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The  VANGUARD --   2014

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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

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The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

Tour de France -- 2012 -- A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- http://www.au-chateau.com/auChateauNews73.php (Fall 2014)

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord
[ from Psalm 122 ] .

All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth unto such as keep his covenant and his testimonies [ Psalm 25:10 ].

If you are on the wrong road, progress means doing an about-turn and walking back to the right road; and in that use, the man who turns back soonest is the most progressive. — C.S. Lewis

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4


Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

'Scots, wha hae wi Wallace bled,
Scots, wham Bruce has aften led,
Welcome tae yer gory bed,
Or tae victorie.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scots_Wha_Hae

September 19th: Goeric of Metz (also known as Abbo I of Metz, Gœricus of Metz, and Gury of Metz) was a married man with two daughters. He became blind but recovered his eyesight at Saint Stephen's Cathedral in Metz. Shortly thereafter, he joined the clergy and Arnulf of Metz ordained him. In 627, he succeeded Arnulf as Bishop of Metz. While bishop, he transferred the relics of his predecessor to the Church of the Apostles. He had built the church of Great St. Peter's and a monastery at Épinal for his two daughters, Precia and Victorina. He was also a personal friend of Dagobert I. He died in 643. He has his feast day on September 19th.

September 19, 1356: The Battle of Poitiers, the English defeat the French in an early battle in what will become known as The 100 Years War. Among the many killed at the Battle of Poitiers, Peter I, Duke of Bourbon (b. 1311) and Walter VI (born 1304) of Brienne-le-Château, Constable of France, Duke of Athens (son of Isabella de la Roche, heiress of Thebes, daughter of Guy II de la Roche, Duke of Athens, possessor of Saint-Suaire (Shroud of Turin)).

frying bacon the virginia ham way September 19, 1676: Jamestown burns to the ground, its location thereafter lost for over 300 years. Forces of Nathaniel Bacon during Bacon's Rebellion set it aflame; In other news this date, (1778) the Continental Congress passes the first budget of the United States; (1796) George Washington's farewell address appears across the 13 Colonies, beginning on this date, as an open letter to the public; (1863) In War between the States: A Battle at Chickamauga Tennessee takes place (first day). The second day resulted in terrible losses and a pyrrhic victory for the South; (1870) In the Franco-Prussian War, the Siege of Paris begins. This will result on January 28, 1871 in the surrender of Paris and a decisive Prussian victory, but not until the Germans let French Forces into the city to put down a rebellion by the left.

On the same day - having invaded the Papal States a week earlier - the Italian Army lays siege to Rome. The city is taken the next day, after which the Pope described himself as a prisoner in the Vatican, in effect under house arrest. The Papal states had a checkered past of existence (including some time as part of France), now the Pope would be forced to cede all but the Vatican to Italy (1871).

September 19, 1895: The fields and hills of Chickamauga were set apart as the first National Battlefield on this date. The Honorable A. E. Stevenson, of Illinois, then Vice-President of the United States, in his opening remarks as presiding officer at the dedication of that National facility said - Here, in the dread tribunal of last resort, valor contended against valor. Here brave men struggled and died for the right as God gave them to see the right. Technically, the Union did not prevail in the battle that began on September 19, 1863. Casualties, however were second only behind the losses suffered at Gettysburg just a few months before.

The South could ill afford these losses. No one else was going to become soldiers, the North in contrast had hundreds of thousands in the pipeline. The die was caste; only a political victory could be won. Sherman's fire would put an end to that hope.

September 19, 1900 -- An Apocryphal Account (if not true): Chancellor Walter Bernard Hill conducted opening exercises, at the University of Georgia in Athens, by noting that this was the centennial of the University's first graduating class. Actually, Chancellor Hill did not have the correct facts at the tip of his tongue (today, we would say he simply misspoke). The University was chartered by the General Assembly on January 27, 1785, but at that time its future campus was located on Cherokee land. It was not until 1801 that classes actually began and 1804 that the first nine students graduated.

The Georgia legislature enacted into law Abraham Baldwin's proposed charter for the University of Georgia. In so doing, Georgia became the first state to charter a state university. The act's preamble declared:

When the minds of the people in general are viciously disposed and unprincipled and their conduct disorderly a free government will be attended with greater confusions and evils more horrid than the wild uncultivated state of nature. It can only be happy where the public principles and opinions are properly directed and their manners regulated. This is an influence beyond the reach of laws and punishments and can be claimed only by religion and education. It should therefore be among the first objects of those who wish well to the national prosperity to encourage and support the principles of religion and morality and early to place the youth under the forming hand of society that by instruction they may be molded to the love of virtue and good order [emphasis added]. Sending them abroad to other countries for their education will not answer these purposes; it is too humiliating an acknowledgment of the ignorance or inferiority of our own, and will always be the cause of so great foreign attachments, that upon principles of policy it is inadmissible.

This country, in times of our common danger and distress, found security in the principle and abilities which wise regulations had before established in the minds of our countrymen. That our our present happiness, joined to the pleasing prospect, should conspire to make us feel ourselves under the strongest obligations to form the youth, the rising hope of our land, to render the like glorious and essential services to our country.

from http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-jan/jan27.htm.

After Baldwin turned down a prestigious teaching position as a professor of divinity at Yale, Georgia governor Lyman Hall persuaded him to accept the responsibility of creating an educational plan for both secondary and higher education in the state. Baldwin strongly believed that education was the key to developing frontier states like Georgia. Once elected to the Georgia House of Representatives in the state legislature, he developed a comprehensive educational plan that ultimately included land grants from the state to fund the establishment of the University of Georgia (UGA) in Athens, Georgia. Through Baldwin's efforts, UGA became the first state-chartered school in the nation when UGA was incorporated on January 27, 1785. Baldwin served as the first president of the institution during its initial planning phase, from 1785 to 1801. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Baldwin

September 19, 1970: The U.S. Post Office Department issued a six cent stamp for the completion of the carving of the face of Stone Mountain showing Confederate president Jefferson Davis and generals Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson. The stamp's issuance came just over four months after the formal dedication ceremonies on May 9th. On April 1, 1925, sculptor Augustus Lukeman took over the Stone Mountain (Georgia) project and had changed the design from Borglum's original vision. Indeed, Lukeman's first job was to erase the work already done. Borglum moved on and found some more granite to carve near Rapid City, South Dakota. By the way, in 2010, the first class postage rate is over 7 times that just 37 years ago (and going up); and soon will be over 22 times the rate in 1925.

