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The  VANGUARD --   2016

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit"

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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage -- Irish Copper Colonial Coinage (US)

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

Tour de France -- 2012 -- A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- (New: Summer 2016 )

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3
Passover - Pesach

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

September 20, 1258: The Norman Cathedral of Salisbury, begun 38 years earlier, was dedicated. It is one of a very few large church structures with a double cross design; and, because it's single spire is over 400 feet high, the church structure of new Sarum is able to easily dominate the beautiful English countryside. More pictures are HERE.

The site of Old Sarum is located one and a half miles north of the present town of Salisbury. Here the Normans built a royal castle within the earthworks of an Iron Age hill fort. During the twelfth century a great tower and palace were built in the inner bailey. The cathedral, begun in the late eleventh century, was constructed on the north side of the outer bailey. The cathedral remained the seat of a local bishopric until 1218, when the Pope permitted the clergy to remove to a new site. With the Norman reorganization of the church in England, the Bishopric became more regional center at the new Cathedral in a town now known as Salisbury. Salisbury's claim to fame, apart from the Cathedral, is its 10k gold jewelry, which I guess grew up as a cottage industry to profit on the many pilgrims that wanted a souvenir of their visit to Salisbury, like those they got elsewhere cf.

September 20, 1561: Queen Elizabeth of England, head of the Church of England, signed a treaty at Hampton Court with French Huguenot leader Louis de Bourbon, First Prince of Condé, youngest son of Charles, duc de Vendôme, and Françoise d'Alençon. The English would occupy Le Harve in return for aiding the Bourbons against the Catholic Valois sovereigns of France. Louis' nephew Henri the Prince of Navarre would become France's first Bourbon King, Henri IV. Louis died in 1569, before that goal was reached and before Henri IV converted to ease tensions in the Kingdom. England became a place of Huguenot refuge during the persecutions of the 16th and later 17th centuries.

September 20, 1565: Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and his Spanish force destroyed Fort Caroline and killed most of its French Huguenot defenders. Located on the St. Johns River, the French fort was not located in present-day Georgia; nevertheless, it fell within the Spanish-claim that included Georgia. The total destruction meant the loss of the first church on the East Coast (which was apparently Protestant) and all of its congregation. This attack effectively ended French efforts to colonize directly the eastern Atlantic seaboard of North America; however, Frenchmen did arrive in large numbers as Huguenot refugees or as second and third generation English, Irish or German colonists of Huguenot lineage, to places such as Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia.

September 20, 1697: The Treaty of Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg, (1688-1697)) between France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known as Saint-Domingue (today Haiti). The remaining Spanish section was called Santo Domingo. The protest of former King James II against the Treaty of Ryswick, dated June 8, 1697, can be found HERE in Latin and English.

September 20, 1736: In his journal of Trustees' proceedings, the Earl of Egmont recorded the basis for the rival claims of England and Spain for the disputed land between Charles Town and St. Augustine:

20 Sept. 1736 came an Acct. that Don Antonio Aredondo the Spanish Commissary demanded that the English Should evacuate all they Stand possest of as far as St. Helena Sound, the Spaniards having formerly had Forts there. But that Mr. Oglethorp demanded of him, that the Spaniards Should evacuate as far as the 29 degree North latitude, conformable to King Charles the 2ds Charter, the English having formerly had possession as far as that Latitude, Sr. Francis Drake having by Q. Elizabeths orders taken Augustine. This at length Don Antonio agreed that on withdrawing the Garison from the Island St. George, the Said Island Should remain unpossest by either Party, till advices Should arrive from Europe, and that no hostilities Should be committed on either Side till the determination of the English and Spanish Courts Should be known; and all other claims be defer'd till their determination . . . .

Source: Robert G. McPherson (ed.), The Journal of the Earl of Egmont: Abstract of the Trustees Proceedings for Establishing the Colony of Georgia, 1732-1738, (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1962), pp. 201-202.

Le 20 septembre 1792: La Révolution française est sauvée in extremis de l'invasion étrangère, à Valmy. There is far more to this modest battle than first meets the eye. Had the Prussians succeeded, then the crown might have been restored, but certainly Louis 17th would not have lost his head. -- en français

September 20, 1863: The second full day of the Battle of Chickamauga raged near Ringgold, Georgia. On August 30th Confederate General Braxton Bragg had been forced to pull the Army of Tennessee out of Chattanooga. It had retreated to a point on the W&A Railroad close to Ringgold, Georgia. The Union Army of the Cumberland, under the command of General William Rosecrans, had pursued Bragg's forces. After some skirmishes on the 18th of September 1863, the two sides engaged in a major battle at Chickamauga Creek on the 19th (which ironically was a Cherokee name that means either River of Death or River of Blood). Both sides took heavy losses, and some saw it as the pouring out of the blood on the altar, the principle part of the sacrifice that purifies and atones for the sin of the Nation (Lev. 17:11, see Hebrews 9:22).

On the 20th Confederate General Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee was victorious, but at a terrible price. Union commander Rosecrans retreated from the field leaving his army behind under General George Thomas, whose defense of Snodgrass Hill lead to his nickname of the Rock of Chickamauga. General Thomas's forces held their position until nightfall, when they retreated back to Chattanooga. Total casualties for Confederate forces were 18,454 (including Brigadier General James Deshler, who was killed in battle, and General Benjamin Helm who was mortally wounded), compared to 16,170 Union casualties (including Brigadier General William Lytle, who was mortally wounded). The picture is of Samuel Jackson, a grandson of President Andrew Jackson, who died in this battle.

In desperate charges to flank the Union left, Helm was in the forefront of his men when he was hit mortally. The last words of General Helm, Mary Lincoln's brother-in-law, as he lay dying on the Chickamauga battlefield, were Victory uttered over and over again -- perhaps in remembering the familiar verse often quoted as: Oh Death where is thy victory; oh Grave thy sting. cf. I Corinthians 15:55 Or perhaps from part of the previous verse that quotes the Old Testament [Isaiah 25:8]: Death is swallowed up in victory ! This is God's promise of salvation, of which Helm assuredly had on his mind as he lay dying. President Lincoln received Helm's widow in the White House with tears in his eyes. It was there that Mary Todd Lincoln was to mourn the death of the four men, her three half brothers and a brother-in-law who had died fighting against the armies of her husband, President Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln himself became a sacrifice for lasting Union. She lost a son too while in Washington -- understandably all this had a severe effect on a person who already suffered episodes of depression -- she went mad.

While the battle was considered a Confederate victory, Bragg subsequently was criticized for allowing retreating Union forces to escape, even though his forces were exhausted from two days of heavy fighting. But more important, this tactical victory assured the ultimate doom of Atlanta, so it ended in a strategic defeat for the South, one from which it would not recover. The Chickamauga site was dedicated as a National Battlefield on September 19, 1895, although some would consider it already holy ground, sanctified () by blood of the Nation.

Ringgold is the county seat of Catoosa County, part of the Chattanooga, TN–GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city was named after Samuel Ringgold, a hero of the Battle of Palo Alto (at "Fort Texas" on May 8, 1846, five miles (8 km) from Brownsville TX). A tactic using fast moving heavy guns, developed by Major Samuel Ringgold, won the battle for the Americans -- but he died of wounds suffered that day. In 2011 portions of the town were devastated by a tornado that rolled north up the Valley into Tennessee.

September 20, 1921: KDKA on your dial at 1020 (ten-twenty) today -- 980 back then -- although dials (analog circuit tuning devises and indicators of frequency) were not so precise or selectivity (the Q of the circuit) that narrow. Broadcasting from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the station management started one of the first daily radio newscasts in the country from the city desk of The Pittsburgh Post, now the Post Gazette, the first newspaper west of the Alleghenies.

Many people ask if these call letters "stand for" anything. The simple answer is: no. KDKA's license -- the first radio commercial broadcast license -- was issued October 27, 1920. The call letters "KDKA" were assigned from a roster maintained to provide identification for ships and marine shore stations, these being the only regular radio services operating under formal license supervision by the Federal Government. When it came time to grant the license, "KDKA" was simply the next set of call letters on the list.

Today, KDKA-TV is a CBS owned and operated station that once was the premier station of the Westinghouse Electric Company holdings. KDKA-TV remains the official station of the Pittsburgh Steelers. Some radio stations were issued a 3 letter call sign. One of these is fun-lovin' KQV-Audio 14, also in Pittsburgh.

The Iron Man bloomsThe evening of September 20, 1998: Today, for the first time in the history of Camden yards, the Ironman was not there. On this date he voluntarily withdrew minutes before the game with the Yankees took place. Cal Ripken ended his major league record streak of 2,632 consecutive game starts, a record perhaps never to be broken. Ripken passed Lou Gehrig's record of 2,130 consecutive games on September 6, 1995. His streak began on May 30, 1982.

September 21, 19BC: Vergil (who died on the 21st of September about 2010 years ago) wasn't happy with his masterpiece, Æneid, a tale which recounts the exploits of the Trojan prince named Æneas, who had to flee the burning city of Troy at the end of the Trojan War. Indeed, Vergil did not want his work to become public. In spite of Vergil's desires, his epic survives to this day; moreover, it has become one of the most important pieces of Western literature, having influence the thinking of those like Dante. How much do you know about Vergil? Take the Vergil quiz -- Link HERE

Thousands left Troy immediately after the city fell (April 24, 1184BC) and the war ended. Others remained about 30 to 50 years. Then an estimated 30,000 Trojans/Thracians suddenly abandoned what was left of Troy. Homer (Greek writer/poet, eighth century BC) and various sources (Etruscan, Merovingian, Roman and later Scandinavian) confirm this departure. The stories describe how, after the Greeks sacked the city, all the Trojans remaining alive eventually left. Most of them crossed the sea going to Italy, becoming the dominating influence in the development of Rome.

A few Trojans, mainly said to be chieftains and warriors, about 12,000 in all, went north across the Black Sea. They traveled into the Mare Mœtis or shallow sea, where the Don River ends (Caucasus region in southern Russia). These émigrés established a kingdom about 1150 BC.

The Romans would later refer to the inhabitants as Sicambrians. The locals (nomadic Scythians) named the Trojan conquerors the "Iron people", or the Æsir. They built the famous fortified city Æsgard or Asgard, described as Troy in the north. Various other sources collaborate this, stating the Trojans landed on the eastern shores with their superior weaponry, and claimed land. More HERE.

September 21, 1522: On this date Martin Luther's German translation of the New Testament was first published. Printing made the Bible accessible directly to the common person, in her/his language and at an economic price. It changed the world forever, leading to the Protestant Reformation and war, more particularly in Germany, civil war. Thirty-three years later (September 25, 1555), the Peace of Augsburg was signed after the defeat of Emperor Charles V's forces by Protestant princes in Germany (1552). With the official recognition of the Lutheran denomination in Germany, the agreement signified the dissolution of both political unity in Germany and the European medieval unity of Christendom under one Holy and catholic (meaning universal) Church. A story about the first English translations of the Bible is HERE.


