacher. His songs taught his classes. The ballad entitled "The Battle of New Orleans" was written years before it became famous in order to show his history students that the Battle of New Orleans was fought at the end of the War of 1812, and not during the Revolutionary War. After he achieved fame as a noted songwriter and performer, Mr. Driftwood used his influence to help the rest of America and the world discover the wonder and beauty that is Arkansas Folk Culture. There are many differences in the Driftwood and Horton versions. http://www.menziesera.com/singalong/battle_of_new_orleans.htm.

Precisely 2 years later on June 1st of 1961, Surrender by Elvis Presley stood at #1 on the U.K. pop singles chart. Undaunted, the British would invade America's music scene a few years later. The Rolling Stones arrived in the U.S.A. for the first time on June 1st 1964, landing at newly renamed Kennedy Airport in New York City. The first gig was at a high school stadium in Massachusetts -- thus proving, as we said -- New England Rocks.

June 2, 575: Benedict I began his term as Catholic Pope. He led during the famine which followed upon the Lombard invasion of Italy, and died during the siege of Rome (of natural causes). His name in Latin means blessing. Today, when a Priest closes Mass, he gives a general benediction, blessing the people as they go forth to work and serve. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02427c.htm

Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, elected as Pope on April 19, 2005, chose the name Benedict XVI. The last Pontiff named Benedict (XV), holding office until the end of World War I, cannonized Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc) in 1920. The last German Pope ? That is a somewhat harder question to answer. It appears to be Victor II (1055-1057AD), but there are some other contenders: http://www.abc.net.au/ (Adrian not Hadrian) -- http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01514b.htm -- Adrian VI (500 years ago) claimed by some to be the last, was from today's Netherlands (Utrecht), but spent his time in Germany, when that part of Holland was allied with other German States within the Holy Roman Empire. Victor II was from Swabia, unquestionably a German-settled area 1000 years ago and today. Our page on the Pope is HERE.

June 2, 597: Augustine, Apostle to England and the first Archbishop of Canterbury, baptizes Saxon King Ethelbert, the first native Christian ruler in England. The missionary's tomb bears this epitaph: Here rests Augustine, first archbishop of Canterbury, who being sent hither by {Pope} Gregory {the Great}, Bishop of Rome, reduced King Ethelbert and the {English} nation from the worship of idols to the faith of Christ. Many would argue however, for a later date and King, Egbert, a direct descendant of the Æsgard, the rulers of Troy and back further of Adam. Egbert, born about 784 in Wessex, England (died after November 19, 838) being recognized as the first English King. He was first King of Wessex in 800; but, he made the other kingdoms dependent upon him by 829 (the first overlord of all others in England -- 828AD). Alfred (the great) was the son of Æthelwulf and the grandson of Egbert. Alfred is viewed by many as the first King of a true country named England, his direct line continued through to Edward the Confessor, who died at Christmas time.

King Edward the Confessor, another son of Anglo-Saxon King Æthelræd (the Unready), was recalled from Normandy after decades of exile, where he had secured sanctuary with his Norman Christian cousins. Not unexpectedly, Edward's reign witnessed increasing Norman-French influence, which had begun when Canute married Æthelræd's widow, Emma of Normandy, daughter of Richard the Fearless, then Duke of Normandy. Edward oversaw completion of Westminster Abbey, which he finished just in time for his burial in January 1065/66 (back then the year started in March).

Edward's unexpected death without an heir left the succession in doubt and in dispute . . . well, you know the story. Throughout history, uncertainty in sucession leads to war. Before Edward's passing, he had named a Norman heir, but the Anglo-Saxon council of electors (witenagemot) wanted a man closer to their own cultural heritage, thus leading to a dispute, hastily settled outside a small English town. The direct line from Æthelræd and Ealmund returned with Henry II, who was also a grandson of William the Norman Conqueror of Anglo-Saxon England.

June 2, 1775: Members of the Georgia patriot movement spiked cannons in Savannah, so the guns could not be fired to celebrate the ruler's 37th birthday. On June 4, 1738, at Westminster in London, Princess Augusta (wife of Frederick, Prince of Wales and son of King George II) had given birth to the couple's first son, who one day would rule over Britain, and the dissolution of its American colonies, as King George III. In 1751, Frederick died, leaving George III in line for the throne. George's grandfather, George II, died in 1760.

