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The  VANGUARD --   2016

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit"

 
We complete our 19th Year online in May 2016
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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links
Luxembourg

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

Tour de France -- 2012 -- A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- http://www.au-chateau.com/auChateauNews79.php (New: Spring 2016 )

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3
Passover - Pesach

Death is swallowed up by the Victory.
O Death, where now is your victory?
O Death, where is your venomous sting?

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

April 30, 311: The Roman co-ruler (Augustus), commonly called Galerius, publicly had issued an edict of tolerance on this day, thereby ending the violent persecutions under Diocletian, who had recently retired to a villa on the Adriatic Sea. A year later in Milan, the act is confirmed and enlarged by Constantine [the Great]. Christianity would become the dominating force in the Empire in the years to come under his sole rule. Acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (modern-day York) after his father's death in 306 AD, Constantine emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against the emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both the west and east empires of Rome by 324 AD. Top picture is a Roman coin of Galerius from 311AD.

The denomination here is a follis (following the monetary reform begun under Diocletian; Billon - copper based metal possibly silvered at the mint) from Roman Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint. This is posthumous issue from 311 A.D. - obverse DIVO MAXIMIANO MAXIMINVS AVG FIL, with a laureate head facing right; reverse AETERNAE MEMORIAE GALERI MAXIMIANI, showing a lighted altar, garlanded, ornamented on front panel with eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak; MKVA in emerge (mint mark). The follis was issued by Maximianus II. The coin looks as if it had been in fairly dry ground for a while, after being in circulation. The hardened sediment has been partially removed by scraping (generally never a good idea).

Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Cæsar, tetrarch and later Augustus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He ended the persecution and asked for prayers for his return to health from a serious illness, which took his life less than a week later. Lest you think this somehow unfair, In 303 A.D., the persecution of Christians had increased, beginning at Nicomedia at Galerius behest. Galerius died at Sardica. Maximizes II and Licinius split his realm between them. http://www.forumancientcoins.com/Roman-Coins.asp?e=Galerius&par=447&pos=1&target=55 (there are 18 pages of Galerius-related coins at this link)

Similar (second) coin, but struck by Licinius: Billon follis from Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, posthumous, 311 A.D. - obverse DIVO MAXIMIANO, veiled head right; reverse MEM DIVI MAXIMIANI, domed shrine, closed doors, surmounted by eagle, Although somewhat worn, this coin has been less abused (than the first one shown). Some cities that produced coins had more than one workshop (officinæ) for the same mintmark. On this issue, you see the letter "B" on the reverse for the second such workshop at that date in Thessalonica. Some workshops might be indicated in Roman numerals or greek symbols, such as the Δ ("delta") for 4th workshop or II for the second one.
 
April 30, 1562: Off the Coast of Florida near what would become (under the Spanish) Saint Augustine, a French privateer and explorer first sights the New World. A Huguenot of the city of Dieppe, Jean Ribault was a successful captain for Admiral Gaspar de Coligny's navy. Coligny selected him to establish a Huguenot colony in Florida. Actually, it was to be a French colony, populated by persons of the Protestant faith (Huguenots), to stand in opposition to the Spanish, as well as to prove the loyalty of the Huguenots to the greater French cause.

With Rene Laudonnière as his lieutenant, Ribault reached the St. Johns River on April 30, 1562. Ribault selected a place to settle beside what is today known as Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, calling it Charlesfort. Today we know it as Paris Island. Returning to Europe to get supplies, Ribault discovered the French ports closed by the religious war between Protestants and Catholics. Seeking help from England, Ribault went to London, where he was arrested. By the time he was released, a new settlement near present-day Jacksonville (Fort Caroline) was under the command of Laudonnière, even though the Charlesfort effort had failed. http://www.republiquelibre.org/cousture/FLORIDE.HTM

Spain sought the destruction of Fort Caroline. Spanish forces under Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and the relief effort under Ribault left Europe virtually at the same moment, the Spanish greatly outnumbering the French, but in ships of poorer quality. The French arrived a ahead of the Spanish fleet and beat off the first attack. Ribault went on the offensive, but a hurricane wrecked most of the his fleet. The Spanish, meanwhile, during the height of the storm, marched overland and caught the French offguard. A massacre ensued. Ribault later surrendered what was left of his men and he was executed by Menéndez, along with those who were not or would not become Catholic again on October 12, 1565 (Le massacre de Matanzas Inlet). http://www.mairie-dieppe.fr/fonds-ancien/nouveaufonds/jehanribault.html
 
Great Moments in Banking History -- Think about it -- April 31, 1728: The Scottish Royal Bank invents first the overdraft when a Mr. William Hogg overdraws his account by 1000 Pounds sterling ($125,000 in today's value) http://www.rampantscotland.com/let020427.htm {This week history in Scotland -- actually it was 31 May according to the Hogg Family page}

April 31, 1851: The town of Hazelton, Pennsylvania is first incorporated. Want to know more? http://www.hazletoncity.org/public/life/history.html On April 31, 1864, the Secretary of War requested Governor Seymour to furnish one or two regiments of militia to guard deserters, stragglers, etc., being forwarded to the army. Two days later Major-General Dix, by the authority of the President, called on the Governor for one or two more regiments to occupy the defenses of the New York Harbor from History of New York. After April 31, 1991, the gold córdoba became the sole legal currency of Nicaragua and was pegged to the United States dollar at a rate of US$1 = 5 gold córdobas, a rate it maintained throughout 1992 -- More Here.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

EdiculeForty Days after the Resurrection: from http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/Scotland/Scot_Tables_Rules.htm The Thursday called Ascension Day falls on May 5, 2016. The next celebration day is Pentecost or Whitsunday, the promise is fulfilled. From the four weeks of preparation before Christmas (Advent) through this time, we have the Life and Death portrayed and remembered week-by-week by the historic Church. So begins the work of the Paraclete: http://www.episcopalian.org/pbs1928/Articles/Ascension2003.htm Other special days include four Rogation days before the Ascension. Rogation Sunday begins the time traditionally set apart for solemn processions to invoke God's mercy, and recognize our dependence upon the land for our food. The Vigil of Pentecost occurs the evening immediately before Whitsunday. The English (Anglican) Book of Common Prayer was approved and required for use beginning Pentecost in 1549; and, it includes a service for the Vigil, the first time in English. Cranmer himself officiated at St. Paul's on June 9th (in London on Pentecost), although his book was used there and elsewhere as early as the start of Lent. http://anglicanhistory.org/essays/wright/1549.pdf Trinity Sunday is eight weeks after Easter (the two days before are "Ember" Friday and Saturday -- Quatuor Tempora).

Ascension Sunday: Ascension Day occurs 40 days after Resurrection Sunday, so it too is a moveable Holy Day. Because it falls on a Thursday, most churches celebrate it on the Sunday following. After the conversion of Constantine, the first church arose on the site of the Ascension about 390 AD tradition says by Poimenia, a pious Roman lady. St. Helena erected over the site a church called the "Eleona Basilica" in 392. Elaion in Greek means "olive garden" from the word elaia "olive tree" (and has an oft-mentioned similarity to eleos meaning "mercy"). This structure was destroyed by the Sassanid Persians in 614. It was rebuilt in the eighth century, destroyed again, but rebuilt a second time by the Crusaders. Muslim forces destroyed this final church, leaving only an octagonal structure (called a martyrium -- a memorial or "Edicule"). It remains to this day, having received a vast number of visitors for 900 years. The Ascension is understood as a necessary prerequisite for the sending of the Holy Ghost (spiritus sanctus) at Pentecost (John 16:7 (King James Version)). http://198.62.75.1/www1/ofm/sbf/escurs/Ger/14escursEn.html Chapel of the Ascension, Jerusalem

Pentecost -- 50 days later: Pentecôte {Année C} -- 15 Mai 2016 -- http://missel.free.fr/Annee_C/paques/pentecote.html -- Psaume 103 -- Bénis le Seigneur, ô mon âme; Seigneur mon Dieu, tu es si grand ! -- Year A (June 12, 2011): "I will give them one heart, and put a new spirit within them; I will remove the heart of stone from their flesh and give them a heart of flesh, so that they may follow my statutes and keep my ordinances and obey them. Then they shall be my people, and I will be their God from Ezekiel 11:20."

I will pour forth of my Spirit upon all flesh:
And your sons and your daughters shall prophesy,
And your young men shall see visions,
And your old men shall dream dreams:
Yea and on my servants and on my handmaidens in those days
Will I pour forth of my Spirit; and they {all} shall prophesy.