[1.1] Im Anfang war das Wort, und das Wort war bei Gott, und Gott war das Wort.
[1.2] Dasselbe war im Anfang bei Gott.
[1.3] Alle Dinge sind durch dasselbe gemacht, und ohne dasselbe ist nichts gemacht, was gemacht ist.
[1.4] In ihm war das Leben, und das Leben war das Licht der Menschen.
[1.5] Und das Licht scheint in der Finsternis, und die Finsternis hat's nicht ergriffen ( - the past participle of ergreifen).
[1.6] Es war ein Mensch, von Gott gesandt, der hieß Johannes.
[1.7] Der kam zum Zeugnis, um von dem Licht zu zeugen, damit sie alle durch ihn glaubten.
[1.8] Er war nicht das Licht, sondern er sollte zeugen von dem Licht.
[1.9] Das war das wahre Licht, das alle Menschen erleuchtet, die in diese Welt kommen.
[1.10] Er war in der Welt, und die Welt ist durch ihn gemacht; aber die Welt erkannte ihn nicht.
[1.11] Er kam in sein Eigentum; und die Seinen nahmen ihn nicht auf.

An English translation of Luther's The Gospel according to John:
In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
The same was in the beginning with God.
All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made.
In Him was life, and that life was the Light of men.
And that Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it {has not been able to seize it}.

There was a man sent from God, whose name was John {the Baptist}.
John came as a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all might believe through him.
John was not the Light, but came to bear witness of that Light.
That was the true Light that enlightens every man, that cometh into the world.
He was in the world, and the world was made by Him; but the world knew Him not (as in how you recognize your kin, not knowledge which would have been the German verb Wissen.
He came to His own (as in ownership - the chosen people); and His {people} received Him not {more like did not "consume" God's message - an allusion to the Eucharist (bread and wine) consumed during Communion}.

I have a copy of a The Bible printed in Leipzig in 1953, with the exact same wording, some 430 years later. This is because, through the original translation, Luther in effect invented the High German written language, and this based on the Saxon dialect.

Le 21 septembre 1589: Près de Arques, dans le nord de la France, une bataille met aux prises catholiques et réformés (protestants) français. Le prince protestant Henri de Navarre, qui vient d'hériter de la couronne de France, sous le nom d'Henri IV, doit lutter contre la Ligue catholique qui rejette son autorité. Avec l'appui des Anglais, il bat les armées du duc de Mayenne près de Dieppe. Sa victoire quelque peu inespérée le rapproche du trône et met presque un terme aux guerres de religion qui durent depuis déjà depuis près de trente ans. The interest of the place centers in the castle dominating the town, which was built in the 11th century by William of Talou; his nephew, William the Conqueror, regarding it as a menace to his own power, besieged and occupied it. After frequently changing hands, it came into the possession of the English, who were expelled in 1449 after an occupation of thirty years. In 1589, its cannon decided the battle of Arques in favor of Henry IV. Arques of the battle fame is northwest of Beauvais. The area produced settlers for New France (Canada 1632). Ten times the number of Protestants left upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, bound for England, many thereafter coming to the British Colonies in North America.

September 21, 1796: The $2-1/2 gold coin, known as the "quarter eagle," initially was produced. The first quarter eagle, the 1796 Draped Bust without stars -- like most other first American coins -- was designed by Chief U.S. Engraver Robert Scot. The obverse depicts Liberty facing right, wearing a soft cap, with the inscription LIBERTY above, and the date below. The cap was long thought to be a liberty or Phrygian cap, taken from an ancient Roman model.

September 21, 1949: The Communist People’s Republic of China was proclaimed under Mao Tse Tung with Chou En-Lai as Premier: Today, the Chinese people have stood up -- Mao-Tse-Tung, who led his party into power after half a century of civil strife. The Chinese Communists drove Chiang Kai-shek to the Island of Formosa (now known as Taiwan). The stronghold of Shanghai fell to Mao Tse-tung Communist guerrillas. The Communist People’s Liberation Army brought with them to Beijing a northeastern folk dance called yang ge [go home] along with a new way of life, perhaps best demonstrated in 1989 with the severe repression or perhaps Mao's cultural revolution (1966) of far wider consequences.
September 21, 2011 -- The 10th year since the explosion at an AZF usine, causing 30 deaths and several thousand injuries: The Total chemical plant, located on the outskirts of the City of Toulouse, afterwards was rebuilt. A crater remains where the blast destroyed much of the production facility. Des représentants de Total sont aussi venus à la cérémonie. Tous ont observé une minute de silence à 10h17, à l'heure précise de l'explosion de l'usine sur le site de la société Grande Paroisse.,,3333280,00-toulouse-rend-hommage-aux-victimes-.html At first it was thought that the blast had been a terrorist attack, coming just 10 days after the twin-tower explosions in NYC. The plant produced ammonium nitrate, a substance that can be both a fertilizer and a component in explosives (AKA Oklahoma City). A root cause analysis revealed that improper storage of another substance with the ammonium nitrate had caused an unstable condition that led to the explosion.

The Toulouse-Atlanta Sister City Committee was formed to promote friendship and build personal and business relationships between the citizens of Toulouse, France, and Atlanta, after the 1974 designation. Nicknamed la ville rose (the pink city), because of the predominant use of a rose-colored brick in its buildings, Toulouse is the capital of the Midi-Pyrenees, and the space and technology center of Europe. Aerospatiale employs 9,000 workers, and Alcatel, the world's largest builder of satellites, and maker of other electronics operates here. Atlanta's symbol is the mythic phoenix, which is reborn from ashes, an allusion to Atlanta' rebirth after its destruction in (1864) during the war between the states. On May 20, 2005, a phœnix memorial arose in Atlanta's sister city. The sculpture topped by a Phœnix, by renowned Atlanta artist David Landis, was chosen to be the legacy gift from the citizens of Atlanta to its Sister City Toulouse, representing the solidarity between the citizens of Atlanta and Toulouse in the aftermath of an explosion that killed and injured so many people on September 21, 2001.

September 22nd: Today is the Feast day of Saint Mauritius (died circa 302AD). Mauritius (or Maurice) was one of the 66 Christian legionnaires, martyred after torture, some say for refusing to pay homage to pagan gods (but the truth is unclear). Authorities beheaded him at Agaunum, what would become Saint Maurice-en-Valais, Switzerland. The Augustinian monastery named for Saint Maurice stands today at the site of his death. In Magdeburg in Germany are his relics. His designation as a saint predates the formal practice of canonization by a Pope. His feast day is September 22nd in both the Roman Catholic and Protestant Lutheran traditions.

Also on this date (and in Switzerland) -- September 22, 1499 -- The Peace of Basel (Traité de Bâle (1499)) concludes what was the final war of Swiss independence. The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Maximilian I, had attempted to retake Switzerland, but the Swiss nation (les Confédérés) repulsed his efforts. In Swiss farm sayings one observes that bad weather on St. Mauritius day foretells damage and frustration (Bauernregel: Gewitter um Mauritius bringt Schaden und Verdruß -- ein anderer Wetterregel: Zeigt sich klar Mauritius, viel Sturm er bringen muß -oder- Klares Wetter an Mauritius - nächstes Jahr viel Wind kommen muß).

Worldwide, Mauritius is 7th in economic freedom (2010 numbers at 7.90), while the US has fallen from third place to 18th. Didn't know that did you ? It is the only true democracy in Africa, its official language is English (ex-British colony), but the most commonly spoken tongue is creole french. Hong Kong, a chinese province, remains #1. The Kingdom of Bahrain ranks in the top 10, too; as does Switzerland, Australia and New Zealand. Until recently, the US had ranked consistently 3rd. Coincidently, by recent count, US regulation in the past year has broken previous records (Federal Register). Economic freedom is an essential prerequisite for political freedom (Churchill). In the end, socialism requires coercion, even in a benign tyranny. It is a lesson history has taught over and over again; one that we perhaps have forgotten.

Another Saint's Day: Adamnan, or Eunan as he is also known, was born about the year 625 AD at Drumhome, County Donegal, Ireland. Nothing is told us of his early life, except that he was related to another well known Irish saint, Saint Columba. He initially entered the monastery he had founded in County Donegal, but Columba persuaded him to go the Abbey of Iona (Scotland), where in 679 he became its ninth abbot. Adamnan was an understudy to St. Ernan.

In 686 Adamnan was sent to the court of King Aldfrith of Northumbria to negotiate the release of Irish captives. The then current Northumbrian king had met Adamnan as a child when he had to flee from a usurper at the death of his father King Oswy. Adamnan succeeded in his mission. While in England he visited the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, meeting the Venerable Bede who was a thirteen year old lad. Adamnan was persuaded by St. Ceolfrith to accept the Roman date of observance for Easter. He also came to accept the Roman practice of tonsure for monks. He died this 23rd day of September in 704AD.

In France, the September equinox became New Year's Day in the Republic's new calendar, which was in use for about a dozen years. The Revolution established the First Republic and abolished the French monarchy on September 21, 1792. This event made the following day (the autumnal equinox that year) the first of the Republic for France. The start of every year was to be determined by astronomical calculations following the real path and position of the Sun (known as the calendrier républicain as well as the calendrier révolutionnaire). The Fall equinox in 2013 falls on the 22nd of September, making it the true beginning of the 222th year -- September 22, 2013 (4:44 PM EDT), is the feast du Premier Vendémiaire - Primidi, 1 Jour (décade 1), CCXXII according to Wikipedia.

September 23, 1779: The American navy under John Paul Jones, commanding from Bonhomme Richard, defeated and captured a British man-of-war. An American attack on a British convoy pitted the British frigate HMS Serapis against the American. The American ship was commanded by Scotsman John Paul Jones, who chose the name for the ship after Benjamin Franklin's nickname. Fierce fighting ensued, and when Bonhomme Richard began to sink, the Serapis' commander Richard Pearson called over to ask if Jones would surrender. He responded, I have not yet begun to fight! -- a response that would become a slogan of the U.S. Navy. The ships kept firing, and indeed, the American ship ended the day by sinking, but not before Pearson surrendered and Jones took control of the Serapis.

September 23, 1806: The Lewis and Clark Expedition returned to St. Louis from the Pacific Northwest over three years after its departure. The 12¢ Lewis and Clark Postal Card was issued on September 23, 1981, to celebrate this event.

A few years earlier on this date in 1777, the Liberty Bell took a trip to Allentown, Pennsylvania, in order to prevent its capture, when the British overran the City of Brotherly Love.

On June 27, 1778, the Bell was brought back to Philadelphia but not rehung. The rotten steeple of the State House would not allow it. The Bell was put into storage for seven years. It was rehung and later rang when the Constitution was ratified in 1787.