September 19, 1991: Ötzi, the Iceman, was found by a German tourist, Helmut Simon, on the Similaun Glacier in the Tirolean Ötztal Alps, on the Italian-Austrian border. The body found is that of a man aged 25 to 35 who had stood about 5 feet 2 inches (1.6 meters) tall and had weighed about 50 kg (110 pounds). It is the oldest mummified human body ever found intact -- some 5300 years old. He had a number of ‘points’ tattooed on his body. Importantly, his few remaining scalp hairs provided the earliest archæological evidence of haircutting. Ötzi did not survive his close brush with death. http://www.archaeologiemuseum.it/f01_ice_uk.html Die offizielle Bergung wurde am 23. September 1991. http://www2.uibk.ac.at/forschung/alpine_vorzeit/ Interstingly, Batman was born n this date in 1928 -- Adam West, that is.

September 20, 1258: The Norman Cathedral of Salisbury, begun 38 years earlier, was dedicated. It is one of a very few large church structures with a double cross design; and, because it's single spire is over 400 feet high, the church structure of new Sarum is able to easily dominate the beautiful English countryside. More pictures are HERE.

The site of Old Sarum is located one and a half miles north of the present town of Salisbury. Here the Normans built a royal castle within the earthworks of an Iron Age hill fort. During the twelfth century a great tower and palace were built in the inner bailey. The cathedral, begun in the late eleventh century, was constructed on the north side of the outer bailey. The cathedral remained the seat of a local bishopric until 1218, when the Pope permitted the clergy to remove to a new site. With the Norman reorganization of the church in England, the Bishopric became more regional center at the new Cathedral in a town now known as Salisbury. http://www.vortigernstudies.org.uk/artcit/caersalis.htm Salisbury's claim to fame, apart from the Cathedral, is its 10k gold jewelry, which I guess grew up as a cottage industry to profit on the many pilgrims that wanted a souvenir of their visit to Salisbury, like those they got elsewhere cf. http://www.salisburymuseum.org.uk/.

September 20, 1561: Queen Elizabeth of England, head of the Church of England, signed a treaty at Hampton Court with French Huguenot leader Louis de Bourbon, First Prince of Condé, youngest son of Charles, duc de Vendôme, and Françoise d'Alençon. The English would occupy Le Harve in return for aiding the Bourbons against the Catholic Valois sovereigns of France. Louis' nephew Henri the Prince of Navarre would become France's first Bourbon King, Henri IV. Louis died in 1569, before that goal was reached and before Henri IV converted to ease tensions in the Kingdom. England became a place of Huguenot refuge during the persecutions of the 16th and later 17th centuries.

September 20, 1565: Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and his Spanish force destroyed Fort Caroline and killed most of its French Huguenot defenders. Located on the St. Johns River, the French fort was not located in present-day Georgia; nevertheless, it fell within the Spanish-claim that included Georgia. The total destruction meant the loss of the first church on the East Coast (which was apparently Protestant) and all of its congregation. This attack effectively ended French efforts to colonize directly the eastern Atlantic seaboard of North America; however, Frenchmen did arrive in large numbers as Huguenot refugees or as second and third generation English, Irish or German colonists of Huguenot lineage, to places such as Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia.

September 20, 1697: The Treaty of Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg, (1688-1697)) between France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known as Saint-Domingue (today Haiti). The remaining Spanish section was called Santo Domingo. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Ryswick The protest of former King James II against the Treaty of Ryswick, dated June 8, 1697, can be found HERE in Latin and English.

September 20, 1736: In his journal of Trustees' proceedings, the Earl of Egmont recorded the basis for the rival claims of England and Spain for the disputed land between Charles Town and St. Augustine:

20 Sept. 1736 came an Acct. that Don Antonio Aredondo the Spanish Commissary demanded that the English Should evacuate all they Stand possest of as far as St. Helena Sound, the Spaniards having formerly had Forts there. But that Mr. Oglethorp demanded of him, that the Spaniards Should evacuate as far as the 29 degree North latitude, conformable to King Charles the 2ds Charter, the English having formerly had possession as far as that Latitude, Sr. Francis Drake having by Q. Elizabeths orders taken Augustine. This at length Don Antonio agreed that on withdrawing the Garison from the Island St. George, the Said Island Should remain unpossest by either Party, till advices Should arrive from Europe, and that no hostilities Should be committed on either Side till the determination of the English and Spanish Courts Should be known; and all other claims be defer'd till their determination . . . .

Source: Robert G. McPherson (ed.), The Journal of the Earl of Egmont: Abstract of the Trustees Proceedings for Establishing the Colony of Georgia, 1732-1738, (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1962), pp. 201-202.

Le 20 septembre 1792: La Révolution française est sauvée in extremis de l'invasion étrangère, à Valmy. There is far more to this modest battle than first meets the eye. Had the Prussians succeeded, then the crown might have been restored, but certainly Louis 17th would not have lost his head. http://www.herodote.net/histoire09200.htm -- en français

September 20, 1863: The second full day of the Battle of Chickamauga raged near Ringgold, Georgia. On August 30th Confederate General Braxton Bragg had been forced to pull the Army of Tennessee out of Chattanooga. It had retreated to a point on the W&A Railroad close to Ringgold, Georgia. The Union Army of the Cumberland, under the command of General William Rosecrans, had pursued Bragg's forces. After some skirmishes on the 18th of September 1863, the two sides engaged in a major battle at Chickamauga Creek on the 19th (which ironically was a Cherokee name that means either River of Death or River of Blood). Both sides took heavy losses, and some saw it as the pouring out of the blood on the altar, the principle part of the sacrifice that purifies and atones for the sin of the Nation (Lev. 17:11, see Hebrews 9:22).

On the 20th Confederate General Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee was victorious, but at a terrible price. Union commander Rosecrans retreated from the field leaving his army behind under General George Thomas, whose defense of Snodgrass Hill lead to his nickname of the Rock of Chickamauga. General Thomas's forces held their position until nightfall, when they retreated back to Chattanooga. Total casualties for Confederate forces were 18,454 (including Brigadier General James Deshler, who was killed in battle, and General Benjamin Helm who was mortally wounded), compared to 16,170 Union casualties (including Brigadier General William Lytle, who was mortally wounded). The picture is of Samuel Jackson, a grandson of President Andrew Jackson, who died in this battle.

In desperate charges to flank the Union left, Helm was in the forefront of his men when he was hit mortally. The last words of General Helm, Mary Lincoln's brother-in-law, as he lay dying on the Chickamauga battlefield, were Victory uttered over and over again -- perhaps in remembering the familiar verse often quoted as: Oh Death where is thy victory; oh Grave thy sting. cf. I Corinthians 15:55 Or perhaps from part of the previous verse that quotes the Old Testament [Isaiah 25:8]: Death is swallowed up in victory ! This is God's promise of salvation, of which Helm assuredly had on his mind as he lay dying. President Lincoln received Helm's widow in the White House with tears in his eyes. It was there that Mary Todd Lincoln was to mourn the death of the four men, her three half brothers and a brother-in-law who had died fighting against the armies of her husband, President Abraham Lincoln. http://www.acws.co.uk/archives/misc/factoid.htm Lincoln himself became a sacrifice for lasting Union. She lost a son too while in Washington -- understandably all this had a severe effect on a person who already suffered episodes of depression -- she went mad.

