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The  VANGUARD --   2015

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit."

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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

Tour de France -- 2012 -- A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- (Fall 2015)-NEW

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

This is none other than the dwelling place of God, and this is the gate of Heaven
This is the Gate of the Lord, the righteous shall enter into it

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

Olde Time Postcard

Olde Time half-dollar

October 8, 1895: The Liberty Bell arrived by train in Atlanta, Georgia. For the next three months its home would be the Pennsylvania Building at the Cotton States and International Exposition. The arrival of the Liberty Bell brought out the Exposition's largest crowd to date -- over 50,000, plus thousands more who lined the train route as it wound its way slowly into Atlanta and onto the grounds of the Exposition. Oddly enough, and keeping with the October theme, if you go to Piedmont Park today (on the site of the exposition) you'll find that the city has built a public-use baseball complex on the grounds in 2005, once hallowed by the Liberty Bell. The 1895 event should not be confused with the 1881 International Cotton Exposition at Atlanta's Oglethorpe Park.

October 8, 1942: Due to a shortage of nickel, the Wartime five-cent coin, made of copper-silver-manganese, was authorized (1942-45). The P Mint Mark, to denote the Philadelphia Mint, first appeared on a United States coin the new silver nickel. Until that date, coins from the main mint bore no mark of origin. The Denver and San Francisco marks were enlarged and moved for those years, as well. In 1946 the copper-nickel alloy was resumed and the P removed. As a side note, 1943 pennies at all mints were made from steel, while copper was in short supply.

  War-time Production set @ $1/0z

October 8, 1961: New York Yankees’ pitcher Whitey Ford set the World Series record for consecutive scoreless innings, while extending his streak to 32 in a 7-0 shutout of the Cincinnati Reds in Game 4. Ford added one more scoreless inning in the 1962 World Series to bring that consecutive scoreless inning total to 33. The previous record was 29-2/3 innings, held by a pitcher not himself unfamiliar with the skill of swatting the ball about the field and in the park, Babe Ruth.

In 1953, Ford’s career took a two-year hiatus when he was drafted for military duty to serve in the Korean War. When he returned in 1955, he was a model of consistency, posting large numbers of innings pitched and continuing to win a high percentage of his games. In 1961, Ford finished the season with a 25-4 mark, two World Series victories and the Cy Young award. A biography HERE

As Sunday became Monday, October 9, 2006 At about 10:30pm Eastern time in the USA on the 8th of October, Monday the 9th in Korea, the South Korean government reported that North Korea had just carried out its first nuclear weapons test. The US government could not or would not confirm the report at first, and United States Geological Services (USGS) seismic stations in the states could at first see no evidence of a blast (11:35pm it began to see something -- it takes time for seismic waves to travel). Australia confirmed the activity about 45 minutes later, but no official word from the USGS. Some say that the weapon, with the same 20-kiloton yield as the bomb dropped on Nagasaki, is about 10ft long and weighs four tons. It is too big to fit on to any missile Kim Jong Il's regime currently possesses, but if it were detonated above ground, it could destroy everything within five square miles. London Telegraph Report from earlier in the day. Since this report, some have suggested that the yield was smaller than expected, because the weapon was small-sized; suggesting that the North Koreans had developed a bomb which would fit atop a missile. In any event, North Korea has a large submarine fleet on which most any-sized device could be floated and delivered, undetected.

North Korea has claimed this test to be a happy event (10:36am local time), which will bring stability to the region. The Cable News Networks switched on to full coverage by 11pm, while the football game coverage on NBC continued unabated. CNN for instance bragged that only it had the broad international coverage to cover the event (11:42pm). Fox had a direct feed to Seoul at 11:45pm, and reported that China had received a 20 minute heads up before the blast. China immediately called the US and other interested parties, so the report goes. The South Korean seismic group confirmed seismic activity at 11:47pm, and the US Government announced it was seriously investigating the news. At the same time, an unnamed official was confirming the test, off-the-record. At 12:30am, the USGS confirmed seismic activity within North Korea at 10:35am local time. Of course all of this is silly' because the US has had its own monitoring system in Korea and elsewhere in the world, so it would know almost instantly that a test had taken place.

The map to the left shows the key players and the location of the test, near P'unggye-ri. Japan lies just out of sight to the southeast. The USA has stationed several tens of thousand troops in harm's way in South Korea, somewhere between 37,500 (2004) and 25,000 (2008 goal). Assuming no change in plans or all out war, by 2008 US bases would be reduced from 41 to 17.

Iranian state radio Monday blamed North Korea's reported nuclear test on U.S. pressure, accusing Washington of humiliating an impoverished communist country. Iran has said it will not abandon its own uranium enrichment despite the threat of international sanctions over its disputed nuclear program, which Tehran insists is purely for peaceful purposes (to be used for nuclear-generated electric power) in the oil-rich nation.

One may remember that October 8th was the ninth anniversary of Kim Jong Il's inauguration as the General Secretary of the Democratic Worker's Party of Korea (October 8, 1997), and the 61st anniversary of the party's start on October 10, 1945 was two days later (Worker's Party Foundation Day). As a retrospective, on October 10, 1951, Far East Air Forces (the allied forces against the North Korean aggression) marked a significant date for the Chinese, the anniversary of the overthrow of the Manchu Dynasty, by dropping special leaflets and making radio broadcasts aimed at Chinese Communist forces in Korea. Between October 6 and 15, 1952, Chinese ground forces attacked mainly in the western US IX Corps area northwest of Chorwon in what turned out to be a vain attempt to improve their position before the onset of winter. Chorwon wreckage today lies behind the North Korean border and is one of the places from which invasion tunnels have been found.

In 1994, North Korea and the Clinton Administration signed the Agreed Framework accord, a failed effort in diplomacy. Pyongyang vowed to freeze and dismantle its nuclear program in return for the construction of light-water nuclear reactors and the delivery of fuel oil while construction proceeded. Surprise, surprise, in October 2002, the Bush Administration revealed that Pyongyang had admitted running a secret uranium enrichment program in violation of the 1994 agreement.,21985,20549150-661,00.html -- a comprehensive timeline. North Korea in its Press Release, said it released no radiation; this would be one of the rare times it spoke the truth, were this statement true.

Since the test there has been stalemate, with North Korea announcing it might resume production of nuclear material in September 2008. Some thought progress had been made, to no avail it appears the efforts made. Also announced in late-September, Venezuela announced that it desired to construct a nuclear facility with help from Mr. Putin and his friends. And so it goes. There are now in 2012, two competing pipelines from sources of oil in the former Soviet Union. One goes through Iran, the other through nations friendly to the west (Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan). It appears that a "friendly" Iranian regime would help the two pipelines compete. Of course, western forces would be needed to help protect the pipelines against extremist attacks for the foreseeable future. All of this is way too complicated for mere mortals to understand; such matters must be under the control of the elites who have done so well up to this date.

Next to Roman Era GraveyardLe 9 octobre de l'an 43 avant JC: Un légat romain fonde officiellement la ville de Lugdunum (son nom la désigne comme la ville du dieu gaulois Lug). La cité se développe sur la colline de Fourvière, au-dessus du confluent du Rhône et de la Saône. Par la volonté des empereurs romains, elle ne tarde pas à devenir la capitale des trois Gaules. Rome conquered all of Gallia. Munatius Plancus, under Julius Cæsar, established the colonial city of Lugdunum (meaning "raven on a hill"), what is today Lyon, at the confluence of two Rivers (Rhône and Saône), on a hill that overlooked several pre-existing settlements of Gaulois. Some 1836 years later, la Révolution française would crush the rebellion of the citizens of Lyon against French tyranny (October 10, 1793). Sous le nom de Lyon, elle est aujourd'hui la deuxième métropole de France avec plus d'un million d'habitants.

October 9, 2006: Vatican officials unveiled an ancient Roman necropolis, accidentally discovered six years previous. The site contains forty burial structures and over two hundred tombs dating from the 1st century BC to the beginning of the 4th century AD. Workers came across the ancient burial site in 2000 while building an underground garage to house tourist buses for the Vatican Jubilee celebrations. Visitors to the necropolis, which is covered by a newly constructed building, can walk over it on steel catwalks which offer an excellent view of the ruins.;

Le 9 octobre -- Saint Denis et ses compagnons, fête des martyrs: Les Parisiens faisaient autrefois un pèlerinage à saint Denis qui fut leur premier évêque, à travers la ville. La première station était la crypte de Notre-Dame-des-Champs, ou l'on disait que saint Denis avait enseigné le culte de la Sainte Vierge . . . On visitait ensuite à Montmartre la chapelle du Martyrium, pour terminer par la station au tombeau de Saint-Denis. Les deux fidèles compagnons de ses travaux le deviennent aussi de ses tourments -- ces trois victimes consacrées à Dieu par un même martyre reçoivent la même couronne. Que la glorieuse mort de ces saint hommes nous remplisse de joie.

The Abbey of Saint-Denis was situated in a small town to which it has given its name, about four miles north of Paris. St-Denis (Dionysius), the first bishop of Paris and his companions martyred in 270, were buried there. The small chapel built over the spot became a famous place of pilgrimage during the fifth and sixth centuries. In 630 AD, King Dagobert founded the abbey for Benedictine monks, replacing the original chapel by a large basilica, of which little now remains.

Pepin and his son, along with Abbot Fulrad, were behind the construction of the third structure built on the site of the ancient Basilica. Yet, only Pepin and his Queen Bertha lie buried there. She died (783) at the monastery of Choisy and her body was transported to Saint-Denis to rest alongside Pepin. Charlemagne was buried in the Palace Chapel at Aix, eventhough he had expressed a wish be buried with his parents and his grandfather in Saint-Denis. Around 835AD, Emperor Louis the Pious noted that Pepin desired to be buried at the entrance of the Basilica (ante basilicae sacrorum martyrum limina). Suger repeated this story by explaining that Pepin was buried as he wished at "the threshold of the door, prostrate and not lying on his back, because of the sins of his father Charles Martel." The steps of the faithful entering the building and would trample on the royal tombs as a sign of the King's humility.

On June 11, 1141, the choir of the Basilica of Saint-Denis was consecrated in the presence of King Louis VII. Saint-Denis became one of the premier places to be buried, if you were a French ruler. During the French revolution, many of the bones of royals were removed and thrown on the ground to be trampled under foot. Later the remains were gathered up and reinterred in a common grave in the church crypt. Without the Romans, there would have been no language or nation français; and, without the French people and French kingdom, there would be no USA.

October 9, 1781: General George Washington commenced a bombardment of the encircled British forces under Lord Cornwallis' command at Yorktown, Virginia. For eight days the British endured the American's heavy bombardment. In the end, Cornwallis, because he depended on relief by sea, had no choice but to surrender his 7,000 troops on October 17, 1781. The French fleet, under Admral François de Grasse, had contributed by keeping the British relief armada at bay. On land General Rochambeau and his troops also were instrumental in the planning and execution of the plan to trap the English. Information about the Yorktown Monument to the French Participation in the War is here. Losses on both sides were light: British and Hessian -- 156 killed and 326 wounded; French -- 52 killed and 134 wounded; American -- 20 killed and 56 wounded.

October 9, 1867: On this day the Empire of the Russians formally transferred Alaska to the United States. The US Secretary of State, William H. Seward, had reached agreement with Russia's Baron Stoeckl to buy Alaska for $7.2 million in gold coin of the realm, the purchase derided as an enormous waste of cold cash. Tennessee born President Johnson, who took office after Lincoln's death, had a remarkable vision for the United States, despite the petty politics that poisoned the Potomac. Thank goodness that clearer heads prevail today in the leadership of Congress.
October 10 -- Saint Paulinus of York, born about 584; died at Rochester, England, 644: In 601, Saint Paulinus was sent as a missionary (along with Saints Mellitus and Justus) from Rome to England by Pope and Saint Gregory I. There he assisted Bishop and Saint Augustine through evangelizing Kent for 2 dozen years.