Speaking of western explorations -- September 24th in Canada: In 1688, Louis-Armand de Lom d'Arce, Baron de Lahontan (1666-1716), sets out from a small settlement at Michilimackinac Cove to explore the west (or at least the western reach of French territories in North America. At that time the site sat on the shore opposite from today's Mackinaw City, Michigan. In 1715, a fort named St. Philippe de Michilimackinac was reestablished on the southern shore. Louis-Armand will reach the Mississippi River (called the river St. Louis by the French) via the Wisconsin River (Meskousing -- later called the Ouisconsin). Just a few years earlier on September 24, 1669, René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle (1643-1687), had met Louis Jolliet and Father Marquette at the Saint Ignace Mission, connected with the settlement at Michilimackinac. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet of France canoed from Lake Michigan up the Fox River until reaching the present-day site of Portage (in early June), and crossed over to the Wisconsin River from the Fox (only 2 miles (3.2 km)). They too, found the Mississippi (June 17th). Marquette died on the return voyage (1675). The Algonquin people called this the father of waters (le «Pere d'eau»); the Ojibwe called the water source mezzi {misi} sippi -- the "big river."

On the 27th [of August 1679, the La Salle led explorers] were driven [in Le Griffon] northwesterly until evening, when, under favor of a light southerly breeze, they rounded Point St. Ignace, and anchored in the calm waters of the Bay of Michilimackinac, described as a sheltered harbor, protected on all sides except from the southeast. Here our voyagers found a settlement, composed of Hurons (Kis-ka-kons), Ottawas and a few Frenchmen.

Jean Nicolet, the first Frenchman to see Mackinac Island, paddled his birch bark canoe through the Straits of Mackinac in 1634 enroute to Green Bay, long before any mission in the area was established or football played.

September 24, 2007: L'extraordinaire est tout simplement que ça ait pu avoir lieu. Hier, le président iranien Mahmoud Ahmadinejad a pris la parole à l'Université Columbia, à New York, malgré l'hostilité presque furieuse que cet événement a provoquée aux États-Unis. La foi en la liberté reste l’arme la plus puissante de notre pays contre les régimes répressifs, a expliqué le président de Columbia (et le professeur de ce Web-maître il-y-a environ 31 ans, quand il était juste un professeur modeste enseignant sa première classe), Lee Bollinger. Le président iranien a ensuite affirmé que l'Iran était une nation pacifique qui entendait défendre son droit de poursuivre un programme nucléaire. Nous sommes membres de l'Agence internationale de l'énergie atomique [AIEA] et l'agence stipule que tous les Etats membres ont droit à la technologie nucléaire, a-t-il ajouté. Nous voulons avoir le droit à une énergie nucléaire pacifique, a-t-il répété. Le Monde

In 1933, Columbia University invited Hans Luther, Nazi Germany's ambassador to the United States, to speak on campus (Luther's remarks focused on what he characterized as Hitler's peaceful intentions.). Columbia's flirting with the Nazis did not end there.

While Williams College canceled its student exchanges with Germany, Columbia and others refused to do likewise. And in 1936, Columbia sent Prof. Arthur Remy as its representative to anniversary celebrations at the University of Heidelberg, where the Nazis had expelled all Jewish instructors, implemented a curriculum based on Nazi ideology, and organized book-burnings. Remy said he found a reception with Josef Goebbels -- incidentally, the man in charge of the book burnings -- to be very enjoyable. Some students protested the Columbia's participation at Heidelberg by picketing the home of president Nicholas Murray Butler. Dr. Butler, in turn, responded by permanently expelling the leader of the protest, Robert Burke, for allegedly using disrespectful language.

Lee Bollinger, the current president of Columbia (and in 2009 made a deputy director of the Federal Reserve Bank of NY), evidently felt his invitation to a would-be Hitler constituted a tribute to the principle of free speech. A more impressive gesture would have been a public apology to the family of Robert Burke. The Wall Street Journal Interestingly, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was scheduled to meet with Fox News' Shepard Smith on this day in 2010, and spoke again at Columbia in 2011.

Born 24 September 1942: Gerard "Gerry" Marsden, an English musician and television personality, best known for being leader of the British band Gerry & the Pacemakers. "Ferry Cross the Mersey," "Don't Let The Sun Catch You Crying" and "You'll Never Walk Alone" were his 60's hits. On this date 1789, the United States Post Office Department was established. Happy Birthday Snail-mail !!! Today in 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed Devils Tower in Wyoming as the nation's first National Monument; while in 1968, "60 Minutes" premiered -- Coincidence ? I think not.

In 1725, Sir Arthur Guinness, sometime Irish brewer entered this world. His father was the land steward to Dr. Arthur Price, the Archbishop of Cashel (some have called the ruin Saint Peter the Rock Cathedral (de cathédrale Saint-Pierre de la roche), but the newer Cathedral is elsewhere and is today dedicated to Saint John the Baptist and controlled by the Church of Ireland). This is an ancient place, dating back to at least the 4th Century. The site actually contains the Cathedral, its related Chapel and a Castle. Brian Boru was said to be crowned here. Saint Patrick was here too, baptising an Irish King. The elder Guiness brewed beer for the estate's workforce in County Tipperary. In celebration, Wakonda Brewing Company is located at 1725 Kingwood in Florence OR, while the Oaken Keg Spirit Shops, in Anchorage, AK, can be found at 1725 Abbott Road. More pictures are HERE.

Dateline 1066: King Harold II (Godwinson) won his first major battle against an invader today. On September 25th English troops faced down the Viking hoards, who had a legitimate claim to the Kingdom, at Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire. The fight takes place where the old Roman road crosses the River Derwent. A strategic defence point for nearly 1000 years, it is a logical spot for a major battle.

This battle will put an end to Viking threat (and claim). The Norwegian force is led by King Harald Hardrada and the English king's brother Tostig Godwinson. Both Hardrada and Tostig along with most of the Norwegians died that day. Although Harold Godwinson repelled the Norwegian invaders, his victory was short-lived. After a tiring march south, he lost to his Norman cousin William at Hastings less than three weeks later (October 14th). The victory against the Norwegians has been traditionally portrayed as symbolizing the end of the Viking Age, although major Scandinavian campaigns in Britain and Ireland occur in the following decades, such as those of King Sweyn Estrithson of Denmark in 1069–70 and King Magnus Barefoot of Norway in 1098 and 1102–03.

15¢ Independence Hall, Philadelphia
Postal Card: America the Beautiful Series

5¢ DC-4 Skymaster:
Airmail Envelope

First Day Issues of
September 25, 1946 & 1989

Considered by many to be the birthplace of the United States of America, the city of Philadelphia remains as rich in culture and charm as when the Quakers first settled here in the 17th century. Founded by William Penn in 1682, Philadelphia soon became a center of religious freedom -- hence its nickname, The City of Brotherly Love. It also became a major hub of colonial American politics, serving as the meeting place for the Second Continental Congress, the one that adopted the Declaration of Independence, as well as the convention that drafted the Bill of Rights. In time, the city played a vital role in the American Industrial Revolution, and because of its highly developed industry was a crucial supplier for Union forces during the Civil War. Independence Hall, original painting by John Benson, is shown on this postal issue -- one of the sites in four cities to be seen in the America the Beautiful series.

The original DC-4 was built as a requirement for both United and American Airlines. It began test flying in 1938, but when the U.S. entered into World War 2, the production line was commandeered by the military authorities and thus the first 24 C-54's were produced. The aircraft became a cargo workhorse during the conflict after it became available in 1942.

September 26, 1789 -- Big day in Washington: Thomas Jefferson is appointed the first United States Secretary of State, John Jay is appointed the first Chief Justice of the United States, Samuel Osgood is appointed the first United States Postmaster General, and Edmund Randolph is appointed the first United States Attorney General. In 1813, future President, William Henry Harrison (olde Tippecanoe), and some 4500 troops begin the military occupation of western Ontario, where they remain for the rest of the conflict after defeating British forces on the Thames. The Christmas Eve signed Treaty of Ghent (1814) returned this land to Britain. Meanwhile in Europe, on this day, in the years 1918 and 715, battles begin.

The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied push during World War I along the entire western front. It involved troops from Britain, its dominion/commonwealth armies (mainly Canada, Australia and New Zealand), Belgium and France in other major attacks in other sectors. On September 26th, the US forces (from northwest of the town of Verdun) began the strike towards Sedan (France) on the southern end of the line; General Sir Arthur Currie's Canadians also began this day to move; British and Belgian divisions commenced a drive towards Ghent (Belgium), on the 27th, and then British and French armies attacked across northern France, on the 28th. The scale of the overall offensive, heavily bolstered by the fresh, eager but largely inexperienced American troops, ended any German hope for victory. The big September/October Allied breakthroughs (north, center and south) across the length of the Hindenburg Line, including the Battle of the Argonne Forest, are collectively remembered as the Hundred Days Offensive by the Allies. All conflict on the Western Front ended in November, when the guns of August finally were silent.

Of course, this was neither the last nor the first conflict to rage across this land. Interestingly, this first battle in the Frankish civil war was fought this day. The Battle of Compiègne was fought on September 26, 715 and was the first definite battle of the civil war which followed the death of Pepin of Heristal, Duke of the Franks, on December 16, 714. Battles at Cologne, Amblève (near Liège), Vincy (near Cambrai) and Soissons would follow in the next three years as a three-way conflict develops. Charles Martel would emerge, setting the political foundations for the Holy Roman Empire under Charles the Great.

September 26, 2007: The Council of Europe marked the 7th European Day of Languages in its 46 member states. The event, first established by the Council following the success of the European Year of Languages in 2001, aims to alert the public to the importance of learning languages throughout life. The Council indicates that over 200 languages are native to Europe and being spoken today. To mark the day in 1687, Venetian forces (besieging the Ottoman Turks stationed in Athens) bombard the Parthenon and partially destroy it after an explosion caused by munitions stored within. The Parthenon, built at the initiative of Pericles, the leading Athenian politician of the 5th century BC, was under the general supervision of the sculptor Phidias. The architects were Iktinos and Kallikrates. Construction began in 447 BC, and the building was substantially completed by 438 BC, but work on the decorations continued until at least 433 BC.

We thought the name sounded familiar -- September 27, 1921: Today marks the death of Engelbert Humperdinck in Neustrelitz, Germany. Among the operas composed by Herr Humperdinck are, Dornröschen, Königskinder and of course Hänsel und Gretel. On December 23, 1893, Hänsel und Gretel premiered in Weimar (Thüringen). The production is conducted by Richard Strauss.