More About Normandy in June -- Abbaye Notre-Dame du Bec-Hellouin: English Henry II, Plantagenêt was the son of Matilda, by her second marriage. A simple enough sentence with a somewhat complicated history, because she was the daughter of a King of England, direct heir to the throne (Indeed, a direct descendant of King Egbert (mentioned Here)), Empress of an ancient empire, mother of another English King and a countess and duchess in her own right by marriage of a not inconsiderable portion of France.

On January 7, 1114, Matilda first married Heinrich V, an Emperor of the German Empire, who died on May 23, 1125, at Utrecht, Netherlands (no issue by this marriage). So, she was for a while, the Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. On April 3 or 22, 1127, she married Geoffery V Plantagenêt (Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy -- born August 24, 1113, at Anjou, France; died September 7, 1151, at Chateau, Eure-et-Loire, France). Thus, she became a duchess and countess. Also known as Maud to distinguish her from her mother (see below), she was born Adelaide, Princess of England in about 1104. Adelaide was denied the throne of England by her cousin Stephen after a brief civil war upon the death of her father. She passed away on September 10, 1167, at Abbaye Notre-Dame des Prés, near Rouen, France and was buried at Abbaye Notre-Dame du Bec[-Hellouin], Eure, France. Her son would be the King of England, vindicating her claim as a rightful heir.

Empress Maud was the daughter of another Matilda (born about 1082 in Scotland; died May 1, 1118 at Winchester, Hampshire, England), whose baptized name was Edith, a Princess of Scotland. On November 11, 1100, the Princess Edith (Matilda) married English King Henry I, BEAUCLERC (born about 1068 at Selby, Yorkshire, England; died December 1, 1135, at Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France). He was the youngest son of William I THE CONQUEROR, King of England, Duke of Normandy, one of the 12 peers of France.

On June 3, 1162, Thomas à Becket was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury. Nominated by his friend, English King Henry II, (Becket had previously served as Henri's Chancellor), Becket underwent a radical change as an archbishop. He became pious and thereafter devoted his life to the Church in England. Henry found this attitude "troublesome." When some knights heard the sovereign grumbling, they murdered the Archbishop as he prayed on December 29, 1170. The Abbey of Our Lady of the Bec at Hellouin (a bec is the crest of a hill usually made of glacial material, which resembles a beak) has been closely associated with Canterbury since its founding.

June 3, 1906: Dancer, singer, Parisian nightclub owner, Freda Josephine Carson, was born in St. Louis, Missouri. A highly talented singer and dancer, Carson got her show business start locally. Later she travelled with the Dixie Steppers, changing her name and achieving international stardom by life's end. Josephine moved to France in the mid-1920's finding more acceptance for her art. She became a French citizen and was married. During World War II, she became an active underground agent for the Resistance. She also served as a sub-lieutenant in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force. The French government awarded her the Medal of Resistance, named her a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor and gave her with full military honors upon her death. Josephine Baker died in Paris in 1975, three weeks shy of her birthday and several days after her last performance. More here

Le Printemps de Pékin -- le 3 juin 1989: Dans la nuit du 3 au 4 juin 1989, place Tienanmen à Pékin, les autorités chinoises répriment dans le sang le vaste mouvement populaire en faveur de la démocratie. Depuis un mois, des étudiants et des ouvriers ont investi la place Tienanmen pour demander un changement politique. Le Premier ministre, Li Peng, décrète alors la loi martiale et envoie l'armée sur la capitale. Des centaines de manifestants seront écrasés par le chars ou abattus. http://museums.cnd.org/HZ/June4th/1989.06-03.hz7.html

There is no firm figure on death toll from Communist China's crackdown freedom marches in Beijing during 1989. The government first claimed (four days after army's assault which ended June 4th) that about 300 people, mostly soldiers, had perished. Months later, it lowered the estimate to about 200, including 36 student deaths. In contrast, the foreign journalists who visited hospitals, as well as residents of the city, estimated (at the time) at least 1,000 fatalities. A Chinese student group in Germany has cited Chinese Red Cross officials as saying 3,600 died. US government documents show 2,600 were killed and 7,000 injured during what has become known as the Tiananmen {Square} Massacre. http://ebellefr.club.fr/index1.htm