Joel 2 -- http://www.orlutheran.com/mlsepent.html

When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. And suddenly from heaven there came a sound like the rush of a violent wind, and it filled the entire house where they were sitting. Divided tongues, as of fire, appeared among them, and a tongue rested on each of them. All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages, as the Spirit gave them ability -- from Acts 2.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

May 1st: In Paris, 1889, at the third gathering {Paris International Congress}, world-wide socialists {really mostly Europeans from Germany, Switzerland, France, Belgium and Holland} voted to support the United States labor movement's demands for an 8-hour day. They chose May 1, 1890, as a day of marxist solidarity with labor. May 1st became a holiday called Labor Day in many places; and as it seemed appropriate, Mother Jones came to life this day.

... socialism, necessarily devoid of a market in land and capital goods, must lack the ability to calculate and compare goods and services, and therefore any rational allocation of productive resources under socialism is indeed impossible (Mises (1920)). The allocation then must be arbitrary and the choice of winners and losers political (i.e. under a doctrine of fairness). see http://www.lewrockwell.com/rothbard/rothbard132.html

May 1st, not inconsequently, coincides also with widespread practices, popular from Roman and Celtic pagan traditions. Socialist governments and labor organizations sponsor parades, speeches and other fêtes to honor working people. The holiday has had special importance in Communist countries, where the May Day parades were a time to show-off military prowess. In America, we have our own labor-inspired fun, observed in September.

Citizens in France call the first of May la Fête du Travail. Ce également connu: sa fête -- Saint Joseph, travailleur. Joseph, charpentier à Nazareth, en Galilée, est décrit dans les Évangiles comme le père nourricier de Jésus-Christ et l'époux de Marie. Depuis le XVIIe siècle, le Patronage de Saint Joseph était célébré 17 jours après Pâques. Pie XII le remplaça par la fête de Saint Joseph travailleur, opportunément placée en même temps que la fête (laïque) du Travail.

The grounds are officially opened to the public at the Universal Exposition in Paris on May 6th, the Tour Eiffel on the 15th.

Loyalty Day began as Americanization Day in 1921 as a counter to the Communists' May 1st festival for the Russian Revolution. On May 1, 1930, 10,000 VFW members staged a rally at New York's Union Square to promote America. Through a resolution adopted in 1949, May 1st became Loyalty Day, and in 1958, the US Congress made May 1st as a permanent fixture on the Nation's calendar (House Joint Resolution 479 is Public Law 85-529 (72 Stat. 369 (1958)). By law, Loyalty Day signifies a special day for the recognition of the heritage of American freedom, as well as a personal time for the reaffirmation of loyalty to the United States. President Eisenhower (1959) was the first to issue a proclamation under this law. http://www.vfw.org/index.cfm?fa=cmty.leveld&did=2484 -- http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/04/20060428-10.html (removed by the Obama Whitehouse staff in 2009 -- our link is to WebArchive) Interestingly, the current Administration apparently did not issue a Proclamation in 2009.

May 1st is also National Law Day (again a WebArchive link is used). How quaint that celebrations in the year (2006) featured strikes and parades, flag burnings and violence -- the loyal participants remembered to fly a flag of their country, as they demonstrated in support of their respect for the rule of law on this special day. Some many months later, can you remember what flag was being flown in respect of which country ?? And -- How much progress has been made to resolve the issues of which the demonstrators made so much. Look what happened in 2009 (a Friday) as the left tried to counter popular sentiment against creeping (now galloping) socialism with Global Love Day, the Battle for Terra, International Workers Day planning for the unity of immigrants, We will march this May Day to demand Jobs, Homes, and Peace, etc.

And in 2014, ABC News thinks that the death of a Mad Magazine icon is in the top 10 news events of the day, while National Prayer Day and the release of Benghazi documents documents showing how the White House lied and the State Department fabricated a tale gets no mention. Also articles on scrambling eggs and a Bieber sighting are worthy of mention. The history of May day, which began in Chicago is found here in an article about the solidarity marches in Russia today http://voiceofrussia.com/news/2014_05_01/

May 2nd -- should be the feast day of Athanasius of Alexandria: One of only 33 Roman Catholic Doctors of the Church, a Saint recognized by Orthodox denominations (17 had died before the formal disunion of the Eastern and Western traditions). Regarded as a great leader and doctor of the Universal Church by Protestants, Athanasius' feast day is actually celebrated on January 18th. Today is the anniversary of his death in 373AD. We think it still fitting today to recognize his achievements against the heresies of the day, when you consider other objects of faith that are recognized today. More important was his work in defining the received Cannon, that is the books that would later be known as the Bible. The relics of St. Athanasius the Great of Alexandria are currently preserved under the new St. Mark Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Deir El-Anba Rowais, Abbassiya, Cairo, Egypt, after their return from Italy in May of 1973. http://www.netencyclo.com/en/Athanasius

The Coptic Church has the tradition that the original Nicean Creed (325AD) was authored by Athanasius, although many dispute this idea. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicene_Creed: http://web.archive.org/web/20080313014651/http://www.coroadrogue.com.ar/e_as.htm -- Credo in unum Deo Patrem omnipotentem --- http://www.creeds.net/ancient/niceneg.htm -- Πιστεύομεν εις ένα Θεόν, Πατέρα, Παντοκράτορα, ποιητήν ουρανού και γης, ορατόν ε πάντων και αοράτων. In any event there is a separate Creed of Athanasius: Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is is necessary that he hold the Catholic {meaning universal, accepted, not heretical} Faith. http://www.holybible.com/resources/athanasius_creed.htm -- see also Book of Common Prayer, Episcopal Church USA, Kingsport Press (1977) pp 864-65.

May 2, 1670: In the 17th century the French had a monopoly on the Canadian fur trade. However, two French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers, learned from the Cree tribe that the best fur country was north and west of Lake Superior -- a frozen sea still further north. Correctly guessing that this was Hudson Bay, they sought French backing for a plan to set up a trading post on the Bay, thus reducing the cost of moving furs overland. In contrast, the recently appointed French Secretary of State, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, was trying to promote farming in the colony. He opposed to exploration and trapping.

Radisson and des Groseilliers approached a group of businessmen in Boston, Massachusetts, to help finance the proposed northern explorations. The Bostonians agreed on the plan's merits. They sent the two men to England to elicit financing. In 1668, the English backers commissioned two ships to explore trade from Hudson Bay. The Nonsuch was commanded by Captain Zachariah Gillam and accompanied by Groseilliers, while the Eaglet was commanded by Captain William Stannard and accompanied by Radisson. On June 5, 1668, both ships left port at Deptford, England, but the Eaglet was forced to turn back off the coast of Ireland. After a successful trading expedition over the winter of 1668–1669, the Nonsuch returned to England.

The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay was incorporated on May 2, 1670, with a Royal Charter from King Charles II. The Company agreed to be sold in January of 2006, in effect ending the tradition of independent ownership of the oldest corporation in in Canada. Three Hundred Thirty-Five plus years, a nice run. from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hudson's_Bay_Company

May 3, 1491: Over 600 years ago, a man received a fatal wound from his scythe, this near today's Drei Ähren (französisch: Trois Épis) about 8 miles west of Colmar in Alsace. In his memory, neighbors placed a crucifix on an oak tree (chêne), naming the place de l'homme mort. On the 3rd of May, 1491, Dieter Schore (Thierry Schoéré), a sturdy man with no nonsense about him, was riding past the now ancient site of the tragedy, a lady in a white robe appeared veiled. In one hand she held an icicle, in the other she had three ears of corn. The sins and vices of the people would cause terrible diseases, heavy rain and frost, if they were not renounced (with suitable penance). But, Our Lady said that the ears of corn were a symbol of blessing and good harvests, which God would grant through her intercession.

Herr Schoéré was inclined not to convey this tale; however, when he was obtaining grain in the local market, he could not lift it on to his horse. The sack became heavier and heavier. Schore repented of his decision. He told the village about the vision {l'apparition de la Vierge}. Local Church authorities asked the faithful to process to the old (vieux) chêne de l'homme mort. "But ... Oh ... Miracle! Just as before he could as easily lift a bag and load it down immediately on his horse. After that, amid the joy of transportation assistance, Thierry Schoéré, the messenger of the Virgin, happily went home to his native village," riding off into history if you will ... never to be heard from again. And, the Virgin had an appointment to make in Mexico about 40 years later (Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe). This pilgrimage site is rather late in its appearing in this part of Europe, so perhaps it was a Holy site before (as had been the place in Mexico). An ancient oak tree in northern climes was sometimes a place of worship; perhaps it also had been here in this isolated spot.

