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The  VANGUARD --   2015

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit."

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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

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Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
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The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

Tour de France -- 2012 -- A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- (Spring 2015)-NEW

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות) -- More Verses and Selections

EdiculeForty Days after the Resurrection: from The Thursday called Ascension Day falls on May 14, 2015. The next celebration day is Pentecost or Whitsunday, the promise is fulfilled. From the four weeks of preparation before Christmas (Advent) through this time, we have the Life and Death portrayed and remembered week-by-week by the historic Church. So begins the work of the Paraclete: Other special days include four Rogation days before the Ascension. Rogation Sunday begins the time traditionally set apart for solemn processions to invoke God's mercy, and recognize our dependence upon the land for our food. The Vigil of Pentecost occurs the evening immediately before Whitsunday. The English (Anglican) Book of Common Prayer was approved and required for use beginning Pentecost in 1549; and, it includes a service for the Vigil, the first time in English. Cranmer himself officiated at St. Paul's on June 9th (in London on Pentecost), although his book was used there and elsewhere as early as the start of Lent. Trinity Sunday is eight weeks after Easter (the two days before are "Ember" Friday and Saturday -- Quatuor Tempora).

Ascension Sunday: Ascension Day occurs 40 days after Resurrection Sunday, so it too is a moveable Holy Day. Because it falls on a Thursday, most churches celebrate it on the Sunday following. After the conversion of Constantine, the first church arose on the site of the Ascension about 390 AD tradition says by Poimenia, a pious Roman lady. St. Helena erected over the site a church called the "Eleona Basilica" in 392. Elaion in Greek means "olive garden" from the word elaia "olive tree" (and has an oft-mentioned similarity to eleos meaning "mercy"). This structure was destroyed by the Sassanid Persians in 614. It was rebuilt in the eighth century, destroyed again, but rebuilt a second time by the Crusaders. Muslim forces destroyed this final church, leaving only an octagonal structure (called a martyrium -- a memorial or "Edicule"). It remains to this day, having received a vast number of visitors for 900 years. The Ascension is understood as a necessary prerequisite for the sending of the Holy Ghost (spiritus sanctus) at Pentecost (John 16:7 (King James Version)). Chapel of the Ascension, Jerusalem

Pentecost -- 50 days later: Pentecôte {Année C} -- 08 Juin 2014 -- -- Psaume 103 -- Bénis le Seigneur, ô mon âme; Seigneur mon Dieu, tu es si grand ! -- Year A (June 12, 2011): "I will give them one heart, and put a new spirit within them; I will remove the heart of stone from their flesh and give them a heart of flesh, so that they may follow my statutes and keep my ordinances and obey them. Then they shall be my people, and I will be their God from Ezekiel 11:20."

I will pour forth of my Spirit upon all flesh:
And your sons and your daughters shall prophesy,
And your young men shall see visions,
And your old men shall dream dreams:
Yea and on my servants and on my handmaidens in those days
Will I pour forth of my Spirit; and they {all} shall prophesy.

Joel 2 --

When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. And suddenly from heaven there came a sound like the rush of a violent wind, and it filled the entire house where they were sitting. Divided tongues, as of fire, appeared among them, and a tongue rested on each of them. All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages, as the Spirit gave them ability -- from Acts 2.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

before the fire April 27, 1749: Today marks the first performance of Handel's music for fireworks at Green Park, London. Under contract from King George II (Great Britain), Georg Fredick Handel composed the festival work, in order to celebrate the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle bringing to a close the War of the Austrian Succession. Both the monarch and treaty were unpopular with the public, but Handel's music, as always, proved to be an instant success. Handel wrote his Music for the Royal Fireworks for wind instruments, but it quickly was adapted into a full orchestral piece. The first performance of the piece was said to be unrehearsed, well at least the incendiary coordination was not well planned. During the celebration, Giovanni Servandoni's The Grand Pavillion pavilion catches on fire and burns to the ground. In a fit of anger, Servandoni draws his sword on Charles Frederick, ("Comptroller of his Majesty's Fireworks as well as for War as for Triumph"), is disarmed, and spends the night in prison [Green Park, London].

Twenty-four years later, the British Parliament passed the infamous Tea Act, designed to prop-up the British East India Company, by granting it a monopoly over the North American tea trade, and to raise revenues to pay for the defense of the Colonies against the French in the most recent encounter. It was an unpopular move, that eventually led to the first Barbary War, when the US was forced to defend itself on the Seas, instead of relying on the British presence (and bribe money). On this date in 1805, United States Marines engaged the Tripolitan city of Derne (the reference to the shores of Tripoli in the Marines' Hymn). Interestingly in 1810, Beethoven composed his famous piano piece, Für Elise on April 27th; and two years later on the same date, United States troops capture York, the capital of Ontario (present day Toronto, Canada). Not to be outdone, the President of the United States Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in 1861.

April 27, 1861: At the outset of the War Between the States, Richard B. Russell, Sr. was born near Marietta, GA. He attended the University of Georgia, obtaining an undergraduate degree in 1879 and a law degree in 1880. Russell began the practice of law in Athens. In 1882 was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives. Russell was committed to education, serving on the local boards of education in Athens, Winterville and in the village (and later town) of Russell. During his six years in the General Assembly, Russell supported creation of the Georgia Institute of Technology (then the Georgia School of Technology or Georgia Tech) and the Georgia Normal and Industrial College for Women at Milledgeville (now Georgia College and State University). He served on the governing boards of the University of Georgia and the new college for women at Milledgeville. He also served on the first Board of Regents for the new University System of Georgia (1932-33). However, Russell is probably best remembered for his judicial career. He served as both prosecuting attorney and later judge of the western superior court circuit, judge on the Georgia Court of Appeals and chief justice of the Georgia Supreme Court (1926-1938). During his career, Russell also ran unsuccessful races for governor, U.S. Representative, and U.S. Senator. He died in Russell, Ga. on Dec. 3, 1938. He was the father of the long-time United States Senator from Georgia from 1933 to 1971, Richard B. Russell, Jr.

Great Moments in the English Navy -- April 28, 1789: The mutiny on HMS Bounty took place this day. On the voyage home to England from Tahiti, a rebel crew took over the British vessel. Fletcher Christian led the mutiny. He set Captain William Bligh and 19 loyal officers and sailors adrift in a launch in the South Pacific, thousands of miles from civilization. The Bounty returned to Tahiti, but eventually set sail bound for its final resting place, Pitcairn Island. A trilogy about the event (one of several classics) is now a few generations old. If you have not read Men Against the Sea (1933-Nordoff and Hall), you should endeavor to find a copy at a local library. The three-book novel is one of the great written works in English, describing teamwork and struggle. There are several movies covering this fabled event -- Clark Gable, Marlin Brando and Mel Gibson portraying Christian, can you name the Bligh's.

The mutineers, shipped off to uninhabited Pitcairn Island, soon fell to drinking and fighting. Only one man and several women and children survived. The man, Alexander Smith, discovered the ship's neglected Bible, repented and transformed the community. This Bible is still on display in a Pitcairn church.

Stung by the seven year itch -- April 29, 1941: The Boston Bees agreed to rename this National League team the Braves, the name used prior to 1935. Casey Stengel was the brave bee keeper from 1938 thru 1940 and beyond. In 2006, the team owner pawned off this asset, because Baseball no longer fit its corporate vision for entertainment. Too bad, it thought more highly of Court TV and reruns than America's historic pastime.

April 29, 1990: The official demolition of the Wall begins near Mr. Brandenburg's gate (in Berlin). Bits and pieces of it had been removed beginning in November 1989. The last state job of the East German border guards was the Wall's removal. Es gibt nur ein Berlin ... General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!

I noticed words crudely spray-painted upon the wall, perhaps by a young Berliner: "This wall will fall. Beliefs become reality." Yes, across Europe, this wall will fall. For it cannot withstand faith; it cannot withstand truth. The wall cannot withstand freedom.
American President Ronald Reagan was right, his critics were wrong.

April 30, 311: The Roman co-ruler, commonly called Galerius, publicly issued an edict of tolerance, thereby ending the violent persecutions under Diocletian. A year later in Milan, the act is confirmed and enlarged by Constantine the Great. Christianity would become the dominating force in the Empire in the years to come.

Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Cæsar, tetrarch and later Augustus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution and asked for prayers for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died shortly thereafter.
April 30, 1562: Off the Coast of Florida near what would become (under the Spanish) Saint Augustine, a French privateer and explorer first sights the New World. A Huguenot of the city of Dieppe, Jean Ribault was a successful captain for Admiral Gaspar de Coligny's navy. Coligny selected him to establish a Huguenot colony in Florida. Actually, it was to be a French colony, populated by persons of the Protestant faith (Huguenots), to stand in opposition to the Spanish, as well as to prove the loyalty of the Huguenots to the greater French cause.

With Rene Laudonnière as his lieutenant, Ribault reached the St. Johns River on April 30, 1562. Ribault selected a place to settle beside what is today known as Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, calling it Charlesfort. Today we know it as Paris Island. Returning to Europe to get supplies, Ribault discovered the French ports closed by the religious war between Protestants and Catholics. Seeking help from England, Ribault went to London, where he was arrested. By the time he was released, a new settlement near present-day Jacksonville (Fort Caroline) was under the command of Laudonnière, even though the Charlesfort effort had failed.