18¢ Babe Zaharias and Bobby Jones
Combination American Sports Series
September 22, 1981

September 27, 1930: Bobby Jones won the U.S. Amateur Championship at Philadelphia, thus becoming the first player ever to make the Grand Slam by winning all four of the major titles of the time (the U.S. Open, the U.S. Amateur Championship, the British Open and the British Amateur Championship). Twenty-six years later to the day Mildred Ella "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias passed away at age 42. She had become America's first female golf celebrity and leading player of the 1940s and early 1950s.

Ms. Zaharias had perhaps her greatest year in 1950 when she completed the Grand Slam of the three women's majors of the day, the US Open, the Titleholders Championship, and the Western Open, in addition to leading the money-list. She was the leading money-winner again in 1951 and in 1952 took another major with a Titleholders victory, but illness prevented her from playing a full schedule in 1952-53. She made a comeback in 1954 and took the Vare Trophy, and her tenth and final major, with a U.S. Women's Open championship. Considering her health (and age), this was her greatest triumph.

September 27, 2006: The US Senate approved a Congressional Gold Medal for Byron Nelson this night, making him the first professional golfer to join an elite list that includes the Wright Brothers and Nelson Mandela. The move came one day after the 94-year-old golf legend died. Nelson started out competing against legend Gene Sarazen and lived to see Tiger Woods set all sorts of records; an era that went from hickory shafts to graphite, wood to titanium club-heads, from smashies to specialty wedges. And the Money: I only won $182,000 in my whole life, he once said. In 1937, I got fifth-place [prize] money at the British Open - $187 - and it cost me $3,000 to play.,4136,114512,00.html The final win in the 1945 11-game streak came in early August at Thornhill Country Club in the Canadian Open, a four-shot win over Herman Barron worth another $2,000 {Canadian} — big bucks in those days. More HERE from the Toronto Star.

Nelson left the regular tour in 1946 at age 34, replaced by another Texan from the caddy shack at Glen Garden Country Club in Fort Worth, Ben Hogan. Timeline HERE. Some years ago, Nelson made 12 slivers of wood, smooth and stained, for the U.S. Ryder Cup team. His signature stamp - "Made by Byron Nelson" - was branded in black on one side, and on the other side was each US player's first name and the verse: With your help I can advance against a troop. With my God I can scale a wall Psalms 18:29. The last shot Nelson hit before an audience was the ceremonial drive to start the 2001 Masters. He was 89, some say still as nervous as when he won his first major championship at Augusta National in 1937. Nelson's last win came in 1955 at the French Open, where the prize money wasn't even enough to cover his hotel bill. Nelson was elected to the PGA Hall of Fame in 1953 and to the World Golf Hall of Fame in 1974. from the CBC

The US Congress has awarded 137 Gold Medals, starting with General George Washington, long before independence was won. Since the first civilian award in 1858, the medal has gone to explorers, scientists, humanitarians, world leaders and civil rights pioneers. The list includes the Wright brothers and Mother Teresa. Four athletes have been honored, all posthumously: baseball players Jackie Robinson and Roberto Clemente, boxer Joe Louis and track star Jesse Owens. see The Dallas Morning News On September 12, 2012, Arnold Palmer received the medal.

September 27 and 28, 1692: In 1504, Ötisheim, which had been in the Palatine region of Germany, came under the control of Württemberg. The church, pictured left, predates this time, but also has undergone extensive changes since then. The town was sacked on September 27 and 28, 1692, explaining why the church records do not go back to an earlier time. Why the wholesale destruction ? France's "Sun King", Louis XIV, attempted to claim the inheritance of his sister-in-law, Lieselotte from the Palatinate. He launched a war of succession that in a few years time left southwestern Germany lying in rubble. One of the decisive battles was fought near Ötisheim where the Duke-Administrator Karl von Württemberg was taken captive. Ötisheim was burned down leaving only the church, town hall, and monastery administration buildings damaged but still standing. In 1744, looking back on that time, pastor Christian Gottfried Nicolai wrote "the inhabitants were all dispersed, everything plundered and the village sat in complete ruin." Only nine inhabitants lived in these ruins in 1697. It is for this reason that the Waldensers (religious followers of Peter Waldo) were granted the right to repopulate this area. See also

So the separate families of John and Ursula BROYLES (Johannes BREYHEL and Ursula RUOP) moved to Ötisheim. They married and raised a family there. They most certainly worshipped here before they left for the new world and Pennsylvania. This family was part of the Second Germanna Colony - circa 1717. The colonists were all Lutherans from the Palatinate and Baden-Württemberg regions of Germany. Go to for more about this family and to learn how they ended up in Virginia !!! My spouse descends from this family.
Elizabeth Charlotte von der Pfalz (Elizabeth Charlotte of Bavaria) (Liselotte) (1652––1722), Duchess of Orléans, began life as the German princess Liselotte, the granddaughter of Frederick V, born at Heidelberg Castle, Princess Palatine. The Palatinate, an historically important area in central Europe that includes land surrounding the Rhine, has been fought over for centuries. It is governed by an Elector Palatine, one of the persons who chose the leader of the Holy Roman Empire. Her portrait in bronze is HERE. More about Orléans HERE.

Elizabeth Charlotte became the second wife of Louis XIV’s brother, Philip I, Duke of Orléans (the marriage to his first wife, Henrietta, sister of Charles II of England, ended with her death by poison in 1670), and was the sister of Charles, the Elector Palatine of the Rhine, who died without heirs in 1685. He had been succeeded as Elector Palatine by the head of the Zweibrucken line, Philip William of Neuberg, the father-in-law of the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, with whom Louis was at war. Louis decided to claim that some part of the Palatine succession ought to have gone to Charles’ sister, and Louis’ sister-in-law, Liselotte. Louis decided to enforce the claim in 1688 by issuing a manifesto setting forth the French demands. A French army under the command of the dauphin (Louis XIV’s eldest son) advanced into the Palatinate and devastated it.

As the French forces withdrew from the castle on March 2, 1689, they set fire to it and blew the front off the Fat Tower. Portions of the town were also burned, but the mercy of a French general Tesse, who told the townspeople to set small fires in their homes to create smoke and the illusion of burning, prevented wider destruction.

The Sun King, Louis, also was reclaiming French Protestant subjects who had fled to the region for its more tolerant atmosphere. This contributed to the onset of the War of the Grand Alliance, which pitted an alliance of England, Holland and the Holy Roman Empire against France. This conflict, which lasted from 1689 to 1697 had no clear victor. It ended with the Treaty of Ryswick.

When Louis XIV died in 1715, Liselotte's son (Philip II d’Orléans) became Regent for the young Louis XV, and some of Liselotte's correspondence assumed a political role: for example, she began to write to Caroline of Ansbach, whom she had never met, but who had married the heir to the English throne, a contact that the Regent wanted to secure. Liselotte's letters convey her speaking voice. She always prided herself on saying exactly what she thought, no matter to whom she was speaking, and so it is with her correspondence. Over 4000 in German survive, as do 850 in French. There is no complete English-language translation, but see

If my father had loved me as well as I loved him he would never have sent me into a country so dangerous as this, to which I came through pure obedience and against my own inclination. Here duplicity passes for wit, and frankness is looked upon as folly. I am neither cunning nor mysterious.

1931 September 28, 1781: American forces in the Revolutionary War, backed by a French fleet and a French amy, began the siege of Yorktown Heights, Virginia (it ended October 19th), just a few short miles by highway away from Williamsburg and Jamestown. Over 9,000 Americans and some 7,000 French troops took part in the action. The world was beginning to turn upside down. The allied armies had marched from New England in an effort to surprise the Britsh forces. Trapped on a peninsula, with no way out except by sea ... well, you know the story. The French role is less well known.

Debts incurred for basic existence, sheer survival, and some form of liberty are among those that can never be put paid, and whosoever repudiates those debts acquires an indelible stain. It is folly to forget them.

Trumbull's painting of Yorktown is not the only one. Louis-Nicholas van Blarenberghe executed two scenic paintings of The Siege of Yorktown, one in 1784 for Louis XVI, and a near replica in 1786 for the Comte de Rochambeau. He also painted The Surrender at Yorktown (executed in 1785 and 1786) for the same patrons. Blarenberghe was a professional painter of battle and campaign scenes for the French army. He executed his Yorktown paintings under the direct supervision of Berthier, a skilled draftsman and former member of Rochambeau's staff in America (1781-83). The first work is held by Musée National de Versailles and the two paintings for the count are exhibited at Château de Rochambeau.

Place Yorktown is a tiny square close to the Trocadéro (Paris) at the end of, appropriately enough, Rue Benjamin Franklin. It has a plaque commemorating the French dead at the battle of Yorktown, a plaque commemorating the bicentennial of the treaties of Versailles and Paris, and is dominated by a statue of Benjamin Franklin. The French were most happy about the results of the Battle of Yorktown. At the time, the French Nation had been sinking a lot of money into the fledgling country. Winning the battle of Yorktown was a welcome indication that the fight against the British might be won and the funds not wasted; however, the war with the English ultimately bankrupted France and became one of the major contributing factors to the French Revolution.

And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people:
and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time:
and at that time thy people shall be delivered,
every one that shall be found written in the Book.

And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake,
some to everlasting life,
and some to shame and everlasting contempt [Daniel 12:1-2].

September 29th: The three great desert religions all know of Michael. The Anglican Tradition, celebrates three or four angels on the 29th of September (Michaelmas) feast for St. Michael and All Angels: namely Archangel Michael (Jude 9), Gabriel, Raphael and often, Uriel. During the Middle Ages, Michaelmas was celebrated as a Holy Day of Obligation, but this tradition was abolished in the 18th century. Lutheran Christians consider it a principal feast of Christ, and the Lutheran Confessor, Philip Melanchthon, wrote a hymn for the day that is still sung in Lutheran Churches: Lord God to Thee We Give It was also one of the English, Welsh and Irish quarter days when accounts had to be settled. The Eastern Orthodox Churches do not observe Michaelmas. The Greek Orthodox Church honors the them on the 8th of November instead.

The Parish of Saint Michael [and all Angels] And there was a great battle in heaven, Michael and his angels fought with the dragon. Revelation (Apocalypse) 12:7 In Normandy (France), St. Michael is the patron of mariners in his famous sanctuary at Mont-Saint-Michel in the Diocese of Coutances. He is said to have appeared there, in 708, to St. Aubert, Bishop of Avranches. In Germany, after its evangelization, St. Michael replaced for the Christians the pagan god Wotan, to whom many mountains were sacred, hence the numerous mountain chapels of St. Michael all over Germany.

September 29, 1777: Our history books tend to emphasize Britain's 13 American colonies that declared their independence. In fact, not counting its colonies in Canada or the Caribbean, the English had 15 American colonies in 1776. The two oft overlooked British possessions were East Florida and West Florida, both of which remained in British hands after the American Revolution. In this excerpt from a letter to Henry Laurens, Savannah merchant Joseph Clay noted one problem Georgians were having with bands of raiders from East Florida:

. . . The Scouts from Augustine have for some Months past been continually making incursions into our State for Cattle & I believed they have carried some away lately from the No'side of the Great Ogechee, this to our very great shame they have done with very little interruption . . . the Number of the People who have committed these depredations have never exceeded 150 . . . this is very much complained of by the Inhabitants & with great reason that they cannot be protected from such an inferior force . . . .