Justus consecrated him Bishop of York in 625, then he accompanied Saint Ethelburga, daughter of King Ethelbert of Kent, to Northumbria as her chaplain, when she married Edwin. Venerable Bede tells us that two years later (627) Paulinus baptized King and Saint Edwin on Easter Eve in York, bringing Christianity to Northumbria. A much less reliable source than Bede, the Welsh Nennius, ascribes Edwin's baptism to a Welsh priest; never-the-less, while in Northumbria, Paulinus and his assistants baptized thousands, who followed their king's example leading into Christian faith.

A church may have been on the site of the current All Saints Parish Church (Northallerton - the county town of North Yorkshire, England) since the 7th century, but there is no documentary reference to any structure before the Norman stonework of 1120AD. The first building is likely to have been of wood and is thought to have been founded by St Paulinus. It was replaced by a stone building in the 9th century. Fragments of this Saxon church have been unearthed at various times and are displayed inside the Parish church.

There has been a settlement at Northallerton since Roman times, however it became important in the 11th century when King William II gifted land there to the Bishop of Durham. Under the Bishop's authority Northallerton became an important center. Northallerton saw terrific conflict in subsequent years between the English and the Scots. The Battle of the Standard, fought nearby in 1138, saw losses of some 26,000 men, a huge number given the early 12 century population.

October 10, 732: At Tours, France, Charles Martel killed Abd el-Rahman. The Franks had halted the Muslim invasion of Europe through Spain. Several hundred more years of fighting would ensue. This Battle of Tours is also known as the Battle of Poitiers. see generally -- maps and such covering a number of invasions. The French view is HERE (remember October 25 new Calendar = 10th in the old style). It was not until January 1492 that Spain was able to remove the last Moorish influence from Granada, as Christopher Columbus' patrons, the sovereigns of Aragon, consolidated the power of the House of Castile.
October 10, 1813: Born today, Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (died 1901). He arrives at 8 o'clock in the evening at Le Roncole in the Duchy of Parma, then part of Napoléon's Kingdom of Italy. His first opera Oberto, Conte di San Bonifacio (1839) successfully was performed 14 times at the La Scala Theatre in Milano. His second opera a comic work (when his recent life had been a tragedy), could be said in contrast to have been a complete fiasco, closing the first night. A timeline of his life and work is HERE.

October 11, 1531: Huldrych Zwingli, famous Reformer and chief Protestant leader in Zürich, was killed in battle with the Roman Catholic forces in Switzerland. Reverend Zwingli was slain, together with 26 members of the Town council and 24 other protestant pastors (a total of 500 Protestants die), as well as, his eldest son. A treaty of peace leaves religious boundaries as they are, but prevents any further Protestant expansion in Switzerland. Zwingli's work is continued by Reverend Heinrich Bullinger at Grossmünster.

October 11, 1776: Dateline-Ticonderoga, New York (at Valcour Island off Crown Point). Irish born Governor General, Sir Guy Carleton (First Baron Dorchester (1722-1808)) inflicts heavy losses on Yankee General Benedict Arnold's squadron. This becomes the premier naval battle on Lake Champlain and a British victory. The battle, however, stalls Carleton's plans to invade the colonies from Canada, and ultimately the delay proves too costly for the campaign.

He arrived in New York City on May 6, 1782, succeeding Sir Henry Clinton as Commander-in-Chief, North America. In August, Carleton learned that Britain would grant the United States its independence. Carleton asked to be relieved from his command. With this news, there came an exodus of Loyalists from the Thirteen Colonies. In all, he helped resettled about 30,000 persons. On November 28, with the evacuation ended, Carleton returned to England. Remain on duty until every man, woman and child who wanted to leave the United States is safely moved to British soil. As quartermaster-general, he served under General James Wolfe at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759, a battle which helped secure North America for the British and was the beginning of the end of French dominance in the new world. Both the French and British commanding generals would die in the battle that day.

October 11, 1777: Casimir Pierre Périer was born this day at Grenoble in the Province of Dauphiné, the fourth son of a wealthy banker and manufacturer, Claude Périer (dit PERIER-MILORD 1742-1801), one of the first directors of the Bank of France. Of his eight sons, Augustin (1773-1833), Antoine Scipion (1776-1821), and Camille (1781-1844) all distinguished themselves in industry and in politics. The family survived the Terror of the French Revolution and migrated to Paris after the Revolution of Thermidor (1794). Casimir joined the army of Italy in 1798, his banking career took off three years later. He rose to political note after 1815, when France's economic problems threatened to overcome the country. In his final office as Prime Minister of France (and in his last year of life) he had begun to restore France to the power and prestige she had once known. Périer had undertaken the premiership with many forebodings, and overwork and anxiety prepared the way for disease. In the spring of 1832 during the cholera outbreak in Paris, he visited several hospitals and soon fell ill of a violent fever, dying six weeks later.

En 1837, un immense tombeau-mausolée fut construit pour Casimir Périer au cimetière du Père-Lachaise, au carrefour de l'avenue de la Chapelle et de l'avenue Casimir-Périer, grâce à une souscription publique et sur une concession accordée par la Ville de Paris. Il est surmonté de sa statue en pied et orné de trois bas-reliefs représentant l'Éloquence, la Justice et la Force, réalisé par le sculpteur Jean-Pierre Cortot. The four sculptural groups at the base of the Arc are The Triumph of 1810 (Jean-Pierre Cortot), Resistance and Peace (both by Antoine Etex) and the most renowned of them all, Departure of the Volunteers of '92 commonly called La Marseillaise (François Rude). The face of the allegorical representation of France calling forth her people on this last was used as the belt buckle for the seven-star rank of Marshal of France. La rue Casimir Périer à Paris (7e arrondissement) a reçu sa dénomination par ordonnance du 15 avril 1839. The Église Chrétienne Évangélique is found at 3 bis rue Casimir Périer, 38000, Grenoble.

Display at Night

October 11, 1779: Casimir Pulaski passed away this date after being mortally wounded in the siege of Savannah, Georgia (October 9th). He served with American forces during the American revolution. Casimir Pulaski fought to defend his native Poland from Imperial Prussian and Russian invaders. Benjamin Franklin lauded Pulaski as famous throughout Europe for his bravery and conduct in defense of the liberties of his country. Pulaski joined General George Washington's staff and immediately made important contributions. He led a critical counterattack at the Battle of Brandywine, earning him a commission as a Brigadier General. In May 1779, General Pulaski's new cavalry division successfully defended the city of Charleston, South Carolina. His contributions earned him the title Father of the American cavalry. For more information on Casimir Pulaski, click HERE.

On January 16, 1931, the U.S. Post Office Department issued this commemorative stamp, honoring this Polish patriot. The stamp was first released in Savannah, as well as in eleven American cities with large Polish populations. The stamp came out over a year after the sesquicentennial of his death; however, on the bicentennial of Pulaski's death in 1979, the Postal Service released a postal card showing him on horseback.

All told on the American side, the Siege of Savannah claimed the lives of 821 French and 312 American soldiers and sailors. Yes, French casualties were much greater than their allies. This was the first major action in which French forces directly assisted in a battle. In spite of the aid, the Americans could not overcome the strong British forces. The British took Savannah about 10 months earlier, aided by a local guide who helped them obtain the advantage of surprise. The Red Coats kept control of Savannah for three and a half years more. For those of you who have been to Savannah you may have seen the monument to the event atop the bluff overlooking the Riverwalk (where the anchors are at the far east end). A French ship bombarded the English vessels by shooting over Hutchinson Island. Today, the Marriott Beach Resort & Marina sits on about 200 acres of Hutchinson Island directly across the river from where the British fleet lay moored. see & an old link

October 11 1809: Along the Natchez Trace in Tennessee, explorer Meriwether Lewis died violently under mysterious circumstances at an inn called Grinder's Stand. History labels his sad passing as a suicide caused from melancholy (a condition of depression that haunted him throughout his short life). Conflicting evidence strongly suggests his death was murder (he was apparently one of those rare persons who received two mortal wounds by his own hands, having re-prepared a muzzle-loading weapon after the first fatal shot). Indeed, the only person to write about the death (and who said it was suicide) lied about his location at the time of death. He wrote Jefferson that he was present at the inn at the time of death, whereas court records show that he was over a 2 day ride away. In 2010, the Lewis family continued to pursue a temporary exhumation to put an end to the dispute using today's forensics. The Federal Government opposed the move; however, it will spend over $3 million in stimulus money to improve the site. For now at least, Lewis remains alongside the Natchez Trace Parkway at its intersection with Highway 20 (Summertown Hwy) near Hohenwald Tennessee.

Happy Birthday for those fortunate enough to be born on the eleventh, which is the 284th day of the year in 2013. On your birthday in 1910, Ex-president Theodore Roosevelt became the first U.S. President to fly in an airplane. He flew for four minutes with Arch Hoxsey in a plane built by the Wright Brothers at Kinloch Field (Lambert-St. Louis International Airport), St. Louis, Missouri. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev met in Reykjavík, Iceland on this day in 1986. Died on this date, James Earle Fraser, famous sculptor and the designer of the Buffalo Nickel, in 1953. Among his earliest works were sculptural pieces at the World's Columbian Exposition and, for the San Francisco Exposition of 1915, one of his most famous pieces, End of the Trail.

October 12th- Feast Day: Saint Wilfrid, mentioned in the Roman Martyrology {Martyr derives from a Greek word meaning witness}, was born in Northumbria and studied at Lindisfarne and Canterbury. Later he became Bishop of York. Saint Wilfrid (634-709) is one of England’s greatest, yet most controversial prelates. He directly influenced the move away from the Celtic to the Roman church practices. He acquired vast landholdings and established monasteries in Northumbria, Mercia, Sussex and the Isle of Wight. Yet he converted Sussex, the last stronghold of overt paganism, to Christianity. At the following link are a collection of articles mirroring a pilgrimage to Northumbria in search of Saint Wilfrid in October 1999, with follow up visits to York and Whitby in 2000 (and visits to Church Norton and Chichester in 2003). A monk of the monastery of Ripon, who had worked with Saint Wilfrid for forty years, wrote the first biography of the former Abbot and Bishop. The greater part of Wilfrid's relics were transferred to the Cathedral at Canterbury in the year 959, over 100 years before the beginning of the Norman conquest. Our page on Northumbria (with map) is HERE.

No comprehensive bibliography of publications about the Old English Martyrology has been published for over twenty years, but someone has made an annotated list at this stage, in electronic format for occasional updating. Although few modern scholars have concentrated on the Old English Martyrology in its entirety, more and more work is now being published on more distinct aspects of the text, such as its individual hagiographical traditions, the dating and sourcing of the text, its possible Alfredian background and its important role in earlier Anglo-Saxon hagiography. see also

Also known inverted 
1869 series

Also known inverted 
1869 series ColumbusOctober 12, 1492: The Columbus Navigation Homepage -- Examining the History, Navigation, and Landfall of Christopher Columbus:

Isabella & Columbus  $220,000 note from 1863
Isabella and Columbus

Lest we forget -- October 12, 2000: Seventeen US Sailors lost their lives (nice way of saying were murdered) by muslim terrorists in Yemen aboard DDG 67 (based in Norfolk) while it was at rest, being refueled in a safe harbor. Thirteen years have elapsed, many questions remain unanswered. Some would argue that the Clinton Administration's weak response encouraged further terrorist actions, although evidence suggests that 9-11 and the USS Cole attacks shared many of the same planners. Years later, the families of the dead soldiers still demand answers (and justice). They believe that most of the media purposely ignores this inconvenient day and that the government acts like it would rather have everyone forget this event. Kenneth Eugene Clodfelter, Richard Costelow, Lakeina Monique Francis, Timothy Lee Gauna, Cheron Luis Gunn, James Rodrick McDaniels, Mark Ian Nieto, Ronald Scott Owens, Lakiba Nicole Palmer, Joshua Langdon Parlett, Patrick Howard Roy, Kevin Shawn Rux, Ronchester Mananga Santiago, Timothy Lamont Saunders, Gary Graham Swenchonis Jr. Andrew Triplett, Craig Bryan Wibberley. Add to that name Petty Officer (3rd Class) Johann Gokool who died basically of his wounds at a much later date. see

October 13, 1792: The cornerstone of the executive mansion, later known as the White House, was laid during a ceremony in the District of Columbia. President John Adams and his wife Abigail moved into the unfinished structure on November 1, 1800, keeping to the scheduled relocation of the capital from Philadelphia. Congress selected a plan submitted by architect James Hoban for a Palladian-style building. Hoban based his design on the Leinster House in Dublin (1745-1751). James was born in County Kilkenny, Ireland in 1758, the son of Edward Hoban and Martha Bayne. In 1772, he went to Dublin and studied architecture under Thomas Ivory (of County Cork). He immigrated to the States after the War and set up shop.