The original holy painting of the Vierge (la sainte image), which was placed in a small wooden box beneath the famous oak, could not withstand the weather. A few years later a Pieta, itself a miracle working and beautiful statuette from the fifteenth century, replaced la peinture. Desecrated (saccagée) by Imperial regiments during the Thirty Years War, the simple [outdoor] chapel was rebuilt on the site of the oak, which by then had disappeared. A convent became attached to La Chapelle. So the vicissitudes of wars and revolts, the hurricane of nature and of human passions, destroyed the humble temple of faith, [at a place] where so many people still arrived to meditate and seek peace. Although [the place of worship was] restored, the old stones of the chapel had secured their own high significance and, [nestled] between the magnificent peaks, where trees rustle in the wind, these stones continue to inspire the contemplation of men. loosely translated from http://fc3e.free.fr/1.htm

La Chapelle de Notre-Dame-des-Trois-Épis, built on the site, became a well-known place of pilgrimage in Alsace, with Colmar the gateway to the shrine. The history of the legend, once maintained at village d'Orbey in its Abbey, is today conserved at Colmar. Orbey is composed of five typical hamlets. Val d’Orbey (part of the larger Vallée de Kaysersberg) has been important since the formation of the Abbey of Pairis in the 12th Century. Gunther of Pairis (c. 1150 – c. 1220), a German Cistercian monk and author, wrote Historia Constantinopolitana at the Abbey. It extols the Fourth Crusade, in a mixture of prose and verse, based on the account of Martin of Pairis, Abbot of Pairis Abbey, and included a description the siege and looting of Constantinople. Martin brought back relics from the Holy Land and Constantinople, placing them in the Abbey.

The region situated in the very heart of the Mid-Vosges mountains, around Orbey and Lapoutroie is called Pays Welche. It represents something of an exception in Alsace. The Alsatian dialect has never been used there. Only a romance dialect similar to the Belgian Walloon and French languages was spoken. The landscape of this micro-region comprises mountains and prairies, surrounded by extensive fir tree forests. The local Munster cheese comes from this valley (derived from Monastere the word for monastery, also close to the German word for a church). Numerous milk, cheese and honey producers can still be found here, produits complementing the wine of Alsace. http://www.tourisme-alsace.com/en/geography/alsace-county.html

May 3, 1525: A Spanish slave-trader, Pedro de Quejo, piloted two ships from Hispaniola on a preliminary expedition for Lucas Vasquez de Ayllón, in order to explore the coast of land granted to Ayllón by the King of Spain. On this day, Quejo's ships land at the mouth of the Savannah River, marking the first known time Europeans set foot on present-day Georgia. Quejo had passed by the coast in 1521 seeking more natives, because the tribes of the island on which Spain first settled had been wiped out almost completely. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/43a/100.html A far more complete timeline of these events can be found at: http://www.jayikislakfoundation.org/millennium-exhibit/time3.htm

Less than a year later on September 29, 1526, Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón and 600 Spanish colonists (including African slaves and perhaps freemen) landed on the Georgia mainland opposite Sapelo Sound and founded the settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape. This was the first European settlement in North America since the time of the Vikings' exploration circa 1000 A.D. The colonists had sailed from the Caribbean island of Hispaniola in July aboard six ships. In August, they had landed at Winyah Bay on the Carolina coast. They sailed southward when that colony soon proved to be less than satisfactory. Now as the fall approached they had to find a place where they could rely on Native stores until the next year's harvest.

On the Georgia coast, Ayllón found the Guale tribe. Although physical remains of the settlement have not been found, historians and geographers have utilized surviving navigation logs and other records to reconstruct the 1526 voyage. (See Jeannine Cook, ed., Columbus and the Land of Ayllón, 1992.) Based on the latest research, the San Miguel de Gualdape settlement probably was situated on the mainland of what today is McIntosh County, opposite Sapelo Sound. (Click HERE to view map.) One source feels the most likely location was within the present-day Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge, which is located near the mouth of the Newport River facing St. Catherine's Island. To view a timeline of Spanish exploration and colonization in the New World, see http://www.neta.com/~1stbooks/0dchron.htm.

May 3, 1928 (or 1933): Soul and R&B (rhythm-and-blues) singer James Brown, was born. Little is known about his early life. He claimed to have been born in Macon, Georgia, but various biographies list his city of birth as Augusta (GA), Barnwell (SC) and Pulaski (TN). Regardless, he grew up in Augusta. In the early 1950s, Brown formed a band in Macon first known as The Flames -- and then changed the name to The Famous Flames. In November 1955, the group recorded Please, Please, Please. In 1956 it reached #6 on the R&B charts, then became the first of over 20 million sellers for the Godfather of Soul. In 1983, Brown was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame. http://www.augusta.com/james_brown/brown_bio.shtml see also http://www.godfatherofsoul.com/mind/biography/index.htm James Brown died in Atlanta on Christmas Day 2006, of complications related to pneumonia. The Atlanta paper reported his age as 73.

May 4th: Today is the Feast Day of St. Florian ( ? – ca. 304). St. Florian was a Roman military officer stationed next to Lorch (at that time called Lauriacum in Latin -- the alternate Latin name for Lauriacum is Blaboriciaco), in what is today Enns in Oberösterreich. Florian adopted the new Christian religion. He refused to give up his faith when arrested during the persecution of Diocletian. Tortured first, a stone then was tied to Florian's neck. Soldiers tossed him into the river Enns. As a martyr, Florian was regarded as set apart or sanctified long before the formal practice of canonization by a pope, his feast day being May 4th. A millstone, said to be the stone which was tied around Florian's neck, is kept in the crypt of the monastery (Stiff) church of St. Florian near Linz. http://web.archive.org/web/20070705193526/http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0504.htm#flor He is the patron Saint of Austria and of fireman (Feuerwehr), depicted often holding the flag of St. George (or a millstone), while pouring water on a burning house: O heiliger Sankt Florian, verschon´ mein Haus, zünd' and´re an !!!.

O heiliger Sankt Florian mit
frommen Sinn wir kommen an. Laß deine Fürsprach
uns erfahrn in Wassersnot und Feuersgefahrn
Und wenn im Herzen sich entzündt
das Feuer schwerer Schuld und Sünd,
dann lösch das Feuer, steh uns bei,
auf daß uns Gott sein Gnad verleih. Geht es dereinst zum letzten End,
mach, daß das Herz in Lieb entbrennt
zum Vater der Barmherzigkeit,
der uns schenkt die ewig´ Seligkeit.

O Holy Saint Florian with
reverence, we arrive. Let thy intercession
keep us from drowning and danger of fire.
And when our hearts are inflamed
[with] the fire of heavy guilt and sin,
then quench that fire, stand by us,
[stand] by us for whom God imparts His grace. Go with us till the last day;
kindle love in our hearts for
the Father of Mercies,
who gives us the etern'l salvation.

On May 4, 1865: St. John and several other Confederate cabinet members met with Jefferson Davis for what turned out to be the dissolution of the government. His name is included on the list of those participating in that meeting and on the a stone memorial found in Washington, GA. Newspaper writer, civil engineer, and soldier Isaac Munroe St. John was born in Augusta, Georgia. With the outbreak of the Civil War, he joined the Fort Hill Guards as a private. In 1862, he served as Magruder's chief engineer and rose to the rank of captain and then major. The next year, he was promoted to Lt. Col. in the Confederate Niter and Mining Corps. In Feb. 1865, St. John was promoted to the rank of brigadier general and at the time of the war's end, he was Confederate Commissary General with responsibility for supplying the Confederacy with gunpowder and metals. He survived the war and passed away April 7, 1880, in White Sulphur Springs, WV (near today's Greenbrier and its formerly secret underground facilities for Congress in the event of a National Emergency) and was buried in Richmond, Virginia.

May 4, 1973: Led Zeppelin opened its 1973 U.S. tour before a crowd of nearly 40,000 in Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium. The 34-concert tour was described by promoters then as the largest and most profitable rock and roll tour in the history of the United States. How many more times did they visit Atlanta ??? The band performed July 24, 1973, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at Three Rivers Stadium, then only 3 years old (which concert this Webmaster attended). This was the last venue before the final 3 shows at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Led Zeppelin's music has out lived the Pittsburgh venue, which lasted for only about 30 years. Studio version: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6bD9t44JUD4 ("Over the Hills and Far Away" is the third track from English rock band Led Zeppelin's 1973 album Houses of the Holy.)