Spain sought the destruction of Fort Caroline. Spanish forces under Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and the relief effort under Ribault left Europe virtually at the same moment, the Spanish greatly outnumbering the French, but in ships of poorer quality. The French arrived a ahead of the Spanish fleet and beat off the first attack. Ribault went on the offensive, but a hurricane wrecked most of the his fleet. The Spanish, meanwhile, during the height of the storm, marched overland and caught the French offguard. A massacre ensued. Ribault later surrendered what was left of his men and he was executed by Menéndez, along with those who were not or would not become Catholic again on October 12, 1565 (Le massacre de Matanzas Inlet).
Great Moments in Banking History -- Think about it -- April 31, 1728: The Scottish Royal Bank invents first the overdraft when a Mr. William Hogg overdraws his account by 1000 Pounds sterling ($125,000 in today's value) {This week history in Scotland -- actually it was 31 May according to the Hogg Family page}

April 31, 1851: The town of Hazelton, Pennsylvania is first incorporated. Want to know more? On April 31, 1864, the Secretary of War requested Governor Seymour to furnish one or two regiments of militia to guard deserters, stragglers, etc., being forwarded to the army. Two days later Major-General Dix, by the authority of the President, called on the Governor for one or two more regiments to occupy the defenses of the New York Harbor from History of New York. After April 31, 1991, the gold córdoba became the sole legal currency of Nicaragua and was pegged to the United States dollar at a rate of US$1 = 5 gold córdobas, a rate it maintained throughout 1992 -- More is HERE.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

May 1st: In Paris, 1889, at the third gathering {Paris International Congress}, world-wide socialists {really mostly Europeans from Germany, Switzerland, France, Belgium and Holland} voted to support the United States labor movement's demands for an 8-hour day. They chose May 1, 1890, as a day of marxist solidarity with labor. May 1st became a holiday called Labor Day in many places; and as it seemed appropriate, Mother Jones came to life this day.

... socialism, necessarily devoid of a market in land and capital goods, must lack the ability to calculate and compare goods and services, and therefore any rational allocation of productive resources under socialism is indeed impossible (Mises (1920)). The allocation then must be arbitrary and the choice of winners and losers political (i.e. under a doctrine of fairness). see

May 1st, not inconsequently, coincides also with widespread practices, popular from Roman and Celtic pagan traditions. Socialist governments and labor organizations sponsor parades, speeches and other fêtes to honor working people. The holiday has had special importance in Communist countries, where the May Day parades were a time to show-off military prowess. In America, we have our own labor-inspired fun, observed in September.

Citizens in France call the first of May la Fête du Travail. Ce également connu: sa fête -- Saint Joseph, travailleur. Joseph, charpentier à Nazareth, en Galilée, est décrit dans les Évangiles comme le père nourricier de Jésus-Christ et l'époux de Marie. Depuis le XVIIe siècle, le Patronage de Saint Joseph était célébré 17 jours après Pâques. Pie XII le remplaça par la fête de Saint Joseph travailleur, opportunément placée en même temps que la fête (laïque) du Travail.

The grounds are officially opened to the public at the Universal Exposition in Paris on May 6th, the Tour Eiffel on the 15th.

Loyalty Day began as Americanization Day in 1921 as a counter to the Communists' May 1st festival for the Russian Revolution. On May 1, 1930, 10,000 VFW members staged a rally at New York's Union Square to promote America. Through a resolution adopted in 1949, May 1st became Loyalty Day, and in 1958, the US Congress made May 1st as a permanent fixture on the Nation's calendar (House Joint Resolution 479 is Public Law 85-529 (72 Stat. 369 (1958)). By law, Loyalty Day signifies a special day for the recognition of the heritage of American freedom, as well as a personal time for the reaffirmation of loyalty to the United States. President Eisenhower (1959) was the first to issue a proclamation under this law. -- (removed by the Obama Whitehouse staff in 2009 -- our link is to WebArchive) Interestingly, the current Administration apparently did not issue a Proclamation in 2009.

May 1st is also National Law Day (again a WebArchive link is used). How quaint that celebrations in the year (2006) featured strikes and parades, flag burnings and violence -- the loyal participants remembered to fly a flag of their country, as they demonstrated in support of their respect for the rule of law on this special day. Some many months later, can you remember what flag was being flown in respect of which country ?? And -- How much progress has been made to resolve the issues of which the demonstrators made so much. Look what happened in 2009 (a Friday) as the left tried to counter popular sentiment against creeping (now galloping) socialism with Global Love Day, the Battle for Terra, International Workers Day planning for the unity of immigrants, We will march this May Day to demand Jobs, Homes, and Peace, etc.

And in 2014, ABC News thinks that the death of a Mad Magazine icon is in the top 10 news events of the day, while National Prayer Day and the release of Benghazi documents documents showing how the White House lied and the State Department fabricated a tale gets no mention. Also articles on scrambling eggs and a Bieber sighting are worthy of mention. The history of May day, which began in Chicago is found here in an article about the solidarity marches in Russia today

May 2nd -- should be the feast day of Athanasius of Alexandria: One of only 33 Roman Catholic Doctors of the Church, a Saint recognized by Orthodox denominations (17 had died before the formal disunion of the Eastern and Western traditions). Regarded as a great leader and doctor of the Universal Church by Protestants, Athanasius' feast day is actually celebrated on January 18th. Today is the anniversary of his death in 373AD. We think it still fitting today to recognize his achievements against the heresies of the day, when you consider other objects of faith that are recognized today. More important was his work in defining the received Cannon, that is the books that would later be known as the Bible. The relics of St. Athanasius the Great of Alexandria are currently preserved under the new St. Mark Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Deir El-Anba Rowais, Abbassiya, Cairo, Egypt, after their return from Italy in May of 1973.

The Coptic Church has the tradition that the original Nicean Creed (325AD) was authored by Athanasius, although many dispute this idea. -- Credo in unum Deo Patrem omnipotentem --- -- Πιστεύομεν εις ένα Θεόν, Πατέρα, Παντοκράτορα, ποιητήν ουρανού και γης, ορατόν ε πάντων και αοράτων. In any event there is a separate Creed of Athanasius: Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is is necessary that he hold the Catholic {meaning universal, accepted, not heretical} Faith. -- see also Book of Common Prayer, Episcopal Church USA, Kingsport Press (1977) pp 864-65.

May 2, 1670: In the 17th century the French had a monopoly on the Canadian fur trade. However, two French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers, learned from the Cree tribe that the best fur country was north and west of Lake Superior -- a frozen sea still further north. Correctly guessing that this was Hudson Bay, they sought French backing for a plan to set up a trading post on the Bay, thus reducing the cost of moving furs overland. In contrast, the recently appointed French Secretary of State, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, was trying to promote farming in the colony. He opposed to exploration and trapping.

Radisson and des Groseilliers approached a group of businessmen in Boston, Massachusetts, to help finance the proposed northern explorations. The Bostonians agreed on the plan's merits. They sent the two men to England to elicit financing. In 1668, the English backers commissioned two ships to explore trade from Hudson Bay. The Nonsuch was commanded by Captain Zachariah Gillam and accompanied by Groseilliers, while the Eaglet was commanded by Captain William Stannard and accompanied by Radisson. On June 5, 1668, both ships left port at Deptford, England, but the Eaglet was forced to turn back off the coast of Ireland. After a successful trading expedition over the winter of 1668–1669, the Nonsuch returned to England.

The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay was incorporated on May 2, 1670, with a Royal Charter from King Charles II. The Company agreed to be sold in January of 2006, in effect ending the tradition of independent ownership of the oldest corporation in in Canada. Three Hundred Thirty-Five plus years, a nice run. from's_Bay_Company

May 3, 1491: Over 600 years ago, a man received a fatal wound from his scythe, this near today's Drei Ähren (französisch: Trois Épis) about 8 miles west of Colmar in Alsace. In his memory, neighbors placed a crucifix on an oak tree (chêne), naming the place de l'homme mort. On the 3rd of May, 1491, Dieter Schore (Thierry Schoéré), a sturdy man with no nonsense about him, was riding past the now ancient site of the tragedy, a lady in a white robe appeared veiled. In one hand she held an icicle, in the other she had three ears of corn. The sins and vices of the people would cause terrible diseases, heavy rain and frost, if they were not renounced (with suitable penance). But, Our Lady said that the ears of corn were a symbol of blessing and good harvests, which God would grant through her intercession.

Herr Schoéré was inclined not to convey this tale; however, when he was obtaining grain in the local market, he could not lift it on to his horse. The sack became heavier and heavier. Schore repented of his decision. He told the village about the vision {l'apparition de la Vierge}. Local Church authorities asked the faithful to process to the old (vieux) chêne de l'homme mort. "But ... Oh ... Miracle! Just as before he could as easily lift a bag and load it down immediately on his horse. After that, amid the joy of transportation assistance, Thierry Schoéré, the messenger of the Virgin, happily went home to his native village," riding off into history if you will ... never to be heard from again. And, the Virgin had an appointment to make in Mexico about 40 years later (Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe). This pilgrimage site is rather late in its appearing in this part of Europe, so perhaps it was a Holy site before (as had been the place in Mexico). An ancient oak tree in northern climes was sometimes a place of worship; perhaps it also had been here in this isolated spot.