It is perhaps a coincidence, but interesting none-the-less, that James Hoban, a Mason, chose the Leinster House, the birthplace of Irish Freemasonry, as the model for the USA's executive mansion. Another weird White House link with Freemasonry and the Knights Templar came on Saturday, October 13, 1792, when a group of Masons, Hoban among them, laid the cornerstone of the new structure. The cornerstone apparently was laid to commemorate a very special anniversary -- the original Friday the Thirteenth -- Friday, October 13, 1307, the day the Knights Templar were overthrown in France. -- But as we all now painfully know (see our October 5th entry), October 13th in the fourteenth century, was not the same as October 13th by the late eighteenth century. Because of Calendar changes, some days were dropped.

On October 13, 1903, Boston defeated the Pirates in baseball's first World Series. Could there be a connection with the Mason's? Well, the only thing we could find on quick research is that the Statue of Vulcan, a god of the underworld, and master craftsman in iron, was approved by the Commercial Club as the symbol for Birmingham, the Pittsburgh of the South.

Moreover, on October 13, 1960, the Pittsburgh Pirates won the World Series at Forbes Field with a 9th inning homer by Hall of Fame’r (2001), Bill Mazeroski. After game six of the World Series, the New York Yankees had scored 46 runs and the Pittsburgh Pirates (Buccaneers) only 17, yet the Bucs had the series tied going into game seven. The final day of play opened with a home run by an unsung hero, Glenn Richard Rocky Nelson. The game’s finale (the historic and game winning walk-off blast by Maz) gave the Buccos a world championship after a thirty-five year famine. An academic building at University of Pittsburgh, which by-the-way had a cornerstone, was later built on the site of Forbes Field. You can still see the plate through the floor, a clever cover-up, if ever there was one.... Bob Prince, we miss you -- We had ’em all the Way.

On October 13, 1913: As we all also are painfully aware, the 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was accepted as ratified and the modern US income tax came into being on October 13, 1913. The action lifted the prior constitutional ban on income taxes and gave the Federal Government an almost unlimited access to private wealth. In a recent fiscal year (ending September 30, 2007), the government collected $2.57 trillion in taxes, yet a Democrat Congress still overspent by about 7% (not counting off-budget items). And it wants more, well you know the rest of the story in 2008, 2009, 2010 as the spendthrifts went wild and the economy tanked.

Again on October 13, 1913, the National Council for Industrial Safety opened a three-room headquarters in Chicago. The original emphasis had been on all industries, but in that year, the Public Safety Commission of Chicago and Cook County reported that in July, twenty people had been killed by automobiles, eighteen of them children. This commission then launched an education program, with leaflets and slides, in the schools and parks. The new NCIS realized that the motor car would become the subject of its most intense studies. In 1914, the organization's name was changed to the National Safety Council, and the NSC began to compile statistics on automobile accidents. -- which all goes to suggest that the income tax could be unsafe at any speed.

October 14, 1066: English King Harold II (Godwinson) and his tired forces faced Duke William of Normandie and a fresh army near the town of Hastings. But the story begins somewhat earlier. In 911 the French Carolingian ruler Charles the Simple allowed a group of Vikings under their leader Rollo to settle in Normandy as part of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for the land, the Norsemen under Rollo were expected to provide protection along the coast against further Viking invaders. This re-settlement proved successful for France and Rollo's heirs. The Vikings in the region became known as the "Northmen" from which the words "Normandy" and "Normans" are derived. The Normans quickly adopted the indigenous culture, renouncing paganism and converting to Christianity. The language of this new home with some Norseman modifications became the common tongue in the region.

In 1002 King Æthelred II of England married Emma, the sister of Richard II, Duke of Normandy. Their son Edward the Confessor, who spent many years in exile in Normandy, succeeded to the English throne in 1042. This led to the establishment of a powerful Norman interest in English politics, as Edward drew heavily on his former hosts for support, bringing in Norman courtiers, soldiers, and clerics and appointing them to positions of power, particularly in the Church. Childless and embroiled in conflict with the formidable Godwin, Earl of Wessex, and his sons, Edward may also have encouraged Duke William of Normandy's ambitions for the English throne. Then, King Edward died at the beginning of 1066. The lack of a clear heir led to a disputed succession in which several contenders claimed the throne of England (cousins from Norway and Normandy).

Edward's immediate successor was the Earl of Wessex, Harold Godwinson, the richest and most powerful of the English (anglo-Saxon) ruling families. Harold was elected the English King by the Witenagemot of England (essentially a council of peers). William of Normandy in order to perfect his claim assembled a large invasion fleet and an army gathered from Normandy and from France, including large contingents from Brittany and Flanders. Adverse winds kept the invasion fleet in Normandy until late September They landed at Pevensey in Sussex on September 28th and erected a wooden castle at Hastings -- the rest is history, a well-known result, although the details of the battle are not.

William planned a three point attack plan that included the heavy use of archery, an attack by foot soldiers, followed by the charge by mounted knights at any weak point along the English defense. The bloody battle gave the name Senlac Hill to the site of the anglo-saxon defeat. The Normans won after Harold was killed by a fluke arrow through the eye. This victory placed William the Conqueror on the throne of England, changing the course of the world.

How many Presidents do you think descend from him ? Including the second President Bush, 23. Interestingly, the 2008 Republican candidate could also claim this heritage. The Democrat candidate (now President), interestingly, is the tenth cousin of the 2008 Republican VP candidate as well as Dick Cheney, the outgoing VP. In 2012, the Republican Presidential candidate has William the Conqueror as one of his 25th generation of grandfathers.

Just 833 years later on October 14th, a young reporter for the Morning Post, Winston Churchill, departed for the Boer War, which had begun just 3 days earlier in the Dutch Transvaal (South Africa). Shortly after his arrival, he was ambushed and taken prisoner in Pretoria. One would have to say that Churchill's escape from there changed the course of history. He lived to write about the first Norman King in Churchill's great history about the English people. Both of these men descend from Charlemagne. see generally

Precisely 13 years later, Theodore Roosevelt, former US President and the Bull Moose Party candidate for a third term, was shot at close range by anarchist William Schrenk, while greeting the public in front of the Hotel Gilpatrick in Milwaukee. He was saved by the papers in his breast pocket and still managed to give a 90 minute address in the city, but only after requesting his audience to remain quiet because “there is a bullet in my body.” Schrenk was captured and uttered the now famous words any man looking for a third term ought to be shot. Teddy appears on Mt. Rushmore in South Dakota, sans bullet. He descends from the Norman conqueror of England, too.

October 15, 1794: The first silver dollar coins were released into circulation. They were rare then and highly prized now, as is any 18th century US Coin in reasonable condition. Although it appears that 2000 dollars were authorized, only 1,758 coins were released with the '94 date, and another 242 were re-struck (apparently) with a 1795 over pressing (technically an over-strike). A single pair of dies accounts for all known examples of those marked 1794. All were produced in one day. Many examples show weight adjustments (file marks that look like parallel scratches) on one or both sides, where excess metal was removed from the planchet before striking.

A two-year type (1794-1795), the Flowing Hair dollar, along with the half-dollar of the same design, were the first silver coins to be minted in the United States. Although congressional authority was passed in 1792, mint production of silver and gold coins was delayed until October 15, 1794, due to the $10,000 bond required by both the Chief Coiner and Chief Assayer. Because ten thousand dollars was an unobtainable sum in 1792, the then Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, interceded on behalf of Mint Director Rittenhouse to reduce the bond. This roadblock took over a year to remove, resulting in the production of only copper coins in 1793. Interestingly, in 2011 an uncirculated example of the first US dollar (1794) sold for $1.5 million. It is estimated that only 150 examples of this date (in all conditions) remain, the rest having been lost or melted.

What else happened on this day in history ? Elizabeth Kortright (born: June 30, 1768) married James Monroe. Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, is found guilty on all counts by an all-male jury, which unanimously condemns her to death. The Republic executes her the next day. President George Washington and his army were encamped in western Pennsylvania, in an effort to enforce the Federal tax on whiskey. The use of federalized militia (the army) to enforce police powers and execute the laws also led to a long, robust debate. Almost a century after the Whiskey Rebellion, the principle decrying such action became National policy in the Posse Comitatus Act of 1878. Federal troops on patrol, returned to the streets of Pittsburgh in the Fall of 2009, brandishing sound weapons as well as guns. What would George say ?

October 15th -- Great moments in the Confederate Navy: In 1861, the schooner-rigged Scottish coastal steamer Fingal, chartered by James D. Bulloch for the Southern cause, ran into the Austrian brig Siccardi, which sank with her load of coal in England’s Holyhead Harbor. The survivor soon left, sailing for Savannah. The Fingal was later converted to an ironclad and renamed the Atlanta. The Union captured her in June 1863, then used the ship. With the war between the states at an end, the Atlanta was decommissioned at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in June 1865. After several years in ordinary, she was sold in May 1869. Some say she subsequently became the Haitian warship Triomphe, disappearing off Cape Hatteras in December 1869. She joined others in the Graveyard of the Atlantic.

On October 15, 1863, for the second time, the Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley sank during a practice dive in Charleston Harbor, SC, this time drowning its inventor along with seven crew members. On February 17, 1864, Confederate officer George Dixon used the submarine H.L. Hunley to sink the USS Housatonic in Charleston Harbor, SC. Five died on the Housatonic, as did the 9-man crew of the Hunley, because it soon sank. In 1995 the wreckage of the Hunley was found by Clive Cussler. On August 8, 2000, the H.L. Hunley was raised and returned to Charleston's shore. The Confederate crew's burial took place on April 17, 2004 -- In the late-summer, early-fall of 2007, The History Channel (USA) was running a feature on the Hunley -- (aired first: September 10th -- Digging for the Truth series). See also

October 15, 2010: Although the traditional memorial day is September 24th, our Anglican parish will celebrate the feast of Our Lady of Walsingham on this day (at noon). As you might expect, there is more from this celebration than meets the eye. Indeed, one can say it is a history lesson, that has its foundation nearly 1000 years ago in Walsingham. The title derives from the belief that Mary appeared in 3 visions to Richeldis de Faverches, a devout Saxon noblewoman, in 1061 in the village of Walsingham near Norfolk, England (East Anglia). In 5 years the Normans would invade England and most Saxon titles would be forfeit. She built a shrine to Mary that became a pilgrimage site. A priory arose under Geoffrey (her son), later becoming a Marian monastical community. The shrine mimicked the place in Nazereth where the Annunciation took place. Before its destruction in 1538, (during the reign of Henry VIII) the shrine had become one of the greatest religious places in England (and Europe), together with Glastonbury and Canterbury. For the English it became a preferred pilgrimage during medieval times, when due to wars and political upheaval, travel to Rome and the routes to Compostella (Spain and France) were difficult to accomplish.