Source: Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, Vol. VIII, Letters of Joseph Clay, Merchant of Savannah, 1776-1793 (Savannah: Georgia Historical Society, 1913), p. 40.

The storehouses of James Spalding at Sunbury were rifled, plundered and burned, his dwelling house likewise, and everything of value scattered to the winds; all the accumulations of industry and thrift were engulfed and destroyed by roving bands of tories or so-called loyalists [during the American Revolution].

September 29, 1962: Canada launches its first orbiting satellite and becomes the third nation in space. Alouette I sat upon a US rocket (Thor-Agena B ) fired from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. It weighed 320 pounds and cost $2.9 million (Canadian). Built to study ionosphere from 1000 km in space, it was a colaborative project of Defence Research Board and Canadian electronics industry. The name Alouette came from the French word for "skylark," which is the title of a popular French-Canadian folk song. Exactly 20 years and one day earlier at Kiska, Alaska, Canadian aircraft had made their first attacks on Japanese forces in the Aleutian Island chain. Meanwhile, nearly 400 years before in 1535, Jacques Cartier had crossed Lac St-Pierre for the first time, on his way to discovering Montreal on October 2nd.

September 30, 1989: In the late 1980s, hundreds of desperate East Germans sought refuge at the West German embassy in Prague, the capital of the-communist Czechoslovakia, triggering a major diplomatic incident that paved the way for the fall of the Berlin Wall. West Germany's former foreign minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher tells Deutsche Welle how he experienced September 30, 1989, the fateful day when he told thousands of East German refugees in Prague their departure for the West had been approved. The GDR (Communist East-German Government) could not survive what happened in Prague. Nobody could say when and how this would happen, but it was clear that this grave blow to the Wall had to have a lasting impact.,,4743914,00.html

September 30 -- St. Viktor von Solothurn: St. Viktor (starb circa 303AD) war ein christlicher, römischer Soldat. Zusammen mit St. Ursus und anderen Christen wurde er nach der Folter gemartert, da er sich weigerte, heidnische Idole anzubeten. Seine Überreste sind in der Periode der Reformation verloren gegangen. Seine Verehrung als Heiliger geht der Heiligsprechung durch den Papst voraus, sein Gedenktag ist am 30. September. Er wird besonders in Basel, Chur, Freiburg, St. Gallen und Sitten verehrt.

Thus, September 30th is also the Feast day of saint Victor's companion, Saint Ursus (death ca. 303). Ursus also was a Roman Legionnaire who had converted to Christianity. According to the legends of the saints, he was tortured by men attempting to force him to worship pagan idols. Finally, he was beheaded. He is associated also with Saint Maurice and the village of Solothurn in today's Switzerland, the place of his execution. The chapel of Saint Peter (which rests on an older Roman structure) was placed where Saint Ursus died inside the Roman fort. His designation as a saint predates the formal practice of canonization by a Pope.

The city of Solothurn is due south of Basel, and is the capital of Solothurn Canton. It has been a site for ancient pre-Roman peoples. About 10-25 AD a fort was built to protect a road station and bridge head on the Roman road from Aventicum to Augusta Raurica or Vindonissa. A small vicus or settlement sat around the castrum. Its strategic position suggests that it may have been a Celtic position, too. It became the home to a detachment of the larger XXII Legion (stationed at today's Mainz). There were several Christian structures by late Roman times. About 500 AD, the Burgundian Princess Sedeleuba, took the bones of St. Victor to Geneva, while the bones of St. Ursus remained in Solothurn. The church dedicated to the veneration of Saint Ursus is first mentioned in 870 and later a Monastery developed. Much later, Solothurn was part of the Swiss Confederation, attacked by the Hapsburg dynasty and also conquered by Napoleon. see also

January 2006 Drawing
O Christ the Rock, upon which thy Church is built, whereon thy People, as living stones fitly framed together, grow into a spiritual house: Defend thy Church O Lord.

September 30, 2006: The premier service in the new sanctuary started at 9am on September 23rd. It was dedicated on the 30th during a 2½ hour service, the delayed feast day of Saint Barnabas. He accompanied St. Paul the Apostle on Paul's early journeys to Asia Minor and Cyprus (known as his first mission). See

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord  Psalm 122.

This is none other than the dwelling place of God, and this is the gate of Heaven -- This is the Gate of the Lord, the righteous shall enter into it

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

The answer depends on if you like beer better than wine: Apparently, two Saint Landelins exist. Why is this important ? First, in Belgium, St. Landelinus is known as a reformed soul, a brigand by birth (although relative of the Frankish King) or perhaps by backsliding, who founded an Abbey at Lobbes (Lanbacum). More seems to be known about him. Born at Vaux near Bapaume, France, he is a contemporary of the Bishop of Cambrai (and Saint) Aubert (who Converted him). In art, this Saint Landelin is portrayed as he is dying in sackcloth and ashes. This is the man associated with the trappist-like blond beer, arising out of the Crespin Abbey (mid-11th Century) that this Saint Landelinus helped found. Saint Landelin was not the only major figure of the Abbey Lobbes. Saint Ursmer assumed the burden of the abbey from 689 to 713, and collegiate (abbey church) bears the saint's name. In 888, the abbey (removed from Cambrai) came under the authority of the bishopric of Liège.

In contrast, sits Saint Landelin of oft fought over Alsace-Lorraine. He lived in roughly the same time period (just some 30 years earlier). He was one of the traveling Irish Circuit Riders, killed by pagans in about 640AD for being a hermit/sorcerer. In 725 the Monchzell monastery was founded in the area, dedicated to its patron named Landelin. Later it was rebuilt as Ettenheimmünster Abbey on the other side of the river (provinces of Baden und Württemberg); but, many continue to refer to it as prædium Sancti Landelini (the heritage of Saint Landelin). Written records of the vineyards of St. Landelin first appear around 1250AD. M. René Muré's grandfather Alfred, a vintner of impeccable genæology, ended up with the domaine in the mid-1930s, 20 acres of vineyards in Alsace within Rouffach, an ancient Roman vicus. Twenty acres (and perhaps a mule) was all that was left after the French Revolution dispersed (secularization) the vast holdings of the Bishop of Strasbourg. On these soils the Muré family farms its Riesling, Sylvaner, as well as, unusually, Pinot Noir (Côte-de-Rouffac), named for the Roman name for the city Rubeaquum in the upper Rhine (Haut-Rhin) region. (archived)

Saints of the Season: At the end of the month comes the Feast of All Saints (November 1st). Here are just a few of those whose feast is the 23rd, 24th or 25th of October:

John began his brilliant preaching apostolate a a deacon in 1420. After his ordination he traveled throughout Italy, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Hungary, Poland, and Russia preaching penance and establishing numerous communities of Franciscan renewal. When Mohammed II was threatening Vienna and Rome, St. John, at the age of seventy, was commissioned by Pope Callistus III to preach and lead a crusade against the invading Turks. Marching at the head of seventy thousand Christians, he gained victory in the great battle of Belgrade against the Turks in 1456. Three months later he died at Illok, Hungary. His feast day is October 23rd. Saint John, born at Capistrano (Italy), is the patron of jurists. His mission in California is better known for the birds that arrive there in the Spring.

A tale about a dragon or gargouille: On the left bank of the Seine at Rouen, were wild swamps through which rampaged a huge serpent or dragon who devoured and destroyed people and beasts of the field. Romanus (or Romain) decided to hunt in this area, together with a condemned man. He soon encountered a creature bent on destruction, but Romanus drew the sign of the cross on the beast, not a weapon. It then lay down at his feet and let Romanus put his stole on him as a leash, in which manner he led it into the town to be condemned to death and burned on the parvis of the cathedral (or thrown into the Seine according to others). This legend was the origin for the bishop's privilege (lasting until 1790) to pardon one prisoner condemned to death each year, by giving the pardoned man or woman the reliquary holding Romanus' relics in a procession. His feast day is traditionally celebrated in the archdiocese of Rouen on 23rd October, as a Triple Feast - First Class. Today they are often transferred to the following Sunday, superseding the date decreed for the feast by archbishop Guillaume Bonne-Ame in around 1090.

Saint Crispin's Day falls on 25th October and is the feast day of the Christian saints Crispin and Crispinian, twins who were martyred about 286 AD. We remember it because of the St. Crispin's Day Speech in Shakespeare's play Henry V, calling the soldiers who would fight on the day a "band of brothers" (Battle of Agincourt in 1415). Other notable battles include the Battle of Balaclava (featuring the Charge of the Light Brigade) during the Crimean War in 1854 and the Battle of Leyte Gulf in the Pacific theatre in 1944. The feast remains a Black Letter Saints' Day in the calendar of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer (1662). Saints Crispin and Crispinian are the patrons of cobblers, curriers, tanners, and leather workers, saints beheaded during the reign of the notorious Roman ruler Diocletian. In the sixth century a stately basilica was erected at Soissons over the graves of these saints, and Saint Eligius, a famous goldsmith, made a costly shrine for the head of Saint Crispinian.

But perhaps the most interesting feast concerns no man at all. The feast day of Saint Raphaël celebrates this angelic being, an eminent intercessor – a special patron of the sick and travelers – He is one of the notable angelic spirits that wait on God. Raphaël (the name meaning that healing is from God) generally is associated with the angel mentioned in the Gospel of John as stirring the water at the healing pool of Bethesda. Of seven archangels in the angelology of post-Exilic Judaism, only Michael, mentioned as archangel (Daniel 12:1; Jude verse 9), and Gabriel (Book of Tobit) are identified by name in the scriptures that came to be accepted as canonical by some Christians. In the New Testament, only the archangels Gabriel and Michael are mentioned by name (Luke 1:9–26; Jude 1:9). Raphaël was revered in Catholic Europe as a special protector of Catholic sailors: on a corner of Venice's famous Doge's Palace, there is a relief depicting Raphaël holding a scroll on which is written: efficia fretum quietum (Keep the Gulf quiet). On July 8, 1497, when Vasco Da Gama set forth from Lisbon with his four ship fleet to sail to India, the flagship was named—at the King of Portugal's insistence—São Gabriel . When the flotilla reached the Cape of Good Hope on October 22nd, the sailors disembarked and erected a column in the archangel's honor. As with Capistrano, Mission San Rafael Arcángel, the 20th Spanish mission in the colonial Mexican province of Alta California, is the historical founding spot of San Rafael, California.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

October 1, 1688 -- Coming to England Soon: It was going to be a glorious revolution, but the English were left with no ruling sovereign. Prince William III of the House of Orange (Holland) published his Declaration of intent to save the English people from their Roman Catholic ruler. Upon his invasion in November and his successful campain, William of Orange got the call, and accepted an invitation to try on the Crown. His bride, Mary, would join him as a co-equal ruler. On December 28, 1688, William of Orange made a triumphant march into London, as James II fled. The Glorious Revolution was complete, well almost. After a disastrous campaign against William's forces, James had retreated to London before finally fleeing the country on 18 December 1688. An irregular Convention Parliament met on 22 January 1688/9, summoned by William. It consisted of the House of Lords and the surviving members of the Commons from the Oxford Parliament of 1681, the last of Charles II's reign. This assembly invited William and Mary to take what it considered to be the vacant throne. The Parliament called by James in 1685 was not invited to sit as it was loyal to him

Alas, the couple would have no children. Mary died, then William a few years later. So Anne the Protestant daughter of deposed James II, and sister to Mary, would become Queen. Her husband would not be King. She would die without living issue, so that a new talent search was made, this time to the House of Hannover. Its German speaking leader would get the call. Through King James I by way of Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia and the Duke of Brunswick (then Head of the House of Hanover), George it turns out was a cousin to the Stuart rulers (of whom Anne was the last). He also was of the lineage of King Henry I of England (Henry being a son of William I, England's first Norman King). Thus, on October 20, 1714, Georg Ludwig, Elector of Hanover, was crowned King George I of merry olde England and the rest of Britain on the Stone of Scone. We have written a wee bit more more about this time within the pages of this Website. I invite you to go HERE as one starting point.

