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The  VANGUARD --   2018

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit"

 
We will begin our 22nd Year online in May 2018
". . . One Nation under God . . . ."



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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links
Luxembourg

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage -- Irish Copper Colonial Coinage (US) -- Seventeenth Century British Copper

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- US Gold Coinage (a small sample) -- http://www.au-chateau.com/auChateauNews86.php (New: Summer 2018 )

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3
Passover - Pesach

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; 
walk in that way and find rest for your souls

This is none other than the dwelling place of God,
and this is the Gate of Heaven
This is the Gate of the Lord, the Righteous shall enter into it


And, on the last day, I know that I shall stand,
in my own flesh,
and see God, my Redeemer [Job 19:25-27].
Dieu entendre moi
cri de mon cœur - étrangère
dans mon propre pays {Psalm 69}

Unto Thee {alone}
will I cry, O Lord my Rock
{and my Redeemer}


I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord  Psalm 122.

Beloved, we are now the sons of God, but it doth not yet appear what we shall become;
however, we know that, when He shall return, we shall be like Him; for we shall see Him as He is [1 John 3:2].


Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

July 16, 1918: Orders were given to execute Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, by the Bolsheviks under orders from party leader, Comrade Lenin. Tsar Nicholas died early the next morning in the basement at Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg (YEKATERINBURG). His wife, son, 4 daughters, and 4 servants were reported murdered also at this time. A family mass grave was discovered by a former KGB agent in 1979 in the Ural Mountains of Eastern Russia. The bodies were exhumed in 1991. Only 9 bodies were found. The Czar's family and servants were massacred by a 12-man firing squad, a jury of their would-be peers. http://www.ekaterinburg.tv/Romanovs.htm Remains have only recently been identified. http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/11/25/europe/czar.php

Ipatiev house was destroyed to prevent it from being a place for pilgrimage by the Soviet Communist Party in 1977. When the Soviet government fell, opinions changed. On the site of former Ipatiev house, Cathedral-on-the-Blood has been built. It is the largest church structure in Ekaterinburg today. Its grand-opening was July, 16, 2003, on the 85th anniversary of the tragedy.

July 16, 1945: The first test of an atomic bomb was conducted at Alamogordo Air Base, south of Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bomb was called the Gadget and the experiment was called Trinity from a poem by John Donne (1572-1631) -- Batter my heart, three-person’d God {circa 1609}. The explosion took place in a part of the desert called Jornada del Muerto, (Dead Man’s Trail), with the measured the equivalent of 18,600 tons of TNT. It was the culmination of 28 months of break-neck scientific research and development, conducted under the leadership of a former German physicist, Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, using the code name of Manhattan. http://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/hst/northamerican/TrinitySite-I/chap1.html

This was a very high-cost, high-profile, yet secret project. The successful atomic test was witnessed by only one journalist, William L. Laurence of the New York Times, who described seeing the blinding explosion: "One felt as though he had been privileged to ... be present at the moment of the Creation when the Lord said: Let There be Light." Oppenheimer’s own thoughts were less sanguine: "I am become death, the shatterer of worlds" (words from the Hindu Bhagavad-Gita). The event is chronicled in Richard Thode’s The Making of the Atomic Bomb.

OF COURSE it was H.G. Wells who first perfected the atomic bomb and put it to work. And not only did he put it to work, demolishing most of the world's capital cities and destroying governments, but then he got busy and built an entirely new society. In less time than you can imagine after the last bomb fell, everybody was settling down nicely in a global socialist community under a World Republic; atomic energy, internationally controlled, was performing all the necessary jobs of production, transportation, heating, and such, so that the creative energies of mankind could be applied to more noble works. In 1914, when The World Set Free was published and no bombs of any sort had been dropped, it all sounded [oh so] fantastic .... http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml%3Fi=19450818&s=wells

This essay was reprinted in 2003 from the August 18, 1945, issue of The Nation. The Nation claims that it will not be the organ of any party, sect, or body. It will, on the contrary, make an earnest effort to bring to the discussion of political and social questions a really critical spirit, and to wage war upon the vices of violence, exaggeration, and misrepresentation by which so much of the political writing of the day is marred -- a credo that first appeared in The Nation's founding prospectus of 1865.

July 17: In 1717, George I, King of Great Britain, sails down the Thames River on a barge containing 50 musicians. George Frideric Handel's (Georg Friedrich Händel auf deutsch) Water Music is premiered on this night of nights. Charlotte Corday, French aristocrat and heroine dies this day at the hands of the Revolution (1793). The sixteen Carmelite Martyrs of Compiegne are executed 10 days prior to the end of the French Revolution's Reign of Terror (1794). On the orders of the Bolshevik Party carried out by the Cheka, Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, his immediate family and retainers are murdered at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg, Russia (1918). On this same day the RMS Carpathia, the ship that rescued the 705 survivors from the RMS Titanic, is sunk off Ireland by the German submarine U-55. Five lives are lost. An Armed Forces rebellion against the recently-elected leftist Popular Front government of Spain starts the Spanish civil war (1936).

In 1945, President Truman, Soviet leader Josef Stalin and British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill began meeting at Potsdam (outside of Berlin) in the final Allied summit of World War II, a day after the Trinity test. Some theorize that the date of the test and the bomb's use against Japan a few weeks later were employed to temper Stalin's post-war demands, as well as to secure his cooperation in opening a new front against the Imperial Japanese forces in Manchuria. TWA Flight 800: Off the coast of Long Island, New York, a Paris-bound Boeing 747 explodes, killing all 230 on board (1996). Some believe that it was brought down by a surface to air missile, which the then current US Administration denied. On this date in 1864 General Joseph E. Johnston is relieved of command. To Sherman's delight John Bell Hood is the replacement. Hood will watch the battle a few days later from a position in today's Oakland Cemetery, while Sherman's HQ will be at the Carter Center. The scourging of Atlanta with fire takes place in November, when the march to the sea begins; but before then, it will have been heavily bombarded without regard to civilian casualties.