The suppression of the monasteries was part of the English Reformation project. The buildings, looted and largely destroyed, became a waste, but the memory of the place proved more difficult to eradicate. During the last 100 years the heritage was restored. Today, both Roman Catholic and Anglican shrines in Walsingham exist, and the pilgrimage has grown in size over the years. There is frequently an ecumenical dimension to pilgrimages to Walsingham, with pilgrims arriving at the Slipper Chapel (Catholic Shrine) and then walking (tradition says barefoot) to the Holy House at the Anglican shrine. Our Lady of Walsingham is remembered by Roman Catholic Church in England in September and by those of the Anglican traditions on the 15th of October. Our Lady of Walsingham often is called the "The Virgin by the Sea." The medieval ballad told that she helps mariners in distress. The Anglican pilgrim hostel displays the name Stella Maris, or "Star of the Sea", one of Mary's more ancient titles. The feast of Our Lady of Walsingham was reinstated in 2000; a parish (near Houston) established under John Paul II is over 25 years old.
Oktober 16-Feiertag Saint Gall: Saint Gall was born in Ireland and was sent by his parents to be educated at the noted Irish Monastery of Bangor (County Down). He was ordained with the name Gall (possibly a Latin form of the gælic gall, meaning “foreigner” or estranger in modern French) St. Gall was chosen together with eleven other monks to accompany Saint Columban (not to be confused with Saint Columba or Columcille of Iona (a sacred Scotian Isle)) on a missionary venture into Gaul. Gall remained in the region of Swabia (Schwaben, Schwabenland). The Swabian region covered parts of modern Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, German-speaking Switzerland and parts of France along the upper reaches of the Rhine. A map of area is here. He learned the local Alemanni dialect and converted so many pagans he was known as the Apostle of [Lake] Constance. His home at that time is the place (St Gallen) captured before Zwingli lost his life defending Zürich Despite losing precious manuscripts during the Protestant Reformation, the Abbey of St. Gall is still one of the most important in Europe.

le 16 octobre 708: le mont Saint-Michel -- un évêque d'Avranches du nom d'Aubert dédicace un sanctuaire en l'honneur de l'archange Saint Michel. The beautiful structure upon the holy Mountain is begun.

October 16, 1555: - Bishops Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer, early English protestants (évêques converti) are burned alive by English Queen Mary I in her attempt to restore Catholicism to England, he one of the Oxford Martyrs -- we shall this day light such a candle, by God's Grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out. Memorial to the Martyrs -- and

Within a year or so of the publication of the 1552 edition of the Book of Common Prayer the unbridgeable gulf between these two sides would plunge England, and Cranmer personally, into turmoil and bloody strife as the Roman Catholic successor of Edward VI, his oldest half-sister Mary I (r. 1553-1558), sought to destroy the Evangelicals in England and Wales. Cranmer himself would give his life for being a “setter forth of Christ’s glory.” But like Cranmer’s fellow bishops, Hugh Latimer (c. 1485-1555) and Nicholas Ridley (c. 1500-1555), who were burned at the stake in October 1555, Cranmer, when he died a martyr in March 1556 — 450 years ago this month, lit a candle for the gospel in England that could not be easily put out. from EMINENT CHRISTIANS: 7 THOMAS CRANMER -- entry from March 29th

Up until the issuance of a common English-language prayerbook, the principle way in which the Church in England celebrated mass was with the Sarum Missal, a more complicated and more up and down service than we experience today. Taking its name from a place near Salisbury and its Cathedral (Salisbury being the New Sarum), it was performed in Latin. An English translation of just a small portion follows:

(The Celebrant says) Send forth thy Spirit (Response) And thou wilt renew the face of the earth. (Collect) — O God, to whom every heart is open and every desire known, and whom no secret escapes, purify by the infusion of the Holy Spirit the thoughts of our heart; that we may merit perfectly to love and worthily to praise thee: through Christ. (Then is said the antiphon) I will go to the altar of God, to God who makes glad my youth. Lord, have mercy. Christ, have mercy. ----- Let this new sacrifice be acceptable to the omnipotent God. ----- Pray, brothers and sisters, that my sacrifice and likewise yours may be acceptable to our Lord God.

The surname Latimer is derived from a corruption of latinier, meaning a speaker of Latin, or more generally, an interpreter, since the term Latin included all strange tongues at the time. The noble families of this surname are said to descend from Wrenock, the son of Meirric, who held certain lands on the Welsh border, under the Norman rulers, by the service of being latimer, or interpreter, between the Welsh and the English. The members of the Latimer family that found their way to New England in the 17th Century and later to middle-Tennessee and points west were at best indirect relations (there were no children in the following generation) of this Oxford scion of the faith (many were however the direct descendants of Rev. Brewster of Mayflower fame)? These American ancestors have been researched back to Robert LATIMER I, first of this family in this country. He came to America on the “Hopewell,” arriving in Boston on April 3, 1635. He moved to New London, Connecticut about 1660. In Boston, Robert met Ann, the widow of Matthew Jones and they were married on September 1, 1662 in Charleston, Massachusetts. from The Latimer family of Connecticut

October 16, 1909: The first see-saw World Series ended, after each team -- Pittsburgh Pirates vs. Detroit Tigers -- had won alternately until game seven. Pittsburgh pitcher Babe Adams came through with a 6-hit, 8-0 win over Detroit. It was his third complete-game victory and gave the Pirates their first world championship. Three years later, the Series had an eighth game, because the seventh ended in darkness and a tie, and did not count. In this do over between the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees, Boston won, 2-1, in ten innings. The once-lowly team called the New York Mets won its first World Series baseball championship on this date in 1969. Do you remember what baseball team the Mets beat ?

What uplifting events happened on October 16th during the Cold War ? In 1949 - The new East German Democratic Republic established formal diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. In 1952 - An estimated 10,000 Communist-led Viet Minh troops launched an offensive in northwestern Indochina, overrunning French Union forces in the Nghialo basin. In 1957 - U.S. State Secretary John Foster Dulles warned the Soviet Union that it could face massive retaliation in event of a Russian incursion into Turkey. In 1962 - The Cuban missile crisis began when U.S. President John F. Kennedy is informed by his aides that reconnaissance photographs reveal the presence of missile bases in Cuba. Kennedy traded the US missiles in Turkey for the Soviet ones 90 miles off the coast of Key West. In 1964 - China detonated its first nuclear weapon. from Interestingly, the Russian President (and ex-KGB agent) chose this day in 2007 to meet with his Iranian counterpart, the first meeting of the heads of these two countries since the middle of the Second World War. In 2009 Russia was selling anti-aircraft and missile defense weapons to the Iranians, so that they can perfect their atomic bomb-making capabilities without fear of Israel. In 2011, the US has armed Israel with many bunker buster bombs and the middle-east is more unstable. It is only a matter of time . . . . unfortunately.

October 16, 1978: The Roman Catholic College of Cardinals chose Polish Cardinal Karol Wojtyla to be the next Pope. Taking the name John Paul II, he became the first non-Italian top-leader in 456 years (his formal ordination ceremony occurred on October 22nd). The Cardinals would meet again in April 2005, picking a German Cardinal as John Paul's successor, a Pope named Benedict (XVI). The first German Pope, Boniface II, died on October 17, 532AD.

Announced October 16, 2006: Element number 118 has appeared again, however briefly. Several years ago the same news was claimed, but it turned out that the discovery was not reproducible. This time is different, so the claim goes. Temporarily named in Latin for its place in the Periodic Table of Elements, ununoctium would appear underneath radon, which is a radioactive gas that decays rather rapidly. Eka-radon {beneath radon} does not linger long enough to be analyzed directly with much specificity. There is a theory that at some point a plateau of stability may exist, but element 118 does not lie on that plane. These types of new elements are created by an atom-smashing machine, which essentially shoots the nuclei of one element into another. A discovery is made by examining the resulting mess of decay products and hypothesizing a parent atom that existed upon the moment of impact. Washington Post The evidence for ununoctium comes from specific isotopes of elements 116, 114 and 112, thought to be created as element 118 decays. from

Radon (isotope 222 is one of its common forms) is an intermediate decay product of uranium (isotope 238) on the way to turning into stable lead (isotope 206). While uranium238 has a half-life of 4.5 billion years, radon222's half-life is 3.8 days. The new element 118 lasts less than a millisecond. Its immediate decay products would also be somewhat short-lived. A paper recently published (April 5, 2010) in Physical Review Letters by Yu. Ts. Oganessian (and other)s claims the synthesis of the element with atomic number 117.

Note Flag in this Picture: The 13 stars are arranged in a square not a circle

October 17, 1777: General Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne, together with British forces of 5,000 men, surrendered to General Horatio Gates, commander of the American forces at Schuylerville, NY. In the fall of 1777, the British commander General. Burgoyne and his men were advancing along the Hudson River. After Burgoyne had retreated to the heights of Saratoga, the Americans stopped and surrounded them. The surrender was a turning point in the American Revolution, demonstrating American determination to gain independence. After the surrender, France came to the aid of the Americans, and other European powers began to get involved and to align themselves against Britain.

Burgoyne returned to an unforgiving England where he was stripped of his regiment and lost a governorship he had held. In 1782, when his political cronies took office, rank was restored. He was named commander-in-chief in Ireland and appointed to the privy council. A year later, after the fall of the Rockingham government, Burgoyne's fortunes reversed and he retired into seclusion.

October 17, 1971 -- Another seven game classic: Roberto Clemente’s bat, Steve Blass’ pitching and the leadership of Willie Stargell transformed the Pittsburgh Pirates into World Series winners. After losing the first two games, the Bucs came back to win three consecutive contests (and finally a fourth) for the championship. Steve Blass hurled a four-hitter and Roberto Clemente homered, as the Pirates won the last game, 2-1. The Pirates had a repeat performance on this day in 1979. After being down three games to one, Willie (by then ‘Pops’) Stargell’s third World Series home run gave the Pirate team its third straight win, 4-1, and another world championship. Stargell was Series MVP. Ten years later, during the third game of a series (played in San Francisco), the earth shook, bridges collapsed, fires roared out of control and the televised event was postponed in a shaken Candlestick Park. (no word on whether or not Othello opened later in the week as had been scheduled)

October 17, 1991: John Smoltz pitched the Atlanta Braves to a 4-0 win over the Pittsburgh Pirates to win the National League Championship Series, and to put the team in its first World Series since 1958. Since that date Mr. Smoltz (before his retirement) has won the Cy Young Award, has been a successful closer and returned to the role of a successful starting pitcher. The Atlanta Braves through 2005 continued to win. For instance on October 19, 1999, in the 11th inning at Turner Stadium, the Atlanta Braves beat the New York Mets 10-9 to win the National League championship and advance to the World Series against the New York Yankees. On October 20, 1996, playing in New York, the Atlanta Braves embarrassed the Yankees in the opening game of the World Series with a 12-1 win. In his first at-bat, 19-year-old Andruw Rudolf Jones hit a home run to become the youngest player to homer in the history of the World Series. During his second at-bat, Jones hit another home run to become only the second player in history (at the time) to hit back-to-back home runs in his first appearance in the World Series. Who was the first ?

In 2010, the Braves did not prevail in the first set of playoffs, which saw Bobby Cox retire, with over 50 years of baseball service. They were also given the boot in 2013. The Pirates also lost a 5-game playoff series in 2013, but it was the first time that they had been in the playoff since 1992 and the infamous Sid Bream Curse.

Le 18 octobre -- c'est sa fête Luc: Médecin d'Antioche converti par saint Paul, Luc est l'auteur du troisième Évangile et des Actes des Apôtres. Ses écrits parurent dans les années 60. Ils mettent en valeur la bonté et la miséricorde, par exemple dans la parabole du bon Samaritain. Ils insistent sur l'avènement prochain du Royaume de Dieu (la fin du monde et le Jugement dernier). Luc est le seul évangéliste qui apporte des précisions sur l'enfance de Jésus, ce qui donne à penser qu'il côtoya Marie, la mère du Christ, dans sa vieillesse. La légende prétend même qu'il aurait fait son portrait. Luc est le saint patron des peintres et des médecins. Il est représenté dans l'iconographie chrétienne par un taureau.