October 1, 1688 -- Arriving in America: Descended from a Gælic Irish sept (whose ancestral territory lay principally in what is today the Republic of Ireland's County Offaly), Charles Carroll arrived in Maryland on October 1, 1688. He brought with him an appointment as attorney general in the colony's proprietary government, as well as a determination to change the course that English rule had imposed upon his Catholic compatriots. His father and other close relatives had lost their lands, and much of their wealth, to confiscation as a consequence of the 1641 Rebellion against British rule.

Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) ruled England as Lord Protector from 1653 until 1658. A leader of the Parliamentary forces during the English Civil War, Cromwell served in 1649 as commander in chief and lord lieutenant of Ireland, where he was responsible for several brutal massacres. Following the defeat of the Irish by the commanders who succeeded him in the field, Cromwell initiated a policy of land confiscation. His action drastically reduced the holdings of rebellious Catholic subjects.

Maryland, in 1688, was a American colony known for its official hospitality to Roman Catholics. Leaving Éire, Carroll changed his family's motto on its crest from in fide et in bello forte ("strong in faith and war") to ubicumque cum libertate ("anywhere so long as there be freedom"). Scarcely had Charles Carroll reached Maryland, when the political changes wrought by England's Glorious Revolution caused major problems for an adherence to his faith. In Lord Baltimore's once tolerant colony, an onerous new law deprived Catholics of the right to vote, a franchise not regained until the American Revolution. And, Carroll's grandson became major force in shaping and assuring the success of that Revolution.

A similar story played out in the Colony of New York, where the Catholic Governor was eventually jailed and replaced through a series of events, beginning on October 1st. In New England the re-establishment of Catholicism as the state religion of England by James II was not well-received, and that hostility proved to be too much, even in New York.

October 1, 1800: Today celebrates the preliminary and secret treaty between the French Republic and His Catholic Majesty the King of Spain, Concerning the Aggrandizement of His Royal Highness the Infant Duke of Parma in Italy and the Retrocession of Louisiana. In short, France gets back its territory (in confidence) from Spain (which land France had lost, not during Queen Anne's War in 1713 [The War of Spanish Succession], but during the Seven Years War (French-Indian War)). France would soon sell Louisiana to the young United States. President Jefferson, seeking only New Orleans (to assure the America's navigation rights on the Mississippi), was offered the whole shooting match, if he acted quickly. The US Senate voted to ratify Jefferson's Louisiana Purchase on October 20th of 1803.

On December 30, 1803, the Stars and Stripes was raised over the cité, Nouvelle-Orléans, as the United States took formal possession of the territory of Louisiana, an area of nearly 900 thousand square miles. Suddenly, almost overnight, the new political entity, not yet 20 years old, had doubled in size. The territory, purchased from Napoléon's nation for approximately $15 million, the cash exchange took place on December 20th. The 200th anniversary of the Lewis and Clark expedition into the uncharted regions of this purchase, and beyond to the Pacific, has come and gone.

MilledgevilleOctober 1, 1868: Atlanta had become the new Capital of Georgia, replacing Milledgeville. Edward Hulbert, superintendent of the Western & Atlantic Railroad wrote Governor Rufus Bullock on the need for better facilities.

. . . The want of a suitable passenger depot at Atlanta is being severely felt by all the roads in interest. Steps should be taken next spring for the erection of a building adequate to the future wants of the roads now in operation as well as those projected. Without counseling extravagance, I would suggest that it be one every way worthy of the great railway interests it will represent, as well as that of the great railway center of the South, the GATE CITY."

October 1, 1880: As the new director of the United States Marine Corps Band, John Philip Sousa excels as the 17th leader. In 1888, he composed Semper Fidelis, traditionally known as the official march of the United States Marine Corps. 1.html The words, Halls of Montezuma, refer the Marines' storming of the last fortress before taking Mexico City (Chapultepec Castle in the Mexican-American War) on September 14, 1847. The Marine contingent was under the command of General Winfield Scott [see his role in the events memorialized in October below].

October 1, 1903: The Pittsburgh Pirates (aka National League Champions), playing at the Huntington Avenue Baseball Grounds, defeated the Boston home team of the American League (which was not the Pilgrims), 7-3, in the first regular series game between the two leagues. Cy Young and Boston came back to win the playoff, five games to three. The next year the New York Giants refused to play in a World Series. In 1905 the two leagues reached an agreement for a perpetual and annual Fall Classic. Before 1903 there were other end-of-season games, some even called "World Series." By 1892 these had died out. Except in time of World conflict the Series has continued almost uninterrupted into the 21st Century. The 1994 World Series was cancelled on September 14th of that year due to an ongoing strike. In 2013, for the first time in over 20 years, the Pirates qualified to play in the division playoffs. The Bucs on this date at PNC Field in Pittsburgh defeated the Reds, thereby qualifying and ending the curse of Sid Bream.

In 1903, the grande White Star Line would release the RMS Republic for her Maiden Voyage. Sailing only from October 1, 1903, until January 1909, the 15,378 ton ocean liner was a Royal Mail Ship (RMS), a flagship on the Boston-Europe circuit, when it suddenly went into retirement. On January 23rd, 1909, White Star's unsinkable Republic was rammed, in a fog, by the Lloyd Italiano ship Florida. Efforts to save Republic with improvised collision mats proved unsuccessful. She eventually sank more than 40 hours after the collision. However, during this time, her Marconi radio operator, Jack Binns, used the remains of his radio equipment, and managed to put out a call for assistance. The Baltic II answered, turning-up 12 hours after the collision at about 7:30pm. It took aboard all of of Republic's passengers during the next four hours. Baltic II then began the rescue of the Florida's passengers and crew (1,650 people). four.shtml Ironically, on December 12, 1917, the Florida was lost also in a collision, with the Italian auxiliary cruiser Caprera.

October 1, 1940: Florence Gibbs was selected for Congress, technically becoming the first woman from Georgia to be elected to Congress. On Aug. 7, 1940, the 8th District Congressman, W. Benjamin Gibbs, passed away, near the end of his freshman term. Governor E.D. Rivers called for a special election to fill the remaining three months of the term. Gibbs' widow, Florence Reville Gibbs, had no political experience or known political ambitions; never-the-less, she agreed to run in order to complete her late husband's term. She would not run in the fall general election for a full new two-year term.

In this special election, Florence Gibbs was the only person on the ballot; and, in a very low turnout, voters elected her, some would say by a sympathy vote. Subsequently, she was sworn into the U.S. House on October 3rd, but never given a committee assignment. After completing her husband's term on January 3, 1941, Florence Gibbs returned to Georgia. She never again stood for political office. Because of nature of her election, her short time in office and the apparent lack of any congressional role, some historians believe that the distinction of first woman elected to Congress -- at least in a more meaningful sense -- properly belongs to Ms. Helen Douglas Mankin.

October 1, 1961: Roger Maris of the New York Yankees hit his 61st home run off of Tracy Stallard during a 162-game season. It favorably compared to Babe Ruth's 60 home runs during a 154-game season. Roger's bat was an instrument of terror to opposing pitchers as he finished second in homers {1960} in the A.L. (39). He was the RBI champ last year {1960} as he knocked in 112 {runs} -- from Card #478, ©T.C.G. (1961)

Years later, many still measure home run hitters by comparison to Roger Maris. Yet, as unbelievable as it might seem, Roger Maris has not been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Consider what is overlooked:

It has been over 50 years -- 1st October, 1962: Two and a half generations in the past the late-night NBC program The Tonight Show, starring Johnny Carson, aired for the first time, then from New York City. There had been several full-time hosts before he took over, as well as after he had departed. Carson retired from the show on May 22, 1992, but not before the broadcast had moved to production studios in California. He passed away on January 23, 2005 in his 79th year.

October 1, 2007: This day marked a classic do-or-die contest. The San Diego (Padres) and Colorado (Rockies) teams vie for a berth in the National League Division Playoffs. The loser of this one game tie-breaker went home to reflect on an ended Season. The game lasted until the 13th inning, when the Padres broke the tie with 2 runs -- then Colorado replied. The Rockies move on because the team scored 3 runs in the bottom of the last inning. The final score 9 to 8.

from a childhood past


October 2, 52BC: Alésia is an ancient town (Alesiam) thought to be situated on Mont Auxois, above the present-day village of Alise-Sainte-Reine in the département of Côte d'Or, France (up-river from Paris). The place remains famous as the site of the siege of Alésia by Julius Cæsar from August into October 52 BC, which turned into the decisive victory against Gaul when Vercingétorix tried to lift the siege and failed after several attempts. A final battle on October 2 led to a Gallic loss and Vercingétorix's eventual capture and execution.

After two annual campaigns (beginning six years earlier), Cæsar had reached the Middle Meuse and the Atlantic Ocean, which could be said sufficient to declare that the mission had been accomplished. The Gauls, thereafter, regrouped. For the next three years (54-51), Cæsar fought two formidable insurgencies: headed by Ambiorix in Belgæ and Vercingétorix in the central region of Gaul. A summary of the campaigns. More Coins featuring Celts HERE.

Cæsar has described the siege in his Commentaries on the War in Gaul (Commentarii de Bello Gallico), Book 7, chapters 63-90. An English translation can be found HERE. Horsemen from the Chatten tribe (modern Hessen), which belonged to the Celtic La Tène-culture assisted in the victory. Many of them later resettled in the Netherlands, an area known as Batavia. Later some went to Caithness, Scotland.