The original holy painting of the Vierge (la sainte image), which was placed in a small wooden box beneath the famous oak, could not withstand the weather. A few years later a Pieta, itself a miracle working and beautiful statuette from the fifteenth century, replaced la peinture. Desecrated (saccagée) by Imperial regiments during the Thirty Years War, the simple [outdoor] chapel was rebuilt on the site of the oak, which by then had disappeared. A convent became attached to La Chapelle. So the vicissitudes of wars and revolts, the hurricane of nature and of human passions, destroyed the humble temple of faith, [at a place] where so many people still arrived to meditate and seek peace. Although [the place of worship was] restored, the old stones of the chapel had secured their own high significance and, [nestled] between the magnificent peaks, where trees rustle in the wind, these stones continue to inspire the contemplation of men. loosely translated from

La Chapelle de Notre-Dame-des-Trois-Épis, built on the site, became a well-known place of pilgrimage in Alsace, with Colmar the gateway to the shrine. The history of the legend, once maintained at village d'Orbey in its Abbey, is today conserved at Colmar. Orbey is composed of five typical hamlets. Val d’Orbey (part of the larger Vallée de Kaysersberg) has been important since the formation of the Abbey of Pairis in the 12th Century. Gunther of Pairis (c. 1150 – c. 1220), a German Cistercian monk and author, wrote Historia Constantinopolitana at the Abbey. It extols the Fourth Crusade, in a mixture of prose and verse, based on the account of Martin of Pairis, Abbot of Pairis Abbey, and included a description the siege and looting of Constantinople. Martin brought back relics from the Holy Land and Constantinople, placing them in the Abbey.

The region situated in the very heart of the Mid-Vosges mountains, around Orbey and Lapoutroie is called Pays Welche. It represents something of an exception in Alsace. The Alsatian dialect has never been used there. Only a romance dialect similar to the Belgian Walloon and French languages was spoken. The landscape of this micro-region comprises mountains and prairies, surrounded by extensive fir tree forests. The local Munster cheese comes from this valley (derived from Monastere the word for monastery, also close to the German word for a church). Numerous milk, cheese and honey producers can still be found here, produits complementing the wine of Alsace.

May 3, 1525: A Spanish slave-trader, Pedro de Quejo, piloted two ships from Hispaniola on a preliminary expedition for Lucas Vasquez de Ayllón, in order to explore the coast of land granted to Ayllón by the King of Spain. On this day, Quejo's ships land at the mouth of the Savannah River, marking the first known time Europeans set foot on present-day Georgia. Quejo had passed by the coast in 1521 seeking more natives, because the tribes of the island on which Spain first settled had been wiped out almost completely. A far more complete timeline of these events can be found at:

Less than a year later on September 29, 1526, Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón and 600 Spanish colonists (including African slaves and perhaps freemen) landed on the Georgia mainland opposite Sapelo Sound and founded the settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape. This was the first European settlement in North America since the time of the Vikings' exploration circa 1000 A.D. The colonists had sailed from the Caribbean island of Hispaniola in July aboard six ships. In August, they had landed at Winyah Bay on the Carolina coast. They sailed southward when that colony soon proved to be less than satisfactory. Now as the fall approached they had to find a place where they could rely on Native stores until the next year's harvest.

On the Georgia coast, Ayllón found the Guale tribe. Although physical remains of the settlement have not been found, historians and geographers have utilized surviving navigation logs and other records to reconstruct the 1526 voyage. (See Jeannine Cook, ed., Columbus and the Land of Ayllón, 1992.) Based on the latest research, the San Miguel de Gualdape settlement probably was situated on the mainland of what today is McIntosh County, opposite Sapelo Sound. (Click HERE to view map.) One source feels the most likely location was within the present-day Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge, which is located near the mouth of the Newport River facing St. Catherine's Island. To view a timeline of Spanish exploration and colonization in the New World, see

May 3, 1928 (or 1933): Soul and R&B (rhythm-and-blues) singer James Brown, was born. Little is known about his early life. He claimed to have been born in Macon, Georgia, but various biographies list his city of birth as Augusta (GA), Barnwell (SC) and Pulaski (TN). Regardless, he grew up in Augusta. In the early 1950s, Brown formed a band in Macon first known as The Flames -- and then changed the name to The Famous Flames. In November 1955, the group recorded Please, Please, Please. In 1956 it reached #6 on the R&B charts, then became the first of over 20 million sellers for the Godfather of Soul. In 1983, Brown was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame. see also James Brown died in Atlanta on Christmas Day 2006, of complications related to pneumonia. The Atlanta paper reported his age as 73.

May 4th: Today is the Feast Day of St. Florian ( ? – ca. 304). St. Florian was a Roman military officer stationed next to Lorch (at that time called Lauriacum in Latin -- the alternate Latin name for Lauriacum is Blaboriciaco), in what is today Enns in Oberösterreich. Florian adopted the new Christian religion. He refused to give up his faith when arrested during the persecution of Diocletian. Tortured first, a stone then was tied to Florian's neck. Soldiers tossed him into the river Enns. As a martyr, Florian was regarded as set apart or sanctified long before the formal practice of canonization by a pope, his feast day being May 4th. A millstone, said to be the stone which was tied around Florian's neck, is kept in the crypt of the monastery (Stiff) church of St. Florian near Linz. He is the patron Saint of Austria and of fireman (Feuerwehr), depicted often holding the flag of St. George (or a millstone), while pouring water on a burning house: O heiliger Sankt Florian, verschon´ mein Haus, zünd' and´re an !!!.

O heiliger Sankt Florian mit
frommen Sinn wir kommen an. Laß deine Fürsprach
uns erfahrn in Wassersnot und Feuersgefahrn
Und wenn im Herzen sich entzündt
das Feuer schwerer Schuld und Sünd,
dann lösch das Feuer, steh uns bei,
auf daß uns Gott sein Gnad verleih. Geht es dereinst zum letzten End,
mach, daß das Herz in Lieb entbrennt
zum Vater der Barmherzigkeit,
der uns schenkt die ewig´ Seligkeit.

O Holy Saint Florian with
reverence, we arrive. Let thy intercession
keep us from drowning and danger of fire.
And when our hearts are inflamed
[with] the fire of heavy guilt and sin,
then quench that fire, stand by us,
[stand] by us for whom God imparts His grace. Go with us till the end;
kindle love in our hearts for
the Father of Mercies,
who gives us the eterna'l salvation.

On May 4, 1865: St. John and several other Confederate cabinet members met with Jefferson Davis for what turned out to be the dissolution of the government. His name is included on the list of those participating in that meeting and on the a stone memorial found in Washington, GA. Newspaper writer, civil engineer, and soldier Isaac Munroe St. John was born in Augusta, Georgia. With the outbreak of the Civil War, he joined the Fort Hill Guards as a private. In 1862, he served as Magruder's chief engineer and rose to the rank of captain and then major. The next year, he was promoted to Lt. Col. in the Confederate Niter and Mining Corps. In Feb. 1865, St. John was promoted to the rank of brigadier general and at the time of the war's end, he was Confederate Commissary General with responsibility for supplying the Confederacy with gunpowder and metals. He survived the war and passed away April 7, 1880, in White Sulphur Springs, WV (near today's Greenbrier and its formerly secret underground facilities for Congress in the event of a National Emergency) and was buried in Richmond, Virginia.

May 4, 1973: Led Zeppelin opened its 1973 U.S. tour before a crowd of nearly 40,000 in Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium. The 34-concert tour was described by promoters then as the largest and most profitable rock and roll tour in the history of the United States. How many more times did they visit Atlanta ??? The band performed July 24, 1973, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at Three Rivers Stadium, then only 3 years old (which concert this Webmaster attended). This was the last venue before the final 3 shows at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Led Zeppelin's music has out lived the Pittsburgh venue, which lasted for only about 30 years. Studio version: ("Over the Hills and Far Away" is the third track from English rock band Led Zeppelin's 1973 album Houses of the Holy.)

A note from the Netherlands -- May 4, 2007: "Tonight in Holland we commemorate all those who have fallen in WWII. With a two minute silence the Nation reflects on those who for ever shall live on in our memory, as those who fought for freedom and for our people. For that we shall be forever grateful and it is a part of my website tribute to you and all other who without question and without hesitation rose and stood up to the call of duty and many of you went beyond that call.

To you my friends and to all those who forever are embraced in the soils on the battlefields of Europe, I humbly bow and salute you and thank you from the bottom of my heart for your efforts to make part of the world a free place to live. As for our enduring friendship will always be considered as a special gift between world far apart and yet so connected. I thank you deeply and from us to you .... thank you.

Tomorrow we celebrate liberation day .... but we will always reflect on those who gave all for they will always be remembered and never forgotten ..... Thank you, stay safe and take care my friends," Frank C. Everards, Webmaster:

The Netherlands is unique among its European neighbors, because it has two national holidays stemming from the second World War: Remembrance Day - Dodenherdenking and Liberation Day - Bevrijdingsdag. Dodenherdenking (May 4th) remembers the fallen Dutch, who died in defense of their land and freedom. Bevrijdingsdag is celebrated each year on May 5th in the Netherlands to mark the end of the German occupation during the Second World War. The nation was liberated largely by Canadian troops on May 5, 1945. --

May 5, 1525: This day saw the passing of Friederick III (the Wise), Elector of Saxony in Lochau, Germany. Friederick served as the protector of Martin Luther after the imperial ban of 1521. He housed Luther at the castle named the Wartburg at Eisenach, where Luther prepared his German language translation of the Bible. Friedrich was a patron of the great artist Albrecht Dürer, and the less well-known Lucas Cranach the Elder, who painted Luther in 1529. Friederich der Dritte founded the University of Wittenberg in 1502.