While the battle was considered a Confederate victory, Bragg subsequently was criticized for allowing retreating Union forces to escape, even though his forces were exhausted from two days of heavy fighting. But more important, this tactical victory assured the ultimate doom of Atlanta, so it ended in a strategic defeat for the South, one from which it would not recover. The Chickamauga site was dedicated as a National Battlefield on September 19, 1895, although some would consider it already holy ground, sanctified () by blood of the Nation.

Ringgold is the county seat of Catoosa County, part of the Chattanooga, TN–GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city was named after Samuel Ringgold, a hero of the Battle of Palo Alto (at "Fort Texas" on May 8, 1846, five miles (8 km) from Brownsville TX). A tactic using fast moving heavy guns, developed by Major Samuel Ringgold, won the battle for the Americans -- but he died of wounds suffered that day. In 2011 portions of the town were devastated by a tornado that rolled north up the Valley into Tennessee.

September 20, 1921: KDKA on your dial at 1020 (ten-twenty) today -- 980 back then -- although dials (analog circuit tuning devises and indicators of frequency) were not so precise or selectivity (the Q of the circuit) that narrow. Broadcasting from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the station management started one of the first daily radio newscasts in the country from the city desk of The Pittsburgh Post, now the Post Gazette, the first newspaper west of the Alleghenies. http://kdka.cbslocal.com/2010/04/01/kdka-history/

Many people ask if these call letters "stand for" anything. The simple answer is: no. KDKA's license -- the first radio commercial broadcast license -- was issued October 27, 1920. The call letters "KDKA" were assigned from a roster maintained to provide identification for ships and marine shore stations, these being the only regular radio services operating under formal license supervision by the Federal Government. When it came time to grant the license, "KDKA" was simply the next set of call letters on the list.

Today, KDKA-TV is a CBS owned and operated station that once was the premier station of the Westinghouse Electric Company holdings. KDKA-TV remains the official station of the Pittsburgh Steelers. Some radio stations were issued a 3 letter call sign. One of these is fun-lovin' KQV-Audio 14, also in Pittsburgh.

The Iron Man bloomsThe evening of September 20, 1998: Today, for the first time in the history of Camden yards, the Ironman was not there. On this date he voluntarily withdrew minutes before the game with the Yankees took place. Cal Ripken ended his major league record streak of 2,632 consecutive game starts, a record perhaps never to be broken. Ripken passed Lou Gehrig's record of 2,130 consecutive games on September 6, 1995. His streak began on May 30, 1982. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/baseball/mlb/news/1998/09/20/ripken_fans/

September 21, 19BC: Vergil (who died on the 21st of September about 2010 years ago) wasn't happy with his masterpiece, Æneid, a tale which recounts the exploits of the Trojan prince named Æneas, who had to flee the burning city of Troy at the end of the Trojan War. Indeed, Vergil did not want his work to become public. In spite of Vergil's desires, his epic survives to this day; moreover, it has become one of the most important pieces of Western literature, having influence the thinking of those like Dante. How much do you know about Vergil? Take the Vergil quiz -- Link HERE

Thousands left Troy immediately after the city fell (April 24, 1184BC) and the war ended. Others remained about 30 to 50 years. Then an estimated 30,000 Trojans/Thracians suddenly abandoned what was left of Troy. Homer (Greek writer/poet, eighth century BC) and various sources (Etruscan, Merovingian, Roman and later Scandinavian) confirm this departure. The stories describe how, after the Greeks sacked the city, all the Trojans remaining alive eventually left. Most of them crossed the sea going to Italy, becoming the dominating influence in the development of Rome.

A few Trojans, mainly said to be chieftains and warriors, about 12,000 in all, went north across the Black Sea. They traveled into the Mare Mœtis or shallow sea, where the Don River ends (Caucasus region in southern Russia). These émigrés established a kingdom about 1150 BC.

The Romans would later refer to the inhabitants as Sicambrians. The locals (nomadic Scythians) named the Trojan conquerors the "Iron people", or the Æsir. They built the famous fortified city Æsgard or Asgard, described as Troy in the north. Various other sources collaborate this, stating the Trojans landed on the eastern shores with their superior weaponry, and claimed land. More HERE.

September 21, 1522: On this date Martin Luther's German translation of the New Testament was first published. Printing made the Bible accessible directly to the common person, in her/his language and at an economic price. It changed the world forever, leading to the Protestant Reformation and war, more particularly in Germany, civil war. Thirty-three years later (September 25, 1555), the Peace of Augsburg was signed after the defeat of Emperor Charles V's forces by Protestant princes in Germany (1552). With the official recognition of the Lutheran denomination in Germany, the agreement signified the dissolution of both political unity in Germany and the European medieval unity of Christendom under one Holy and catholic (meaning universal) Church. A story about the first English translations of the Bible is HERE.

Le 21 septembre 1589: Près de Arques, dans le nord de la France, une bataille met aux prises catholiques et réformés (protestants) français. Le prince protestant Henri de Navarre, qui vient d'hériter de la couronne de France, sous le nom d'Henri IV, doit lutter contre la Ligue catholique qui rejette son autorité. Avec l'appui des Anglais, il bat les armées du duc de Mayenne près de Dieppe. Sa victoire quelque peu inespérée le rapproche du trône et met presque un terme aux guerres de religion qui durent depuis déjà depuis près de trente ans. The interest of the place centers in the castle dominating the town, which was built in the 11th century by William of Talou; his nephew, William the Conqueror, regarding it as a menace to his own power, besieged and occupied it. After frequently changing hands, it came into the possession of the English, who were expelled in 1449 after an occupation of thirty years. In 1589, its cannon decided the battle of Arques in favor of Henry IV. Arques of the battle fame is northwest of Beauvais. The area produced settlers for New France (Canada 1632). Ten times the number of Protestants left upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, bound for England, many thereafter coming to the British Colonies in North America.

September 21, 1796: The $2-1/2 gold coin, known as the "quarter eagle," initially was produced. The first quarter eagle, the 1796 Draped Bust without stars -- like most other first American coins -- was designed by Chief U.S. Engraver Robert Scot. The obverse depicts Liberty facing right, wearing a soft cap, with the inscription LIBERTY above, and the date below. The cap was long thought to be a liberty or Phrygian cap, taken from an ancient Roman model. http://www.coinresource.com/guide/photograde/

September 21, 1949: The Communist People’s Republic of China was proclaimed under Mao Tse Tung with Chou En-Lai as Premier: Today, the Chinese people have stood up -- Mao-Tse-Tung, who led his party into power after half a century of civil strife. The Chinese Communists drove Chiang Kai-shek to the Island of Formosa (now known as Taiwan). The stronghold of Shanghai fell to Mao Tse-tung Communist guerrillas. The Communist People’s Liberation Army brought with them to Beijing a northeastern folk dance called yang ge [go home] along with a new way of life, perhaps best demonstrated in 1989 with the severe repression or perhaps Mao's cultural revolution (1966) of far wider consequences.
 