Christ Pantocrator A Nomisma of Michael III (842-67)

July 18, 64AD: The Great Fire of Rome began. After the fire the Roman Emperor, Nero, built his Golden House (Domus Aurea), a country house in the center of the city. The ruler made other improvements to the city, too. http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/romans/architecture/goldenhouse.htm Nero blamed a growing religious sect for the event in order to deflect suspicion about his motives. Many of the Way were tortured and killed; some set alight for their beliefs. It is thought that Nero is the Beast of the Revelation of St. John the Divine because of this persecution, and that 666 was the number of his name (Rev 13:18). The numerical values of the Hebrew letters in the name Neron Kesar (Nero Cæsar) added together are equal to the sum of Six Hundred Sixty-Six.

A few years after the death of Nero, the Emperor Vespasian launched the construction of a huge 50,000-seat amphitheater at the site of the lake and gardens of the former emperor. Its official name, the Flavian Amphitheatre (after the family name of Vespasian) was soon replaced in popular usage by the Colosseum (in Latin, the Colossus), probably because of the proximity of the gigantic statue of Nero. The name stuck even after the removal of this large object. http://www.herodote.net/histoire07190.htm


18. Juli 1996 - Bundesrepublik Deutschland -- 800 Jahre Stadt Heidelberg (Sondermarke 100 Pfennig)

Eighteen Hundred Years Later -- July 18, 1864: Now relieved of command of the Confederate Army of Tennessee, General Joseph E. Johnston spent most of this day briefing new commander General John Bell Hood on the location of units defending Atlanta. Johnston then caught the evening train to Macon, leaving Hood alone to plan a new strategy to stop the advancing Union Army. The Confederate rank-and-file did not expect the replacement of Johnston with Hood, but Union soldiers seemed pleased. The Yankees thought that Hood would be more aggressive than Johnston had been, thus finally resolving the issue at hand. Johnston's repeated retreats had led Jefferson Davis to conclude the General had no strategy to stop Sherman. Officers and enlisted men on both sides now knew that fierce fighting with substantial loss of life now was only days away.

General W. T. Sherman had issued orders to his generals on the 17th for the next day's plan of action and movements into position had already occurred before daybreak on the 18th. Beginning at 5am, Thomas would advance on Peachtree Creek, Schofield on Decatur and McPherson would follow Schofield tearing up railroad tracks and downing telegraph lines. http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-jul/jul18.htm Sherman's order also included the recipe for what would be known as Sherman's Neckties. McPherson (http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=8736) was directed to:

keep every man of his command at work in destroying the railroad by tearing up track, burning the ties and iron, and twisting the bars when hot. Officers should be instructed that bars simply bent may be used again, but if when red hot they are twisted out of line they cannot be used again. Pile the ties into shape for a bonfire, put the rails across and when red hot in the middle, let a man at each end twist the bar so that its surface becomes spiral.

By 7 p.m., five miles of Georgia Railroad track had been destroyed, and McPherson's troops were within four miles of Stone Mountain. As for Sherman, he had been in Fulton County for about a day, tenting on the tranquil tree-lined banks of the Hooch (Chattahoochee River) near Power's Ferry, yet he was already making a lasting impression on the area's infrastructure. Sherman's handiwork in Atlanta would secure Lincoln a second term

July 19, 1864: Confederate forces engaged several divisions of General George Thomas' Army of the Cumberland trying to negotiate Peachtree Creek north of Atlanta. In heavy fighting, some Union forces had advanced south, while others turned back. Meanwhile, Sherman was now with General Schofield's 23rd Corps at the present site of Emory University. Here, he issued Special Field Order No. 39, which stated in part:

If fired on from the forts or buildings of Atlanta no consideration must be paid to the fact that they are occupied by families, but the place must be cannonaded without the formality of a demand ....

As the night fell, Thomas' forces stretched along Peachtree Creek to the north, Schofield's forces formed an arc to the northeast, and McPherson's forces were to the east. General Sherman now was well-positioned to advance on the City of Atlanta proper, while General Hood had determined to repulse the attack. Both leaders could only imagine how many soldiers would fall in the next 24 hours.

That evening in Atlanta, Miss Abby, a Yankee sympathizer, wrote in her diary:

All of my neighbors have gone. Am alone on the hill. A friend has urged me to move to town and reside with her. But this is my house, and I wish to protect it, if possible. There may be not battle here. If not, I am safe. If there is one, where is any safety ? http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/CivilWar/jul364.htm

July 20, 1861: During the American War Between the States, Northerners who advocated restoration of the Union through a negotiated settlement with the South were called Peace Democrats. The New York Tribune compared them to the venomous Copperhead snake, which strikes without warning. If you remember your history, it was Ben Franklin in this Nation's most famous (and earliest) political cartoon that likened the 13 colonies to a rattlesnake, which desires only to be left alone, but will strike after giving a suitable warning.

July 20, 1864: Three years later, the whole Democrat party was populated with those wanting to trade honor for peace. Led by a fired general, who would soon be the party's candidate for President, Democrats urged a change in the terms for ending the war which was going badly for Lincoln in the popular Press. Grant was bogged down before Petersburg, Sherman had been stymied before Atlanta. A win was needed to preserve the Union.

So dawn and a morning meeting came early, as they always do on days when things are not going well. General Hood has less than 51,000 officers and men capable of fighting against a Union army twice the size. Under pressure from government in Richmond to stop Sherman's advance (to assure Lincoln's loss), Hood spelled out the day's objective in no uncertain terms: No matter what the price, eliminate all Union forces south of Peachtree Creek. An elaborate battle plan was outlined that calls for coordinated thrusts to begin at 1 o'clock in the afternoon. Confusion, however was really the order of the day, and the vastly superior numbers of Union forces and artillery took the toll one would expect.