The Emperor Constantius, the son of Emperor and Saint Constantine the Great, sent Saint Artemius (October 20) to Thebes to bring the relics of the Apostle Luke to Constantinople, where they were placed under the altar of the Church of the Holy Apostles, with the relics of the Apostles Andrew and Timothy. Most of the relics, jewels and decorations were carried off by Roman Christians at the beginning of the 13th century. Everything else was destroyed by muslim invaders some 50 years later. According to the historian Michael Kritoboulos (Kritovoulos by some -- others Critobulus), the dervishes smashed it up for 14 hours with clubs and steel rods. Today a mosque rests on the site of the second most-holy place in Constantinople (Istanbul).

October 18, 1685: French King Louis XIV (the Sun King) issues the Edict of Fontainebleau, which revokes the Edict of Nantes and once again forbids Huguenots (French Protestants) from worshipping. The abuses of Louis would come back with disastrous consequences, his grandson would be beheaded and on a bright sunny day in October (16th), during the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette was beheaded 10 month's after her husband's death. Louis' revocation came precisely 63 years after French King Louis XIII and the Huguenots signed the Treaty of Montpellier. see also

We forbid our subjects of the {Protestant faith} to meet any more for the exercise of the said religion in any place or private house, under any pretext whatever, . . . . [Paragraph II]

We repeat our most express prohibition to all our subjects of the said {Protestants}, together with their wives and children, against leaving our kingdom, lands, and territories subject to us, or transporting their goods and effects therefrom under penalty, as respects the men, of being sent to the galleys, and as respects the women, of imprisonment and confiscation. [Paragraph X]

Huguenots immigrants began arriving in South Carolina in 1669. In 1699/1700 there were five embarkations from England to Virginia and the Carolinas. The names of some of the ships that carried Huguenot refugees were the Nassau, Peter and Anthony and Mary Ann, which was the first vessel to reach Virginia (at the mouth of the James River). About five hundred Huguenots settled in the Carolinas by 1700.

Many of the Huguenots were artisans, following the trades in the New World learned in the Old; blacksmiths, coopers, clockmakers and gunsmiths. Many were newly married, a younger generation seems more willing to undertake the long, dangerous ocean passage. The French-speaking settlers quickly moved into the political life of the English colony; but, also quickly organized and built their own church in Charlestown, which still exists today. [Source: A Religious History of America, Gaustad, Edwin Scott - Harper - San Francisco (1990)]

Nox Oculis (Voici la mort du ciel ...)

La lune perd l'argent de son teint clair et blanc,
La lune tourne en haut son visage de sang;
Toute étoile se meurt: les prophètes fidèles
Du destin vont souffrir éclipses éternelles.

Tout se cache de peur: le feu s'enfuit dans l'air,
L'air en l'eau, l'eau en terre; au funèbre mêler
Tout beau perd sa couleur.
The moon loses its clear, silver-white complexion,
The moon becomes a face of blood;
Every star is dying: the faithful prophets
Their destiny to suffer eternal eclipse.

All hide from fear: the fire flees from sight,
The wind with the water, the water with the ground; this dismal funeral
All beauty loses its color.

(Théodore) Agrippa d'Aubigné (1552-1630) -- -- --

Want to know the context, see a better, more full translation ??? Go HERE -- its the end of the world as we know it. Remember, Earth, Fire, Wind and Water are the basic elements of the universe.

October 18, 1735: Some 135 Scottish settlers (Highlanders) sailed from Inverness, Scotland aboard the Prince of Wales bound for the proprietary colony in Georgia. They disbarked on the northern bank of the Altamaha River, where they founded New Inverness, later named Darien (the name which they desired). The hardships of which they endured included Spanish inspired native American raids just a few years later. More is HERE.

October 18, 1842 -- Only in America: This also could be subtitled Great Moments in the US Navy, too. Some would say he was a man with vision, ahead of his times. When US Commodore Thomas Catesby Jones sailed into Monterey Bay this day, he took the Mexican capital of California, on the mistaken belief that the US and Mexico had gone to war. Upon learning of his mistake, he apologized and left. True to form on October 18, 1898, the American flag was raised in Puerto Rico, shortly before Spain formally relinquished control of the island. History records no formal apology.

October 18, 1944: Soviet troops invaded Czechoslovakia during World War II (October 18th) and stayed for about 45 years. The Soviets stayed in Germany proper for about the same time. On October 18, 1989, in East Germany after 18 years in power, Erich Honecker resigned from his offices as head of state and party leader. Honecker was followed by Egon Krenz, but he didn't stay too long. East German Communist leader Egon Krenz, the ruling Politburo and the party's Central Committee resigned on December 3rd. Hard times had fallen on east-European communist leaders. The Soviets left soon thereafter. Some think that the Russians look to return.

October 18, 1961 -- Only in America (part deux): "Le Bateau" by an obscure painter named Henrí Matisse, went on display in the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. The painting attracted large numbers (over 100,000) of viewers. For 47 days, nobody realized that "Le Bateau" was hanging upside down. It is reported that an art student finally noticed the error. It is reported that the story is untrue. From a supposed e-mail from the Musée d'art Moderne a contradiction of that report:

From Web Archive dot org so that sometimes it is not visible and cannot be found

Toward the close of the 1961 exhibition "The Last Works of Henri Matisse," a French-born stockbroker and Matisse fan named Genevieve Habert questioned the hanging of a 1952 gouache "Le Bateau" (The Sailboat). The work depicts a sailboat and its reflection. Habert felt that the artist "would never put the main, more complex motif on the bottom and the lesser motif on the top."

Habert brought this to the attention of Museum staff on a Sunday, December 4th. On Monday, Monroe Wheeler (Director, Exhibitions and Publications) agreed and the work was re-hung within two hours.

Habert had attended the show three times. The show opened 47 days prior, on October 18th. An estimated 116,000 people had attended by that point. "Le Bateau" hung in a corner of the Museum's ground floor, the next-to-the last work before entering the public cafeteria.

Upside Down Version

October 19th commemorates the end of one war and the start of another. In 202BC the 30 year's of the Punic Wars came to an end (Carthage, Hannibal and Rome's struggles cease with the Battle of Zama). Some 1500 years later (1337), Edward III, King of all England will begin the 100 Years War with France because Philippe VI annexed some land in southern France (in Gascon called Guiana), which they both claimed. Technically: En l’abbaye de Westminster, le roi d'Angleterre, Édouard III, revendique publiquement le trône de France occupé par son cousin, Philippe VI. Édouard III, fils d'Isabelle (la fille du dernier roi de France Philippe le Bel), se déclare héritier légitime du trône de France. It turned, I believe, on a conflict of laws issue, Salic Law or Norman. By the treaty of Brétigny (8 May 1360), Aquitaine was given to the English, who called it La Guyenne and created a principality there in 1362. But the war would continue another 9 decades.

Then the English were defeated at Castillon in 1453 in Guyenne [Castillon-la-Bataille, Gascony]. While the war was effectively over, no one realized it at the time. Following Henry VI's episode of insanity in 1453 and the subsequent outbreak of the Wars of the Roses, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their claim to the French throne and lost all their land on the continent (except for Calais). No formal treaty was ever signed to end the conflict that had cost so many lives.

Coincidentally, the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire completed a siege of Constantinople in 1453, with a victory for the Islamic forces that ended the Roman Empire of the East. En le 19 Octobre 1768, la Turquie (Ottoman Empire) déclare la guerre à la Russie pour défendre les libertés polonaises. The beginning of the end: le 19 Octobre 1812, Napoléon Ier commence à évacuer Moscou, et l'armée américaine débarque aux Philippines, qui est occupée par les Japonais en le 19 Octobre 1944.

Interestingly, today is the feast day in at least the Catholic Church of the Old Testament prophet Joël, where his name appears once in the text. In The Acts of the Apostles {written by Luke whose feast day is the 18th of October} Peter states (v2:16 and following) that we had begun to witness on the first day of Pentecost what had been spoken of by this prophet. ... I will pour out My Spirit on all mankind; And your sons and daughters will prophesy, Your old men will dream dreams, Your young men will see visions [Joel 2:28]. And from Zechariah v12:10 "I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn." The promise is not restricted to the first Pentecost. This appears from Peter's own nearby words: "The promise is (not only) unto you and to your children, (but also) to all that are afar off (both in space and in time), even as many as the Lord our God shall call" (Acts 2:39). So here all means upon all flesh.

October 19, 1781 -- Dateline-YORKTOWN, VIRGINIA: In a stunning reversal of fortune that may signal the end of fighting in the American colonies, Charles Lord Cornwallis today signed orders surrendering his British Army to a combined French and American force outside the Virginia tobacco port of Yorktown. Cornwallis' second-in-command, Charles O'Hara, attempted to deliver Cornwallis' sword to French general, Count Rochambeau. But Major General Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, Comte de Rochambeau, directed M. O'Hara to the American field commander and Commander-in-Chief, General George Washington, who (in turn) coolly steered Britian's man to Washington's own second in command, Major General Benjamin Lincoln. from

Note the flag in the picture painted by Trumbull; the 13th star is in the middle, and differs from the flag shown in his picture about Saratoga. See links starting from HERE -- Many more paintings of the battle:

Painted after-the-fact

October 20, 751: Pepin the Short, son of Frankish hero Charles Martel (you may remember that Martel defeated the muslim Saracens at Tours in October of 732) and father of Charlemagne, deposes the last of the Merovingian kings and becomes the first king of the Carolingian dynasty. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II, who later asked for his help when threatened by Lombards of northern Italy. Pepin defeated the Lombards, then ceded the territory he captured back to his Pope, laying the foundation for the Catholic holdings, today called the Papal States. Interestingly, Charlemagne made his capital in Aachen, and on this date in 1944, the US First Army took the German city of Aachen, taking 10,000 enemy prisoners.

October 20, 1774: The Articles of Association are adopted by the delegates of the several colonies of New-Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode-Island, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, the three lower counties of Newcastle, Kent and Sussex on Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, and South-Carolina, deputed to represent them in a Continental Congress The blockade of Boston Harbor was one of the grievous acts for which the articles were drawn. This is also the date in 1803 when the Congress ratifies a treaty initiated by President Thomas Jefferson to purchase a wee bit o` France, the Louisiana Territory.
October 21 -- Feast Day of Sainte Cordula: Little is known of young Cordula, a very early Christian in Köln (Cologne). She is said to have been a member of the group following of Sainte Ursula. Sainte Cordula is believed to have been martyred by the invading Huns. The Huns brutally murdered Ursula, the daughter of a British king, King Dionotus of Cornwall, along with eleven thousand others (from Britain?) in Cologne. Cordula's relics originally were in a shrine in the Johanniterkirche in that ancient city. Saint Albertus Magnus spoke of her as a Sainte in 1278. This designation, recorded by Albert Magnus, precedes the practice of canonization by the Pope. Today there is a shrine im Domschatz von Osnabrück (circa 1447). Other relics are at churches in the towns of Königswinter und Rimini.

Kölner Dom

The authenticity of this text is accepted beyond the shadow of a doubt by the most eminent epigraphists . . . It belongs indisputably to the fifth century at the latest, and very probably to the fourth. This brief text is very important, for it testifies to the existence of a previous basilica, dating perhaps from the beginning of the fourth century, if not from the pre-Constantinian period. The church devoted to Ste. Cordula in the village Schoten near Antwerp in Belgium is being restored, Pictures HERE. Interestingly, a Protestant German theologian, Paul Tillich, died (1965) on Ste. Ursula's Feast Day in Chicago. Tillich sought to integrate traditional Christianity and modern life. He was an early opponent to the Nazis. He also was the first non-Jewish person to be barred from academic appointments in Germany. He immigrated to the United States and taught in New York and later at the University of Chicago.

October 21, 1797: The 44-gun 204-foot U.S. Navy frigate USS Constitution, also known as Old Ironsides, was launched in Boston's harbor. The Constitution was never defeated in 42 battles. A new crew of 216 set sail in 1997 during the vessel's 200th birthday. The USS Constitution in 2015 is now the only ship in the U.S. Navy to sink an enemy vessel in action. The USS Simpson, the only other ship to share that title, was decommissioned recently after 30 years of service.