Alésia et l'église Saint-Pierre de Montrouge, centre du quartier du Petit-Montrouge, Paris

The great city of France and at one time the second city of the Roman Empire was founded less than ten years later at Lyon.

Oh, by the way, it is said that the Alésia at Mont Auxois does not fit Cæsar's description, but a site at Chaux-des-Crotenay in the Jura region is a better candidate. There are other theories, too. A Roman City has been excavated at the traditional site so you be the judge: Regardless, the Roman Senate refused to award Cæsar a triumph for the great event that changed the course of history. This insult or lack of gratitude for a job well-done, led to a civil war and Julius Cæsar's early demise. Alise-Sainte-Reine remains the official French site for the battle. Alésia is also the name of a station on Métro line 4 before the last stop at Port d'Orléans (Le quartier du Petit-Montrouge est plus connu comme étant le quartier Alésia).

October 2, 1535: Having landed in Quebec a month ago, Jacques Cartier first saw the site of what is now Montréal and proclaimed What a royal mountain ! From thence came the name of the city. But compare the writeup from the French, who after all were there: Le 2 octobre 1535, Jacques Cartier découvre au confluent du fleuve Saint Laurent et de la rivière des Outaouais une île qu'il baptisera « Mons realis » -- Sur cette île sauvage peuplée de Hurons a été fondée la ville de Montréal -- le 17 mai 1642.

On July 24, 1534, Jacques Cartier had landed in what today is part of the Canadian Maritime Provinces, claiming North America for France. Jacques Cartier while probing for a northern route to Asia visited Labrador, and of it reportedly said: Fit only for wild beasts ... This must be the land God gave to Cain. Between 1541 and 1543, Cartier (on his 3rd voyage) and his superior, Jean-François de La Rocque, Sieur de Roberval (the Huguenot premier Viceroy of Canada) established a settlement of 400 people at Cap Rouge (Charlesbourg-Royal), Québec City (10 kilometers from city centre, near an Iroquois village). The first permanent French colony in the Americas was abandoned on June 6, 1543. Archæologist Yves Chrétien rediscovered Jacques Cartier's long-lost settlement in 2005. The find was first announced August 19, 2006. See also Stamps_and_postal_history_of_Canada

October 2, 1908: For the fourth time in history, fans saw a perfect game. Cleveland pitcher Addie Joss never let Chicago near the bases. Joss was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1978. He remains the only player in the Hall of Fame to have the 10 year rule of service waived. He died at age 31 of in April 1911.

October 2, 1920 (more Baseball): On this date in baseball history, the last triple-header in the Twentieth Century took place, as the League leading Cincinnati Reds took two out of three games from the Pittsburgh Pirates. A contemptuous rain threatened to prematurely end the 1920 baseball season ....

October 2, 1950 -- Charlie Brown's team takes the field: The renowned comic strip Peanuts, from the pen of the late cartoonist, Charles Schulz, began on this day in seven newspapers in the States. This first strip, prepared for the United Features Syndicate, had only three characters: Charlie Brown, Peppermint Patty (Reichardt) and Shermy. The world’s most famous beagle, Snoopy, made his first appearance on October 4th. Later, we were introduced to Linus, Lucy Van Pelt, Sally and Schroeder. We learned that the Peanuts gang came from the real California town of Sebastopol, in Sonoma County. Moreover, Sebastopol's Cumberland Presbyterian Church had been dedicated October 2, 1851, nearly a hundred years before.

On October 2, 1963, Pitcher Sandy Koufax struck out Yankee Harry Bright to end game one of the World Series. Bright was Koufax’s 15th strikeout victim, breaking the World Series single game record of 14 set by Carl Erskine (Brooklyn) against the Yankees in 1953. Koufax’ performance helped the Los Angeles Dodgers to a 5-2 victory over the Yankees and their ace, Whitey Ford. The Dodgers went on to sweep New York in four games. Koufax was the Game 4 winner also. His 1963 regular-season record was 25-5. But wait, on this day 1966, Sandy Koufax, in great pain from an arthritic elbow, won his 27th game and, for the third time in four years, led the Los Angeles Dodgers to the National League pennant. However, the Baltimore Orioles swept the Dodgers 4-0 in the World Series that year, including the shutout during the second game (October 6th). The Baltimore Oriole’s Jim Palmer became the youngest pitcher (20 years, 11 months) to win a complete-game, World-Series shutout. He defeated Sandy Koufax.

October 2, 1989: Nearly 10,000 people marched through Leipzig, East Germany, demanding legalization of opposition groups and adoption of democratic reforms in the country's largest protest since 1953. This was the beginning of the end. Within the next forty days, the Wall would be falling, and the government which celebrated 40 years of rule on October 7th, collapsed. It was not obvious to many then, but Germany would soon be reunited, and the Soviet Union would spin apart -- at least for a time.

October 2, 1990: On this day Radio Berlin International (RBI) transmits its final broadcast. The East-German powerhouse is merged with Deutsche Welle (DW), the Federal Republic's chief communications arm. The final music played (Englisch language broadcast) is The End by an American group called The Doors, led by the late Jim Morrison. Why ??? Le 3 octobre 1990, la République Fédérale Allemande et la République Démocratique Allemande célèbrent officiellement leur réunion en un seul État. Ce jour est depuis lors fête nationale en Allemagne.,,12302,00.html -- (last words auf Deutsch)

October 3, 1789: President George Washington names November 26 as a day of national thanksgiving for the ratification of the Constitution. On the same date in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln designates the last Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day. Credit for establishing Thanksgiving as a national holiday often is given to Sarah J. Hale, editor and founder of the Ladies' Magazine in Boston. Her editorials in the magazine and letters to President Lincoln urging the formal establishment of a national holiday of Thanksgiving resulted in Lincoln's proclamation, which made the last Thursday in November a National holiday. Please use the link to read more about Thanksgiving Day in the US.
October 3, 1790: Cherokee Chief John Ross was born in Turkey Town (near present-day Center, Alabama in today's Randolph County) in the Cherokee Nation (some sources say near Lookout Mountain, but then that hill is many miles long and both sources most likely describe the same place). Although his father was Scottish and his mother only part Cherokee, Ross was named Cooweescoowee, more properly Gu’wisguwi’. This is the Cherokee name both of the Chief John Ross and the district named in his honor. Commonly spelled Cooweescooweeit represents an onomatope for a large bird seen at infrequent intervals in the old Cherokee country, accompanying the migratory wild geese, and described as resembling a large snipe, with yellow legs and unwebbed feet. In boyhood, John Ross was known as Tsan’usdi (Little John), often seen as Tsan-Usdi in textbooks. from Robert F. Jarrett’s 1916 publication: Occoneechee, the Maid of the Mystic Lake.

Tsan’usdi generally was raised in the Cherokee tradition, but also he received an education at the hands of a tutor at home. He attended the Kingston Academy. As a young man, he chose to live in the Cherokee style, so in the early 1800s, he settled on the Tennessee River at the present-day site of Chattanooga, where he ran a ferry and warehouse. He was adjutant to Revolutionary War hero Colonel Gideon Morgan (also known as A’gansta’ta (Oconostota) out of respect) who led a regiment of the Cherokee in the War of 1812 against hostile Creeks (Such battles as Battles of Tallasehatche, Talladega, Auttose and Horseshoe Bend). Ross, after that conflict, became a wealthy planter and in 1827 moved to Georgia.

At the confluence of the Oostanaula and Etowah rivers, he founded the community known as Head of Coosa (because the Oostanaula and Etowah rivers converged here to form the Coosa) at the present-day site of Rome. After the Cherokees established their national capital at New Echota, Ross was elected as the principal chief of the Cherokee Nation. In this capacity, he contested Federal and Georgia efforts to remove the Cherokees from their lands in the East. Though voluntary emigration of a few Cherokees to the West had begun in early 1837, the great majority continued to resist removal. Forced migration began in June 1838, when three groups totaling almost 3,000 Cherokees left (ironically) Ross' Landing by boat on the Tennessee River.

The final portion of the forced migration began October 1, 1838 (guarded by troops under General Winfield Scott, who would become a hero in 1847 when troops under his command would occupy Vera Cruz and Mexico City during the American struggle with Mexico). Ross lost his first wife, Quatie, on the Trail Where They Cried, or as it is more commonly known the Trail of Tears. Ross died during a visit to Washington, D.C. on August 1, 1866. see also and please do not fail to check out, both of which provide more perspective of the times and the men of Morgan and Ross's army and their contemporaries.

Sequoyah, although lacking a formal education, endowed his nation, the Cherokees, with an eighty-six-character alphabet that allowed an entire people to become literate and record their history and culture in a way more lasting than the oral tradition. The only individual, working alone, ever to invent and perfect an entire syllabary, one successfully adopted by a whole society. Sequoyah invisible today. Few people know that the largest tree in North America bears his name (in various spellings). from

The Cherokee were not the only peoples to be forced out. Consider the life of a Creek Chief, William McIntosh, the son of Captain William McIntosh, a member of a prominent Savannah, Georgia Tory family. A cousin of Georgia Governor George M. Troup, Chief McIntosh gained the enmity of Alabama's Upper Creek Indians by leading General Andrew Jackson's Native troops during the Creek Indian War of 1813 - 1814, during which the Upper Creeks were defeated. For his services at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and elsewhere, he was commissioned a brigadier general in the United States Army. Yet, his fate was no better. More HERE -- More about his son Daniel is HERE. The McIntosh family was one of Georgia's founding Scottish families; not all family members were tories, and many suffered for their support of the American cause, from their neighbors and rogue elements in Florida.

October 3, 1833: The new railroad began, a route from from Charleston to Hamburg, South Carolina. Immediately, the 136-mile expanse through swamps and such became the longest rail-line in the world. Naturally, Georgians worried about progress, because Hamburg lay just across the Savannah River from Augusta (Richmond County). Should a railroad bridge be built to to connect Hamburg, some Georgia cotton planters might feel tempted to ship goods directly to Charleston, rather than use Augusta as the transshipment point for the Port of Savannah. Thus, Augusta officials refused to allow construction of a railroad bridge at Augusta. On October 4, 1925, the Savannah River Bridge opened, connecting Georgia and South Carolina for car and truck traffic. It has since been replaced several times, and duplicated by other road and rail crossings near that city. The dispute, however, rages on as South Carolina now disputes a project to improve the Savannah port facilities, because such improvements might decrease Charleston's income from its port. The more things change, the more they stay the same.

His Medal of Honor was awarded to him on November 19, 1897 with a citation that reads "At the risk of his own life, at Spotsylvania, 12 May 1864, assisted in carrying to a place of safety a wounded and helpless officer. On 2 April 1865, advanced with the pioneers, and, under heavy fire, assisted in removing 2 lines of chevaux-de-frise; was twice wounded but advanced to the third line, where he was again severely wounded, losing a leg."