September 21, 2011 -- The 10th year since the explosion at an AZF usine, causing 30 deaths and several thousand injuries: The Total chemical plant, located on the outskirts of the City of Toulouse, afterwards was rebuilt. A crater remains where the blast destroyed much of the production facility. Des représentants de Total sont aussi venus à la cérémonie. Tous ont observé une minute de silence à 10h17, à l'heure précise de l'explosion de l'usine sur le site de la société Grande Paroisse. http://tf1.lci.fr/infos/france/faits-divers/0,,3333280,00-toulouse-rend-hommage-aux-victimes-.html At first it was thought that the blast had been a terrorist attack, coming just 10 days after the twin-tower explosions in NYC. The plant produced ammonium nitrate, a substance that can be both a fertilizer and a component in explosives (AKA Oklahoma City). A root cause analysis revealed that improper storage of another substance with the ammonium nitrate had caused an unstable condition that led to the explosion.

The Toulouse-Atlanta Sister City Committee was formed to promote friendship and build personal and business relationships between the citizens of Toulouse, France, and Atlanta, after the 1974 designation. Nicknamed la ville rose (the pink city), because of the predominant use of a rose-colored brick in its buildings, Toulouse is the capital of the Midi-Pyrenees, and the space and technology center of Europe. Aerospatiale employs 9,000 workers, and Alcatel, the world's largest builder of satellites, and maker of other electronics operates here. http://www.sprawls.org/ATSCC/ Atlanta's symbol is the mythic phoenix, which is reborn from ashes, an allusion to Atlanta' rebirth after its destruction in (1864) during the war between the states. On May 20, 2005, a phœnix memorial arose in Atlanta's sister city. The sculpture topped by a Phœnix, by renowned Atlanta artist David Landis, was chosen to be the legacy gift from the citizens of Atlanta to its Sister City Toulouse, representing the solidarity between the citizens of Atlanta and Toulouse in the aftermath of an explosion that killed and injured so many people on September 21, 2001. http://www.physics.gatech.edu/people/faculty/young/Phoenix.html

September 22nd: Today is the Feast day of Saint Mauritius (died circa 302AD). Mauritius (or Maurice) was one of the 66 Christian legionnaires, martyred after torture, some say for refusing to pay homage to pagan gods (but the truth is unclear). Authorities beheaded him at Agaunum, what would become Saint Maurice-en-Valais, Switzerland. The Augustinian monastery named for Saint Maurice stands today at the site of his death. In Magdeburg in Germany are his relics. His designation as a saint predates the formal practice of canonization by a Pope. His feast day is September 22nd in both the Roman Catholic and Protestant Lutheran traditions. http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Sep22.html

Also on this date (and in Switzerland) -- September 22, 1499 -- The Peace of Basel (Traité de Bâle (1499)) concludes what was the final war of Swiss independence. The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Maximilian I, had attempted to retake Switzerland, but the Swiss nation (les Confédérés) repulsed his efforts. In Swiss farm sayings one observes that bad weather on St. Mauritius day foretells damage and frustration (Bauernregel: Gewitter um Mauritius bringt Schaden und Verdruß -- ein anderer Wetterregel: Zeigt sich klar Mauritius, viel Sturm er bringen muß -oder- Klares Wetter an Mauritius - nächstes Jahr viel Wind kommen muß).

Worldwide, Mauritius is 7th in economic freedom (2010 numbers at 7.90), while the US has fallen from third place to 18th. Didn't know that did you ? It is the only true democracy in Africa, its official language is English (ex-British colony), but the most commonly spoken tongue is creole french. Hong Kong, a chinese province, remains #1. The Kingdom of Bahrain ranks in the top 10, too; as does Switzerland, Australia and New Zealand. Until recently, the US had ranked consistently 3rd. Coincidently, by recent count, US regulation in the past year has broken previous records (Federal Register). Economic freedom is an essential prerequisite for political freedom (Churchill). In the end, socialism requires coercion, even in a benign tyranny. It is a lesson history has taught over and over again; one that we perhaps have forgotten.

Another Saint's Day: Adamnan, or Eunan as he is also known, was born about the year 625 AD at Drumhome, County Donegal, Ireland. Nothing is told us of his early life, except that he was related to another well known Irish saint, Saint Columba. He initially entered the monastery he had founded in County Donegal, but Columba persuaded him to go the Abbey of Iona (Scotland), where in 679 he became its ninth abbot. Adamnan was an understudy to St. Ernan.

In 686 Adamnan was sent to the court of King Aldfrith of Northumbria to negotiate the release of Irish captives. The then current Northumbrian king had met Adamnan as a child when he had to flee from a usurper at the death of his father King Oswy. Adamnan succeeded in his mission. While in England he visited the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, meeting the Venerable Bede who was a thirteen year old lad. Adamnan was persuaded by St. Ceolfrith to accept the Roman date of observance for Easter. He also came to accept the Roman practice of tonsure for monks. He died this 23rd day of September in 704AD.

In France, the September equinox became New Year's Day in the Republic's new calendar, which was in use for about a dozen years. The Revolution established the First Republic and abolished the French monarchy on September 21, 1792. This event made the following day (the autumnal equinox that year) the first of the Republic for France. The start of every year was to be determined by astronomical calculations following the real path and position of the Sun (known as the calendrier républicain as well as the calendrier révolutionnaire). The Fall equinox in 2013 falls on the 22nd of September, making it the true beginning of the 222th year -- September 22, 2013 (4:44 PM EDT), is the feast du Premier Vendémiaire - Primidi, 1 Jour (décade 1), CCXXII according to Wikipedia.

September 23, 1779: The American navy under John Paul Jones, commanding from Bonhomme Richard, defeated and captured a British man-of-war. An American attack on a British convoy pitted the British frigate HMS Serapis against the American. The American ship was commanded by Scotsman John Paul Jones, who chose the name for the ship after Benjamin Franklin's nickname. Fierce fighting ensued, and when Bonhomme Richard began to sink, the Serapis' commander Richard Pearson called over to ask if Jones would surrender. He responded, I have not yet begun to fight! -- a response that would become a slogan of the U.S. Navy. The ships kept firing, and indeed, the American ship ended the day by sinking, but not before Pearson surrendered and Jones took control of the Serapis.

September 23, 1806: The Lewis and Clark Expedition returned to St. Louis from the Pacific Northwest over three years after its departure. The 12¢ Lewis and Clark Postal Card was issued on September 23, 1981, to celebrate this event.