June 4, 1789: Many Websites report that the Constitution of the United States of America, written and adopted sometime earlier through the approval of the 13 former colonial states, went into effect on this date in history. What actually happened on June 4th (1789) ?? In the brand-new US Senate, Vice President John Adams administered an oath to all Senators, setting a pattern that future Presiding Officers followed, without controversy, for the next 74 years. In true chicken or the egg fashion, the Oath Act was the first legislation approved by Congress and signed by the President on June 1st. The true business of the Country under the new Constitution did not begin until the 4th when Adams administered the oath of office. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r105:S07JA7-94:

June 5, 755: St. Boniface is martyred. St. Boniface (Wynfrith) was an English monk who was appointed by the Pope as Bishop in 722 and sent to christianize the Hassorum. In 745 his diocese was established in Mainz (Mayence). He died at the hands of a pagan mob. The body of Boniface was taken to Fulda, where it still rests. His bloodstained book, which he was reading when murdered, was exhibited for centuries as a relic. http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0605.htm Saint Adaler was an Irish companion of Saint Boniface, who accompanied him also into martyrdom at Dokkum, Friesland (Netherlands). Saint Adaler is said to have been the first Bishop of Erfurt, a diocese founded in 741 AD. His feast day is June 5th. He is entombed at St. Mary's Cathederal, Erfurt (Thuringia). The Cathedral structure on Erfurt's Domberg was founded by 742. In 1153, the original church on cathedral hill collapsed. Work began in the next year on a Romanesque basilica. That edifice, consecrated on June 20, 1182, has experienced many exciting architectural modifications, modifications deserving of the best location in town (Domstufen Einz).

We must not forget to explore another fact: As every post-modern person knows, a monk lived out his life in a cloistered irrelevancy, much too concerned with his inward pursuit of holiness to change the course of history -- Counter-culturist, Thomas Cahill, however, has busted that truism with his work about Irish monasticism, called How the Irish Saved Civilization. from The Pagan Buster -- a pæan to St. Boniface. Bonifatius had been revered as a saint for centuries before the formal canonization by Pope Pius IX on June 11, 1874. During his lifetime Boniface had had close ties to Charles Martel, Carloman and Pippin the Short, all famous franc-o-philes of that zeitgeist. Boniface's efforts among the eastern native tribes established a structure for the Christian empire which Karl der Große (Charlemagne) would develop in the area now known as Germany.

On June 5th of 1775: Patriots raised the first Liberty Pole in Georgia, in front of Tondee's Tavern at Georgia's first city, Savannah. This town, like others throughout the colonies, by 1775 was divided into two hostile factions, with a group in the middle who hoped for peace. Peter Tondee was known as the tavern's keeper. Georgia's roster of Revolution records him as a Son of Liberty and a member of the Provincial Congress. He referred to himself as a carpenter. As usual, there is much more to this story than first meets the eye.

In 1596, the third Protestant church was built in France at Châtillon-sur-Loire. Louis XIV ordered it destroyed in 1684 and a family surnamed TONDU family quit the area, ultimately bound for England. We know little about Pierre Tondu born in France (1684) at Châtillon-sur-Loire, one year prior to the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Sun King Louis the 14th. It is believed that Pierre lived near Leicester Square, London. His son, Peter Tondee, was born at that great City in 1723. At age 10 Peter came to the Georgia Colony, settling in Savannah. Orphaned by then, Pierre and his brother Charles lived with several families until the Reverend George Whitfield arrived. Whitfield established an orphanage called Bethesda. Peter learned the carpentry trade. In 1765, the Georgia Colonial Council employed him to build a structure for the courts of the Province of Georgia. Also in 1767, he was appointed inspector of lumber for the port of Savannah, so that he was no stranger to the power of the state. http://members.aol.com/ldsed/

Peter had acquired several land grants, and between 1766 and 1770 he built a tavern in Savannah. In time, Tondee's Tavern, located on the corner of Broughton and Whitaker Streets, became the chief rallying place for social, as well as business, activities for the last decade of the Colonial era, including the secretive but not-so-secret meetings in protest of British taxes. There is a plaque on a wall pointing out its location, because the tavern is long gone.