From 1888 to 1890 he was employed at the United States arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts. In 1890, he moved to Boston, Massachusetts and was a night watchman at the Custom House Tower for sixteen years until the spring of 1906, when he was compelled by ill health to give up active life. During his employment at the Custom House Tower, he made his home in Charlestown, Massachusetts where he was well known and highly respected. Following the death of his wife on March 6, 1905, and his retirement from the custom house, he then moved to Somerville, Massachusetts in 1907, where he lived the rest of his life until his death in 1911. The final years of his life were spent as an invalid. He spent the final ten days of his life at home in critical condition before succumbing to the effects of a stroke on September 13, 1911. This heroic soldier, Charles H. Tracey, arrived in this world, as you may have by now guessed, on October 3, 1833.

1956 Topps October 3, 1951 -- Shot heard round the World: Bobby Thomson won the National League pennant for the New York Giants (Manager Leo Durocher's gang) by hitting a home run off of Ralph Branca of the Brooklyn Dodgers, in the bottom of the ninth inning, at the New York Polo Grounds and before 20,000 empty seats. The Giants beat the Brooklyn Dodgers 5-4. The 1951 World Series was the 10th and last for Yankee Joe DiMaggio. In fact, DiMaggio cracked his eighth and last Series home run in Game 4 and Game 6 marked the final major league game for the Yankee Clipper, who at age 36 was bound for retirement. Yes this was another subway series and those ... Yankees won. McDougald's jackpot wallop in Game 5 -- which broke a 1-1 tie -- was only the third Series grand slam (the others being struck by Cleveland's Elmer Smith in 1920 and the Yankees' Tony Lazzeri in 1936). Mr. Mantle would appear in 11 more World Series, and Mr. Mays would compete in the big event three more times. Today one thinks that DiMaggio would have been restored rather than retired at age 36. He was only married to Marilyn Monroe for nine turbulent months in 1954, but Joe DiMaggio, the reclusive US baseball legend, organized Monroe’s funeral and, for the next 20 years, had white roses delivered to her grave twice a week. He refused to talk publicly about what he thought happened, how her death was no accident or suicide, but vowed he would never forgive those who caused her death in 1962.

October 3, 1999: Playing at home, the Atlanta Braves beat the Florida Marlins by the score of 18-0 -- the largest shutout victory since the Boston Braves won 18-0 on Oct. 3, 1885. Playing the last game of the regular season, the Braves ended the season 103-59 -- the best record in the major leagues for 1999. On October 5, 2001, playing in Atlanta, the Atlanta Braves again defeat the Florida Marlins, this time by a score of 20-3. More importantly, the win gave the Braves their 10th consecutive division championship -- a record for professional sports in the U.S. A record that continued to grow until 2006, with additional wins in 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005. In 2013, Atlanta was in the playoffs once more as a Division leader, and met LA for the first game this night. Pittsburgh played St. Louis (Pirates vs Cards) in the first game of that series.
This day, October 4, 2014, Catholics and Anglicans alike will celebrate the Feast of Saint Francis of Assis and the Blessing of the Animals stemming from Francis' own love for all Earth's creatures. The current Pope chose his Papal name in honor of the Saint who heeded God's calling to rebuild His Church.
Yom Kippur is known as the "Day of Atonement." Many people of the Jewish faith in the United States spend the day fasting and praying. Its theme centers on atonement and repentance. Yom Kippur falls on the 10th day of the month of Tishrei (or Tishri) in the Jewish calendar, the last of the consecutive "High Holy Days," which began with Rosh Hashanah (a New Years Day that begins at sunset). Yom Kippur occurs on October 4th in 2014,

Lord, who schal not drede thee, and magnyfie thi name? for thou aloone art merciful; for alle folkis schulen come, and worschipe in thi siyt, for thi domes ben open. - Wycliffe Bible (Rev 15:4)

October 4, 1535: This is the date by which many report that the first English translation of the Bible was printed as authored by Miles Coverdale. Myles Coverdale and John Rogers were loyal assistants during the last six years of Tyndale's life (before he was martyred in 1535), and they carried forward his project (an English translation of the New Testament and parts of the old), ultimately resulting in the Great Bible of 1539. This release is the first publically authorized widely used version. Along the way John Rogers (1537) produced a work under the pseudonym Thomas Matthew The Matthew Bible was the combined work of these three individuals, working from numerous sources in at least five different languages (for example Luther's German version, Hebrew, Greek and Latin).'s_Bible There is however, much more to this story.
First, whether the “Coverdale Bible” or “Matthew Bible” holds the distinction of being the first complete English Bible to be printed or whether one or the other's use of texts were better, they both relied heavily on Tyndale. See; As it turns out, at almost the same time that the flames were consuming Church Reformer William Tyndale for the heresy of translating the Bible into English, Myles Coverdale and Thomas Matthew were publishing this first complete English Bibles. In 1535, Secretary of State, Cromwell, quietly wanted to prepare a new English translation for the King's new Church of England and chose Rogers for the job. Cranmer later hired Coverdale for the first authorized version. Rogers worked with Coverdale; Coverdale worked with Rogers. The final product was a combined effort, whose foundation was hewn by Tyndale.
This is the same Cromwell who had Henry's second consort, Sainte Anne Boleyn, beheaded based on perjured testimony -- and whose end would be the blade some years later. This was not Richard Cromwell, revolutionary, Lord Protector of England (1658-59), who was born October 4, 1626. This is the same Cranmer who later would be martyred. A man for all seasons, King Henry VIII, titular head of the Church in England, standing in the shoes of the fisherman, would never be able to politically sanction Tyndale’s New Testament for use in the English Church, because of this recent martyrdom (one would suppose he would have no moral qualms as King Henry VIII married Anne of Cleves, one of his many wives on October 4, 1539).
Yet, the Coverdale Bible, Matthew's Bible, Great Bible, Taverner's Bible, Geneva Bible and Bishops' Bible all had a common ancestor: the monumental work of William Tyndale that provided the English basis for all of these translations. Some relied more heavily on Tyndale than others did, but all used the work of this great pioneer of English translations. Eventhough the Authorised Version was to be a revision of the Bishops' Bible, the translators simply relied heavily upon the work of Tyndale because it was the best inspired work. From

Henry's grandson ordered the translation from ancient Greek and Hebrew into English, as the first authorised King James version of the whole Bible. King James I, was the son of Mary, Henry's first wife. As James VI he ruled an independent Scotland, while childless Queen Elizabeth, daughter of the executed Anne, reigned as English Queen. Then the Scotish and English thrones were united (1603) by agreement when Elizabeth named James the rightful successor to the English crown -- even though Elizabeth had beheaded Mary on February 8, 1578. See

For more about the effect of Henry and later monarchs on Church in England -- Ecclesia Anglicana -- please see the Anglican page at: All of this is every bit as complicated as the events we saw in an earlier time regarding the succession to the English Crown among Scandanavian, Anglo-saxon and Norman interests at about the time Cathedral at Westminster was being built.
Because of John Rogers' notoriety and his very public refusal to modify his Protestant beliefs, he was one of the first to be burned for heresy by Catholic Queen Mary (a different one), although in fact he supported her rule as the legitimate heir to the English throne. But the second part of this story does not end there, with his testing and martyrdom by a roasting fire.
The Reverend William Witherell disembarked from the Hercules almost exactly 100 years later. His achievement was another singular point in American history, the establishment of the “public school,” a cherished American “tradition.” Family tradition says that he descended from Cambridge educated John Rogers, the Smithfield Martyr. Perhaps then, it is only natural that Reverend Witherel was a visible element in the institution of public education, whose original aim as the enlightenment of the common man in the New World. And, perhaps as Providential, Rev. Witherell's son married in 1659 the granddaughter of the Elder Brewster, original signer of the Mayflower Compact on an icy November day upon the frigid seas off the rocky New England coast.
Compare and Contrast October 4ths in 1777 and 1795: In 1777, General George Washington's troops launched an assault on the British at Germantown, Pennsylvania, resulting in heavy American casualties. British General Sir William Howe repelled Washington's last attempt to retake Philadelphia, compelling Washington to spend the winter at Valley Forge. Congress had no money to equip and feed the Troops during the Winter. The likelihood of failure and execution for treason seemed high, the probability of success overwhelmingly small.

In 1795, General Napoléon Bonaparte led the rout of counter-revolutionaries, using cannons to mow down the opposing forces in the streets of Paris, beginning his rise to power. France was in the midst of economic disaster -- a factor that aided royalist counter-revolutionaries in their attempts to incite rebellion against the young republican government. Bonaparte, looking for a new command, while on half pay in Paris, joined the defense of the République against overwhelming odds.
October 4, 1957: The “Space Age” and space race began as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics launched its Sputnik (meaning traveler), the first artificial satellite. The device, built by Valentin Glushko, weighed 184 pounds and was launched from on top of a converted Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). Sputnik orbited the earth every 96 minutes at a maximum height of 584 miles, sending a strong signal audible on Shortwave Radio. The event was timed to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution. Early in 1958, it would reenter the earth's atmosphere and be consumed by fire. This success was followed by 9 other Sputnik-series spacecraft. Some have said that the US leadership was in panic, because the Soviet Union had demonstrated a rocket for a delivery of a nuclear device for which the USA had no fail-safe defense. see Indeed, US B-52 bombers in the Strategic Air Command had gone on 24-hour alert status, precisely because of the perceived threat of an attack from the Soviet Union on October first, just 3 days before. Explorer 1 was the first satellite launched by the United States. It headed for space on January 31, 1958, on the back of the American ICBM, the Jupiter C.

Some 36 years later, on October 4, 1993, in Moscow, the occupation of the Russian parliament building ended, as tanks and paratroopers flushed out hard-line opponents of Boris Yeltsin. Rebel parliamentarians led by Vice President Alexander Rutskoi and Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov surrendered after a 10 hour revolution. see Russian constitutional crisis of 1993 All the US Nation's attention focused on this spectacle, as the last elements of the Soviet collective surrendered to democracy, or at least that's what we were told. At the same time, we were blind to events of the same day in Somalia, when US troops blasted their way out of Bakara Market, leaving an estimated 500 Somali islamic militants dead. Dozens of cheering, dancing thugs dragged the body of an American soldier (one of 18 who died at the market) through the streets. President Clinton ordered 100 more American troops to Somalia, after the deaths of these Marines in Mogadishu; then, on the 7th, ordered all US troops to leave by the end of March (1994). He thereby solved the problem of terror during his watch that day, by turning a blind eye on it.

More of October is HERE.
Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
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We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from (original URL may have changed): -- -- -- -- -- -- --

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December

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Early GA Flag Gwenn Ha Du 
qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

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1945 EDT

The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at that moment.