A note from the Netherlands -- May 4, 2007: "Tonight in Holland we commemorate all those who have fallen in WWII. With a two minute silence the Nation reflects on those who for ever shall live on in our memory, as those who fought for freedom and for our people. For that we shall be forever grateful and it is a part of my website tribute to you and all other who without question and without hesitation rose and stood up to the call of duty and many of you went beyond that call.

To you my friends and to all those who forever are embraced in the soils on the battlefields of Europe, I humbly bow and salute you and thank you from the bottom of my heart for your efforts to make part of the world a free place to live. As for our enduring friendship will always be considered as a special gift between world far apart and yet so connected. I thank you deeply and from us to you .... thank you.

Tomorrow we celebrate liberation day .... but we will always reflect on those who gave all for us...as they will always be remembered and never forgotten ..... Thank you, stay safe and take care my friends," Frank C. Everards, Webmaster: http://www.normandy1944.info/

The Netherlands is unique among its European neighbors, because it has two national holidays stemming from the second World War: Remembrance Day - Dodenherdenking and Liberation Day - Bevrijdingsdag. Dodenherdenking (May 4th) remembers the fallen Dutch, who died in defense of their land and freedom. Bevrijdingsdag is celebrated each year on May 5th in the Netherlands to mark the end of the German occupation during the Second World War. The nation was liberated largely by Canadian troops on May 5, 1945. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberation_Day_(The_Netherlands) -- http://www.nlplanet.com/almanac/topic.php?id=47

May 5, 1525: This day saw the passing of Friederick III (the Wise), Elector of Saxony in Lochau, Germany. Friederick served as the protector of Martin Luther after the imperial ban of 1521. He housed Luther at the castle named the Wartburg at Eisenach, where Luther prepared his German language translation of the Bible. Friedrich was a patron of the great artist Albrecht Dürer, and the less well-known Lucas Cranach the Elder, who painted Luther in 1529. Friederich der Dritte founded the University of Wittenberg in 1502.

Ein’ feste Burg ist unser Gott,
Ein gute Wehr und Waffen;
Er hilft uns frei aus aller Not,
Die uns jetzt hat betroffen.
Der alt’ böse Feind,
Mit Ernst er’s jetzt meint,
Gross’ Macht und viel List
Sein’ grausam’ Ruestung ist,
Auf Erd’ ist nicht seingleichen.


http://www.cyberhymnal.org/non/de/festburg.htm (1529)
Based on Psalm 46
A mighty fortress is our God, a trusty shield and weapon;
He helps us free from every need that hath us now overtaken.
The old evil foe now means deadly woe; deep guile and great might
Are his dread arms in fight; on Earth is not his equal.

http://www.cyberhymnal.org/htm/m/i/mightyfo.htm

Mai das Fünftel: Karl Marx, German philosopher, was born in Prussia (May 5, 1818). He argued a staged view of class struggle: Capitalism, which had overcome Feudalism (private property rights growing out of the sovereign's holdings), would in turn be overcome by Socialism, with the elimination of private property. Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto and Das Capital. Both works expounded this new economic theory and view of history.

Interestingly, on May 5, 1912, the Soviet Communist Party newspaper Pravda began publishing. Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili took a new name, meaning “man of steel,” at about the same time that he helped found this newspaper. Stalin specialized in writing about national minorities in Russia and went on to become editor of Pravda. This gives you some idea of the power potential of the press in modern life.

Cinco de Mayo (1862): Today marks the anniversary of a battle at Puebla. General Ignacio Zaragoza (born in Texas when it was still governed by México) led troops, outnumbered three to one, against an invading French army, a force thought to be the best in the world. The Mexican forces defeated Napoléon III's army and Puebla remained in Zaragoza's hands.

Empereur en 1852, dès 1853 les timbres porteront 
la même effigie (à 1848) mais avec la légende Empire Français indiqué * EMPIRE * FRANC *El 8 de diciembre de 1861, los poderes europeos desembarcaron en el Puerto de Veracruz y lo ocuparon, siendo España la primera en llegar. Para el 11 de abril de 1862 España e Inglaterra se enteraron de las intenciones de Francia y abandonaron su apoyo embarcándose hacia Europa. Mientras tanto, en la ciudad de México, el Presidente Juárez (indio zapoteca que se había licenciado como abogado y había estudiado para el sacerdocio) tomaba medidas para contrarrestar la invasión:

El gobierno de la República...en vista de la declaración de los plenipotenciarios franceses, no puede ni debe hacer otra cosa que rechazar la fuerza con la fuerza y defender a la nación de la agresión injusta con la que se la amenaza. ...Tengamos fe en la justicia de nuestra causa... haciendo triunfar no sólo a nuestra patria, sino a los principios de respeto y de inviolabilidad de la soberanía de las naciones Full article Here

Emperor Maximilian featured on A 25-centavo, 
orange postage stamp, of Mexico-Scott 29One year after La Batalla de Puebla, the French brought in more troops and re-attacked. On this occasion the forces made their way to ciudad de México, took the capital and installed Emperor Maximilian of the Hapsburgs (Austrian-Hungary Empire) as the reigning monarch of México. Maximilian ruled México for about four years, until his execution in 1867 by troops loyal to President Benito Juárez, who had regained power. http://www.azteca.net/aztec/literat/Cinco.html The attempt to re-establish a European Empire in the New World had failed, so reason enough to celebrate an event not critical to the desired outcome.

I tried to find a French article about this day (May 2006), but only one appeared on-line, and it did not touch upon the French role in this historic day

... Il y a le 1er mai, fêté partout dans le monde, il y a le 3 mai, la journée mondiale de la presse, et il y a le 6 mai dédié, au Liban, aux martyrs, y compris ceux de la presse …

Il y a aussi un autre jour de ce mois de l’année marquant un événement propre à un pays (le Mexique), mais célébré davantage dans un autre (les États-Unis-USA). Il s’agit du «cinco de mayo» (le 5 mai en espagnol), qui est l’une des fêtes nationales du Mexique. Il commémore la victoire des forces mexicaines, menées par le général Ignacio Zaragoza, sur les forces expéditionnaires françaises dans la bataille de Puebla (5 mai 1862). Si cette page de l’histoire passe presque inaperçue au pays où elle a été écrite, elle est donc source de grande liesse et de pavoisement au pays de l’Oncle Sam.

Quel lien y-a-t-il entre la bannière étoilée et celle de la patrie de Zapata et de Poncho Villa? Réponse: les chicanos. C’est ainsi que l’on appelle les hispaniques, et plus particulièrement les Mexicains, ayant émigré aux États-Unis et dont la plupart se sont établis en Californie et au Texas. À la fin des années 60, les étudiants de cette souche ont lancé le mouvement chicano pour marquer leur identité. Ils ont notamment voulu avoir «leur» jour de célébration qui refléterait leur ascendance mexicaine. De prime abord, le choix évident aurait dû être «el dieciséis de septiembre», ou le 16 septembre, date de l’indépendance du Mexique en 1810. Cependant, le 16 septembre coïncidait avec le début de l’année universitaire. Alors, le «cinco de mayo» est devenu l’alternative de fait pour ces étudiants, d’autant que leur plus grand héros, le général Zaragoza, était né au Texas.

«Latinos», «chicanos» et «hispaniques» -- Au fil des ans, les festivités du 5 mai ont débordé le cadre universitaire et tout activisme pour s’enraciner dans la culture traditionnelle du Sud-Ouest des États-Unis. Pour beaucoup de communautés américano-mexicaines, «cinco de mayo» est une manière importante d’honorer fièrement l’héritage de leur pays d’origine, éclipsant le jour d’indépendance du Mexique. Les Américains non mexicains participent également aux célébrations, de la même manière que les non-Irlandais observent le jour de la Saint-Patrick. Et le melting pot aidant, tout le monde trinque à la tequila et à la bière mexicaine. Au Mexique même, «cinco de mayo» est remémoré en particulier dans l’État de Puebla, où la célèbre bataille a eu lieu.