On the 5th of June, 1775, Georgia patriots raised the Liberty Pole in front of Tondee's establishment. On the 21st they challenged Savannah's citizens to choose a committee to correspond with others of like mind in other places. After all the business transactions, the Liberty Flag was hoisted upon the liberty pole. Later, several of the gentlemen of the city dined in the tavern, drinking thirteen patriotic toasts, one for each colony desiring freedom. On the 4th of July, 1775, the first Provincial Congress of Georgia opened in the Tondee Tavern Long Room. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-819

The official story of the Liberty Pole begins about 1765. The Sons of Liberty, an organization started by Samuel Adams, protested unlawful British taxes. Soon, men of the Patriot movement would rally around Liberty Poles in other towns, and would fly a Liberty Flag from the pole. This banner consisted of nine vertical stripes of alternating red and white. As might be expected, rallies tended to be night-time ventures to avoid British eyes. Their goal: organize public and patriotic actions.

First ContinentalAt first it is said that the Sons of Liberty met by large Liberty Trees, found on many village greens. A pine tree motif was used already on Colonial Flags of New England, so that a pine-shaped Liberty Tree is featured on the flags of the New England Colonies at the outset of the Revolutionary War. However, in New England towns that lacked a massive tree, and elsewhere in the Colonies, Patriots would instead raise a tall pole as a symbol of a Liberty Tree. It naturally became known as the Liberty Pole. For more information about the Liberty symbolism at the time, try: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/xf-cap.html

June 5th: Adam Smith and John Maynard Keynes, both economists, have this day in common -- yet they could not be more different. Keynes was born on the 5th in Cambridge, England in 1883. He developed theories on the causes of prolonged unemployment and advised the use of wide-spread government expenditures to counter the widespread, worldwide deflation and depression of the 1930's. Some would call these theories progressive; others claim that they simply prolonged the misery of the era -- a debate which rages even today. Progressive theology works like a carnival trick. It is meant only to be seen once, afterwards everyone knows who is stealing the money and from whose pocket it comes.

In contrast, Adam Smith was baptized in Kirkcaldy, Scotland on this date in 1723. He was the author of An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Smith studied at the University of Glasgow, and then went to Balliol College, Oxford. He then returned to Glasgow as a professor of logic and then of moral philosophy. He promoted laissez faire, market economics. It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity, but to their self-love. He also wrote the Theory of Moral Sentiments in 1759.

Le 5 juin 1947: Le secrétaire d'État américain George Catlett Marshall propose un programme d'aide destiné à stimuler la reconstruction de l'Europe après la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Son plan sera rejeté par l'URSS et les démocraties populaires de l'Est, mais accepté par seize pays européens. Ce plan sera aussi favorable à l'économie des États-Unis et évitera que les pays de l'Europe occidentale ne deviennent communistes. He said: Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. Other General George Catlett Marshall quotes: We are determined that before the sun sets on this terrible struggle, our flag will be recognized throughout the world as a symbol of freedom on the one hand and of overwhelming force on the other. -- Military power wins battles, but spiritual power wins wars.

Some believe that it was Former President Hoover's report on the conditions of Germany after the war and how the Morgenthau plan to punish Germany had resulted in mass starvation, that caused Truman to change his mind. There is the illusion that the New Germany left after the annexations can be reduced to a pastoral state. It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,000,000 people out of it. In early 1947, four million German soldiers still were being used as forced labour in the UK, France and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. All remaining restrictions ended on May 5, 1955, as the last act of the Morgenthau drama occurred on that date or when the Saar was returned to Germany [January 1, 1957]. The Morgenthau plan by its end had cost the United States and Europe billions of 1950's dollars. Perhaps we should not think in terms of the money lost, but the misery prolonged.

June 6th: L'Abbaye de Prémontrés at Pont-à-Mousson was founded by Saint Norbert. Having survived the ravages of time, war and the Revolution .... wow is all one can first say at its renaissance. The Pope and Bartholomew, Bishop of Laon, requested Norbert to found a religious order in the Diocese of Laon, so that his work might be perpetuated after his death. Norbert chose a lonely, marshy valley, shaped in the form of a cross, in the Forest of Coucy (about ten miles from Laon) named Prémontré. Hugh of Fosses, Evermode of Cambray, Antony of Nivelles, seven students of the celebrated school of Anselm as well as Ralph of Laon were his first disciples. The young community at first lived in huts of wood and clay, arranged like a camp around the chapel dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, but the ordre soon built a larger church and a monastery for the religious who joined them in increasing numbers.