Ein’ feste Burg ist unser Gott,
Ein gute Wehr und Waffen;
Er hilft uns frei aus aller Not,
Die uns jetzt hat betroffen.
Der alt’ böse Feind,
Mit Ernst er’s jetzt meint,
Gross’ Macht und viel List
Sein’ grausam’ Ruestung ist,
Auf Erd’ ist nicht seingleichen. (1529)
Based on Psalm 46
A mighty fortress is our God, a trusty shield and weapon;
He helps us free from every need that hath us now overtaken.
The old evil foe now means deadly woe; deep guile and great might
Are his dread arms in fight; on Earth is not his equal.

Mai das Fünftel: Karl Marx, German philosopher, was born in Prussia (May 5, 1818). He argued a staged view of class struggle: Capitalism, which had overcome Feudalism (private property rights growing out of the sovereign's holdings), would in turn be overcome by Socialism, with the elimination of private property. Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto and Das Capital. Both works expounded this new economic theory and view of history.

Interestingly, on May 5, 1912, the Soviet Communist Party newspaper Pravda began publishing. Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili took a new name, meaning “man of steel,” at about the same time that he helped found this newspaper. Stalin specialized in writing about national minorities in Russia and went on to become editor of Pravda. This gives you some idea of the power potential of the press in modern life.

Cinco de Mayo (1862): Today marks the anniversary of a battle at Puebla. General Ignacio Zaragoza (born in Texas when it was still governed by México) led troops, outnumbered three to one, against an invading French army, a force thought to be the best in the world. The Mexican forces defeated Napoléon III's army and Puebla remained in Zaragoza's hands.

Empereur en 1852, dès 1853 les timbres porteront 
la même effigie (à 1848) mais avec la légende Empire Français indiqué * EMPIRE * FRANC *El 8 de diciembre de 1861, los poderes europeos desembarcaron en el Puerto de Veracruz y lo ocuparon, siendo España la primera en llegar. Para el 11 de abril de 1862 España e Inglaterra se enteraron de las intenciones de Francia y abandonaron su apoyo embarcándose hacia Europa. Mientras tanto, en la ciudad de México, el Presidente Juárez (indio zapoteca que se había licenciado como abogado y había estudiado para el sacerdocio) tomaba medidas para contrarrestar la invasión:

El gobierno de la República...en vista de la declaración de los plenipotenciarios franceses, no puede ni debe hacer otra cosa que rechazar la fuerza con la fuerza y defender a la nación de la agresión injusta con la que se la amenaza. ...Tengamos fe en la justicia de nuestra causa... haciendo triunfar no sólo a nuestra patria, sino a los principios de respeto y de inviolabilidad de la soberanía de las naciones Full article Here

Emperor Maximilian featured on A 25-centavo, 
orange postage stamp, of Mexico-Scott 29One year after La Batalla de Puebla, the French brought in more troops and re-attacked. On this occasion the forces made their way to ciudad de México, took the capital and installed Emperor Maximilian of the Hapsburgs (Austrian-Hungary Empire) as the reigning monarch of México. Maximilian ruled México for about four years, until his execution in 1867 by troops loyal to President Benito Juárez, who had regained power. The attempt to re-establish a European Empire in the New World had failed, so reason enough to celebrate an event not critical to the desired outcome.

I tried to find a French article about this day (May 2006), but only one appeared on-line, and it did not touch upon the French role in this historic day

... Il y a le 1er mai, fêté partout dans le monde, il y a le 3 mai, la journée mondiale de la presse, et il y a le 6 mai dédié, au Liban, aux martyrs, y compris ceux de la presse …

Il y a aussi un autre jour de ce mois de l’année marquant un événement propre à un pays (le Mexique), mais célébré davantage dans un autre (les États-Unis-USA). Il s’agit du «cinco de mayo» (le 5 mai en espagnol), qui est l’une des fêtes nationales du Mexique. Il commémore la victoire des forces mexicaines, menées par le général Ignacio Zaragoza, sur les forces expéditionnaires françaises dans la bataille de Puebla (5 mai 1862). Si cette page de l’histoire passe presque inaperçue au pays où elle a été écrite, elle est donc source de grande liesse et de pavoisement au pays de l’Oncle Sam.

Quel lien y-a-t-il entre la bannière étoilée et celle de la patrie de Zapata et de Poncho Villa? Réponse: les chicanos. C’est ainsi que l’on appelle les hispaniques, et plus particulièrement les Mexicains, ayant émigré aux États-Unis et dont la plupart se sont établis en Californie et au Texas. À la fin des années 60, les étudiants de cette souche ont lancé le mouvement chicano pour marquer leur identité. Ils ont notamment voulu avoir «leur» jour de célébration qui refléterait leur ascendance mexicaine. De prime abord, le choix évident aurait dû être «el dieciséis de septiembre», ou le 16 septembre, date de l’indépendance du Mexique en 1810. Cependant, le 16 septembre coïncidait avec le début de l’année universitaire. Alors, le «cinco de mayo» est devenu l’alternative de fait pour ces étudiants, d’autant que leur plus grand héros, le général Zaragoza, était né au Texas.

«Latinos», «chicanos» et «hispaniques» -- Au fil des ans, les festivités du 5 mai ont débordé le cadre universitaire et tout activisme pour s’enraciner dans la culture traditionnelle du Sud-Ouest des États-Unis. Pour beaucoup de communautés américano-mexicaines, «cinco de mayo» est une manière importante d’honorer fièrement l’héritage de leur pays d’origine, éclipsant le jour d’indépendance du Mexique. Les Américains non mexicains participent également aux célébrations, de la même manière que les non-Irlandais observent le jour de la Saint-Patrick. Et le melting pot aidant, tout le monde trinque à la tequila et à la bière mexicaine. Au Mexique même, «cinco de mayo» est remémoré en particulier dans l’État de Puebla, où la célèbre bataille a eu lieu.

À noter que la population hispanique (qualifiée d’abord de latinos puis de chicanos et d’hispaniques) est actuellement la première minorité aux États- Unis. Elle représente déjà 11% de la population américaine. Elle englobe des émigrés originaires des divers pays sud-américains qui ont néanmoins en commun la langue et la religion catholique. Elle se caractérise aussi par une diversité de classes sociales: les plus riches étant les Cubains, viennent ensuite les Mexicains puis les Portoricains. Diversité de statuts également, car il y a millions de clandestins aux États-Unis, dont millions de Mexicains. C’est dire que le pays-hôte n’a pu que se mettre lui aussi à l’heure du «cinco de mayo» et sa kyrielle d’us et coutumes hérités des Aztèques: des fresques murales, auxquelles Diego Rivera et sa compagne Frida Kahlo ont donné leurs lettres de noblesses modernes, au taco et autres spécialités culinaires baptisées Tex-mex. see also (voi aussi),0,3131919.story

May 5, 1891: In the City of New York, its citizens attended the dedication of a famous building. When it first opened, Carnegie Hall had just three auditoriums: the Main Hall, the Chamber Music Hall and the Recital Hall, located underneath the Main Hall. The opening festival, held for five days, featured a guest conductor, Tchaikovsky.

Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (d. Nov 6, 1893) was born at Kamsko-Votinsk, in the Ural region of imperial Russia (May 7, 1840). His family moved to St. Petersburg in 1850. There he studied Law and graduated from the school of jurisprudence, from where he entered the Ministry of Justice as a clerk, first-class in 1859. He didn't start to study music seriously until he was 21, under Nicolai Zaremba. Tchaikovsky enrolled into the St. Petersburg Conservatory when it opened in 1862. His works included many well-known pieces, including the 1812 Overture, which celebrated the Russian victory over the French at the doorsteps of Moscow.

The structure in which Tchaikovsky partied was named Carnegie Hall, in honor of Andrew Carnegie, an immigrant from Dunfermline, Scotland and a real Man of Steel. Carnegie set up 2,500 libraries in Great Britain and North America. He did many other acts of Charity. Believing it a sin to die with great wealth, he set up a foundation that still provides money today. All four of the older Scottish universities received bequests, as did Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University). He forgot not his birthplace -- the most sacred spot to me on earth. Among his endowments, Pittencrieff House and its gardens were acquired for Dunfermline.

More: Another man of iron, Cy Young, then a member of the Boston Red Sox baseball team, tossed a perfect game (May 5, 1903) against the Philadelphia Americans. The final score was 3-0. No player on the Philadelphia team reached first base. It was the third perfect game ever thrown in the major leagues. Do you know who pitched the first two? They occurred only 5 days apart -- in 1880 -- On June 16, 1880, L. R., who would eventually become a medical doctor (if you build it they will come), was awarded his bachelors degree from Brown University. The place where L. R. stood when he tossed this perfect game is now marked by a plaque located on the campus of Becker College in Worcester, Massachusetts.

May 6, 1527: The Sack of Rome on this date, carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between the Holy Roman Empire and the League of Cognac (1526–1529) — the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy. Pope Clement VII had given his support to the Kingdom of France in an attempt to alter the balance of power in the region, and free the Papacy from what many considered to be 'Imperial domination' by the Holy Roman Empire (and the Habsburg dynasty). The army of the Holy Roman Emperor defeated the French army in Italy, but funds were not available to pay the soldiers, so at the army's insistence, it was given Rome instead. Numerous bandits, along with the League's deserters, joined with the army during the march. One of the Swiss Guard's most notable hours occurred during this day. Almost the entire guard was massacred by Imperial troops on the steps of St. Peter's Basilica. Only 42 survived, but their bravery ensured that Pope Clement VII escaped to safety, down the passetto di Borgo, a secret corridor which still links the Vatican City to Castel Sant'Angelo.