The planks for the Constitution's hull come from a species of live oaks that grew along the Georgia Coast in the 18th Century. Overlooking the Frederica River, on Saint Simons Island, Gascoigne Bluff was a favorite Native American campground. During the American colonial era, the landing at the bluff became Georgia's first naval base and bears the name of the man, Gascoigne, who first surveyed the local coast for England. When the Spanish fleet sailed up from the settlement of St. Augustine to attack Oglethorpe's settlement at Fort Frederica, they landed first at Gascoigne.

When the Spanish first arrived on St. Simons in the 1500s, they found a Mocama Native village named Guadalquini, the original name of St. Simons Island, on its south end near today's lighthouse, also located near Gascoigne Bluff. There, the Spanish established a mission called San Buenaventura de Guadalquini, which operated from 1605–1684. At the northern end of the island near Cannon's Point from 1661–1684 was the Spanish mission Santo Domingo de Asao/Talaje, which had been relocated from Darien. The island gets its name from a short-lived Yamassee Indian village known as San Simon, which was established near Fort Frederica by refugees during the late 1660s to 1684. English settlers anglicized the name to St. Simons.

A native uprising resulted in the deaths of five Franciscan missionaries, known by the name Georgia Martyrs. A relief of the martyrs hangs in the Catholic church dedicated to Saint William (2300 Frederica Road) which may be found on St. Simons Island near Bloody Marsh (no connection). One priest, Father Veráscola, was executed on the Island. Only the missionaries at San Pedro, thanks to a barking dog and the arrival of a Spanish ship, did not experience the gruesome and nightmarish fates of their fellow Franciscans. Interest in the five Georgia martyrs stirred in the 1970's, when the memory of them rose wraith-like following an archaeological excavation that unearthed remains of Santa Catalina Mission on Saint Catherines Island. Directed by Dr. David Hurst Thomas the dig yielded medals, rosaries, crosses and other artifacts. The archaeologists discovered a large cemetery beneath the floor of the former mission chapel. from

Saint William of Montevergine or William of Vercelli (Italian: Guglielmo) (Latin: Gulielmus) (1085 – 25 June 1142) was a Christian hermit and the founder of the congregation of Montevergine, or the Williamites. Roger I of Sicily took him under his patronage, and the saint founded many monasteries, both of men and of women, in that kingdom. There are several other Saints of the name William. The one on St. Simons is dedicated to William (Guillaume de Dangeon) born in Nevers, France in the mid-12th century. Educated by his uncle Peter, Archdeacon of Soissons, he eventually became the Archbishop of Bourges, dying in 1209AD. “William rejected the vanities of the world and devoted himself to exercises of piety and the acquisition of knowledge.”

Known as Avaricum, Bourges was the Roman capital of Aquitania of the celtic Bituriges, north of the Garonne River. The Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Bourges (dedicated 13th century soon after his death), one of the glories of French design, un chef d'oeuvre gothique, is remarkable in that it has no transept. Would it not have been one of St. William's chief projects (Henri de Sully the former archevêque began the new structure) ? The Romanesque carved portals from about 1160-70, probably part of the façade of an earlier cathedral on the site, have been reused on the south and north doors. The interior Cathedral fell victim to Huguenot destruction in 1562, as both sides of the war of religion went mad.

October 21, 1908: A Saturday Evening Post advertisement for the first time extolled the virtue of a two-sided analog information storage device. It was a Columbia Records project, a giant black CD if you will. From there it is no small step to the modern musical storage and delivery devices of today: See you on the flip-side.

October 22nd-Inauguration Day: In 1836 Sam Houston, onetime military leader, became the very first President of the nation called the Republic of Texas. He would live to see Texas enter the Union of the United States. He would live to see the time when Texas tried to leave the Union. Also installed on this date in 1978, is a Polish-born Cardinal, who would honor his predecessor by taking on the title of Pope (Bishop of Rome) and name John Paul II. He like Sam Houston would change history through profound personal leadership skills. October 22nd has become the feast day for the late head of the Roman Catholic Church. In addition, the Church Universal is marking the first liturgical feast day of Saint John Paul II, Tuesday October 22, 2014.

On this date in 1957, history records that the US received its first official casualties in Vietnam. These would not be the last in a conflict that took lives for over 15 more years. During the interim period (October 22, 1962), US President John F. Kennedy, after counsel from the former President, Dwight D. Eisenhower, announced that American reconnaissance planes had discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba. He ordered a naval quarantine of the Communist nation. A half century later, the Cuban people still look to the Castro family for leadership, while Kennedy died in Dallas Texas about a year later. Ten years after (October 22, 1972), in Saigon, Henry Kissinger and South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu meet to discuss a proposed cease-fire that had been worked out between Americans and North Vietnamese in Paris. The Christmas bombing campaign was not far away.

And if you are Canadienne, also on this day in 1692 at Verchères Québec, Madeleine Jarret de Verchères (1678-1747) began an heroic stand. She gathered about 20 local habitant farmers into her family's fortified home, Fort Dangerous. As an Iroquois attack begins, she fires cannon to warn other families. Her father François, a militia colonel is away in Montreal. The 14 year old will defend the fort against an Iroquois siege for the next 8 days, with only 2 militia and her young brother under her command. This takes place within the Jarret seigneury about 32 km east of Montreal on the St. Lawrence River opposite Repentigny. One might call her the Jeanne d'Arc of Québec, except she was not martyred by the English.
October 22, 1956: Hungarian students planned a solidarity demonstration, which would begin an unsuccessful attempt to regain freedom from a Soviet dominated government and Europe. Two days earlier the Polish government (Gomulka) had revolted (although it would later return to the fold). The efforts in Hungary would fail. No one would come to their aid against the the Russian Soviet tanks of November 4th. Other events overshadowed the world stage. No it wasn't the olympics.

At the same time (October 22nd), the English and French were meeting at a Château in Sévres (Marquise de Pompadour) near Paris, to plan to regain the Suez Canal. Egypt had nationalized the resource. Interestingly, on this date the French hijacked a plane in order to capture the Invisible One, a socialist Algerian Revolutionary, while Jordan held elections, where candidates supporting Egypt took power. President Eisenhower did not however, lend support to the invasion of Egypt, possibly fearing Egypt would fall into the Soviet sphere of influence. The Suez Crisis ended quickly with all sides agreeing to a cease-fire on November 6, 1956, at the behest of the US and the UN. By coincidence, Konrad Adenauer, Germany's chancellor, stayed in Paris on November 6 1956, while negotiating the Treaty of Rome, which would create the common market and eventually the EU. A chastened British minister, Anthony Eden, rang to tell his opposite number, Guy Mollet, that he had caved to US pressure and agreed to a ceasefire. Now is the time to build Europe, Adenauer said to console him. In this pivotal moment, Nassar became a martyr (though he didn't die). Incidently, on this date in 1962, France released its Algerian Prisoner and lost its hold on this nation of Moslem faith.,,1819115,00.html

Five years earlier in 1951, Iran and Great Britain severed diplomatic relations after the nationalization of British oil interests without compensation. Speaking of Iran, the Shah came to NYC on this date in 1979 to receive vital cancer treatments. He would soon die of his disease and the United States would have itself a hostage crisis, the effects from which we still suffer. For example on October 23, 1983, the Beruit Bombing killed 299 US and French servicemen while on a "Peacekeeping" mission.

October 23, 1794 (an American saint): Physician Richard Banks was born in Elbert County, Georgia. One of thirteen children, Banks was the only one to attend college. After attending both the University of Georgia (for one year) and the University of Pennsylvania, he received his M.D. degree. Only practicing in Philadelphia for a year, he returned to rural northwest Georgia and set up shop not far from his original home. He was skilled and popular. Eventually, he moved to larger offices on Gainesville, Georgia. Despite having limited medical facilities, Banks performed numerous successful surgeries, some which had never been done before (like removing a parotid gland). Even though he was among the most talented physicians of his day, Banks never sought publicity or fame for his work, preferring to quietly help his neighbors and friends. After thirty-five years of such dedicated service, Banks died in Gainesville on May 6, 1856.

Fame of a type was to be his, however, in death. The Georgia General Assembly named a new county in his honor on December 11, 1858. Banks County was created in 1858 from parts of Franklin and Habersham counties. Although Royston, in Franklin County, was Ty Cobb's birthplace according to some and Narrows (in Banks County) according to most others (all agree on the birthdate of December 18, 1886), Banks County can clearly lay claim to having the most notable resident who ever played baseball.

Another notable Banks County icon, built circa 1793, Fort Hollingsworth, served after the American Revolution to protect against native attacks. Located on Wynn Lake Road in northern Banks County (then Habersham), the fort still stands in remarkable condition. It is on the list of National historic sites and one of the oldest remaining structures in the State, in use today as a private residence.
Flag of the sovereign Nation of GeorgiaGeorgia on my Mind: The Rose Revolution brought to power the Mikhail Saakashvili government in Georgia, which has been trying for several years to pursue closer relations with western Europe. The Russian response has been to raise energy prices and to support several break-away provinces within Georgia (Ossetian conlict and Abkhazian war). Russia has taken a closer look at Georgians residing in Russia (and killing some), to assure that they are legally in the country and not members of organized crime. Georgia's leaders, in turn had looked closely for and found Russian spies, and generally ratcheting-up the tensions by not towing the Soviet proper political line. They lost this game in 2008, the defenses are now being rebuilt, but territory has been lost.

Provinces and Regions in dispute Russia has objected to using UN Security Council to punish Iran. Russia has desired to carefully approach the North Korea nuclear problem; yet, Moscow was quick to react in closing its border with Georgia, as a counteraction to the detainment of Russian military officers there in 2006. Moscow completely banned the flow of people, goods and money to and from Georgia since February 2006, generally hurting the Georgian economy. Contrast China's attitude toward North Korea after its nuclear test and the effect it had to temper, at least initially, a growing crisis. The lesson of Hungary (October 23rd in 1956) is clear: Liberty can be delayed but it cannot be denied. The Autonomous Republic of Adjara is a region on the Black Sea coast of the lesser Caucasus Mountains, traditionally populated by ethnic Georgians of the Suni Moslem faith, also seeking to leave Georgia. Read what was printed in Russia about this region over three years ago, when being a tourist was safer --

Russia has been opposing break-away moslem-faith ethnic groups in its own country, while of course supporting them in Georgia (Abkhazia and South Ossetia). Also, Russia has taken the side of Serbia against the break-away country of Kosovo. Russia held a high-level meeting with the leaders of two breakaway republics in Georgia on Friday (February 16, 2008), and vowed to increase its support for the separatists if and when Kosovo declared its independence, and was recognized by the West (which has happened). Now in August 2008, while the World was looking elsewhere to view the Olympics, Russia has invaded Georgia and targeted civilians as well as the Georgian forces.

South Ossetia, the breakaway Georgian county and scene of a portion of the bitter conflict, announced on September 11, 2008, that it will seek to become part of the Russian Federation. So, Russian troops won't be leaving (big surprise) Georgian soil. President Sergei Bagapsh of Abkhazia (the other province in revolt) said that his coastal area intends become a fully independent state under international law, its sovereignty to date recognized only by Russia and Nicaragua. The Ukraine and Crimea are next on the list of do-overs, as the region heads for a free-for-all again. Look for the Crimea, upon occupation to voluntarily return to the Russian Federation.

The Russia-Georgia conflict has focused attention on other potential flash-points that have their origin in the Soviet era, which ended in the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. If Moscow has decided, contrary to its previous policy, that the right of national self-determination (ie. protecting ethnic Russians) is to take precedence over maintaining the post-Cold War borders, Serbia and Georgia might not be the only two countries to see their borders forcibly redrawn.