Going to Cologne to obtain relics for their church, Norbert discovered through a vision, the spot where those of Sainte Ursula and her companions (e.g. Cordula), of Saint Gereon and of other martyrs lay hidden. The Huns brutally murdered Ursula, the daughter of a British king, King Dionotus of Cornwall, along with eleven thousand others (from Britain?) in Cologne. In part as a result of Norbert's discoveries, women wanted to join the community and a separate convent was established. This convent survived the Revolution and remained a vital community on its own.

When two rival popes came to office after the death of Honorius II, Norbert helped try to heal the Church by getting his admirer the emperor to support the first of the two elected, Innocent II. At the end of his life he became an archbishop, but he died soon after (June 6, 1134) at the age of 53. On May 2, 1627, the saint's body was translated from Magdeburg, then in the hands of Protestants, to the Abbey of Strahov, a suburb of Prague in Bohemia. The Chancery of Prague preserved the abjurations of six hundred Protestants who, on the day, or during the octave, of the translation, were reconciled to the Catholic Church. On that occasion the Archbishop of Prague, at the request of the civil and ecclesiastical authorities, proclaimed Saint Norbert the Patron and Protector of Bohemia. His Feast Day is June 6th.

The oldest remains in Hirson (an hour drive or less from either Laon or Saint-Quentin) reveal the presence of Celtic camping. Conquered by Cæsar's troops who described the Nervi tribe as savages, the town now takes on a different appeal. In the 12th century that the town prospered. This was largely due to its two abbeys, one founded at Saint-Michel to house the Scottish and Irish monks who adopted the Benedictine way of life. The other is somewhat south, the aforementioned Abbaye de Prémontrés. Hirson is surrounded by some idyllic countryside including lakes, waterfalls and forests. Don't miss another nearby church dedicated to Saint Martin -- Église Saint-Martin de Wimy. All about (près Hirson) are ideal spots for fishing, cycling, riding, kayaking, countryside walks about Thiérache or simply relaxing. It's close to Belgium and in the heart of Apple-country, too.

June 6, 1885: Birth of Thomas Mann in Lübeck, Germany. Thomas Mann was certainly one of the most notable novelists of the 20th Century. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1929. His novels which have gained him world-wide recognition include a variation on a German legend called Doktor Faustus. Mann acknowledged a strong influence on his work by Arthur Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, as well as the works of Richard Wagner. Mann was on vacation in Switzerland in 1933 when Hitler became chancellor. He simply refused to return to a Nazi Germany. As a consequence, in 1936 his citizenship was revoked. He stayed in Switzerland until 1938 when he immigrated to the United States. After the war he refused to return to Germany. In 1952 he left the States to live in Switzerland.
 
June 7, 1769: Frontiersman Daniel Boone first saw the forests of present-day Kentucky. The Kentucky Historical Society celebrates June 7th as "Boone Day." It was John Finley, a fur trader of Pennsylvania, who took Daniel Boone and his brother-in-law, John Stuart, into Kentucky by way of the Cumberland Gap, the famous route afterward known as the "Wilderness Road." This improved transportation corridor was travelled by early pioneers to the "West" -- looking for land and freedom. In 1799, Col. Boone left his beloved homestead and went to Missouri following his son. Why ? Too crowded! too crowded! I want elbow-room!

Born on November 2, 1734, in Berks County, Pennsylvania, Daniel Boone spent much of his youth hunting and trapping on the North Carolina frontier. By the late 1760s, Boone had gone into the Cumberland Gap region, little explored by the English or French. Although the westward opening in the Appalachian Mountains had been identified by a Virginia explorer, Thomas Walker, as early as 1750, the "French and Indian War" had discouraged exploration and settlement of the area that would become the Kentucky territory. After the war, lacking the manpower or resources to protect the empire's trans-Appalachian frontier, the British prohibited westward migration. Boone was among the many settlers who ignored the Crown's ban, as was done by many over-the-mountain boys of Tennessee/NC. Another Boone family migrated to and lived in Colonial Maryland and Pennsylvania, but they do not appear directly related (Michael Diehl Bohun (Boone): http://www.djsmith.us/boone1.htm).