By evening, the Battle of Peachtree Creek was over -- but at a terrible cost. Confederate casualties totaled 4,796 men (including Gen. C. H. Stevens, who was killed in event), while Union dead and wounded amounted to 1,710 dead and wounded. This total while high is about 10% of the casualty totals for the last day at Gettysburg only a year earlier. But the first of three major battles in and around Atlanta (see map) had been too much of loss for Hood to bear. To put put this in more stark perspective, every soldier in the South was now irreplaceable. In contrast, President Lincoln had just called for (and reasonably expected) 500 thousand new combatants in the coming year in the quest to crush the rebellion.

While the Battle of Peachtree Creek raged that day, fierce fighting also took place to the east of town as Federal forces at Decatur began advancing on Atlanta. Confederate forces opened fire, slowing the Union advance. Meanwhile, artillery units in the Union's 20th Corps began the first shelling of the City of Atlanta. The first round struck downtown causing the death of a young child. Shelling would continue for 20 days more.

1969 July 20th: During somewhat better times for Atlanta in 1869, Joel Chandler Harris had his first Uncle Remus story published -- in the Atlanta Constitution. One hundred years later, Astronaut Neil Armstrong took his legendary small step. Some claim the event never happened; it was a Hollywood invention to take the Nation's eyes off Reality-Vietnam, which was playing a new episode every night on TV. Who knew that the Moon was on the same time as the East Coast or that it had daylight saving's time ?? The timing of the first step, 10:56 p.m. EDT made the late-evening news in the States. The €uro-centric among you will no doubt point out that the first step occurred on the 21st according to Universal Time, which we admit ought to apply to the Moon -- but perhaps back then, when it was called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), a term of the British Empire, it had less than universal appeal. Everyone is talking about moonwalks: Links HERE.

On this date in 1976, the Viking robot spacecraft made a successful, first-ever landing on Mars, began taking soil samples and sent back pictures of red rocks, sand and sky. In 1989, the President used the anniversary of these occasions to call for a long-range space program to build an orbiting space station, establish a base on the moon and send a manned mission to the planet Mars. His son, the President in 2004, also renewed this pledge. We shall see. Well, if not me, then thee. Voyez http://www.mars-news.com/mars/government-jpl-mars-rover.html

In 2010, members of the Executive Branch now wanted to kill NASA's ambitious back-to-the moon program, an effort that carried the imprimatur of someone whose policies they have blamed for economic failure. So one has to wonder about NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, who backs the new President's plans to eliminate this manned spaceflight. Both have redefined NASA's primary missions. The claim that the Constellation program draws off resources for investments in other key space technologies; does it represent a heartfelt belief or a clever cover for the fact that the current administration wants to end any prior program because of Bush's faulty thinking. The Constellation program already has digested about $9 billion -- for a new crew capsule, called the Orion, and a new rocket, the Ares 1. Both (along with the cash) are vaporized by the administration's progressive NASA strategy of using a space taxi system and corporate contributions to reach the moon and beyond. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/02/01/AR2010020102145.html

In Baseball on July 20th: Hank Aaron (1974) broke Ty Cobb's record of 3,033 career games. So, that the then 40-year-old Aaron would set the new record during his 20th major league baseball season. In 1976, as the all-time home run champion, Henry Aaron hit his 755th and final home run off power-pitcher Mr. Richard Drago. http://web.archive.org/web/20070108170145/http://www.thebaseballpage.com/past/pp/aaronhenry/

July 21, 1959: The first atomic-powered merchant ship, the NS Savannah, was christened in Camden, NJ by First Lady Mamie Eisenhower as a showcase for passenger and cargo ships of the future. The ship was named after the SS Savannah, the premier steam-powered vessel of the 1820s. Powered by a B&W Pressurized-water Reactor, the NS Savannah had a unique career lasting only about 10 years (only two others were built world-wide). For a while, the decommissioned vessel was docked at Patriot's Point near Charlestown SC, as part of the Naval & Maritime Museum, which includes the Yorktown memorial. In recent past, one had to travel to Newport News in Virginia to find it, rusting with the rest of the Ghost Fleet along the James River. http://www.radiationworks.com/NSSavannah.htm see also http://www.asme.org/history/brochures/h087.pdf. You may remember that another vessel christened the Savannah was the first steam ship to cross the Atlantic, way back in 1819. In 2010, B&W has proposed to rejuvenate the nuclear industry with small add-on units {integral Pressurized Water Reactors (iPWR)} http://atomicinsights.blogspot.com/2010/06/platts-small-modular-reactor-meeting_29.html. And in 2012, the ship Savannah is docked near Baltimore, for an eventual return to its namesake, perhaps as a Museum attached to Hutchinson Island. On August 22nd, the City of Savannah dedicated a plaque memorializing the vessel.

July 22, 1620: The Pilgrims set out from Holland destined for the New World. The Speedwell sailed to England from the Netherlands with members of the English Separatist congregation that had been living in Leiden, Holland. Joining the larger group in the Mayflower at Southampton, the two ships set sail together in August, but the Speedwell soon proved unseaworthy. Both vessels turned back and the Speedwell was abandoned at Plymouth, England. The entire company of both ships then crowded aboard the Mayflower, setting sail for North America on September 16, 1620, arriving on November 11th.

The Pilgrims Embark for a New World 
10,000 Dollar Bill -- Series of 1918
The Pilgrims Embark for a New World
10,000 Dollar Federal Reserve Note (Series 1918)

July 23, 1945: French Marshal Henri Phillipe Pétain (born in Cauch-a-la-Tour in April 24, 1856), who had headed the neutral Vichy government of unoccupied France during World War Two, went on trial, charged with treason. He was condemned to death, but his sentence was commuted to life, in major part because of Pétain's record as a great War hero during the First World War. Exactly 6 years to the day, he died in prison (Île d'Yeu off the south Brittany coast -- 1951). http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWpetain.htm Before Marshal Pétain made the town his capital, Vichy was best known for its rich hot mineral water (e.g. fine ammonia, iodine and bromine content, as well as chlorides) and spas.