Speaking of Revolutions: This week (in 2012) marks the eleventh year of the public release (10/23/2001) of the iPod, a now multi-GB device that let a thousand songs be at your finger tips. Perhaps the most mainstream cultural effect rising from an effective portable MP3 song-player, which offers a high degree of individual control, is the podcasting phenomena. Song-playing on the iPod is evolving into video, too; but audio-music is the main reason for success. I had always loved music, but hadn't really heard much for a while as I had fallen into a busy life. The iPod came along, and because it could carry so much music, I began to rip my CD collection to iTunes. I began to listen to music again, it was like rediscovering parts of my own personality., ipod-fête-ans-existence And, now since 2007, we have had the iPhone (G2, G3 and G4 versions), and more-lately new iPad and G5 versions. One of the latest ipad version was released October 23, 2013, along with other produits.

October 24, 2001 -- Release date: United We Stand A Flag stamp -- 34¢ self-adhesive definitive stamps, convertible booklets of 20, coils of 100 and coils of 10,000, Washington, DC 20066 (also released in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Connecticut, and a couple of post offices around Washington, DC (located in Maryland and Virginia)). Distributed nationwide beginning November 5th. In the 5 6 years since its release, postage costs have increased five seven cents.

Also to note on this date, one of the World's great disappearing acts: On October 24, 1795, the sovereign nation of Poland vanishes, divided between Austria, Prussia and Russia. It would reappear briefly after The Great War (WW I), then disappear again. It was not until the late 1980's that a portion of the original Polish Nation would come forth, through the united efforts of a polish Pope and an outspoken labour leader.

October 24, 1260: The new Cathedral of Chartres is dedicated in the presence of King Louis IX. UNESCO has recognized this structure as a World Heritage Site. Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres is a particularly fine examples of French Gothic architecture. The building, a medieval Roman Rite Catholic church, sits about 50 miles southwest of Paris. The best way to reach it is by train from the Montparnasse station in SW Paris.

The Cathedral became the focus in the town of Chartres. It was the center of the economy, a most famous landmark and the origin of almost every activity that would be today provided by civic authorities. A center for pilgrimage, since at least 876 the Cathedral's site has held a tunic that was said to have belonged to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Sancta Camisia, presented to the church by Charles the Bald. It has changed hands and been besieged several times. It was taken in 1591 by Protestant Henri, King of Navarre, who was crowned there three years afterwards as his most Catholic Majesty, Henry IV, the first ruler from the House of Bourbon. He chose it over the Cathedral at Reims, where his rival had lived. He is buried at Saint-Denis.

Most of the original stained glass windows survive, while the architecture has seen only minor changes since the early 13th century. The building's exterior is dominated by heavy flying buttresses. These allowed the designers to increase the window size significantly. The west end is dominated by the Rose window centered between two contrasting spires – a 105-metre (349 ft) plain pyramid completed around 1160 and a 113-metre (377 ft) early 16th-century Flamboyant spire on top of an older tower. Equally notable are the three great façades, each adorned with hundreds of sculpted figures illustrating key theological themes and narratives, as well as the contemplative floor-tile design, a labyrinth.

Today's structure sits on a site occupied by several previous churches and fronts what was once a Roman forum. Nothing survives of the earliest known church, which was destroyed during an attack on the city by the Danes (Vikings) in 858AD. No doubt there were earlier structures there, perhaps a Roman Temple and something from pre-Roman times, a pattern seen in other places with a long history of occupation. The evidence of which were removed when the crypt was dug or just burned and crushed by the course of time.

October 25th This is the day to celebrate the consecration of a church for which the dedication date is unknown. What we see carried out here physically within these walls must be carried out spiritually within our hearts; what we look to accomplish here with stones and wood {brick and mortar}, must be achieved in our bodies, by the Grace of God. Saint Augustine's Ancient Sermon on the Subject -- We live in hope of the City of God, the new Jerusalem, which replaces the old [Text References: Hebrews 11:10, 13:14; Revelation 21:2-22:5].

Et civitatem sanctam Hierusalem Novam vidi {Iohannes evangelista} descendentem de caelo a Deo paratam sicut sponsam ornatam viro suo (Vulgate) -- Und ich, Johannes, sah die heilige Stadt, das neue Jerusalem, von Gott aus dem Himmel herabfahren, bereitet als eine geschmückte Braut ihrem Mann (Luther) -- Et je {Jean} vis descendre du ciel, d'auprès de Dieu, la ville sainte, la nouvelle Jérusalem, préparée comme une épouse qui s'est parée pour son époux (French LS). from -- (just in case you are having trouble understanding the French or the German texts).

The 25th is also the feast day for Saint Minias, a martyred soldier (250AD) for making converts in the reign of Emperor Trajanus Decius. An abbey on one of the highest hills near Florence bears his name.

October 25, 1760: On this day British King George II in London died. George II followed his father, George I as Elector of Hanover (Holy Roman Empire) and King of England. George II was born in Hanover, Germany like his father and grew up on the Continent. Unlike his father, he learned English before he became the ruler of Great Britain. A keen music fan, George II was the patron of Georg Friedrich Händel, whom he brought to London. The King was succeeded by his grandson, George III, who failed to retain the American colonies.

October 26, 1576: Today marks the passing of Friedrich III in Heidelberg, Germany. He was the Elector of the Palatine Region of the Rhine River (an Elector being one who could help chose the next leader of the Holy Roman Empire). He became a Protestant in 1546. He assisted the advance of Protestant faith in Germany, France and in non-Spanish Netherlands (Holland). Many of the Huguenot refugees from France fled to the Palatinate region before later immigrating to the American Colonies and fighting another Elector's great-grandson.

October 27, 1553: The Spanish theologian, Michael Servetus, was burned at the stake for heresy and blasphemy in Geneva, Switzerland. He had offended both the Catholic and Protestant churches with speculations about the nature of the Trinity. Servetus had made repeated attempts to meet with and influence the Swiss reformer, John Calvin. Calvin found him too offensive. Calvin is reported to have stated that if Servetus ever came to Geneva, he would not allow him to leave, alive. In Lyon (France) Servetus was put on trial by an Inquisition. He escaped, however, and was burned only in effigy. Having made his way to Geneva, he was recognized there and again put on trial for heresy. The City Council found him guilty and sentenced him to death. Calvin (modern scholarship reveals) did not want him put to death, and certainly not by fire; but, in Geneva he was burned alive on October 27, 1553.

In contrast on October 27, 2001, Herr Dr. Helmut Kohl, former West-German Chancellor, received the Westphalian Peace Prize in recognition of his effort to reunite East and West Germany. With the opening of Parliament on Monday October 26, 1998, Dr. Kohl ended his 16 years in office. He was the longest serving chancellor in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany, even surpassing Konrad Adenauer's record as the longest serving post-war chancellor. His efforts as Germany's chief statesman after the Wall fell in November 1989 secured reunification. He first formally presented his 10-point plan for a unified nation on November 28, 1989.

Chi-Rho, the alpla and omega  
(Le Labarum ) en françaisLe 28 octobre 312: Constantinus imperius æmulum Maxentio victorii, qum ad Tiberim pontem extra urbem (Milvius) — Constantin bat son rival Maxence au Pont Milvius, sur le Tibre, à la sortie de Rome. Before the battle (night of the 27th), he had a vision of a Cross and words written in the sky in the common Greek:

EN TOUTO NIKA (conquer by this -- Nike being a messenger of victory) or roughly in Latin In hoc signo vinces means "In this sign conquer (be invincible)" -- « Par ce signe tu vaincras (traduction française) ». In response he had this sign placed on his forces. He adopted the Labarum Chi and Rho, together the symbol for Christ, after his victory, thereby beginning the steps toward conversion of the Roman government to the Faith. Less than one hundred years later, the Rome of the western empire could not defend its eternal city, let alone rule an empire.

So these events set up a penetrating question from Malcolm Muggeridge: What if the church in the West had pinned its hopes on the Roman Empire ? Think about Byzantium as you ponder !!! While Jerome, Salvianus and other apologists saw the sacking of Rome in 410 as an omen of the end of the world, and responded either by withdrawal or a call to recover the faith (read culture of the time) of the Empire, the great African bishop (Augustine) took up his pen to reach another conclusion.

Augustine (354-430) laid out his approach to the new situation by writing that great classic of Western civilization, The City of God. In this world, the wheat and tares grow together; love struggles with selfishness for dominion. In the City of God in heaven, there is only perfection, joy, peace, and love. But this does not even describe the church, for there are wolves within and sheep without, and not even the Christians themselves can attain moral perfection. Thus, Augustine countered the moralistic utopianism of most other apologists and, therefore, undermined the foundation for a supposed revival of imperial fervor. We ought not to confuse our nostalgia with the revival of religion. Only in eternity will truth, beauty, goodness, and love triumph finally. Therefore, in this world we participate on a human level with our neighbors, and do our best to evangelize and participate in the City of Man as salt and light, but we must never confuse the City of Man with the City of God. Without Faith there is no sacrifice {of the heart}, without sacrifice there can be no salvation {forgiveness, justification ...}.

As Henry Chadwick puts it,

Augustine saw the Church existing for the Kingdom {City} of God, the true eternal city, beyond the rise and fall of all empires and civilizations. So even a Christian Rome, which could not be the city of God, could claim no exemption from the chaos and destruction brought by the barbarians. And, Augustine never supposed that the interests of the Christian Roman empire and the kingdom of God could be more or less identical. In relation to the church, he thought, the government had a positive function to preserve peace and liberty. Even the barbarians who attacked the empire were not necessarily enemies to the City of God. It could be the western church's task to convert its new barbarian masters.

The African bishop, therefore, saw the crisis [of the fall of Rome] as an opportunity. If Rome, the City of Man, is ultimate destination, the Gothic invasion would intolerable. If, on the other hand, the City of God is the eternal (and heavenly) destination (Revelation 21:2), outliving the rise and fall of earthly empires, the invasion is an unparalleled missionary opportunity. After all, instead of having to take the Gospel to the pagans, it is the pagans themselves who are coming to the missionaries! It all depends on how one looks at the problem / opportunity. from

October 28, 1868: Thomas Edison applied for his first patent, an electrical vote recorder. The Democrat party cries foul, claiming that since Edison is a Republican from New Jersey, no doubt he will try to steal the election from the party bosses. Trust us to count the votes fairly by hand. Mr. Edison could not be reached for comment.
October 29, 1914: Turkey declared war, taking the side of Germany and Austria, and closing the Dardanelles to the allied opposition. This cut Russia off from Britain and France. It was Winston Churchill's plan to take back the Dardanelles (1915), when he headed the ministry of the British Navy (First Lord of the Admiralty). That plan failed because of the lack of high-level political support. Failure put an end to his first career as a military strategist and sent him into his first (but not last) political exile.
October 29, 1914: Louis Alexander is forced to resign as the premier Admiral of the British fleet. Alexander had been born with the family name Battenberg in Graz, Austria, the son of Fürst (Prince) Alexander of Hessia. He had been naturalized as a British subject in 1868 and became a leader of several significant British naval campaigns from 1882 through the time of World War I. He worked with Winston Churchill to mobilize the British fleet prior to this Great War. Despite his outstanding loyal service, Louis was forced to resign as First Sea Lord on October 29, 1914, due to his German origins (a post which Churchill later filled and from which he would leave in disgrace). They did not force the King to resign, even though his German Cousin ruled the enemy empire. Never forget that he who laughs last ....

In 1917 Louis Alexander renounced all of his German titles and took on the new name of Mountbatten. He became the English Marquess of Milford Haven. He married Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt. Their son, the second Marquess would provide invaluable service to the Crown and Prime Minister Churchill in World War II. Their grandson is Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who married his cousin Queen Elizabeth II. The current heir to the English throne is a direct descendent of Louis.

Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt's full name was Victoria Alberta Elizabeth Matilda Mary, born to Princess Alice of Great Britain, Grand Duchess of Hesse. Victoria was the grand-daughter of the English Queen Victoria. Her sister was Alexandra ("Alix") Fedorovna (a Tsarina of Russia).