This marked the end of the Roman Renaissance, damaged the papacy's prestige and freed Charles V's hands to act against the Reformation in Germany and against the rebellious German princes allied with Luther. In commemoration of the Sack and the Guard's bravery, new recruits to the Swiss Guard are sworn in on May 6th every year. The Defenders of the Church celebrated 500 years of service in January 2006. Two-hundred Guards first arrived in Rome on January 22, 1505/6. Even at that time, these Helvetian soldiers, employed as mercenaries, were renowned for their courage and loyalty. The main event (in 2006) was a march to Rome, from Bellinzona in southern Switzerland, by some 80 veterans, to recall the march of the original 200.

Only a large picture gives the proper perspectiveDuring this sack of Rome, the Pope took refuge at Orvieto. Fearing that in the event of siege by Charles' troops the town's water might prove insufficient, he had a spectacular well constructed (Pozzo di S. Patrizio) by the architect-engineer Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (1527-37). It had a double helical ramps for one-way traffic, so that mules laden with water-jars might pass down then up again unobstructed. Orvieto is noted for its Gothic-style cathedral (the duomo-style construction began in 1290), striped in white travertine and greenish-black basalt in narrow bands; its design has often been attributed to Arnolfo di Cambio, but the prevailing modern opinion is that its master mason was an obscure monk named Fra' Bevignate from Perugia. The façade includes some remarkable sculpture by Lorenzo Maitani (14th century). Inside the cathedral, the Chapel of San Brizio is frescoed by Fra` Angelico and with Luca Signorelli's masterpiece, his Last Judgment (1449-51).

Orvieto is home to Etruscan ruins, the remnants of a wall that enclosed the city more than 2000 years ago and many tunnels. At the foot of the butte, surrounded by peach and apple trees and a vineyard, the Etruscan necropolis of Crocefisso di Tufo counts a hundred or so chamber tombs laid along a rectangular street grid. Orvieto was annexed by Rome in the 3rd century BC. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Orvieto's defensible ground gained new importance. The episcopal see was transferred from Bolsena, and the town was held both by Goths and Lombards, before Orvieto gained a self-governing commune in the 10th century. from

The white wine of the Orvieto district, to the northeast of the city, is one of the major Umbrian (Terni) products and is prized highly. The two principal types of red wine are "Orvieto" and "Orvieto Classico", depending on the specific area where the nectar was made. There is also a sweet wine made from late harvests where the grapes have been attacked by the muffa nobile (noble mold - français: pourriture noble; Deutsch: Edelfälee).

May 6, 1590: This day is the feast day (in the Catholic Church, not the COE) of an English martyr from the town of Middleton in Yorkshire. Anthony was educated and ordained at Reims, France. He returned to England in order to serve remaining Catholics after the rule of Elizabeth and her father, both of whom sought to purge the land of Catholic influence. The government arrested Anthony then hanged him. As if this was not enough he was thereafter drawn and quartered in London (and I suppose that he was then distributed throughout the land as an example). Edward Jones came from North Wales, and died the same day under similar circumstances in London.

The "Douai Martyrs" is a name applied by the Catholic Church to approximately 160 Catholic priests trained in the English College at Douai, France (Reims), who were executed by the state between 1577 and 1680. Having completed their training at Douai, many returned to England and Wales with the intent to minister to the Catholic population of England, and to undermine the Church of England and the governments of Elizabeth I and her successors. Many were arrested under charges of treason and conspiracy, resulting in torture and execution.

A large group - more than eighty - were beatified as martyrs by Pope Pius XI in 1929. Today, British Catholic dioceses celebrate their feast days separately and en masse (October 30th). The Douay Martyrs School in Ickenham, Middlesex is named in their honor. The Douay–Rheims Bible (also known as the Rheims–Douai Bible or Douai Bible, and abbreviated as D–R and DV) is a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church. The New Testament portion was published in Reims, France, in 1582, in one volume with extensive commentary and notes. The Old Testament portion was published in two volumes thirty years later by the University of Douai.

May 6, 1840 -- Cento de Mayo: The Penny Black was the world's first official adhesive postage stamp, issued in the city of Bath by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on May 1, 1840, for use from May 6th onward. The stamps were printed by Perkins Bacon. In addition, the two upper corners contained star like designs and the lower corners contained letters designating the position of each stamp in the sheet, "A A", "A B", and so forth. As the name suggests, the stamp was printed all in black. "T" was the last row and "L" was the last column. The stamps were cut from sheets and many advanced collectors try to reassemble sheets, based on the letter positions. A picture of this concept is found at the following link, which also shows the Two Pence Blue issued on the 8th:

There are known covers postmarked May 2nd, due to postmasters selling the stamps from May 1st. Stamps used on letters before May 6th should have been treated as unpaid and charged double the rate on delivery. A single example is also known on a cover dated May 1, 1840. The Penny Black was utilized for about a year. Experience showed that a red cancellation on a black stamp (as was the custom) was difficult to see, and the red cancellation could be cleaned from the stamp, allowing its illegal re-use. In 1841 the Treasury switched to the Penny Red and cancelled it with black ink, much harder, but not impossible, to clean. An original printing press for the Penny Black is on display to the public at the British Library in London. No regular-issue British stamp has been inscribed with the name of the nation, although the portrait of the monarch is instantly recognizable, a privilege (if you will) reserved for the country that invented the postage stamp.

May 6, 1937 – Hindenburg disaster: The German zeppelin Hindenburg (LZ 129) catches fire. Flames fueled by hydrogen fully engulf it within a minute. The airship had attempted to dock at a mooring at Lakehurst, New Jersey. Thirty-six people died.

May 7, 1915: A German submarine sank the British luxury liner Lusitania (1198 passengers and crew die). Among the dead 124 are American citizens. Public animus in the U. S. against Germany rises considerably. Four years to the day on May 7, 1919, the German delegation is summoned to the Trianon Palace at Versailles, where it learns the terms of the treaty prepared by the representatives of the United States, Britain, France, Italy and Japan. The Rhineland was to be occupied by the victors for a minimum of 15 years; Alsace-Lorraine was to go back to France (taken in 1871, but originally expropriated by the French in the 17th century); parts of the most eastern portion of Germany went to Poland; Danzig (a north-eastern port on the Baltic) was to become a free state; and finally, Germany forfeited all colonies to the victors.

In short, Germany had to accept full responsibility for the Great War. There were to be trials for war crimes. The German army was to be limited to 100,000 soldiers; the Rhineland became permanently demilitarized; the production of military planes was forbidden -- no air force necessary for modern war. Then came the large reparations in money and goods. The German representatives, who had been called to Versailles, refused to sign reminding everyone of the prior agreement to the Armistice based upon the 14 points of US President Wilson. From Berlin, Chancellor Scheidemann denounced the treaty. The Allies, however, had maintained the naval blockade of Germany and their mood was soon clear. The only alternative to signing the treaty was starvation. There were public demonstrations on June 21st, but Germany signed under protest on June 28th.

On another May 7th: Does one not have to talk about Reims in hushed tones ? -- Names come to mind, like Bishop Remigius {Saint Remi [Rémy]}, Evêque de Reims {Rheims}, Apostle of the Franks, who baptizes Clovis, France's first Roi (Christmas day 496) after the King is persuaded by Sainte Clotilde, his Queen. -- The crowning place of many other kings, sanctified to rule. -- Archbishop Turpin (whose seat of power (See) was in Reims back in the 8th century) gives communion to Roland, while the treacherous Saracen king Marsile looks on in the Cathedral. -- Sainte Jeanne was here too, alongside Charles VII, 'though the first Bourbon was not (the coronation for him was at Chartres). -- Crown jewel of the Champagne, a region further consecrated by the blood of two World Wars in the last century. -- It was in Reims, at 2:41 on the morning of May 7, 1945, that General Eisenhower and the Allies received the unconditional surrender of the Nazi's.
She entered the city leading a relief column on April 29th 
and the siege was lifted on the 8th May 8th: Le 8 mai 1429, Sainte Jeanne d'Arc délivre Orléans -- Every year on May 8th at Orléans, a pageant re-enacts Joan's entry into the city, today a city with mixture of of old and new architecture. On the plaza her memory is commemorated by statue. In about two years she would be dead at Rouen in Normandy by English hands: Ste. Jeanne d'Arc (May 30, 1431) -- est condamnée à être brûlée vive  See also: Maid of Orleans -- but by her death she had more power, transcending time and place.

In 1541, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto discovered and crossed the Mississippi River, which he called Rio de Espiritu Santo. De Soto encountered native tribes, including the Cherokee, who then numbered about 25,000 souls and inhabited an area between the Ohio River and the Chattahoochee River in present day Georgia, and from the Valley of the Tennessee River east across the Great Smoky Mountains to the Piedmont of the Carolinas. In May 1542 he died while still on this expedition. His body was sunk in the Mississippi to avoid desecration (May 28th).

On this date in 1819, President Monroe visited Savannah, Georgia to take part in christening ceremonies for the S.S. Savannah. The President's visited two weeks before the ship departed for Liverpool, England. The vessel became the first steamship to cross any ocean. During his visit, Monroe rode the Savannah on a tour to Charleston, SC. Exactly 100 years later, on May 8, 1919, a US Navy seaplane took-off on the first transatlantic flight.