A few years earlier on this date in 1777, the Liberty Bell took a trip to Allentown, Pennsylvania, in order to prevent its capture, when the British overran the City of Brotherly Love. http://www.independencevisitorcenter.com/

On June 27, 1778, the Bell was brought back to Philadelphia but not rehung. The rotten steeple of the State House would not allow it. The Bell was put into storage for seven years. It was rehung and later rang when the Constitution was ratified in 1787. http://www.ushistory.org/libertybell/timeline.html

Speaking of western explorations -- September 24th in Canada: In 1688, Louis-Armand de Lom d'Arce, Baron de Lahontan (1666-1716), sets out from a small settlement at Michilimackinac Cove to explore the west (or at least the western reach of French territories in North America. At that time the site sat on the shore opposite from today's Mackinaw City, Michigan. In 1715, a fort named St. Philippe de Michilimackinac was reestablished on the southern shore. Louis-Armand will reach the Mississippi River (called the river St. Louis by the French) via the Wisconsin River (Meskousing -- later called the Ouisconsin). Just a few years earlier on September 24, 1669, René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle (1643-1687), had met Louis Jolliet and Father Marquette at the Saint Ignace Mission, connected with the settlement at Michilimackinac. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet of France canoed from Lake Michigan up the Fox River until reaching the present-day site of Portage (in early June), and crossed over to the Wisconsin River from the Fox (only 2 miles (3.2 km)). They too, found the Mississippi (June 17th). Marquette died on the return voyage (1675). The Algonquin people called this the father of waters (le «Pere d'eau»); the Ojibwe called the water source mezzi {misi} sippi -- the "big river."

On the 27th [of August 1679, the La Salle led explorers] were driven [in Le Griffon] northwesterly until evening, when, under favor of a light southerly breeze, they rounded Point St. Ignace, and anchored in the calm waters of the Bay of Michilimackinac, described as a sheltered harbor, protected on all sides except from the southeast. Here our voyagers found a settlement, composed of Hurons (Kis-ka-kons), Ottawas and a few Frenchmen. http://www.maritimehistoryofthegreatlakes.ca/documents/HGL/default.asp?ID=c007

Jean Nicolet, the first Frenchman to see Mackinac Island, paddled his birch bark canoe through the Straits of Mackinac in 1634 enroute to Green Bay, long before any mission in the area was established or football played.

September 24, 2007: L'extraordinaire est tout simplement que ça ait pu avoir lieu. Hier, le président iranien Mahmoud Ahmadinejad a pris la parole à l'Université Columbia, à New York, malgré l'hostilité presque furieuse que cet événement a provoquée aux États-Unis. http://www.cyberpresse.ca/ La foi en la liberté reste l’arme la plus puissante de notre pays contre les régimes répressifs, a expliqué le président de Columbia (et le professeur de ce Web-maître il-y-a environ 31 ans, quand il était juste un professeur modeste enseignant sa première classe), Lee Bollinger. http://www.lexpress.fr/ Le président iranien a ensuite affirmé que l'Iran était une nation pacifique qui entendait défendre son droit de poursuivre un programme nucléaire. Nous sommes membres de l'Agence internationale de l'énergie atomique [AIEA] et l'agence stipule que tous les Etats membres ont droit à la technologie nucléaire, a-t-il ajouté. Nous voulons avoir le droit à une énergie nucléaire pacifique, a-t-il répété. Le Monde

In 1933, Columbia University invited Hans Luther, Nazi Germany's ambassador to the United States, to speak on campus (Luther's remarks focused on what he characterized as Hitler's peaceful intentions.). Columbia's flirting with the Nazis did not end there.

While Williams College canceled its student exchanges with Germany, Columbia and others refused to do likewise. And in 1936, Columbia sent Prof. Arthur Remy as its representative to anniversary celebrations at the University of Heidelberg, where the Nazis had expelled all Jewish instructors, implemented a curriculum based on Nazi ideology, and organized book-burnings. Remy said he found a reception with Josef Goebbels -- incidentally, the man in charge of the book burnings -- to be very enjoyable. Some students protested the Columbia's participation at Heidelberg by picketing the home of president Nicholas Murray Butler. Dr. Butler, in turn, responded by permanently expelling the leader of the protest, Robert Burke, for allegedly using disrespectful language.

Lee Bollinger, the current president of Columbia (and in 2009 made a deputy director of the Federal Reserve Bank of NY), evidently felt his invitation to a would-be Hitler constituted a tribute to the principle of free speech. A more impressive gesture would have been a public apology to the family of Robert Burke. The Wall Street Journal Interestingly, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was scheduled to meet with Fox News' Shepard Smith on this day in 2010, and spoke again at Columbia in 2011.

Born 24 September 1942: Gerard "Gerry" Marsden, an English musician and television personality, best known for being leader of the British band Gerry & the Pacemakers. "Ferry Cross the Mersey," "Don't Let The Sun Catch You Crying" and "You'll Never Walk Alone" were his 60's hits. On this date 1789, the United States Post Office Department was established. Happy Birthday Snail-mail !!! Today in 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed Devils Tower in Wyoming as the nation's first National Monument; while in 1968, "60 Minutes" premiered -- Coincidence ? I think not.

In 1725, Sir Arthur Guinness, sometime Irish brewer entered this world. His father was the land steward to Dr. Arthur Price, the Archbishop of Cashel (some have called the ruin Saint Peter the Rock Cathedral (de cathédrale Saint-Pierre de la roche), but the newer Cathedral is elsewhere and is today dedicated to Saint John the Baptist and controlled by the Church of Ireland). This is an ancient place, dating back to at least the 4th Century. The site actually contains the Cathedral, its related Chapel and a Castle. Brian Boru was said to be crowned here. Saint Patrick was here too, baptising an Irish King. The elder Guiness brewed beer for the estate's workforce in County Tipperary. In celebration, Wakonda Brewing Company is located at 1725 Kingwood in Florence OR, while the Oaken Keg Spirit Shops, in Anchorage, AK, can be found at 1725 Abbott Road. http://footage.shutterstock.com/clip-2270954-stock-footage-aerial-rock-of-cashel-castle-and-small-village.html More pictures are HERE.

15¢ Independence Hall, Philadelphia Postal Card:
America the Beautiful Series

5¢ DC-4 Skymaster:
Airmail Envelope

First Day Issues of
September 25, 1946 & 1989

Considered by many to be the birthplace of the United States of America, the city of Philadelphia remains as rich in culture and charm as when the Quakers first settled here in the 17th century. Founded by William Penn in 1682, Philadelphia soon became a center of religious freedom -- hence its nickname, The City of Brotherly Love. It also became a major hub of colonial American politics, serving as the meeting place for the Second Continental Congress, the one that adopted the Declaration of Independence, as well as the convention that drafted the Bill of Rights. In time, the city played a vital role in the American Industrial Revolution, and because of its highly developed industry was a crucial supplier for Union forces during the Civil War. Independence Hall, original painting by John Benson, is shown on this postal issue -- one of the sites in four cities to be seen in the America the Beautiful series.