À noter que la population hispanique (qualifiée d’abord de latinos puis de chicanos et d’hispaniques) est actuellement la première minorité aux États- Unis. Elle représente déjà 11% de la population américaine. Elle englobe des émigrés originaires des divers pays sud-américains qui ont néanmoins en commun la langue et la religion catholique. Elle se caractérise aussi par une diversité de classes sociales: les plus riches étant les Cubains, viennent ensuite les Mexicains puis les Portoricains. Diversité de statuts également, car il y a millions de clandestins aux États-Unis, dont millions de Mexicains. C’est dire que le pays-hôte n’a pu que se mettre lui aussi à l’heure du «cinco de mayo» et sa kyrielle d’us et coutumes hérités des Aztèques: des fresques murales, auxquelles Diego Rivera et sa compagne Frida Kahlo ont donné leurs lettres de noblesses modernes, au taco et autres spécialités culinaires baptisées Tex-mex. http://www.lorient-lejour.com.lb/page.aspx?page=article&id=312155 see also (voi aussi) http://www.mcall.com/news/local/all-a1_5cincomay05,0,3131919.story

May 5, 1891: In the City of New York, its citizens attended the dedication of a famous building. When it first opened, Carnegie Hall had just three auditoriums: the Main Hall, the Chamber Music Hall and the Recital Hall, located underneath the Main Hall. The opening festival, held for five days, featured a guest conductor, Tchaikovsky.

Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (d. Nov 6, 1893) was born at Kamsko-Votinsk, in the Ural region of imperial Russia (May 7, 1840). His family moved to St. Petersburg in 1850. There he studied Law and graduated from the school of jurisprudence, from where he entered the Ministry of Justice as a clerk, first-class in 1859. He didn't start to study music seriously until he was 21, under Nicolai Zaremba. Tchaikovsky enrolled into the St. Petersburg Conservatory when it opened in 1862. His works included many well-known pieces, including the 1812 Overture, which celebrated the Russian victory over the French at the doorsteps of Moscow.

The structure in which Tchaikovsky partied was named Carnegie Hall, in honor of Andrew Carnegie, an immigrant from Dunfermline, Scotland and a real Man of Steel. Carnegie set up 2,500 libraries in Great Britain and North America. He did many other acts of Charity. Believing it a sin to die with great wealth, he set up a foundation that still provides money today. All four of the older Scottish universities received bequests, as did Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University). He forgot not his birthplace -- the most sacred spot to me on earth. Among his endowments, Pittencrieff House and its gardens were acquired for Dunfermline.

More: Another man of iron, Cy Young, then a member of the Boston Red Sox baseball team, tossed a perfect game (May 5, 1903) against the Philadelphia Americans. The final score was 3-0. No player on the Philadelphia team reached first base. It was the third perfect game ever thrown in the major leagues. Do you know who pitched the first two? They occurred only 5 days apart -- in 1880 -- On June 16, 1880, L. R., who would eventually become a medical doctor (if you build it they will come), was awarded his bachelors degree from Brown University. The place where L. R. stood when he tossed this perfect game is now marked by a plaque located on the campus of Becker College in Worcester, Massachusetts. http://www.baseball-almanac.com/pitching/piperf.shtml

May 6, 1527: The Sack of Rome on this date, carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between the Holy Roman Empire and the League of Cognac (1526–1529) — the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy. Pope Clement VII had given his support to the Kingdom of France in an attempt to alter the balance of power in the region, and free the Papacy from what many considered to be 'Imperial domination' by the Holy Roman Empire (and the Habsburg dynasty). The army of the Holy Roman Emperor defeated the French army in Italy, but funds were not available to pay the soldiers, so at the army's insistence, it was given Rome instead. Numerous bandits, along with the League's deserters, joined with the army during the march. One of the Swiss Guard's most notable hours occurred during this day. Almost the entire guard was massacred by Imperial troops on the steps of St. Peter's Basilica. Only 42 survived, but their bravery ensured that Pope Clement VII escaped to safety, down the passetto di Borgo, a secret corridor which still links the Vatican City to Castel Sant'Angelo. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sack_of_Rome_(1527)

This marked the end of the Roman Renaissance, damaged the papacy's prestige and freed Charles V's hands to act against the Reformation in Germany and against the rebellious German princes allied with Luther. In commemoration of the Sack and the Guard's bravery, new recruits to the Swiss Guard are sworn in on May 6th every year. The Defenders of the Church celebrated 500 years of service in January 2006. Two-hundred Guards first arrived in Rome on January 22, 1505/6. Even at that time, these Helvetian soldiers, employed as mercenaries, were renowned for their courage and loyalty. The main event (in 2006) was a march to Rome, from Bellinzona in southern Switzerland, by some 80 veterans, to recall the march of the original 200. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4630898.stm

Only a large picture gives the proper perspectiveDuring this sack of Rome, the Pope took refuge at Orvieto. Fearing that in the event of siege by Charles' troops the town's water might prove insufficient, he had a spectacular well constructed (Pozzo di S. Patrizio) by the architect-engineer Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (1527-37). It had a double helical ramps for one-way traffic, so that mules laden with water-jars might pass down then up again unobstructed. Orvieto is noted for its Gothic-style cathedral (the duomo-style construction began in 1290), striped in white travertine and greenish-black basalt in narrow bands; its design has often been attributed to Arnolfo di Cambio, but the prevailing modern opinion is that its master mason was an obscure monk named Fra' Bevignate from Perugia. The façade includes some remarkable sculpture by Lorenzo Maitani (14th century). Inside the cathedral, the Chapel of San Brizio is frescoed by Fra` Angelico and with Luca Signorelli's masterpiece, his Last Judgment (1449-51).

Orvieto is home to Etruscan ruins, the remnants of a wall that enclosed the city more than 2000 years ago and many tunnels. At the foot of the butte, surrounded by peach and apple trees and a vineyard, the Etruscan necropolis of Crocefisso di Tufo counts a hundred or so chamber tombs laid along a rectangular street grid. Orvieto was annexed by Rome in the 3rd century BC. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Orvieto's defensible ground gained new importance. The episcopal see was transferred from Bolsena, and the town was held both by Goths and Lombards, before Orvieto gained a self-governing commune in the 10th century. from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orvieto

The white wine of the Orvieto district, to the northeast of the city, is one of the major Umbrian (Terni) products and is prized highly. The two principal types of red wine are "Orvieto" and "Orvieto Classico", depending on the specific area where the nectar was made. There is also a sweet wine made from late harvests where the grapes have been attacked by the muffa nobile (noble mold - français: pourriture noble; Deutsch: Edelfälee). http://www.orvieto-info.com/orvieto_wine.htm

May 6, 1590: This day is the feast day (in the Catholic Church, not the COE) of an English martyr from the town of Middleton in Yorkshire. Anthony was educated and ordained at Reims, France. He returned to England in order to serve remaining Catholics after the rule of Elizabeth and her father, both of whom sought to purge the land of Catholic influence. The government arrested Anthony then hanged him. As if this was not enough he was thereafter drawn and quartered in London (and I suppose that he was then distributed throughout the land as an example). Edward Jones came from North Wales, and died the same day under similar circumstances in London.

The "Douai Martyrs" is a name applied by the Catholic Church to approximately 160 Catholic priests trained in the English College at Douai, France (Reims), who were executed by the state between 1577 and 1680. http://jarrowscritorium.blogspot.com/2012/10/today-is-feast-of-blessed-douai-martyrs.html Having completed their training at Douai, many returned to England and Wales with the intent to minister to the Catholic population of England, and to undermine the Church of England and the governments of Elizabeth I and her successors. Many were arrested under charges of treason and conspiracy, resulting in torture and execution.

A large group - more than eighty - were beatified as martyrs by Pope Pius XI in 1929. Today, British Catholic dioceses celebrate their feast days separately and en masse (October 30th). The Douay Martyrs School in Ickenham, Middlesex is named in their honor. The Douay–Rheims Bible (also known as the Rheims–Douai Bible or Douai Bible, and abbreviated as D–R and DV) is a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church. The New Testament portion was published in Reims, France, in 1582, in one volume with extensive commentary and notes. The Old Testament portion was published in two volumes thirty years later by the University of Douai.

May 6, 1840 -- Cento de Mayo: The Penny Black was the world's first official adhesive postage stamp, issued in the city of Bath by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on May 1, 1840, for use from May 6th onward. The stamps were printed by Perkins Bacon. In addition, the two upper corners contained star like designs and the lower corners contained letters designating the position of each stamp in the sheet, "A A", "A B", and so forth. As the name suggests, the stamp was printed all in black. "T" was the last row and "L" was the last column. The stamps were cut from sheets and many advanced collectors try to reassemble sheets, based on the letter positions. A picture of this concept is found at the following link, which also shows the Two Pence Blue issued on the 8th: http://imagesoftheworld.org/stamps/sg5.htm

There are known covers postmarked May 2nd, due to postmasters selling the stamps from May 1st. Stamps used on letters before May 6th should have been treated as unpaid and charged double the rate on delivery. A single example is also known on a cover dated May 1, 1840. The Penny Black was utilized for about a year. Experience showed that a red cancellation on a black stamp (as was the custom) was difficult to see, and the red cancellation could be cleaned from the stamp, allowing its illegal re-use. In 1841 the Treasury switched to the Penny Red and cancelled it with black ink, much harder, but not impossible, to clean. An original printing press for the Penny Black is on display to the public at the British Library in London. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penny_Black No regular-issue British stamp has been inscribed with the name of the nation, although the portrait of the monarch is instantly recognizable, a privilege (if you will) reserved for the country that invented the postage stamp.