In 1775, Boone worked with Richard Henderson's Transylvania Company to establish more than a foot trail through the Cumberland Gap. With some thirty associates, he constructed the Wilderness Road, which soon became the settlers' primary route to the West. During the Revolutionary War, Kentucky was organized as a Virginia county and Daniel Boone first served as captain in the local militia. Captured by the Shawnee in 1778, Boone escaped in time to warn Boonesborough residents of an impending attack, enabling the settlement to survive.

June 7, 1776: Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed to the Second Continental Congress the resolution calling for a Declaration of Independence: That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. The Continental Congress delayed the vote on the resolution until July. On June 11, 1776, the Congress appointed three concurrent committees in response to Lee's proposal: one to draft a declaration of independence, a second to draw up a plan "for forming foreign alliances," and a third to "prepare and digest the form of a confederation." On July 4th the deed was signed and sealed. http://www.revolutionary-war-and-beyond.com/lee-resolution.html

June 7, 1929: The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords. These three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See (Vatican) were ratified June 7, 1929, thus ending the "Roman Question." These were a political treaty recognizing the full sovereignty of the Holy See in the State of Vatican City: a concordat regulating the position of the Catholic Church and the Catholic religion in the secular Italian state; a financial convention agreed on as a definitive settlement of the claims of the Holy See following the losses of its territories and property beginning in the 19th Century. The agreements, signed in the Lateran Palace (hence the name by which they are known), were approved by King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy through Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and by Pope Pius XI through Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri.

To commemorate the successful conclusion of the negotiations, Mussolini commissioned the Via della Conciliazione (Road of the Conciliation), which would symbolically link the Vatican City to the heart of Rome. The Lateran Agreements were incorporated into the Constitution of the Italian Republic in 1947. In 1984 an agreement was signed, revising the concordat. Among other items, it ended the Church's position as the state-supported religion of Italy. In 2008, it was announced that the Vatican would no longer immediately adopt all Italian laws, citing conflict over right-to-life issues.

The French Revolution ad proved as disastrous for the temporal territories of the Papacy as it was for the Catholic Church in general. In 1791 the Comtat Venaissin and Avignon were annexed by France. Later, with the French invasion of Italy in 1796, the Legations were seized and became part of the revolutionary Cisalpine Republic. Two years later, the Papal States as a whole were invaded by French forces, who declared a Roman Republic. Pope Pius VI died in exile in France in 1799. The Papal States were restored in June 1800 and Pope Pius VII returned, but the French again invaded in 1808, and this time the remainder of the States of the Church were annexed to France, forming the départements of Tibre and Trasimène. With the fall of the Napoleonic system in 1814, the Papal States were restored at least temporarily. The Italian struggle for freedom left the Papal States largely in the new government's hands and the Pope under self-imposed house arrest (1870), a situation not resolved until 1929. The Holy See, for its part, recognized the Kingdom of Italy, with Rome as its capital, thus ending the situation whereby the Popes had felt constrained to remain within the Vatican for 60 years. The Pope now could visit the cathedral, the Basilica of St. John Lateran, situated on the opposite side of the city of Rome, and to travel regularly to the summer residence at Castel Gandolfo. After 60 years, imagine the dust.

Sometimes will not load

June 7, 1935: To celebrate the 400th Anniversary of the journey by Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca over halfway across the continent, Congress approved the issuance of a Commemerative Half-Dollar coin. On the obverse (front), in the center, is a steer's head (in Spanish: "cabeza de vaca"). In the field, "Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca - E. Pluribus Unum - Liberty". Around the rim, "United States of America - Half Dollar". On the reverse, in the center, a Yucca tree with a map of the journey displaying the following (Gulf) states: Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas. In the field, "In God We Trust". Around the rim, Old Spanish Trail and the anniversary dates "1535 - 1935".