The original DC-4 was built as a requirement for both United and American Airlines. It began test flying in 1938, but when the U.S. entered into World War 2, the production line was commandeered by the military authorities and thus the first 24 C-54's were produced. http://www.ruudleeuw.com/dc4_tec.htm The aircraft became a cargo workhorse during the conflict after it became available in 1942.

September 26, 1789 -- Big day in Washington: Thomas Jefferson is appointed the first United States Secretary of State, John Jay is appointed the first Chief Justice of the United States, Samuel Osgood is appointed the first United States Postmaster General, and Edmund Randolph is appointed the first United States Attorney General. In 1813, future President, William Henry Harrison (olde Tippecanoe), and some 4500 troops begin the military occupation of western Ontario, where they remain for the rest of the conflict after defeating British forces on the Thames. The Christmas Eve signed Treaty of Ghent (1814) returned this land to Britain. Meanwhile in Europe, on this day, in the years 1918 and 715, battles begin.

The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied push during World War I along the entire western front. It involved troops from Britain, its dominion/commonwealth armies (mainly Canada, Australia and New Zealand), Belgium and France in other major attacks in other sectors. On September 26th, the US forces (from northwest of the town of Verdun) began the strike towards Sedan (France) on the southern end of the line; General Sir Arthur Currie's Canadians also began this day to move; British and Belgian divisions commenced a drive towards Ghent (Belgium), on the 27th, and then British and French armies attacked across northern France, on the 28th. The scale of the overall offensive, heavily bolstered by the fresh, eager but largely inexperienced American troops, ended any German hope for victory. The big September/October Allied breakthroughs (north, center and south) across the length of the Hindenburg Line, including the Battle of the Argonne Forest, are collectively remembered as the Hundred Days Offensive by the Allies. All conflict on the Western Front ended in November, when the guns of August finally were silent.

Of course, this was neither the last nor the first conflict to rage across this land. Interestingly, this first battle in the Frankish civil war was fought this day. The Battle of Compiègne was fought on September 26, 715 and was the first definite battle of the civil war which followed the death of Pepin of Heristal, Duke of the Franks, on December 16, 714. Battles at Cologne, Amblève (near Liège), Vincy (near Cambrai) and Soissons would follow in the next three years as a three-way conflict develops. Charles Martel would emerge, setting the political foundations for the Holy Roman Empire under Charles the Great.

September 26, 2007: The Council of Europe marked the 7th European Day of Languages in its 46 member states. The event, first established by the Council following the success of the European Year of Languages in 2001, aims to alert the public to the importance of learning languages throughout life. The Council indicates that over 200 languages are native to Europe and being spoken today. http://www.ecml.at/edl/NewsDetails.asp?n=248 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Day_of_Languages To mark the day in 1687, Venetian forces (besieging the Ottoman Turks stationed in Athens) bombard the Parthenon and partially destroy it after an explosion caused by munitions stored within. The Parthenon, built at the initiative of Pericles, the leading Athenian politician of the 5th century BC, was under the general supervision of the sculptor Phidias. The architects were Iktinos and Kallikrates. Construction began in 447 BC, and the building was substantially completed by 438 BC, but work on the decorations continued until at least 433 BC. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon

We thought the name sounded familiar -- September 27, 1921: Today marks the death of Engelbert Humperdinck in Neustrelitz, Germany. Among the operas composed by Herr Humperdinck are, Dornröschen, Königskinder and of course Hänsel und Gretel. On December 23, 1893, Hänsel und Gretel premiered in Weimar (Thüringen). The production is conducted by Richard Strauss. http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Sep27.html


18¢ Babe Zaharias and Bobby Jones
Combination American Sports Series
September 22, 1981

September 27, 1930: Bobby Jones won the U.S. Amateur Championship at Philadelphia, thus becoming the first player ever to make the Grand Slam by winning all four of the major titles of the time (the U.S. Open, the U.S. Amateur Championship, the British Open and the British Amateur Championship). Twenty-six years later to the day Mildred Ella "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias passed away at age 42. She had become America's first female golf celebrity and leading player of the 1940s and early 1950s.

Ms. Zaharias had perhaps her greatest year in 1950 when she completed the Grand Slam of the three women's majors of the day, the US Open, the Titleholders Championship, and the Western Open, in addition to leading the money-list. She was the leading money-winner again in 1951 and in 1952 took another major with a Titleholders victory, but illness prevented her from playing a full schedule in 1952-53. She made a comeback in 1954 and took the Vare Trophy, and her tenth and final major, with a U.S. Women's Open championship. Considering her health (and age), this was her greatest triumph. http://www.answers.com/topic/babe-didrikson-zaharias

September 27, 2006: The US Senate approved a Congressional Gold Medal for Byron Nelson this night, making him the first professional golfer to join an elite list that includes the Wright Brothers and Nelson Mandela. The move came one day after the 94-year-old golf legend died. http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/politics/15624407.htm Nelson started out competing against legend Gene Sarazen and lived to see Tiger Woods set all sorts of records; an era that went from hickory shafts to graphite, wood to titanium club-heads, from smashies to specialty wedges. And the Money: I only won $182,000 in my whole life, he once said. In 1937, I got fifth-place [prize] money at the British Open - $187 - and it cost me $3,000 to play. http://newpaper.asia1.com.sg/sports/story/0,4136,114512,00.html The final win in the 1945 11-game streak came in early August at Thornhill Country Club in the Canadian Open, a four-shot win over Herman Barron worth another $2,000 {Canadian} — big bucks in those days. More HERE from the Toronto Star.

Nelson left the regular tour in 1946 at age 34, replaced by another Texan from the caddy shack at Glen Garden Country Club in Fort Worth, Ben Hogan. Timeline HERE. A few months ago, Nelson made 12 slivers of wood, smooth and stained, for the U.S. Ryder Cup team. His signature stamp - "Made by Byron Nelson" - was branded in black on one side, and on the other side was each US player's first name and the verse: With your help I can advance against a troop. With my God I can scale a wall Psalms 18:29. The last shot Nelson hit before an audience was the ceremonial drive to start the 2001 Masters. He was 89, some say still as nervous as when he won his first major championship at Augusta National in 1937. http://www.forbes.com/home/feeds/ap/2006/09/27/ap3049994.html Nelson's last win came in 1955 at the French Open, where the prize money wasn't even enough to cover his hotel bill. Nelson was elected to the PGA Hall of Fame in 1953 and to the World Golf Hall of Fame in 1974. from the CBC

The US Congress has awarded 137 Gold Medals, starting with General George Washington, long before independence was won. Since the first civilian award in 1858, the medal has gone to explorers, scientists, humanitarians, world leaders and civil rights pioneers. The list includes the Wright brothers and Mother Teresa. Four athletes have been honored, all posthumously: baseball players Jackie Robinson and Roberto Clemente, boxer Joe Louis and track star Jesse Owens. see The Dallas Morning News On September 12, 2012, Arnold Palmer received the medal.