July 23, 1950: To the strains of Back in the Saddle Again (by Ray Whitley and Gene Autry), TV viewers were treated to the first performance of The Gene Autry Show. The singing cowboy made the transition from Hollywood films to the tube this night. Autry and his sidekick Pat Buttram maintained law and order in the U.S. Southwest for six years. And, they did it in a most entertaining manner. Gene sang just like he did in the movies. His horse, Champion, would perform some amazing equine antics, and Pat Buttram invariably would slip into silly situations. This TV foray ended in 1956.

In 1934, program producer Nathaniel Levine was looking for someone who could sing, ride a horse and act in western movies. Autry wasn't an actor, but had by then, as a singer, established a loyal radio audience. He began performing on local radio in 1928 as Oklahoma's Yodeling Cowboy. He was already under contract to Columbia records and had had several hits. Mr. Levine put him in numerous B grade westerns. Playing the lead role in a long-running series of Saturday matinee films, Mr. Autry became America's favorite cowboy; this native of Tioga, Texas and railroad telegraph agent from Oklahoma.

So it was way back in 1940 Gene Autry's Melody Ranch, debuted. There was (only) one hiatus, when Autry joined the U.S. Army Air Corps after taking his oath on the air in 1942. Roy Rogers took his place on the show, while Autry served. Autry later became America's favorite TV cowboy, despite Rogers' own potential claim to that title (and that of Dale Evans, too).

From Back in the Saddle Again to such yuletide mainstays such as Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer, Here Comes Santa Claus and Frosty the Snowman, Gene Autry's music etched its way into western Americana. Autry recorded over 625 songs, writing about 200 of them and was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1969. Gene Autry was a master merchandiser among his offerings were song books and children's records; comic books and Western apparel; children's books, belts and toys of every description. from http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/tdih.jsp?category=entertainment&month=10272961&day=10272994

Great White North even then -- July 24, 1534: Jacques Cartier landed in what today is part of the Canadian Maritime Provinces, claiming North America for France. Jacques Cartier, while probing for a northern route to Asia, visited Labrador and of it reportedly said: Fit only for wild beasts ... This must be the land God gave to Cain. A few years later (1701) to the day, Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac established Fort Ponchartrain for France on the future site of the city of Detroit, Michigan, in an attempt to halt the advance of the British into the western Great Lakes region, who also possessed a rightful claim to North America, through John Cabot's mysterious exploits.

Le 24 juillet 1967: Au cours d'une visite officielle à Montréal, la première d'un chef d'État français au Québec, le général de Gaulle lance du balcon de l'Hôtel de ville à la foule médusée et ravie un cri vibrant : «Vive le Québec libre» ! C'est un encouragement spectaculaire et décisif aux revendications indépendantistes que promeut en particulier l'Union nationale du Premier ministre québécois Daniel Johnson, à l'origine de l'invitation du président français.

July 25, 1909: A French aviator, Louis Blériot, made the first crossing of the English Channel from Calais to Dover in a powered-aircraft, winning a £1,000 prize offered by the London Daily Mail. Piloting his Type XI monoplane at an average of 39 miles per hour, Blériot made the trip of 23.2 miles in just over 35 minutes. National Public Broadcasting in the USA (PBS) has presented a program about the event (it is several years old now, but still well worth a view): http://web.archive.org/web/20070304091700/http://www.pbs.org/kcet/chasingthesun/innovators/lbleriot.html

The 5¢ Beacon Air Mail Postage-stamp -- July 26, 1928: A new 5¢ airmail rate went into effect August 1, 1928. The purpose of a rate decrease (from 10¢) was to increase the volume of air-shipped mail, thereby increasing the revenue of the private air mail carriers, keeping them in business. Call it the Laffer curve of postage rates. The 5¢ Beacon Air Mail stamp was issued to meet this new rate.


- First Day issued: July 26th -

The beacon design symbolized the new lighted airways that had been put up across the country, reflecting an awareness of safety, vital if the new air mail service was to keep public support. This stamp was, in effect, advertising for the new air mail service and rates. Extra features that were not found on other stamps such as a bi-colored design and an unusual size has led to a wealth of plate and imprint varieties for philatelists. First Day sales were at the Philatelic Agency in Washington, D.C., but the number of First Day covers are exceedingly scarce. This was perhaps because First Day covers issued on July 26 required two 5¢ stamps to cover the existing 10¢ rate, whereas if the collector were willing to wait a week, the August 1st rate would be 5¢ and only one stamp would be necessary. Sure enough, covers from August 1st, the first day of the new rate, are common.



- Error exists ?? -

Why was the 26th chosen for issuance instead of the 1st of August when the rates changed ? My guess is that it had something to do with the fact that the Continental Congress established a postal system for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general in Philadelphia on July 26, 1775.

The regular snail-mail was still 2¢ in July of 1928 and would not increase to 3¢ until July 6, 1932 during the heart of the hardship and at the height of deflation. Indeed, on July 8, 1932, the stock market fell to its lowest point during the era. The Great Crash, as it was known, had begun in the autumn of 1929, sparking a decade of economic stagnation known as the Great Depression. What a great time for a rate increase of 50%. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul08.html Beginning in 2008, we have had another increase during hard times; however, the value of our currency has fallen so much, that the change is barely noticeable (in real purchasing power). An additional Resource: HERE.
 
July 26th: On this day in 1941 in response to the Japanese occupation of French Indochina, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States. This was essentially an act of War. Three years later, the war in the European theatre had begun to wind down (although many lives were still to be lost); and, on July 26, 1944, the Soviet Army entered Lviv, a major city in western Ukraine, liberating it from the Nazis. While on the western front as an aggressive last gasp, the first German V-2 rocket hits the United Kingdom. Most people do not realize that most of these rocket attacks were launched against positions in Belgium. The war ended in Europe before July or even June rolled around again. So on this date in 1945 the grateful British people reward Churchill's great War efforts by removing Winston from power and electing the Labour Party (general election of July 5th). Yet too is Russia rewarded, when the Allies signed the Potsdam Declaration; while on the same day the HMS Vestal sinks, becoming the last major British Royal Navy vessel to slip under the water in the Second World War.