Speaking of a pick me up, on this date in 1886, that the first Coca-Cola fountain drink was purchased. The event took place in Jacob's Pharmacy, located in the City of Atlanta, Georgia.

May 8, 1828: Henri Dunant, founder of the International Red Cross (October 29, 1863), is born in Geneva. Dunant was co-winner of the first Nobel Peace Prize in 1901. The Young Men's Christian Association (Y M C A) originated in London in 1844. Within a few years, this society of young men organized for mutual improvement on a distinctly religious basis had spread over Europe. Henry Dunant was president of the Geneva Association of the YMCA in 1859. Through him this institution first came into contact with the need for welfare support during a war situation. The movement was planted in America in 1851, where it began to play an important part in the U.S. War between the States (1861-65). By the time that the U.S. entered the Great War (1914-18) the role of the YMCA and of the International Red Cross during times of conflict had been well established.

He has a son not mentioned in the find-a-grave listing Reverend Hiram PHINAZEE -- May 8, 1852: Hiram was born in Wilkes County, GA in 1802, of Irish immigrant stock who fought in the American Revolution and received land grants for their service. He married Elizabeth Bird OGLETREE (11/3/03-04/14/84) on October 06, 1825, the daughter of another Revolutionary War veteran, William (of Scottish and Welsh background -- Bible Record HERE -- The male descendants can be directly traced back to Walter fitz Alan, First Earl Stewart of Scotland -- The patrilineal ancestors (from Brittany) had held the office of High Steward of Scotland after arriving by way of a Norman England) and a mother with ties to the old Virginia families of Lee, Bird and Beauford. Reverend Hiram Phinazee was a delegate to the Georgia Conventions of 1850 and 1861. He was one of the founders of the Congregational Methodist Church (May 8, 1852), generally and Rock Springs, specifically. -- his picture can be found here: His son, Augustive Joseph Phinazee, fought for the State of Georgia in the War between the States and married Martha F. Walker, she kin to the West clan, lately of Wilkes County Georgia but before of Virginia. She was one of 18 children (including several twins) produced by the same set of parents. Hiram, his wife, Elizabeth and his mother, Sarah Phinazee (descended from the Harris, Kimbroughs, Kittrells (Catheral) and Durants of olde Virginia) are buried in Monroe County, Georgia at the Greenwood Cemetery (Barnesville GA). Elizabeth’s parents, William and Mary, are nearby in the Ogletree family cemetery near Johnstonville GA, located between the towns of Griffin and Forsyth, Georgia. One of all their descendants was born on May 8, 1985. For more on the West family and its historic connections in the USA and before, please go HERE.

May 8, 1945: President Harry Truman (who also celebrated his 61st birthday on May 8th) announced the surrender of Germany to the American public; Axis Sally had made her final propaganda broadcast to Allied troops just two days before. After over five years (much more, if you want to include the fascist takeover of Spain or the fascist annexation of Ethiopia by Italy), World War II in Europe ended officially when Colonel General Alfred Jodl, the last chief of staff of the German Army, had signed the unconditional surrender at General Dwight D. Eisenhower's headquarters at Reims, France (May 7th).

And for those of you who keep track of the recent past, the State of Georgia got a new flag on this day in 2003:
May 9, 1754 -- Speaking of Flags: The rattlesnake motif was popular during the Revolutionary War. The first political cartoon appeared on this date in The Pennsylvania Gazette, featuring this symbol for the first time. No rioting by snake-worshippers was reported. The Gazette was the premier newspaper in Philadelphia, PA, and much like the Times today, it was the media of record. Philadelphia was Benjamin Franklin’s hometown. The cartoon appeared as part of an editorial by Franklin commenting on “the present disunited state of the British Colonies” -- title of the featured cartoon is JOIN, or DIE. The drawing is of a rattlesnake, sliced into eight pieces. Each of the pieces are labeled with the abbreviation for one of the colonies (New England was one slice, Georgia was missing, Delaware was part of Pennsylvania at this time). The intended message was that the Britsh colonies’ continued failure to unite would result in their eventual doom (loss of political and economic freedom).

May 9, 1955: West Germany is taken into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) ten years to the day of the end of World War II in Europe. Since that time May 9th has been celebrated as a day of peace, and more lately as European Union Day.

NATO was a triumph of organization and effort, but is was also something very new and very different. For NATO derived its strength directly from the moral values of the people it represented, from their high ideals, their love of liberty, and their commitment to peace. But perhaps the greatest triumph of all was not in the realm of a sound defense or material achievement. No, the greatest triumph after the war is that in spite of all of the chaos, poverty, sickness, and misfortune that plagued this continent, the people of Western Europe resisted the call of new tyrants and the lure of their seductive ideologies. Your nations did not become the breeding ground for new extremist philosophies. You resisted the totalitarian temptation. Your people embraced democracy, the dream the Fascists could not kill. They chose freedom. And today we celebrate the leaders who led the way -- Churchill and Monnet, Adenauer and Schuman, De Gasperi and Spaak, Truman and Marshall. {President Ronald Reagan, May 8, 1985, before the European Parliament in Strasbourg}

What Russia fears

Reported May 9, 2006: Les autorités d'Ankara ont rappelé hier «pour consultation» leurs ambassadeurs à Paris et à Ottawa, durcissant le ton face à ce que le ministère turc des Affaires étrangères appelle «les développements récents survenus en France et au Canada relatifs aux affirmations infondées sur un prétendu génocide arménien». Le premier ministre canadien avait récemment évoqué dans un discours «le génocide arménien», déchaînant l'ire du gouvernement turc. Mais c'est surtout avec la France que la crise s'aggrave. De 1915 à 1917, les massacres et déportations des Arméniens de l'Empire ottoman ont fait jusqu'à 1,5 million de morts. Ces faits reconnus par la plupart des historiens, même s'ils divergent dans leurs interprétations, sont, en revanche, niés par Ankara qui parle seulement d'un demi-million de victimes parmi les Arméniens, et rejette surtout le qualificatif de génocide, clamant qu'il y eut des massacres des deux côtés alors que des Arméniens s'étaient alliés aux Russes. Although the current President (of the USA) in the past has called upon Turkey to recognize its culpabilité, when he visited in April 2009, he was silent about the atrocité.

Alas, on May 10, 1291, some Scottish nobles recognized the authority of Edward I of England over their lives and destiny. The Hammer of the Scots holds sway for a few years more. On May 10, 1503, Christopher Columbus visited the Cayman Islands and names them Las Tortugas because of the numerous sea turtles found there. Just 31 years later, Jacques Cartier visited Newfoundland for the first time. In 1774, Louis XVI lost his head and in a brash moment became Roi de France. A year later in 1775, British Fort Ticonderoga is taken by a small force led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold; while on the same day, Representatives from the 13 colonies met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to raise the Continental Army to defend the new republic, soon to be formed. They place the army under command of George Washington of Virginia, who has had a somewhat checkered military career.

On May 10, 1801, Muslim (Barbary) pirates sailing from ports at Tripoli declare war on the United States of America. In 1869, the competing factions building the Transcontinental Railroad, linking the eastern and western portions of the USA, meet at Promontory Summit, Utah and seal the deal with the golden spike. While on the 10h of May 1872, Victoria Woodhull becomes the first female nominee for the position President of the United States. And, as everyone knows, on May 10, 1954, Messers. Bill Haley and the Comets release Rock Around the Clock, said to be the first rock and roll recording to reach number one on the popular music charts.

May 10, 2014: Are you ready for Astronomy Day ? This day represents a grass roots movement for the general population to Bring Astronomy to the People. During this year's Astronomy Day on May 2nd, thousands of people who have never looked through a telescope will have an opportunity to see the stars! Astronomy clubs, science museums, observatories, universities, planetariums, laboratories, libraries and nature centers host special events and activities to acquaint the general population with local astronomical resources. Many of these events will occur at non-astronomical sites; shopping malls, parks, urban centers. If you're interested in attending such an event, take a look at where current Astronomy Day events being held. This list only encompasses those groups who choose to advertise on the Astronomical League website, so please be sure to check your local news media for other events.

Saints de glace -- Les 11, 12 et 13 mai: La France connaît souvent des gelées tardives et l'on parle à cette occasion des « Saints de glace ». Il s'agit des anciens saints de ces jours: Les Saints de Glace: mythe, légende ou réalité ? After the passage of the Ice Saints' days it will be safe to plant (no frost). But these "brave Ice Saints" have been deleted from the Church Calendars, as well as other healers, retrouveurs of lost objects and those dealing with the weather (1960). Of course these three every year thereafter were still venerated by farmers and growers, who can be found on this occasion in processions with the parish priest in the lead, with pious prayers that were not necessarily devoid of ulterior motives involved. Yet if we look for the distant origins, even ancient, the people of those times had seen in May sudden drops in temperature at night (or rather early-morning) lasting around three days.

Qui sont ces trois zozos ? Saint Mamert: il est fêté le 11 Mai -- Saint patron des Pompiers, Evêque de Vienne (452), mort en 475. Frère du poète Claudius Mamert, il semble s'être distingué comme lui, par son éducation littéraire, comme par sa science Théologique. Il entra en conflit avec l'archevêque d'Arles, dont il contestait la suprématie, mais il dut se soumettre (463). Il institua ou introduisit en Gaule la procession des Rogations (Larousse du XXe siècle).