September 27 and 28, 1692: In 1504, Ötisheim, which had been in the Palatine region of Germany, came under the control of Württemberg. The church, pictured left, predates this time, but also has undergone extensive changes since then. The town was sacked on September 27 and 28, 1692, explaining why the church records do not go back to an earlier time. Why the wholesale destruction ? France's "Sun King", Louis XIV, attempted to claim the inheritance of his sister-in-law, Lieselotte from the Palatinate. He launched a war of succession that in a few years time left southwestern Germany lying in rubble. One of the decisive battles was fought near Ötisheim where the Duke-Administrator Karl von Württemberg was taken captive. Ötisheim was burned down leaving only the church, town hall, and monastery administration buildings damaged but still standing. In 1744, looking back on that time, pastor Christian Gottfried Nicolai wrote "the inhabitants were all dispersed, everything plundered and the village sat in complete ruin." Only nine inhabitants lived in these ruins in 1697. It is for this reason that the Waldensers (religious followers of Peter Waldo) were granted the right to repopulate this area. See also http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~george/johnsgermnotes/oetisheim.html

So the separate families of John and Ursula BROYLES (Johannes BREYHEL and Ursula RUOP) moved to Ötisheim. They married and raised a family there. They most certainly worshipped here before they left for the new world and Pennsylvania. This family was part of the Second Germanna Colony - circa 1717. The colonists were all Lutherans from the Palatinate and Baden-Württemberg regions of Germany. Go to http://www.genebase.com/node/P1980115 for more about this family and to learn how they ended up in Virginia !!! My spouse descends from this family.
 
Elizabeth Charlotte von der Pfalz (Elizabeth Charlotte of Bavaria) (Liselotte) (1652––1722), Duchess of Orléans, began life as the German princess Liselotte, the granddaughter of Frederick V, born at Heidelberg Castle, Princess Palatine. The Palatinate, an historically important area in central Europe that includes land surrounding the Rhine, has been fought over for centuries. It is governed by an Elector Palatine, one of the persons who chose the leader of the Holy Roman Empire. Her portrait in bronze is HERE. More about Orléans HERE.

Elizabeth Charlotte became the second wife of Louis XIV’s brother, Philip I, Duke of Orléans (the marriage to his first wife, Henrietta, sister of Charles II of England, ended with her death by poison in 1670), and was the sister of Charles, the Elector Palatine of the Rhine, who died without heirs in 1685. He had been succeeded as Elector Palatine by the head of the Zweibrucken line, Philip William of Neuberg, the father-in-law of the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, with whom Louis was at war. Louis decided to claim that some part of the Palatine succession ought to have gone to Charles’ sister, and Louis’ sister-in-law, Liselotte. Louis decided to enforce the claim in 1688 by issuing a manifesto setting forth the French demands. A French army under the command of the dauphin (Louis XIV’s eldest son) advanced into the Palatinate and devastated it.

As the French forces withdrew from the castle on March 2, 1689, they set fire to it and blew the front off the Fat Tower. Portions of the town were also burned, but the mercy of a French general Tesse, who told the townspeople to set small fires in their homes to create smoke and the illusion of burning, prevented wider destruction. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heidelberg_Castle

The Sun King, Louis, also was reclaiming French Protestant subjects who had fled to the region for its more tolerant atmosphere. This contributed to the onset of the War of the Grand Alliance, which pitted an alliance of England, Holland and the Holy Roman Empire against France. This conflict, which lasted from 1689 to 1697 had no clear victor. It ended with the Treaty of Ryswick.

When Louis XIV died in 1715, Liselotte's son (Philip II d’Orléans) became Regent for the young Louis XV, and some of Liselotte's correspondence assumed a political role: for example, she began to write to Caroline of Ansbach, whom she had never met, but who had married the heir to the English throne, a contact that the Regent wanted to secure. Liselotte's letters convey her speaking voice. She always prided herself on saying exactly what she thought, no matter to whom she was speaking, and so it is with her correspondence. Over 4000 in German survive, as do 850 in French. There is no complete English-language translation, but see http://www.arcamax.com/nonfiction/b-1059.

If my father had loved me as well as I loved him he would never have sent me into a country so dangerous as this, to which I came through pure obedience and against my own inclination. Here duplicity passes for wit, and frankness is looked upon as folly. I am neither cunning nor mysterious.

1931 September 28, 1781: American forces in the Revolutionary War, backed by a French fleet and a French amy, began the siege of Yorktown Heights, Virginia (it ended October 19th), just a few short miles by highway away from Williamsburg and Jamestown. Over 9,000 Americans and some 7,000 French troops took part in the action. The world was beginning to turn upside down. The allied armies had marched from New England in an effort to surprise the Britsh forces. Trapped on a peninsula, with no way out except by sea ... well, you know the story. The French role is less well known. http://www.nps.gov/archive/colo/Ythanout/frenarmcasualties.htm

Debts incurred for basic existence, sheer survival, and some form of liberty are among those that can never be put paid, and whosoever repudiates those debts acquires an indelible stain. It is folly to forget them. http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2004_07-09/rockwell_lafay/rockwell_lafay.html

Trumbull's painting of Yorktown is not the only one. Louis-Nicholas van Blarenberghe executed two scenic paintings of The Siege of Yorktown, one in 1784 for Louis XVI, and a near replica in 1786 for the Comte de Rochambeau. He also painted The Surrender at Yorktown (executed in 1785 and 1786) for the same patrons. Blarenberghe was a professional painter of battle and campaign scenes for the French army. He executed his Yorktown paintings under the direct supervision of Berthier, a skilled draftsman and former member of Rochambeau's staff in America (1781-83). The first work is held by Musée National de Versailles and the two paintings for the count are exhibited at Château de Rochambeau. http://xenophongroup.com/mcjoynt/yrkt-z.htm

Place Yorktown is a tiny square close to the Trocadéro (Paris) at the end of, appropriately enough, Rue Benjamin Franklin. It has a plaque commemorating the French dead at the battle of Yorktown, a plaque commemorating the bicentennial of the treaties of Versailles and Paris, and is dominated by a statue of Benjamin Franklin. The French were most happy about the results of the Battle of Yorktown. At the time, the French Nation had been sinking a lot of money into the fledgling country. Winning the battle of Yorktown was a welcome indication that the fight against the British might be won and the funds not wasted; however, the war with the English ultimately bankrupted France and became one of the major contributing factors to the French Revolution. http://kmganga.free.fr/ParAmericana/Places/SquareYorktown/index.shtml

September 29th: The three great desert religions all know of Michael. http://www.stmichaeloc.org/patron.htm The Anglican Tradition, celebrates three or four angels on the 29th of September (Michaelmas) feast for St. Michael and All Angels: namely Archangel Michael (Jude 9), Gabriel, Raphael and often, Uriel. During the Middle Ages, Michaelmas was celebrated as a Holy Day of Obligation, but this tradition was abolished in the 18th century. Lutheran Christians consider it a principal feast of Christ, and the Lutheran Confessor, Philip Melanchthon, wrote a hymn for the day that is still sung in Lutheran Churches: Lord God to Thee We Give It was also one of the English, Welsh and Irish quarter days when accounts had to be settled. The Eastern Orthodox Churches do not observe Michaelmas. The Greek Orthodox Church honors the them on the 8th of November instead.