Interestingly, the Navy cruiser USS Indianapolis arrives at an Island called Tinian with parts of a warhead for an atomic weapon that will level downtown Hiroshima. The crew of the ship would not fare well on the return voyage. Arguably the most well known reference to the events that occur on the return voyage can be found in Jaws during a monologue by the late Robert Shaw, whose character Samuel Quint had survived of the Indianapolis sinking. The monologue focuses on the numerous deaths caused by shark attacks after the loss. This soliloquy refers the date of the sinking as the 29th June, when the ship actually sunk on July 30th. The USS Indianapolis is the last major US ship to sink in World War II.

July 26, 2016: Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France (située dans le département de la Seine-Maritime et la région Normandie). A hamlet called Sancti Stephani and dependent on the Abbey of Saint-Wandrille was reported in the ninth century in a royal charter. The village then developed along the road connecting Paris to Rouen (4 miles south of Rouen's city centre). During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the parish had five hundred inhabitants. This small village has several churches, the sixteenth-century church of St Étienne (Stephen), a church of St Thérèse and the twentieth-century church of Notre-Dame. The priest of the Parish of Saint-Étienne was Father Jacques Hamel who was ordained in 1958 and had been the parish's priest for 20 years. He was murdered during the Mass. One of the parishioners was also wounded in the attack and the French interior ministry said the number of injured could rise, with a second parishioner "fighting for life" with a throat wound. L'État islamique revendique l'attaque le jour-même. http://www.express.co.uk/…/Normandy-attack-hostages-taken-a…

Stephen is the patron saint of deacons, headaches, horses, coffin makers and masons. He is often represented carrying a pile of rocks or with rocks on his head. St Stephen's Feast Day is 26th December He is named in the Christmas carol "Good King Wenceslas." Stephen's name means "crown," and he was the first disciple of Jesus to receive the martyr's crown. http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=137

Acts 7:58 And they stoned Stephen, invoking, and saying: "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit."

Acts 7:59 And falling on his knees, he cried with a loud voice, saying: "Lord, lay not this sin to their charge." And when he had said this, he fell asleep in the Lord....

Also on July 26th: The public devotion of Sainte Anne (the mother of Mary) probably was introduced into the Western Church in the 8th century. In 1378, the feast of St. Anne was celebrated for the first time on July 26th in England. Devotion to St. Anne spread rapidly everywhere in the West. Pilgrimages developed around the many churches or shrines dedicated to St. Anne. The most famous are those of Düren in Germany, since 1501; Sainte Anne d’Auray, in Brittany, France, since 1623; and Sainte Anne de Beaupré in Québec City, Canada, since 1670.

The devotion to Sainte Anne was brought to the United States and Canada by the first missionaries of North America, who came from France at a time when St. Anne had become important through her shrine in Brittany (http://www.sainteanne-sanctuaire.com/?mode=histoire). Today, St. Anne has hundreds of churches and shrines dedicated to her in the United States and Canada and remains a popular subject of prayer and veneration.

July 27, 82AD: It is reported that Joseph of Arimathea died and was buried in the tomb he once lent to Jesus, or so the story goes. Because Jerusalem by then was destroyed as had been predicted, and the Jewish people already were exiled from their homeland by the Romans, it is a remote possibility that this report (and date) is correct as stated.

Others say that Joseph died at Glastonbury, Somersetshire, England on that date. http://www.isleofavalon.co.uk/avalon-history.html An English Tradition recounts Jesus' visit to Somersetshire as a lad and also states that Joseph of Arimathea built a church here. The last British Roman Emperor, Arthur, and his Empress, Guinevere, lived and died here, at what was already an ancient place of pagan worship. Somersetshire was home to saints, including Patrick of Irish fame, Dunstan, Benedict, David and Bridget. We need not believe that the Glastonbury legends are records of facts; but the existence of those legends has had an important unifying effect on English history.

But then again, you only need to remember the greatest of truths, the tomb was empty on that first Resurrection Sunday. See http://web.archive.org/web/20070813194628/http://www.sundayschoolcourses.com/joseph/joscont.htm

"Wherever a saint has dwelt, wherever a martyr has given his blood for the blood of Christ, There is holy ground, and the sanctity shall not depart from it Though armies trample over it, though sightseers come with guide-books looking over it; From where the western seas gnaw at the coast of Iona, To the death in the desert, the prayer in forgotten places by {next to} the broken imperial column, From this ground springs that which forever renews the earth ...." T.S. Eliot (http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2015/01/how-ts-eliot-invented-the-hipsters/384175/)

Some have said that Glastonbury was one of the places on this earth where the boundaries between history and myth, as well as tradition and legend remain unmarked. Indeed, a pilgrim today might easily be overwhelmed by the way the town has been taken over by the hucksters of a new age -- sometimes thinly veiled, and sometimes an open revival of ancient spiritism that dominated this land before Roman times. Never-the-less, a principal reason for the importance of Glastonbury, as an English Christian center, devolves from its heritage an ancient religious center. http://fullhomelydivinity.org/Glastonburytraditionsfullpage.htm

July 27, 1784: Just seven years after the first French daily was published in Paris, Courier De L’Amerique became the first French-language newspaper to be published in the United States. The paper, printed in Philadelphia (PA) served all the many citizens in that fair city of brotherly love who spoke French. It ceased operation on October 26 of that year (or at least the library has no copy of it beyond that date in 1784). L'Imprimerie de Charles Cist, & se distribue chez Boinod & Gaillard, editeurs Danie Boinod and ...???... Gaillard. It had another brief run from le 04 Decembre 1792 - le 22 Fevrier 1793 (again, the source of these dates is from the library copies that remain). One wonders if perhaps another French paper could have been printed in Charlestowne (SC) at about this time ?