It apparently made little difference that the actual Old Spanish Trail followed a route different than that taken by de Vaca. In addition, the year (1935) picked to celebrate the 400th anniversary had little historical relevance to the dates (1528-1536) of the Spanish explorer's travels in the old southwest. http://www.usrarecoininvestments.com/collecting/old-spanish-halfdollar.htm

Interestingly, not until May 17, 1873 was El Paso, Texas made a city. It was established by charter from the Texas Legislature.

Le 8 juin 793: La Chronique anglo-saxonne (manuscrits rédigés entre le IXème et XIIème siècle -- à Venreable Bede) relate que le 8 juin 793 "des pillards païens détruisirent l'église de Lindisfarne (île au nord-est de l'Angleterre -- Northumbria), ravageant et massacrant tout ce qui passent à leur portée". C'est le premier raid des Vikings, guerriers et navigateurs scandinaves, qui déferleront sur l'Europe occidentale et les plaines russes pour les piller ou s'y installer. Voi aussi http://manuelvelasco.com/libros/losvikingos/

The attack on Lindisfarne was unprecedented and horrified those who wrote of it. For Alcuin, who was at the court of Charlemagne and a leader of the Carolingian Renaissance, it was inconceivable that ships could suddenly appear from over the horizon.

"Lo, it is nearly 350 years that we and our fathers have inhabited this most lovely land, and never before has such terror appeared in Britain as we have now suffered from a pagan race, nor was it thought that such an inroad from the sea could be made. Behold, the Church of St. Cuthbert spattered with the blood of the priests of God, despoiled of all its ornaments; a place more venerable than all in Britain is given as a prey to pagan peoples."

Alcuin, Letter to Æthelred, King of Northumbria as quoted in
http://itsa.ucsf.edu/~snlrc/britannia/lindisfarne/lindisfarne.html

Beyond Bamburgh and the tidal estuary-like mud flats of Budle Bay, is Holy Island, still often known by its more ancient name of Lindisfarne. It is only accessible from the mainland at low tide by means of a causeway, which can be reached from the village of Beal. To the south of the more modern road-surface causeway, a series of stakes mark the old route across to the island called the 'Pilgrims Way' which was used in ancient times by visitors to the great Christian centre of Lindisfarne. Again this could be crossed only at low tide, a situation reminiscent of Mont-Saint-Michel and perfectly described by Sir Walter Scott;

"For with the flow and ebb, its style

Varies from continent to isle;

Dry shood o'er sands, twice every day,
The pilgrims to the shrine find way;

Twice every day the waves efface

Of staves and sandelled feet the trace."

from Marmion -- Canto II


June 8, 1872: A penny for your thoughts, is all it costs. US President Grant signed enabling legislation that authorized the penny postal card. Today it costs a few pennies more to write this briefly. The Post Office Department put the penny postal card on sale first on May 12, 1873, in Springfield, Massachusetts, and in other cities a day later. The May 14, 1873, edition of the New York Times reported that New York postal clerks sold 200,000 cards in two and a half hours. In the next six weeks patrons purchased about 31 million cards throughout the Nation. http://www.dailymail.com/static/specialsections/ http://www.dejean.com/salem/asides/postcards/

Le 8 juin 1949: Quelques mois avant sa mort précoce, l’écrivain britannique George Orwell assiste à la publication de son livre 1984. Cet ouvrage de science-fiction politique s’impose immédiatement comme un best-seller mondial. 400,000 exemplaires seront vendus dans l’année en Angleterre et aux États-Unis. Conspué par les communistes, récupéré par les Américains, il deviendra en pleine guerre froide l’enjeu d’une bataille idéologique. Orwell voulait avant tout faire une satire des idées totalitaires. http://www.online-literature.com/orwell/1984/1/ In the spirit of this day we offer: Nine-teen Eighty-four -- knocking at your door, will you let it come -- will you let it run your life ! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYecfV3ubP8 (1984 TV)

More of June HERE

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls
 
A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure: http://www.catholic-convert.com/

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from:
http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-jan.htm -- http://timelines.ws/days/01_01.HTML -- http://www.herodote.net/jour0101.htm -- http://www.440.com/twtd/archives/jan01.html -- http://www.treas.gov/education/history/events/01-jan.shtml -- http://missel.free.fr/calendrier.php?mois=1&annee=2010 -- http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/features/twich/01.html -- http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Jan1.html

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December



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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at the time.