Paquebot Normandie 
light blue varietyle 29 octobre 1932 -- Mise à l'eau du SS Normandie: Le plus grand paquebot du monde (312 mètres) sort des chantiers navals du Havre (lancé à Saint-Nazaire ?). Fleuron de la compagnie générale transatlantique, il peut recevoir 1972 passagers. Réquisitionné par les États-Unis pendant la guerre le Normandie finira sa vie à New-York en 1942, ravagé par un incendie. In English:

October 30, 1775: Twelve British regulars and 30 militiamen conduct a raid on the American camp at Longeuil (Québec). The surprised Americans are soon put to flight and their provisions are confiscated. see,_Quebec

During the Battle for Quebec (1755-1760), a part of the French troops had their winter quarters in Longueuil. Soldiers stayed on the farms. Officers lived at the fort. The British occupied French Canada in 1760. At the beginning of the English regime, the population of Longueuil remained low with only 708 inhabitants who were farming 2798 arpents [a measure of land]. In 1781, Charles William Grant, son of David-Alexandre Grant and Marie-Charles-Joseph Le Moyne inherited the Seigniory and became the fifth baron. The Barony of Longueuil became the only French one in Canada later recognized by England. The barony of Longueuil played an important role during the American invasion in 1775.

In the American Revolution of 1774-1776, British General George Carleton tried to drive out American troops located in the Fort at Longueuil. Americans attempted to encourage Canadians to seek independence from the British as well. They sent 1800 men under the command of General Montgomery to invade Canada. General Carleton, commanding the British troops in Canada, tried to drive them out in a battle on the south shore. Longueuil became part again of the military history when the Americans besieged Saint-Jean. Some 300 took up position in Longueuil, where on October 30, 1775, they confronted Carleton and his soldiers who had to retreat (leaving Montreal to take refuge in Québec City). Defeated in front of the capital city, the Bostonians retreated to Longueuil. There they settled a part of their forces for the winter of 1776. -- So, Greenfield Park's early historical origins are tied closely to the history of Longueuil.

October 30, 1864: Toward the end of the War Between the States, the town of Helena, Montana, is founded when four Georgia prospectors discover gold at Last Chance Gulch. Lewis and Clark's travels brought them close to the bonanza -- In less than two weeks fires would be ablaze in Georgia to mark the event.

A few years earlier, sometime in late 1848: Some of the first gold shipments from California arrived at the mint in Philadelphia. This event resulted in some coins minted with the letters Cal in the back; however, a Gold Medal of Zachary Taylor's victory at Buena Vista (February 23, 1847) is the only object that can be traced to the very first shipment. Once thought to be lost, it was rediscovered and was auctioned in October 2006. It broke records for a medallion, because of its uniqueness and tie with the first California gold. Read about some other Gold Rushes in the USA -- HERE.

The Special Delivery Stamps of 1944:   Rotary Press - Perf 11 x 10½ - 200 Subject Electric Eye Plates --
Scott E17 - The 13¢ Messenger on Motorcycle stamp of 1944 Scott E18 - The 17¢ Messenger on Motorcycle stamp of 1944
E17 - The 13¢ Messenger on Motorcycle
October 30, 1944
E18 - The 17¢ Messenger on Motorcycle
October 30, 1944

October 30, 2005: The City of Dresden's (Saxony, Germany) baroque cathedral (Frauenkirche-The Church of Our Lady) has been rebuilt after 60 years. Allied forces fire-bombed the city centre during World War II. This attack destroyed the church and much of the old city. Reconstruction of the structure began in 1994, something impossible under the previous communist regime. This day marks the day of its rededication. Earlier, Coventry Cathedral (England) gave the Frauenkirche a cross made from medieval nails from the roof of the English cathedral, destroyed by German bombing in 1940, during the Battle of Britain. Money for rebuilding came from the German government, the state of Saxony, the city of Dresden, the Protestant church and private donations, including some from the British people. Our page on -- Dresden

October 31, 994: Death arrives for Saint Wolfgang (924 – 994). Wolfgang (pronounced Vulfgawnk) was born in Pfullingen, Germany (5 miles SE of Tübingen in the modern state of Baden-Württemberg) to a noble family. He was able to study at the monastic school of Reichenau and the cathedral school of Würzburg. In 956 he became a teacher at the cathedral school of Trier / Trèves. Wolfgang entered the Benedictine order in and was ordained a priest in 968. He was then sent as a missionary to the Magyars (modern Hungary). In 972 he was made the Bishop of Regensburg. In his capacity as Bishop in Regensburg he counseled and taught the man who would become Holy Roman Emperor, Heinrich II (1014 – 1024). Saint Wolfgang, active in the development and reformation of a number of monasteries, also possessed the gift of healing.

Later in life, Saint Wolfgang became a hermit for a period of 7 years on the body of water now called the Lake of Wolfgang (in modern Austria -- Wolfgangsee). He died in 994 at Pupping, Austria. He was buried in Regensburg at the monastery of Saint Emmeram. His tomb was regarded almost from the beginning as a holy place. Miracles were reported worked there. He was canonized in 1052 by Pope Leo IX.

The Magyars, a people from the Ural-Altai region, moved forward in 895 into the Avarian Wilderness on the Theiss. Attempts to convert them were made by [1] the Court of Byzantium, as well as by [2] St. Wolfgang, then a monk sent from Maria Einsiedeln (l'abbaye bénédictine), [3] by Piligrim, Bishop of Passau, who, as successor of the Bishops of Lorch, wished to be Metropolitan of all Pannonia, and [4] by Adalbert of Prague. Thus it was brought about that the Magyar ruler Géza, great grandson of Arpad, and his wife Sarolta were favourably inclined to Christianity. The real Apostle of the Magyars, however, was Géza's great son, St. Stephen. The technical title goes to Saint Astericus Anastasius [(Astrik-Anastaz) (Slavic, Radla)] Apostle of the Magyars (c.955-c.1036), First Archbishop of Gran, Hungary, born Bohemia. He entered the Benedictine Order and co-operated with King and Saint Stephen in establishing the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary, being sent by the latter to beg papal approval for the organization of the Church there and to ask for he crown of that kingdom. In 1000 he crowned Stephen, first King of Hungary.

In German folklore rain on St. Wolfgang's day (October 31st) is regarded as promising a good year -- An St. Wolfgang Regen verspricht ein Jahr voll Segen.

Le 31 octobre 1512: Le est inaugurée la fresque de la chapelle Sixtine. L'œuvre maîtresse de Michel-Ange est saluée par tous les contemporains. Vasari écrit  : «Chacun eut l'impression d'un univers en mouvement et demeura muet d'admiration». Derrière l'admiration légitime des Italiens de goût se profile l'indignation du petit clergé allemand vis à vis d'une entreprise très coûteuse et fort peu évangélique. La bombe de Martin Luther explosera cinq ans plus tard.

Turm-SchlosskircheLe 31 octobre 1517: Un moine affiche sur la porte de l'église de Wittenberg (Saxe) 95 thèses où il dénonce les scandales de l'Église de son temps. Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the wooden doors of the Hofkirche in Wittenberg (All Saints was the castle church). The church still stands, though the original doors are gone. The doors have been replaced with bronze doors with the 95 theses embossed onto them ... see Numbers 21:4-9 and Enchiridion piarum precationum: cum Passionali ut uocant, quibus accessit nouum calendarium cum cisio iano uetere & nouo, atque alijs quibusdam, ut patet ex indice, Martin Luther (1543-a book of Holy days and prayers) And he broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for until those days the people of Israel had burned incense to it; it was called Nehushtan   see 2 Kings 18:1-6.

Since the inception of the Reformation, until the latter part of the 19th century, the Protestant church would have correctly been called “the church transformed,” but not since. In fact, we find ourselves in need of a new reformation. Many Christians today know nothing of this great time-period in the history of Christ’s church.

On October 31, 1731, the 214th anniversary of the posting 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant Salzburger citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. A total of 21,475 citizens refused to recant their beliefs and were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Frederick William I of Prussia, traveling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia. The rest settled in other Protestant states in Europe and the British colonies in America, along with many other refugees fleeing the French incursion into Germany.

Interestingly in 2007, this day will see the ancient church, Emmaus Kirche, arrive at its new home in the eastern part of Germany (Saxony) near Leipzig. The 700 ton (750 tonnes) stone structure is moving a few miles from Heuersdorf to Borna out of necessity Its former home is being swallowed by an open pit lignite (brown-coal) mine. This village church dates from the Middle Ages (circa 1297) of Romanesque style, one of many old buildings being lost in the area. The Kirche will squeeze into Martin Luther Square in Borna on Reformation Day (October 31st), when Lutherans traditionally remember 16th-Century reformer. Reuters story; Der Spiegel (an English version with much detail) and The Path less Travelled -- Deutsche Welle

The historic importance of Wittenberg reflects the seat of the Elector of Saxony, a dignity held by the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg and the town's close connection with Martin Luther at the dawn of the Protestant Reformation; several of its buildings are associated closely with the events of this time. Part of the Augustinian monastery in which Luther dwelt, first as a monk and later as owner with his wife and family, is preserved and considered to be the world's premier museum dedicated to Luther. Unlike many other historic German cities during World War II, Wittenberg was spared destruction during the war. The Allies agreed not to bomb Wittenberg. Wittenberg was occupied by Soviet forces, and became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1949.

October 31, 1860: Girl Scout founder Juliette [Daisy] Gordon Low was born in Savannah. Her family traveled extensively, a habit she would carry on into adulthood. While traveling in England, she met and married William Low in 1886. His family's fortune was based in cotton, as merchants (factors) in Savannah. The marriage (some report) was not a happy one, and Juliette continued her pre-marriage traveling habit. Her husband died in 1905, leaving her the money and even more time for travel and discovery. While in England in 1911, she met Robert Baden-Powell, war hero and founder of the Boy Scouts. When over 6000 young girls tried to enlist as Boy Scouts, Baden-Powell asked his sister to organize a Girl Guide organization based on similar principles. It was at this juncture that Juliette Gordon Low entered the picture. She recognized a need for such a girl's organization and it quickly became the central focus of her life.

Ms. Low helped to establish the first troops in Scotland and London, then soon decided to bring the Girl Guide organization home. The first meeting in America took place at the Low home in Savannah on March 12, 1912. The popularity of the organization spread rapidly, thanks largely to Low's tireless efforts to promote and attract influential sponsors for the organization. The Girl Scouts of the United States of America was officially incorporated in Washington, DC in 1915, with Juliette Gordon Low elected as national president. Upon her resignation in 1920, she was designated with the title Founder. Her birthday was proclaimed Founder's Day. She continued to work with the organization, culminating with the Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. hosting the Fourth International Camp in its brand new training center. The conference (held in 1926) was attended by both Low and Baden-Powell, plus delegates from twenty-nine countries. Daisy died in Savannah less than a year later, on January 17, 1927, and was buried in Laurel Grove Cemetery.

During her life she had seen the Girl Scouts grow from that first meeting of eighteen girls to an international organization with a membership of approximately 148,000 girls and women. In 1948, two days before what would have been her 88th birthday, the U.S. Post Office Department issued a 3-cent commemorative stamp honoring Juliette Gordon Low. First day of issue ceremonies for the stamp were held in Savannah.

Native Yamacraw Chief Tomochichi is buried and memorialized today on Wright Square in Savannah. Wright Square was originally Percival Square, named after the Earl of Egmont who was influential in the Georgia Colony's founding. Renamed to honor James Wright, who was the Georgia Colony's last Royal Governor, the square also has a monument to William Washington GORDON. He was a mayor of Savannah, a Supreme Court Justice for the State of Georgia and he established the Central of Georgia Railroad. As you may have surmised, he was also father of Juliette Gordon Low, founder of The Girl Scouts of America. The location, also known as the courthouse square fronts the US Post Office (circa 1899). "wrightsquareinformationpage.html"

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls
A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
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0855 EDT

The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at the time.