July 28, 1609: Admiral George Somers shipwrecks in Bermuda. His ship was on a voyage to Virginia, the British colony founded a few years earlier -- named in tribute to the late Queen, Elizabeth. He and other survivors were presumed dead for nearly a year, but finally improvised a vessel and reached their original destination. William Strachey, secretary of the colony at Jamestowne, Virginia, later sent a letter to England that described the event. His letter is thought by many to have been an inspiration for Shakespeare’s "Tempest."

Somers almost immediately returns to Bermuda, but passes away at Virgineola - a smaller version of the Virginia settlement established on the island. For leadership, courage at sea and other skills Admiral Sir George Somers showed, the islands became the Somers Isles, which is still Bermuda's official alternate name. http://www.bermuda-online.org/sirgeorgesomers.htm

The Battle of the Summer Islands (named for Bermuda's alternate name, the Somers or Summer Islands), was a mock-heroic poem penned by the renowned English poet Edmund Waller. It was published in the first edition of his Poems in 1645.   So was the huntsman by the bear oppressed, whose hide he sold before he caught the beast .... It is the line from which we get the economic term Bear Market.

In Pgh for July 4th weekend (2010) Waller did more than write. He sat for Ilchester (Somerset) in the final Parliament under James I, for Chipping Wycombe (Buckinghamshire, which town has had a continuous representative for nearly 710 years) in the first Parliament of Charles I, for Amersham (Chiltern district in Buckinghamshire) in the third Parliament of Charles I and the Short Parliament and for St. Ives (Cambridgeshire -- Kits, Cats, Sacks and Wives; how many to St. Ives) in the Long Parliament. No Parliament was summoned from 1629 to 1640. Waller became a prominent and famous speaker in the House of Commons: at the troubles first outbreak, he took the side of the popular leaders, and took part in the opposition to ship-money. But, by 1642, he was gradually drawn closer to the party of the via media; and his parliamentary career ended, for the time, in 1643, with the discovery of his complicity in a royalist conspiracy, which became known as Waller’s plot. http://www.bartleby.com/217/0304.html

Banished from England, after being committed briefly to the Tower of London for treason in July, 1643, Waller left for France. He resided in Rouen until his sentence was revoked by Oliver Cromwell in November, 1651. Indeed, the Islands have another fascinating connection with France. The first confirmed visit to Bermuda by a Frenchman was by Captain Russel or Roussel, shipwrecked here sometime between 1560 and 1570. Because of this close encounter and other shipwrecks, the French would call them Isle of Devils http://www.bermuda-online.org/france.htm

July 28, 1935: Today the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress took wing for the first time (Model 299). Boeing did not get a primary Federal contract (for 200 bombers) because the prototype crashed; however, the US Army Air Corps (later "Air Forces") still was captivated with Boeing's design, so that they ordered thirteen (13) B-17s. The B-17 Flying Fortress overtime evolved through numerous design advances. Barely 20 years after air warfare was introduced over the fields of France, the US would have one of its primary workhorses for World War II. Its primary job became precision daylight bombing in Europe and the plane played a somewhat lesser role in the Pacific. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_B-17_Flying_Fortress

In somewhat unrelated news, the Battle of Ezra Church, also known as the Battle of Ezra Chapel or the Battle of the Poor House was fought on July 28, 1864, in Fulton County, Georgia. The battle was part of the Atlanta Campaign. Unfortunately for General Hood, he did not surprise the defenders under General Howard, who had predicted such a manœuver. Like so many other examples of officers who faced each other in battle, both men had attended West Point at the same time. So, the northern troops simply awaited Hood's offensive, in trenches behind a hastily built bulwark of logs and rails. The Confederate army attacked, but fell back before the Union's improvised breastwork. The southern forces defeated this day, still managed to keep Howard from reaching the railroad line. In all, about 3,562 men became casualties; 3,000 on the Confederate side and 562 on the Union side. Wikipedia has an English Language entry for this battle, if you want to know more.
 
July 29, 1786: - The first newspaper west of the Alleghenies was published. The newspaper was founded in 1786 when John Scull and Joseph Hall brought a printing press from Philadelphia and set it up in a small shop in the village which was growing up around Fort Pitt {Pittsburgh}. Originally called The Pittsburgh Gazette, it still is being published, but is now titled The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, having acquired the Pittsburgh Press, the Pittsburgh Post and one guesses a few more along the way. http://www.post-gazette.com/

July 29, 1740: From Ebenezer, an early settlement in the Georgia Colony, John Martin Boltzius recorded in his journal the different types of peaches grown in colonial Georgia:

This year God has very richly blessed our two gardens by the old torn-down cottages with peaches of all kinds, with which we can give joy and refreshment to many adults and children . . . . We did not notice in Germany whether the types of peaches were also as varied as they are here in our gardens. I believe we have over ten different kinds, all of which have a very pleasant, wholesome, and refreshing taste, but different in each fruit. Some kinds come loose from the pit and have various colors, others grow tight around the pit and are either all yellow or yellow and red, or all dark red. Some taste quite sweet, others tangy, others have a wine-like taste and pleasant sharpness, others seem to us to taste like the big plums in Germany and have externally a round, pretty appearance like apples. God be praised for this benefaction! Who could have imagined anything like it a few years ago when we were still in Old Ebenezer! We often compare the old and the present times.

Source: George Fenwick Jones and Don Savelle (ed. and trans.), Detailed Reports on the Salzburger Emigrants Who Settled in America, . . . Edited by Samuel Urlsperger (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1983), Vol. VII, pp. 190-191.

Le 29 juillet 1805: Alexis de Tocqueville est né à Paris. http://www.herodote.net/histoire04160.htm

« Les nations de nos jours ne sauraient faire que dans leur sein les conditions ne soient pas égales; mais il dépend d'elles que l'égalité les conduise à la servitude ou à la liberté, aux lumières ou à la barbarie, à la prospérité ou aux misères. »

The characteristics of the American journalist consist in an open and coarse appeal to the passions of his readers; he abandons principles to assail the characters of individuals, to track them into private life and disclose all their weaknesses and vices.