May 6, 1937 – Hindenburg disaster: The German zeppelin Hindenburg (LZ 129) catches fire. Flames fueled by hydrogen fully engulf it within a minute. The airship had attempted to dock at a mooring at Lakehurst, New Jersey. Thirty-six people died. http://www.airships.net/hindenburg

May 7, 1915: A German submarine sank the British luxury liner Lusitania (1198 passengers and crew die). Among the dead 124 are American citizens. Public animus in the U. S. against Germany rises considerably. Four years to the day on May 7, 1919, the German delegation is summoned to the Trianon Palace at Versailles, where it learns the terms of the treaty prepared by the representatives of the United States, Britain, France, Italy and Japan. The Rhineland was to be occupied by the victors for a minimum of 15 years; Alsace-Lorraine was to go back to France (taken in 1871, but originally expropriated by the French in the 17th century); parts of the most eastern portion of Germany went to Poland; Danzig (a north-eastern port on the Baltic) was to become a free state; and finally, Germany forfeited all colonies to the victors.

In short, Germany had to accept full responsibility for the Great War. There were to be trials for war crimes. The German army was to be limited to 100,000 soldiers; the Rhineland became permanently demilitarized; the production of military planes was forbidden -- no air force necessary for modern war. Then came the large reparations in money and goods. The German representatives, who had been called to Versailles, refused to sign reminding everyone of the prior agreement to the Armistice based upon the 14 points of US President Wilson. From Berlin, Chancellor Scheidemann denounced the treaty. The Allies, however, had maintained the naval blockade of Germany and their mood was soon clear. The only alternative to signing the treaty was starvation. There were public demonstrations on June 21st, but Germany signed under protest on June 28th.

On another May 7th: Does one not have to talk about Reims in hushed tones ? -- Names come to mind, like Bishop Remigius {Saint Remi [Rémy]}, Evêque de Reims {Rheims}, Apostle of the Franks, who baptizes Clovis, France's first Roi (Christmas day 496) after the King is persuaded by Sainte Clotilde, his Queen. -- The crowning place of many other kings, sanctified to rule. -- Archbishop Turpin (whose seat of power (See) was in Reims back in the 8th century) gives communion to Roland, while the treacherous Saracen king Marsile looks on in the Cathedral. -- Sainte Jeanne was here too, alongside Charles VII, 'though the first Bourbon was not (the coronation for him was at Chartres). -- Crown jewel of the Champagne, a region further consecrated by the blood of two World Wars in the last century. -- It was in Reims, at 2:41 on the morning of May 7, 1945, that General Eisenhower and the Allies received the unconditional surrender of the Nazi's.
 
She entered the city leading a relief column on April 29th 
and the siege was lifted on the 8th May 8th: Le 8 mai 1429, Sainte Jeanne d'Arc délivre Orléans -- http://www.herodote.net/histoire05080.htm Every year on May 8th at Orléans, a pageant re-enacts Joan's entry into the city, today a city with mixture of of old and new architecture. On the plaza her memory is commemorated by statue. In about two years she would be dead at Rouen in Normandy by English hands: Ste. Jeanne d'Arc (May 30, 1431) -- est condamnée à être brûlée vive  See also: Maid of Orleans -- but by her death she had more power, transcending time and place.

In 1541, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto discovered and crossed the Mississippi River, which he called Rio de Espiritu Santo. De Soto encountered native tribes, including the Cherokee, who then numbered about 25,000 souls and inhabited an area between the Ohio River and the Chattahoochee River in present day Georgia, and from the Valley of the Tennessee River east across the Great Smoky Mountains to the Piedmont of the Carolinas. In May 1542 he died while still on this expedition. His body was sunk in the Mississippi to avoid desecration (May 28th).

On this date in 1819, President Monroe visited Savannah, Georgia to take part in christening ceremonies for the S.S. Savannah. The President's visited two weeks before the ship departed for Liverpool, England. The vessel became the first steamship to cross any ocean. During his visit, Monroe rode the Savannah on a tour to Charleston, SC. Exactly 100 years later, on May 8, 1919, a US Navy seaplane took-off on the first transatlantic flight.

Speaking of a pick me up, on this date in 1886, that the first Coca-Cola fountain drink was purchased. The event took place in Jacob's Pharmacy, located in the City of Atlanta, Georgia. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may08.html

May 8, 1828: Henri Dunant, founder of the International Red Cross (October 29, 1863), is born in Geneva. http://chi.gospelcom.net/DAILYF/2001/10/daily-10-29-2001.shtml Dunant was co-winner of the first Nobel Peace Prize in 1901. The Young Men's Christian Association (Y M C A) originated in London in 1844. Within a few years, this society of young men organized for mutual improvement on a distinctly religious basis had spread over Europe. Henry Dunant was president of the Geneva Association of the YMCA in 1859. Through him this institution first came into contact with the need for welfare support during a war situation. The movement was planted in America in 1851, where it began to play an important part in the U.S. War between the States (1861-65). By the time that the U.S. entered the Great War (1914-18) the role of the YMCA and of the International Red Cross during times of conflict had been well established. http://www.ku.edu/carrie/specoll/AFS/library/YMCAhist.html

He has a son not mentioned in the find-a-grave listing Reverend Hiram PHINAZEE -- May 8, 1852: Hiram was born in Wilkes County, GA in 1802, of Irish immigrant stock who fought in the American Revolution and received land grants for their service. He married Elizabeth Bird OGLETREE (11/3/03-04/14/84) on October 06, 1825, the daughter of another Revolutionary War veteran, William (of Scottish and Welsh background -- Bible Record HERE -- The male descendants can be directly traced back to Walter fitz Alan, First Earl Stewart of Scotland -- The patrilineal ancestors (from Brittany) had held the office of High Steward of Scotland after arriving by way of a Norman England) and a mother with ties to the old Virginia families of Lee, Bird and Beauford. Reverend Hiram Phinazee was a delegate to the Georgia Conventions of 1850 and 1861. He was one of the founders of the Congregational Methodist Church (May 8, 1852), generally and Rock Springs, specifically. http://www.rockspringsonline.com/history.htm -- his picture can be found here: http://www.congregationalmethodist.net/founders.pdf His son, Augustive Joseph Phinazee, fought for the State of Georgia in the War between the States and married Martha F. Walker, she kin to the West clan, lately of Wilkes County Georgia but before of Virginia. She was one of 18 children (including several twins) produced by the same set of parents. Hiram, his wife, Elizabeth and his mother, Sarah Phinazee (descended from the Harris, Kimbroughs, Kittrells (Catheral) and Durants of olde Virginia) are buried in Monroe County, Georgia at the Greenwood Cemetery (Barnesville GA). Elizabeth’s parents, William and Mary, are nearby in the Ogletree family cemetery near Johnstonville GA, located between the towns of Griffin and Forsyth, Georgia. One of all their descendants was born on May 8, 1985. For more on the West family and its historic connections in the USA and before, please go HERE.

May 8, 1945: President Harry Truman (who also celebrated his 61st birthday on May 8th) announced the surrender of Germany to the American public; Axis Sally had made her final propaganda broadcast to Allied troops just two days before. After over five years (much more, if you want to include the fascist takeover of Spain or the fascist annexation of Ethiopia by Italy), World War II in Europe ended officially when Colonel General Alfred Jodl, the last chief of staff of the German Army, had signed the unconditional surrender at General Dwight D. Eisenhower's headquarters at Reims, France (May 7th). http://www.herodote.net/histoire05081.htm

And for those of you who have forgotten the recent past, the State of Georgia got a new flag on this day in 2003: http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/gaflag2003.htm
 
May 9, 1754 -- Speaking of Flags: The rattlesnake motif was popular during the Revolutionary War. The first political cartoon appeared on this date in The Pennsylvania Gazette, featuring this symbol for the first time. No rioting by snake-worshippers was reported. The Gazette was the premier newspaper in Philadelphia, PA, and much like the Times today, it was the media of record. Philadelphia was Benjamin Franklin’s hometown. The cartoon appeared as part of an editorial by Franklin commenting on “the present disunited state of the British Colonies” -- title of the featured cartoon is JOIN, or DIE. The drawing is of a rattlesnake, sliced into eight pieces. Each of the pieces are labeled with the abbreviation for one of the colonies (New England was one slice, Georgia was missing, Delaware was part of Pennsylvania at this time). The intended message was that the Britsh colonies’ continued failure to unite would result in their eventual doom (loss of political and economic freedom). http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A1091369

May 9, 1955: West Germany is taken into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) ten years to the day of the end of World War II in Europe. Since that time May 9th has been celebrated as a day of peace, and more lately as European Union Day.