Saint Servais: il est fêté le 12 Mai -- Martyr né en 290, mort à Rome durant la persécution de Dioclétien en 304. C'était le neveu de Saint Denis. Dés le temps de Grégoire de Tours, il était vénéré en France. Il à donné son nom à un titre cardinalice, à Rome, ou ses reliques furent conservées jusqu'en 1798 (Larousse du XXe siècle).

Saint Pancrace: il est fêté le 13 Mai -- Evêque de Tongres en Belgique, né vers 300, mort à Tongres en 384. Il assista aux conciles de Cologne (346) et de Sartique (347), combattit les ariens; mais au concile de Rimini (359), il signa une profession de foi ambiguë, trompé par les arguties des évêques ariens Ursace et Valens et par sa connaissance imparfaite de la langue grecque. A l'approche des Huns, il se rendit à Rome pour implorer le secours des papes Jean VIII et Martin 1er (Larousse du XXe siècle).

Saint Mamert, Saint Servais, Saint Pancrace sont toujours de vrais saints de glace (Dicton de Haute-Loire) --

The Eisheiligen encompasses a time in May when, according to a popular farmers’ tale, the weather remains too unstable to plant crops, because of the danger of frost. The Ice Saints (Eisheilige in German, les Saints de Glace in France) is a name given to St. Mamertus, St. Pancras, and St. Servatius in Flemish, French, Dutch, Hungarian, German, Austrian, Polish, Swiss and Croatian folklore. They are so named because their feast days fall on the days of May 11, May 12, and May 13 respectively. In Poland and the Czech Republic, the Ice Saints are St. Pancras, St. Servatus and St. Boniface of Tarsus (i.e., May 12 to May 14). To the Poles, the trio are known collectively as zimni ogrodnicy (cold gardeners), and are followed by zimna Zośka (cold Sophias) on the feast day of St. Sophia which falls on May 15. In Czech, the three saints are collectively referred to as "ledoví muži" (ice-men or icy men), and Sophia is known as "Žofie, ledová žena" (Sophia, the ice-woman). The period from May 12 to May 15 was noted to bring a brief spell of colder weather in many years, including the last nightly frosts of the spring, in the Northern Hemisphere under the Julian calendar. The introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1582 involved skipping 10 days in the calendar, so that the equivalent days from the climatic point of view became May 22–25. A year's colder than normal spring suggests that it may be prudent advice that year to wait some before planting.

In Sweden, the German legend of the ice saints has resulted in the belief that there are special "iron nights," especially in the middle of June, which is susceptible to frost. The term "iron nights" (järnnätter) has probably arisen through a mistranslation of German sources, where the term "Eismänner" (ice men) was read as "Eisenmänner" (iron men) and their nights then termed "iron nights," which then became shifted from May to June. Some once believed that it was not safe to plant crops until after the Ice Men of pagan lore were gone. There’s also a proverb in England: "Ne’er cast a clout till May be out." --- meaning: "Don’t remove winter clothes until the end of May." Scientists have been unable to determine that a higher chance of frost in May scientifically exists (really ? -- you think that would just be a math probleme), but anytime the weather dips from warm to cool in May, Germans folks are likely to discuss those "Ice Saints."

It became a habit on May 12, 254AD: Saint Stephen I began his reign as the 23rd Catholic Pope. According to the Liber Pontificalis, the Pontiff instituted a rule requiring priests to wear specialized clothing during a mass, more specifically that consecrated vestments were not to be worn for daily chores. Stephen was a Roman citizen by birth. This was a time between persecutions and before the authority of the Bishop of Rome was fully settled. One dispute over authority that comes to mind was CYPRIAN of CARTHAGE and Pope Stephen. It was settled by Stephens natural death and the Martyrdom of St. Cyprian, without direct resolution. Today the Roman Catholic Church recognizes Cyprian's contribution to unity through his profession of faith at death and his many written works during life.

Journée des Barricades -- Le 12 Mai 1588: Un roi huguenot ? Jamais ! Le matin du 12 mai 1588, les étudiants parisiens et leurs professeurs, suivis par les parlementaires et les bourgeois se regroupent autour de la place Maubert. Craignant une agression de l'armée royale, ils barrent les rues en tendant des chaînes et en entassant des objêts divers. C'est une première dans l'Histoire de Paris et de la France. But it was not the last time, by any means, that the students of Paris took to the streets. We have a recent example in 2006, as well as that in 1968, when students put up barricades on the night of May 10th.

La Place Maubert seems to have been a place for grisly public executions in Paris. A statue once stood in the middle of the Maubert, that of Etienne Dolet. Cast in 1889, less than 60 years later it was gone, melted by the Nazis during the occupation of the Second World War. Etienne Dolet represented the horrendous actions that took place there. Poet, printer, humanist, once released by King François I, he later was condemned for heresy, tortured, strangled and burned with his books on the 3rd of August in 1546. see also

May 12, 1689: England’s King William III joined the League of Augsburg and the Netherlands. This Grand Alliance was to counter the aggressive acts of Louis XIV against the Palatinate states in Germany. This period is known as The War of the League of Augsburg (1689-97), The Nine Years' War or the War of the Grand Alliance.

May 13th: The Saint Pancrace, an Ice Saint who is celebrated this day, was the Bishop of Tongeren, an ancient town in today's Belgium (Limburg Province). He was born circa 300, died in Tongeren 384. He attended the Church Councils of Cologne (346) and Sartique (347), fought against the Arians, but at the Council of Rimini (359) he signed a confession of faith which was somewhat ambiguous. He was said to have been deceived by the subtleties of the Arian bishops Ursatius and Valens, and confused by his imperfect knowledge of Greek. With the approach of the Huns, he went to Rome to implore the assistance of Martin (of Tours). The Huns are thought to have destroyed the town 70 years later. Do not confuse him with St. Pancras whose relics came to Britain. That Saint was martyred as a 14 year old (about 300AD), and today may be best remembered for a large London train station, which now is home of the Eurostar fast-train which travels under the Channel.

May 13, 1912: The Royal Flying Corps was established in England. It was the predecessor force to the Royal Air Force. Exactly 6 years later the first U.S. airmail stamps, featuring a picture of a bi-plane, were introduced. On some of the 24¢ stamps, the æroplane (a Curtis Jenny) was printed upside down, making them an immediate, valuable collector's item. A few years back, a block of four sold for $4 million.

Igor Sikorsky of Russia flew the first 4-engine aircraft on this date in 1913. Twenty-seven years later Igor Sikorsky unveiled his helicopter invention, which on May 13th 1942 completed the first cross-country flight. On May 13, 1992, astronauts from the Space Shuttle Endeavour captured an off-course communications satellite (Intelsat-6) during the first-ever three-person spacewalk.

Two days after the airmail stamps first appeared (1918), The U.S. Post Office and the U.S. Army began regularly scheduled airmail service between Washington and New York through Philadelphia. Lieutenant George L. Boyle, an inexperienced young pilot (U.S. Army Air Corps), tried to make the first flight from Washington, but he got lost, flying south rather than north. The second leg of the Washington-Philadelphia-New York flight, however, arrived in New York on schedule -- without the Washington mail. The distance of the route was 218 miles. One round trip per day was made six times a week. The Army flew the route until August 10, 1918, when the U.S. Post Office Department took over the entire operation with its own contract planes and pilots.

May 13, 1941: Musician Ritchie Valens (Donna, La Bamba) was born, but his short life ended (airplane crash) the day the music died. On February 3rd 1959, Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens and J.P. Richardson passed away near Clear Lake, Iowa. More HERE about these and other musicians who died in airplanes.
May 14, 1533: Margaret Valois, was born, daughter of King Henri II of France and of Catherine de' Medici. Known as Queen Margot, she was queen first of Navarre, then of France. Her wedding (1572) with Prince Henri, Protestant King of Navarre (later Henri IV the First Bourbon King of France) was intended to mark the peace between the Catholic and Protestant factions, instead it became a prelude to the massacre of Protestants, with bells ringing at Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois. She died 5 years after Henri (1615).

At the age of 56, King Henri de Navarre, King Henri IV of France was assassinated by a fanatical monk, François Ravillac, on May 14th (1610). En cette époque de guerres civiles et religieuses, des théologiens protestants et des Jésuites légitiment le meurtre des «tyrans» ... Henri IV est leur dernière victime. Il est assassiné alors qu'il se préparait à entrer en guerre contre les Habsbourg d'Autriche et d'Espagne, champions de la Contre-Réforme catholique.

Henri was succeeded by 11-year-old Louis XIII, under the watchful eye of Cardinal Richelieu (Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de Richelieu). Inspite of Henri's death, France would still be drawn into the Thirty Year's War, fighting against Spain. A brief period of Peace in the conflict had ensued in 1635 with Spain having thus far soundly beaten the Protestant countries. Richelieu would in effect resume the hostilities by declaring war on May 19, 1635, because Spain had become too powerful. The French would vanquish Spain. The decissive battle was fought in the Ardennes and the French gained Alsace, soon after the Cardinal's death.

Coincidently, Louis XIV (the Sun King) became King of France at age 4 upon the death of his father, Louis XIII on (you guessed it) May 14th (1643). Queen Anne (a daughter of the Spanish house), the widow of Louis XIII, was granted sole and absolute power as Regent by the Paris Parliament, overriding the late sovereign's will (May 18th). In effect, the murder of Henri, who converted to catholicism to bring peace to Paris and France, will set up a reign of terror against all religious people, first during the rule of Louis XIV against the Protestants in France (Édit de Fontainebleau) and the Palatine region of Germany, and later during the French Revolution. Louis XIV's actions would contribute to a mass and varied migration of people to the United States (Pennsylvania Deutsch and Huguenot settlers in South Carolina). Neither my spouse or I would have been here without these forced migrations; moreover, this country would have been a vastly different place without the contributions that these refugees from oppression made.