The personal opinions of the editors have no weight in the eyes of the public. What they seek in a newspaper is a knowledge of facts, and it is only by altering or distorting those facts that a journalist can contribute to the support of his own views.

The pursuit of wealth generally diverts men of great talents and strong passions from the pursuit of power; and it frequently happens that a man does not undertake to direct the fortunes of the State until he has shown himself incompetent to conduct his own. Quotes from Alexis deTocqueville -- More HERE

Many persons in France think that the violence of the press originates in the instability of the social state, in our political passions and the general feeling of uneasiness that consequently prevails; and it is therefore supposed that as soon as society has resumed a certain degree of composure, the press will abandon its present vehemence. For my own part, I would willingly attribute to these causes the extraordinary ascendancy which the press has acquired over the nation; but I do not think that they exercise much influence on its language. The periodical press appears to me to have passions and instincts of its own, independent of the circumstances in which it is placed; and the present condition of America corroborates this opinion. America is perhaps, at this moment, the country of the whole world that contains the fewest germs of revolution; but the press is not less destructive in its principles there than in France, and it displays the same violence without the same reasons for indignation http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/1_ch11.htm

Another revolution in France -- Révolution des Trois Glorieuses -- Le 27-28-29 juillet 1830: An inept ruler, King Charles X (1757-1836) inspired resentment in the French middle class and its press, especially against ultra-royalist advisers; when he directed his reactionary favorite Jules de Polignac (1780-1847) to form a new ministry, the Chamber of Deputies hotly objected. Charles' angry dismissal of the chamber (1829) turned an attempt to curb a hated functionary into the total collapse of the regime. An 1830 French election revealed even greater opposition in the chamber, and Charles again dismissed it as he and Polignac published the "July Ordinances," which established strong press controls and reduced the electorate. As usual, the Parisians revolted and blockaded the streets on July 27, 1830; among those manning the barricades were army units and former members of the National Guard disbanded in 1827. Charles acted too late in annulling the new ordinances and dismissing Polignac (July 30, 1830); the minister was arrested and condemned to life imprisonment and later (1836) amnestied. Charles fled, then abdicated in favor of a grandson; the rebels, divided into republicans favoring the Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834) and monarchists desiring the conservative Duke of Orléans, Louis-Philippe (1773-1850). They continued to argue among themselves until the dismissed bourgeois legislature declared the throne vacant and proclaimed Louis-Philippe King of the Republic of France. He later claimed for himself the title of Emperor. His ineptness led to the French Revolution of 1848 and the true Second Republic. from http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/foxtrot/france1830.htm

Le 29 juillet 1907 -- naît le mouvement Scouting, d'un mot anglais qui signifie éclaireur: Sur l'île de Brownsea, dans le Dorsetshire, le colonel Robert Baden-Powell, héros de la Guerre des Boers entraîne une vingtaine de jeunes gens à des jeux de piste. Il veut fabriquer des citoyens émérites, épanouis tant au moral qu'au physique. Son idéal connaîtra une fortune prodigieuse. Il sera aussi dévoyé par les partis totalitaires, qui créeront sur le même modèle des mouvements de jeunesse à leur dévotion. http://brownsea.org/?page=history {anglais}

July 29, 1977: The Atlanta Braves knuckle-ball hurler, Phil Niekro, struck out four Pittsburgh Pirates in one inning. Niekro became the first pitcher in Braves history (Boston, Milwaukee and Atlanta) to do so. Baseball rules provide that a batter can try to make first base, if a catcher fails to catch the ball on a batter's third strike. In such a case, if the batter reaches first base before the ball arrives, the pitcher will be credited with a strike-out, but the out does not count against the team at bat. More Baseball is here

July 30th: Saint Ursus (d. 508 AD) of Autissiodorensis (Auxerre) was bishop of that city. He had been a hermit monk at the church of Saint Amator before being elected bishop at the age of 75. It is said he was selected after he had saved the town from a fire thru his prayers. July 30th is his feast day. In 1619 at Jamestown, Virginia Colony, the premier representative assembly in the Americas, the House of Burgesses, convenes for the first time. In 1864, Union forces attempt to end the stalemate at Petersburg, Virginia by exploding a large bomb under the Confederate fortifications. The northern troops failed to capitalize on the surprise attack. On 30 July 1945, shortly after it delivered the final portion of the first atomic bomb to the US airfield at Tinian, the Imperial Japanese Navy submarine I-58 torpedoed the USS Indianapolis. It sunk in 12 minutes with great loss of life. In 1975, Union boss, Jimmy Hoffa disappeared from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox restaurant in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.

The end of July 1945 -- More to write about the "Indianapolis" incident: The Captain was court-martialed and convicted for the sinking (and loss of nearly 900 men), the only Navy leader tried for a ship loss during the Second World War. Later he was fully exonerated, but he took his own life because of the internal grief and/or guilt he felt. The heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis earned ten battle stars, including one for its participation at Iwo Jima and one for its last engagement during the bombardment of Okinawa in March 1945 during which it was struck by a kamikaze, resulting in 38 casualties (12 fatalities). Captain Charles Butler McVay III, a 1920 Naval Academy graduate and career naval officer who had taken command in November 1944, returned the ship safely to Mare Island in California for repairs, before the mission to Tinian. http://milhomme.blogspot.com/2012/06/fr-thomas-m-conway-chaplain-uss.html (a must read)

Thomas Helms, in his book, Ordeal by Sea wrote:

“Father Thomas Michael Conway swam from group to group, never stopping to rest, praying with the men, encouraging those who were frightened, trying to reason with the maddened. His faith and his prayers gave solace to many ... Father Conway, like Ensign Park, Seaman Rich and many others, burned himself out keeping up a constant patrol among the men, ministering to the dying, talking reason into others who had become momentarily deranged and calming the frightened with prayers until all at once he reached the limit of his endurance, and his life drained away.”

And so it was that on August 2, 1945, Father Conway became the last chaplain to die in combat in this war. He was awarded a Purple Heart posthumously.