NATO was a triumph of organization and effort, but is was also something very new and very different. For NATO derived its strength directly from the moral values of the people it represented, from their high ideals, their love of liberty, and their commitment to peace. But perhaps the greatest triumph of all was not in the realm of a sound defense or material achievement. No, the greatest triumph after the war is that in spite of all of the chaos, poverty, sickness, and misfortune that plagued this continent, the people of Western Europe resisted the call of new tyrants and the lure of their seductive ideologies. Your nations did not become the breeding ground for new extremist philosophies. You resisted the totalitarian temptation. Your people embraced democracy, the dream the Fascists could not kill. They chose freedom. And today we celebrate the leaders who led the way -- Churchill and Monnet, Adenauer and Schuman, De Gasperi and Spaak, Truman and Marshall. http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1985/50885a.htm {President Ronald Reagan, May 8, 1985, before the European Parliament in Strasbourg}

What Russia fears

Reported May 9, 2006: Les autorités d'Ankara ont rappelé hier «pour consultation» leurs ambassadeurs à Paris et à Ottawa, durcissant le ton face à ce que le ministère turc des Affaires étrangères appelle «les développements récents survenus en France et au Canada relatifs aux affirmations infondées sur un prétendu génocide arménien». Le premier ministre canadien avait récemment évoqué dans un discours «le génocide arménien», déchaînant l'ire du gouvernement turc. Mais c'est surtout avec la France que la crise s'aggrave. http://www.liberation.fr/page.php?Article=380492 De 1915 à 1917, les massacres et déportations des Arméniens de l'Empire ottoman ont fait jusqu'à 1,5 million de morts. Ces faits reconnus par la plupart des historiens, même s'ils divergent dans leurs interprétations, sont, en revanche, niés par Ankara qui parle seulement d'un demi-million de victimes parmi les Arméniens, et rejette surtout le qualificatif de génocide, clamant qu'il y eut des massacres des deux côtés alors que des Arméniens s'étaient alliés aux Russes. Although the current President (of the USA) in the past has called upon Turkey to recognize its culpabilité, when he visited in April 2009, he was silent about the atrocité.

Alas, on May 10, 1291, some Scottish nobles recognized the authority of Edward I of England over their lives and destiny. The Hammer of the Scots holds sway for a few years more. On May 10, 1503, Christopher Columbus visited the Cayman Islands and names them Las Tortugas because of the numerous sea turtles found there. Just 31 years later, Jacques Cartier visited Newfoundland for the first time. In 1774, Louis XVI lost his head and in a brash moment became Roi de France. A year later in 1775, British Fort Ticonderoga is taken by a small force led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold; while on the same day, Representatives from the 13 colonies met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to raise the Continental Army to defend the new republic, soon to be formed. They place the army under command of George Washington of Virginia, who has had a somewhat checkered military career.

On May 10, 1801, Muslim (Barbary) pirates sailing from ports at Tripoli declare war on the United States of America. In 1869, the competing factions building the Transcontinental Railroad, linking the eastern and western portions of the USA, meet at Promontory Summit, Utah and seal the deal with the golden spike. While on the 10h of May 1872, Victoria Woodhull becomes the first female nominee for the position President of the United States. And, as everyone knows, on May 10, 1954, Messers. Bill Haley and the Comets release Rock Around the Clock, said to be the first rock and roll recording to reach number one on the popular music charts.

May 10, 2014: Are you ready for Astronomy Day ? This day represents a grass roots movement for the general population to Bring Astronomy to the People. During this year's Astronomy Day on May 2nd, thousands of people who have never looked through a telescope will have an opportunity to see the stars! Astronomy clubs, science museums, observatories, universities, planetariums, laboratories, libraries and nature centers host special events and activities to acquaint the general population with local astronomical resources. Many of these events will occur at non-astronomical sites; shopping malls, parks, urban centers. If you're interested in attending such an event, take a look at where current Astronomy Day events being held. This list only encompasses those groups who choose to advertise on the Astronomical League website, so please be sure to check your local news media for other events. http://www.astroleague.org/

Saints de glace -- Les 11, 12 et 13 mai: La France connaît souvent des gelées tardives et l'on parle à cette occasion des « Saints de glace ». Il s'agit des anciens saints de ces jours: Les Saints de Glace: mythe, légende ou réalité ? After the passage of the Ice Saints' days it will be safe to plant (no frost). But these "brave Ice Saints" have been deleted from the Church Calendars, as well as other healers, retrouveurs of lost objects and those dealing with the weather (1960). Of course these three every year thereafter were still venerated by farmers and growers, who can be found on this occasion in processions with the parish priest in the lead, with pious prayers that were not necessarily devoid of ulterior motives involved. Yet if we look for the distant origins, even ancient, the people of those times had seen in May sudden drops in temperature at night (or rather early-morning) lasting around three days.

Qui sont ces trois zozos ? Saint Mamert: il est fêté le 11 Mai -- Saint patron des Pompiers, Evêque de Vienne (452), mort en 475. Frère du poète Claudius Mamert, il semble s'être distingué comme lui, par son éducation littéraire, comme par sa science Théologique. Il entra en conflit avec l'archevêque d'Arles, dont il contestait la suprématie, mais il dut se soumettre (463). Il institua ou introduisit en Gaule la procession des Rogations (Larousse du XXe siècle).

Saint Servais: il est fêté le 12 Mai -- Martyr né en 290, mort à Rome durant la persécution de Dioclétien en 304. C'était le neveu de Saint Denis. Dés le temps de Grégoire de Tours, il était vénéré en France. Il à donné son nom à un titre cardinalice, à Rome, ou ses reliques furent conservées jusqu'en 1798 (Larousse du XXe siècle).

Saint Pancrace: il est fêté le 13 Mai -- Evêque de Tongres en Belgique, né vers 300, mort à Tongres en 384. Il assista aux conciles de Cologne (346) et de Sartique (347), combattit les ariens; mais au concile de Rimini (359), il signa une profession de foi ambiguë, trompé par les arguties des évêques ariens Ursace et Valens et par sa connaissance imparfaite de la langue grecque. A l'approche des Huns, il se rendit à Rome pour implorer le secours des papes Jean VIII et Martin 1er (Larousse du XXe siècle).

Saint Mamert, Saint Servais, Saint Pancrace sont toujours de vrais saints de glace (Dicton de Haute-Loire) -- http://blogdedo.kouryu.info/ http://www.encyclopedie-gratuite.fr/Definition/loisirs/saint-de-glace.php

The Eisheiligen encompasses a time in May when, according to a popular farmers’ tale, the weather remains too unstable to plant crops, because of the danger of frost. http://livingingermany.geekymoms.com/2013/05/06/the-ice-saints/#more-1452 The Ice Saints (Eisheilige in German, les Saints de Glace in France) is a name given to St. Mamertus, St. Pancras, and St. Servatius in Flemish, French, Dutch, Hungarian, German, Austrian, Polish, Swiss and Croatian folklore. They are so named because their feast days fall on the days of May 11, May 12 and May 13 respectively. In Poland and the Czech Republic, the Ice Saints are St. Pancras, St. Servatus and St. Boniface of Tarsus (i.e., May 12 to May 14). To the Poles, the trio are known collectively as zimni ogrodnicy (cold gardeners), and are followed by zimna Zośka (cold Sophias) on the feast day of St. Sophia which falls on May 15. In Czech, the three saints are collectively referred to as "ledoví muži" (ice-men or icy men), and Sophia is known as "Žofie, ledová žena" (Sophia, the ice-woman). The period from May 12 to May 15 was noted to bring a brief spell of colder weather in many years, including the last nightly frosts of the spring, in the Northern Hemisphere under the Julian calendar. The introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1582 involved skipping 10 days in the calendar, so that the equivalent days from the climatic point of view became May 22–25. A year's colder than normal spring suggests that it may be prudent advice that year to wait some before planting.