May 14, 1968: The Beatles announced the start-up of a new company. The Apple Corporation, formed in order to control intellectual property rights, gave the group the ability to produce the kind of music it wanted. Founded in 1976, an Apple corporation (actually Apple Computer, Inc.) was established so that the owners could design and distribute the kind of information systems they wanted. See -- iPad, iPhone, iPod, iTunes ... iMac.

May 14, 2007: On this date the Nation celebrated the arrival in Virginia of men from England. Virginia was named for Sir Walter Raleigh's favorite Queen; but, the presiding ruler was now King James, who was the Sixth of that name for Scotland and the First of England (1603). James also was the son of a former Scottish Queen, whom Elizabeth had imprisoned and executed. A more diplomatic name was necessary during this reign, hence when the Englishmen founded James' towne, they built it as a fort first.

In June 1610, after a terrible drought and a deadly winter the colonists called the Starving Time, when dozens of souls perished, the surviving colonists packed, prepared to leave the site to return to England. They buried unneeded military gear at James Fort before they left, according to period accounts. Some of that gear has resurfaced near the first graveyard and church. Archæologists in 2007 recovered the arms and many other artifacts from a level about 3 feet below what was the ground in the 17th-century. The entire area had been thought to have eroded into the river until 1996, when the rediscovery of James Fort, the first settlement, was announced.

In the end, the colonists did not get beyond the mouth of the James River in their quest to leave. They ran into the fleet of Lord Thomas Leighton WEST, 3rd Lord De La Warr, the colony's governor and captain general, who arrived with supplies (and new hope) after a 3 month journey on June 9, 1610. Out of respect for his leadership and contributions to the struggling settlement, the Delaware River today bears his name. Unfortunately, Thomas West died at sea before he could do more (June 7, 1618). His death came just over two years before the Pilgrims would establish residence accidentally in New England. His brother, called Captain John WEST, immigrated to the New World and resided at West's Point, King William County, Virginia. Among other offices, he was acting Governor of Virginia (and Captain General ?) under the Stuart Crown from 1635-1636. He and his wife, Anne SHIRLEY, are the progenitors of many Americans who are alive today.

The week-long celebration of the founding of Historic Jamestowne, with visits by Queen Elizabeth II and her consort Prince Phillip and others (such as her cousin, the Vice President), culminated with the President's grounds-tour and speech. In 2008, historic Jamestowne continued the momentum of the 400th anniversary celebration. The major goal of this excavation season is to begin to uncover the remaining unexplored half of the 1607 James Fort searching for the original church, the Virginia Company storehouse, the guard house and an early well.

May 15, 1248: Kölner Erzbisch, Konrad von Hochstaden, laid the cornerstone for the Cologne Cathedral (Der Kölner Dom), which towers over the city on the western bank of the Rhine River. From 1880, when its west-facing spires were completed, until 1884 it was the World's tallest structure, losing its title at the completion of the Washington Monument in Washington DC. The Cathedral at Cologne remains the tallest Gothic-style structure in the world. During the 2nd World War, Allied bombing severely damaged the Cathedral. Not until 1956 would the Cathedral return to its intended purpose in all its glory.> You must visit the Römisch-Germanisches Museum, which is in front (western side) of the Cathedral. Many fine museums exist in this region, which display roman, germanic and celtic artifacts (e.g. Mainz {Mayence}, Frankfurt am Main {Francfort}). You do not want to miss them either. Our page on links to German cities is HERE.

May 15, 1889: In Paris at 11:50am this Tour de Force was opened to the public universelle. At about 1000 feet, it became the world's tallest free-standing structure, until the Chrysler building rises in NYC forty years later. Constructed by a well-known French bridge builder, it became a beloved symbol in the few short months of the fair.

In fact, Eiffel was actually erecting what ambitious English and American engineers had only dreamed of for decades: a thousand-foot tower. "What was the main obstacle I had to overcome in designing the tower?" asked (and then answered) Eiffel: "Its resistance to wind" -- a foe he had long ago bested in such pioneering bridge designs as his Pia Maria railway bridge in Oporto, Portugal. "And I submit that the curves of [the tower's] four piers as produced by our calculations, rising from an enormous base and narrowing toward the top, will give a great impression of strength and beauty."

May 16, 1794: The shroud of Turin was once on display at Besançon, or (perhaps) only its less-famous copy. In any event, history first records a shroud on display at Besançon before 1349. It is thought, but not proved, that the LaRoche family had possession of the Saint-Suaire for 150 years (probably at Saint-Etienne in Besançon or at the homeplace LaRoche (Rigney)). The Shroud of Besançon (by then a famous copy) was sent to Paris on 27 Floréal, an II (May 16, 1794) of the Revolution. It is then thrown into a fire, from which it did not escape. Reports in early April 2009, have Vatican documents now supporting a link between the Shroud known in 1204 and that seen in 1357. The known history of the Shroud of 1204 appears to go back hundreds of years to Odessa; so, therefore, scientific reports that the Shroud was only a medieval fake are themselves in question.

Starting in 2003, new evidence began to appear in secular, peer-reviewed, scientific journals that supported the Shroud of Turin's authenticity . . . in 2005, we learned that the carbon 14 dating was flawed. In fact we learned that the cloth could very well be 2000 years old.

* * *

As science moved forward, new historical information was coming to light. Indeed, there is evidence that the cloth, now called the Shroud of Turin, really was a treasure of the early church; not the Pauline communities with which we are so familiar, but the Church in the East . . . Odessa. In 544 CE, a cloth, with an image believed to be Jesus, was found above one of Odessa's gates in the walls of the city, a cloth that Gregory Referendarius of Constantinople would later describe with a full length image and bloodstains. There is strong evidence that the Odessa cloth is in fact the Shroud of Turin. Numerous writings, drawings, icons, pollen spores and limestone dust attest to this. from

A recent study by French scientist Thierry Castex has revealed that on the shroud are traces of words in Aramaic spelled with Hebrew letters. A Vatican researcher, Barbara Frale, told Vatican Radio July 26 that her own studies suggest the letters on the shroud were written more than 1,800 years ago. She said it would not be unusual for something to be written on a burial cloth in order to indicate the identity of the deceased. Scholars have suggested that Hebrew characters probably are part of the phrase "The king of the Jews." The last public exhibition began on April 10, 2010, and ended on May 23rd of that year.

so called "Crusader Coin" of William LaRoche - Dutchy of Thebes
Link to French 
page on 
la Citadelle

Stamp that shows the city's famous citadel (right) as well as the symbol for the shroud (left) found in stain glass

Le front Royal est flanqué de deux guérites de surveillance : la tour du roi et la tour de la reine. Le front Royal et le front de Secours (à l’autre extrémité de la citadelle) ont été édifiés par les Espagnols et remaniés par Vauban. Ces fronts sont reliés par deux énormes murailles, qui épousent presque à la perfection le relief et le rocher. À cause des vues ennemies depuis les collines des alentours, pour faire écran, Vauban a construit des murailles très solides, en calcaire, de 5 à 6 m d’épaisseur et de 15 à 20 m de haut. La partie supérieure des parapets était construite en brique car leurs éclats étaient beaucoup moins meurtriers que le calcaire. Ces murs délimitent la cour intérieure, le corps de place et ils étaient surmontés d’un chemin de ronde sur lequel on pouvait déambuler pour monter la garde. De plus une dizaine de guérites (ce ne sont pas des échauguettes, ce nom étant applicable aux châteaux-forts médiévaux, alors qu'en fortification bastionnée, on parle de guérites) étaient disposées le long de ce circuit, pour servir de poste de guet et de combat. Elles étaient plus décoratives qu’efficaces car elles étaient très fragiles. Il n’en reste aujourd’hui plus que deux.

The origin of the name Front Royal remains uncertain. One version holds that, in early decades of European settlement, when the area was in the Colony of Virginia, the name referred to "le front royal" (in French) meaning the British frontier. French settlers, trappers, and explorers in the Ohio Territory of the mid-18th century were referring to the land grant made by King Charles II, then in control of Thomas, Lord Fairfax, Baron of Cameron. "Le front royal" translates to the "Royal Frontier" in English. The British and Colonial governments may have called the area Front Royal after 1763, when they set the so-called Proclamation Line along the spine of the Alleghenies to demarcate the settled portion of the colonies from the Native American lands further west.

However, another legendary version of the origin of the name has it that, during colonial days, a giant oak tree reminiscent of the "Royal Oak" of England (where Charles spent one cold night hiding to escape the Roundheads following the Battle of Worcester in 1651), stood in the public square where Chester and Main Streets intersect. There local militia, composed of raw recruits, slowly learned military commands and maneuvers by constant drill. On one occasion, the sorely tried drill sergeant became so exasperated that he hit upon a phrase that all could understand and shouted, "front the Royal Oak !" Among the spectators was a former professional soldier. He was so amused by the officer's coined order that he and his friends found much sport in telling the story, repeating "front the Royal Oak" until Front Royal became the resulting name for the town.

More of May begins HERE.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls
A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
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We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from: -- -- -- -- -- -- --

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December

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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at the time.