And there was a great battle in heaven, Michael and his angels fought with the dragon. Revelation (Apocalypse) 12:7 In Normandy (France), St. Michael is the patron of mariners in his famous sanctuary at Mont-Saint-Michel in the Diocese of Coutances. He is said to have appeared there, in 708, to St. Aubert, Bishop of Avranches. In Germany, after its evangelization, St. Michael replaced for the Christians the pagan god Wotan, to whom many mountains were sacred, hence the numerous mountain chapels of St. Michael all over Germany. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10275b.htm

September 29, 1777: Our history books tend to emphasize Britain's 13 American colonies that declared their independence. In fact, not counting its colonies in Canada or the Caribbean, the English had 15 American colonies in 1776. The two oft overlooked British possessions were East Florida and West Florida, both of which remained in British hands after the American Revolution. In this excerpt from a letter to Henry Laurens, Savannah merchant Joseph Clay noted one problem Georgians were having with bands of raiders from East Florida:

. . . The Scouts from Augustine have for some Months past been continually making incursions into our State for Cattle & I believed they have carried some away lately from the No'side of the Great Ogechee, this to our very great shame they have done with very little interruption . . . the Number of the People who have committed these depredations have never exceeded 150 . . . this is very much complained of by the Inhabitants & with great reason that they cannot be protected from such an inferior force . . . .

Source: Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, Vol. VIII, Letters of Joseph Clay, Merchant of Savannah, 1776-1793 (Savannah: Georgia Historical Society, 1913), p. 40.

The storehouses of James Spalding at Sunbury were rifled, plundered and burned, his dwelling house likewise, and everything of value scattered to the winds; all the accumulations of industry and thrift were engulfed and destroyed by roving bands of tories or so-called loyalists [during the American Revolution].

September 29, 1962: Canada launches its first orbiting satellite and becomes the third nation in space. Alouette I sat upon a US rocket (Thor-Agena B ) fired from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. It weighed 320 pounds and cost $2.9 million (Canadian). Built to study ionosphere from 1000 km in space, it was a colaborative project of Defence Research Board and Canadian electronics industry. The name Alouette came from the French word for "skylark," which is the title of a popular French-Canadian folk song. Exactly 20 years and one day earlier at Kiska, Alaska, Canadian aircraft had made their first attacks on Japanese forces in the Aleutian Island chain. Meanwhile, nearly 400 years before in 1535, Jacques Cartier had crossed Lac St-Pierre for the first time, on his way to discovering Montreal on October 2nd.

September 30, 1989: In the late 1980s, hundreds of desperate East Germans sought refuge at the West German embassy in Prague, the capital of the-communist Czechoslovakia, triggering a major diplomatic incident that paved the way for the fall of the Berlin Wall. West Germany's former foreign minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher tells Deutsche Welle how he experienced September 30, 1989, the fateful day when he told thousands of East German refugees in Prague their departure for the West had been approved. The GDR (Communist East-German Government) could not survive what happened in Prague. Nobody could say when and how this would happen, but it was clear that this grave blow to the Wall had to have a lasting impact. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,4743914,00.html

September 30 -- St. Viktor von Solothurn: St. Viktor (starb circa 303AD) war ein christlicher, römischer Soldat. Zusammen mit St. Ursus und anderen Christen wurde er nach der Folter gemartert, da er sich weigerte, heidnische Idole anzubeten. Seine Überreste sind in der Periode der Reformation verloren gegangen. Seine Verehrung als Heiliger geht der Heiligsprechung durch den Papst voraus, sein Gedenktag ist am 30. September. Er wird besonders in Basel, Chur, Freiburg, St. Gallen und Sitten verehrt. http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/ptr/saints/stssws.html

Thus, September 30th is also the Feast day of saint Victor's companion, Saint Ursus (death ca. 303). Ursus also was a Roman Legionnaire who had converted to Christianity. According to the legends of the saints, he was tortured by men attempting to force him to worship pagan idols. Finally, he was beheaded. He is associated also with Saint Maurice and the village of Solothurn in today's Switzerland, the place of his execution. The chapel of Saint Peter (which rests on an older Roman structure) was placed where Saint Ursus died inside the Roman fort. His designation as a saint predates the formal practice of canonization by a Pope. http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Sep30.html

The city of Solothurn is due south of Basel, and is the capital of Solothurn Canton. It has been a site for ancient pre-Roman peoples. About 10-25 AD a fort was built to protect a road station and bridge head on the Roman road from Aventicum to Augusta Raurica or Vindonissa. A small vicus or settlement sat around the castrum. Its strategic position suggests that it may have been a Celtic position, too. It became the home to a detachment of the larger XXII Legion (stationed at today's Mainz). There were several Christian structures by late Roman times. About 500 AD, the Burgundian Princess Sedeleuba, took the bones of St. Victor to Geneva, while the bones of St. Ursus remained in Solothurn. The church dedicated to the veneration of Saint Ursus is first mentioned in 870 and later a Monastery developed. Much later, Solothurn was part of the Swiss Confederation, attacked by the Hapsburg dynasty and also conquered by Napoleon. see also http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geschichte_des_Kantons_Solothurn


January 2006 Drawing
O Christ the Rock, upon which thy Church is built, whereon thy People, as living stones fitly framed together, grow into a spiritual house: Defend thy Church O Lord.

September 30, 2006: The premier service in the new sanctuary started at 9am on September 23rd. It was dedicated on the 30th during a 2½ hour service, the delayed feast day of Saint Barnabas. He accompanied St. Paul the Apostle on Paul's early journeys to Asia Minor and Cyprus (known as his first mission). http://missel.free.fr/Sanctoral See stbarnabasatl.org/WhoWas.htm



I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord  Psalm 122.
Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls
 
A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure: http://www.catholic-convert.com/

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from:
http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-jan.htm -- http://timelines.ws/days/01_01.HTML -- http://www.herodote.net/jour0101.htm -- http://www.440.com/twtd/archives/jan01.html -- http://www.treas.gov/education/history/events/01-jan.shtml -- http://missel.free.fr/calendrier.php?mois=1&annee=2010 -- http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/features/twich/01.html -- http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Jan1.html

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December



More Flags -- Flag Day
Early GA Flag Gwenn Ha Du 
qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

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Hightower Trail Historical Weather Conditions
 
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Last updated: 19 Septembre 2014
0833 EDT

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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at the time.