More-July 30, 1619: In April, 1619, Governor General George Yeardley arrived in Virginia from England and announced that the Virginia Company had voted to abolish martial law and to establish a legislative assembly, that became the House of Burgesses — the first legislative assembly in the American colonies. The first assembly met on July 30, 1619, in the church at Jamestown. The first church on the site was constructed in 1617. It was in this church where the first Representative Legislative Assembly met, which convened there on July 30, 1619. A replacement, that was begun in 1639 remains today (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamestown_Church). Present were Governor Yeardley, Council, and 22 burgesses representing 11 plantations (or settlements) Burgesses were elected representatives.

  "But forasmuch as men's affaires doe litle prosper where God's service is neglected, all the Burgesses tooke their places in the Quire till a prayer was said by Mr. Bucke, the Minister, that it would please God to guide and sanctifie all our proceedings to his own glory and the good of this Plantation ... The Speaker ... delivered in briefe to the whole assembly the occasions of their meeting. Which done he read unto them the commission for establishing the Counsell of Estate and the general Assembly, wherein their duties were described to the life ... And forasmuch as our intente is to establish one equall and uniforme kinde of government over all Virginia &c."

– John Pory, "A Reporte of the Manner of Proceeding in the General Assembly Convented at James City" (July 30, 1619) -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_members_of_the_Virginia_House_of_Burgesses

July 31, 2015 -- 11th Annual, System Administrator Appreciation Day: Today's the day to remember -- http://www.sysadminday.com/.
 
July 31, 1451: French merchant prince and financier Jacques Cœur (ou Coeur) is arrested upon the order of his King, Charles VII. Cœur is accused of poisoning la maîtresse du roi, Agnès Sorel; but more seriously, for having used his trusted position in the government for personal enrichment, an unheard of practice in France. His arrest resulted in the famous French quote: «A vaillans cuers, riens impossible,» which is a pun on his name. Today the adage may be best translated: Such a valiant heart, it is not possible. Accordingly, for the many services that he had provided to his King, he was not pardoned and the substantial wealth he and his father had gathered was confiscated (1451) -- which forfeiture may explain his fate. http://www.xenophongroup.com/montjoie/j_coeur.htm. Cœur spent more than three years in jail, but finally escaped from prison into Provence. He reached Rome and was honorably received by Pope Nicholas V (1455). Jacques Cœur would die the following year in service to the Pope against the Ottoman Turks.

His Gothic palace, which was once his home, still remains, constructed over a portion of a Gallo-Roman wall that surrounds the city of Bourges. It was a precursor of the mansions of the Renaissance period. The façade on the street side and that of the main building are decorated with Jacques Cœur's coat-of-arms, plus a multitude of sculptures portraying religious themes. The residence includes a barrel-vaulted gallery, painted chapel and hall that housed Turkish-style baths.

July 31, 1777: The Marquis de Lafayette (Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier), a 19-year-old French nobleman, was made a major-general in the American Continental Army. His contributions to the American cause are well-documented. After the War he served France and avoided losing his head over the Révolution, unlike some others (Comte d'Estaing) who had helped America win its freedom. On this same date, just 23 years later, the cornerstone to the United States Mint was placed in Philadelphia. This was also the first Government Services building ever built by the Federal government.

To celebrate both these occasions in 1988, Willie Stargell became the 200th man inducted into Baseball’s Hall of Fame. Mr. Stargell had 475 career homers, twice leading the National League (NL) (48 in 1971, 44 in 1973). He drove in 1540 runs, scored 1195 and had 2232 hits with a lifetime batting average of .282, and Stargell's inspirational leadership contributed greatly to Pittsburgh Pirate "World" championships in 1971 and 1979, years when he shared National League Most Valuable Player honors. The Pirates retired his #8 (team field-shirt number) in 1982.


Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

Need a Link to the full text of the President's speech to the Boy Scouts of America at the National Jamboree on July 31, 2005 ??? It was at http://www.bsajamboree.org/president.html but that link is now dead. Until 2009 you could still see the text at http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/07/20050731.html or the text of his formal videotaped remarks (from 2001) at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/07/20010730-7.html, but the Obama administration deleted the Bush years from Whitehouse.gov history. Now you must use Archive.org -- Link 1; Link 2

At times, you may come across people who say that moral truth is relative, or call a religious faith a comforting allusion. They may question the values you learn in Scouting. But remember, lives of purpose are constructed on the conviction there is right and there is wrong, and we can know the difference.

In 2007 World Scouting celebrated its 100th year, once again in the English countryside -- A World Jamboree. The 21st World Scout Jamboree took place at Hylands Park, Chelmsford, England (July 27-August 8). In 2010, the Boy Scouts of America met for the last time in Virginia to celebrate the 100th Anniversary of Scouting in the USA (July 26 thru August 4, 2010 -- at Camp A.P. Hill). The opening arena show is always a grand production. The staff show was cancelled because of heat and potential severe storms. A new 44 cent postage stamp appeared on Tuesday July 27th at the Court of Flags at the Jamboree, celebrating 100 years of Scouting and this years theme: A Century of Scouting. See http://scouting.org/100years/100years/100YearsStamp.aspx and http://www.bsajamboree.org/ The next Jamboree already is being promoted. It will be held in West Virginia on land recently given to the Scouts. This will be the new permanent location.

The 2017 US Jamboree began at its permanent home in West Virginia, on July 19th.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes!

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; 
walk in that way and find rest for your souls


A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure: http://www.catholic-convert.com/

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from (original URL may have changed):
http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-jan.htm -- http://timelines.ws/days/01_01.HTML -- http://www.herodote.net/jour0101.htm -- http://www.440.com/twtd/archives/jan01.html -- http://www.treas.gov/education/history/events/01-jan.shtml -- http://missel.free.fr/calendrier.php?mois=1&annee=2010 -- http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/features/twich/01.html -- http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Jan1.html

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December



More Flags -- Flag Day
Early GA Flag Gwenn Ha Du 
qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at that moment.