In Sweden, the German legend of the ice saints has resulted in the belief that there are special "iron nights," especially in the middle of June, which is susceptible to frost. The term "iron nights" (järnnätter) has probably arisen through a mistranslation of German sources, where the term "Eismänner" (ice men) was read as "Eisenmänner" (iron men) and their nights then termed "iron nights," which then became shifted from May to June. Some once believed that it was not safe to plant crops until after the Ice Men of pagan lore were gone. There’s also a proverb in England: "Ne’er cast a clout till May be out." --- meaning: "Don’t remove winter clothes until the end of May." Scientists have been unable to determine that a higher chance of frost in May scientifically exists (really ? -- you think that would just be a math probleme), but anytime the weather dips from warm to cool in May, Germans folks are likely to discuss those "Ice Saints."

It became a habit on May 12, 254AD: Saint Stephen I began his reign as the 23rd Catholic Pope. According to the Liber Pontificalis, the Pontiff instituted a rule requiring priests to wear specialized clothing during a mass, more specifically that consecrated vestments were not to be worn for daily chores. Stephen was a Roman citizen by birth. This was a time between persecutions and before the authority of the Bishop of Rome was fully settled. One dispute over authority that comes to mind was CYPRIAN of CARTHAGE and Pope Stephen. It was settled by Stephens natural death and the Martyrdom of St. Cyprian, without direct resolution. Today the Roman Catholic Church recognizes Cyprian's contribution to unity through his profession of faith at death and his many written works during life.

Journée des Barricades -- Le 12 Mai 1588: Un roi huguenot ? Jamais ! Le matin du 12 mai 1588, les étudiants parisiens et leurs professeurs, suivis par les parlementaires et les bourgeois se regroupent autour de la place Maubert. Craignant une agression de l'armée royale, ils barrent les rues en tendant des chaînes et en entassant des objêts divers. C'est une première dans l'Histoire de Paris et de la France. http://www.herodote.net/histoire05120.htm But it was not the last time, by any means, that the students of Paris took to the streets. We have a recent example in 2006, as well as that in 1968, when students put up barricades on the night of May 10th.

La Place Maubert seems to have been a place for grisly public executions in Paris. A statue once stood in the middle of the Maubert, that of Etienne Dolet. Cast in 1889, less than 60 years later it was gone, melted by the Nazis during the occupation of the Second World War. Etienne Dolet represented the horrendous actions that took place there. Poet, printer, humanist, once released by King François I, he later was condemned for heresy, tortured, strangled and burned with his books on the 3rd of August in 1546. http://parisavant.com/?showimage=438 see also http://www.paris-anecdote.fr/Le-miracule-de-la-Place-Maubert.html

May 12, 1689: England’s King William III joined the League of Augsburg and the Netherlands. This Grand Alliance was to counter the aggressive acts of Louis XIV against the Palatinate states in Germany. This period is known as The War of the League of Augsburg (1689-97), The Nine Years' War or the War of the Grand Alliance.

May 13th: The Saint Pancrace, an Ice Saint who is celebrated this day, was the Bishop of Tongeren, an ancient town in today's Belgium (Limburg Province). He was born circa 300, died in Tongeren 384. He attended the Church Councils of Cologne (346) and Sartique (347), fought against the Arians, but at the Council of Rimini (359) he signed a confession of faith which was somewhat ambiguous. He was said to have been deceived by the subtleties of the Arian bishops Ursatius and Valens, and confused by his imperfect knowledge of Greek. With the approach of the Huns, he went to Rome to implore the assistance of Martin (of Tours). The Huns are thought to have destroyed the town 70 years later. Do not confuse him with St. Pancras whose relics came to Britain. That Saint was martyred as a 14 year old (about 300AD), and today may be best remembered for a large London train station, which now is home of the Eurostar fast-train which travels under the Channel.

May 13, 1607: Some 100 English colonists arrive along the west bank of the James River in Virginia to found Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in North America. Dispatched from England by the London Company, the colonists had sailed across the Atlantic aboard the Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery. http://kalw.org/post/tuesday-may-13-2014-0

May 13, 1912: The Royal Flying Corps was established in England. It was the predecessor force to the Royal Air Force. Exactly 6 years later the first U.S. airmail stamps, featuring a picture of a bi-plane, were introduced. On some of the 24¢ stamps, the æroplane (a Curtis Jenny) was printed upside down, making them an immediate, valuable collector's item. A few years back, a block of four sold for $4 million. http://www.glenstephens.com/

Igor Sikorsky of Russia flew the first 4-engine aircraft on this date in 1913. Twenty-seven years later Igor Sikorsky unveiled his helicopter invention, which on May 13th 1942 completed the first cross-country flight. On May 13, 1992, astronauts from the Space Shuttle Endeavour captured an off-course communications satellite (Intelsat-6) during the first-ever three-person spacewalk.

Two days after the airmail stamps first appeared (1918), The U.S. Post Office and the U.S. Army began regularly scheduled airmail service between Washington and New York through Philadelphia. Lieutenant George L. Boyle, an inexperienced young pilot (U.S. Army Air Corps), tried to make the first flight from Washington, but he got lost, flying south rather than north. The second leg of the Washington-Philadelphia-New York flight, however, arrived in New York on schedule -- without the Washington mail. The distance of the route was 218 miles. One round trip per day was made six times a week. The Army flew the route until August 10, 1918, when the U.S. Post Office Department took over the entire operation with its own contract planes and pilots.

May 13, 1941: Musician Ritchie Valens (Donna, La Bamba) was born, but his short life ended (airplane crash) the day the music died. On February 3rd 1959, Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens and J.P. Richardson passed away near Clear Lake, Iowa. More HERE about these and other musicians who died in airplanes.
 
May 14, 1533: Margaret Valois, was born, daughter of King Henri II of France and of Catherine de' Medici. Known as Queen Margot, she was queen first of Navarre, then of France. Her wedding (1572) with Prince Henri, Protestant King of Navarre (later Henri IV the First Bourbon King of France) was intended to mark the peace between the Catholic and Protestant factions, instead it became a prelude to the massacre of Protestants, with bells ringing at Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois. http://www.answers.com/topic/margaret-of-valois She died 5 years after Henri (1615).

At the age of 56, King Henri de Navarre, King Henri IV of France was assassinated by a fanatical monk, François Ravillac, on May 14th (1610). En cette époque de guerres civiles et religieuses, des théologiens protestants et des Jésuites légitiment le meurtre des «tyrans» ... Henri IV est leur dernière victime. Il est assassiné alors qu'il se préparait à entrer en guerre contre les Habsbourg d'Autriche et d'Espagne, champions de la Contre-Réforme catholique.

Henri was succeeded by 11-year-old Louis XIII, under the watchful eye of Cardinal Richelieu (Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de Richelieu). Inspite of Henri's death, France would still be drawn into the Thirty Year's War, fighting against Spain. A brief period of Peace in the conflict had ensued in 1635 with Spain having thus far soundly beaten the Protestant countries. Richelieu would in effect resume the hostilities by declaring war on May 19, 1635, because Spain had become too powerful. http://www.herodote.net/histoire05191.htm The French would vanquish Spain. The decissive battle was fought in the Ardennes and the French gained Alsace, soon after the Cardinal's death. http://www.herodote.net/histoire05190.htm

Coincidently, Louis XIV (the Sun King) became King of France at age 4 upon the death of his father, Louis XIII on (you guessed it) May 14th (1643). Queen Anne (a daughter of the Spanish house), the widow of Louis XIII, was granted sole and absolute power as Regent by the Paris Parliament, overriding the late sovereign's will (May 18th). In effect, the murder of Henri, who converted to catholicism to bring peace to Paris and France, will set up a reign of terror against all religious people, first during the rule of Louis XIV against the Protestants in France (Édit de Fontainebleau) and the Palatine region of Germany, and later during the French Revolution. Louis XIV's actions would contribute to a mass and varied migration of people to the United States (Pennsylvania Deutsch and Huguenot settlers in South Carolina). Neither my spouse or I would have been here without these forced migrations; moreover, this country would have been a vastly different place without the contributions that these refugees from oppression made.

May 14, 1968: The Beatles announced the start-up of a new company. The Apple Corporation, formed in order to control intellectual property rights, gave the group the ability to produce the kind of music it wanted. Founded in 1976, an Apple corporation (actually Apple Computer, Inc.) was established so that the owners could design and distribute the kind of information systems they wanted. See http://www.apple-history.com/frames/body.php?page=gallery&model=aI -- iPad, iPhone, iPod, iTunes ... iMac.

May 14, 2007: On this date the Nation celebrated the arrival in Virginia of men from England. Virginia was named for Sir Walter Raleigh's favorite Queen; but, the presiding ruler was now King James, who was the Sixth of that name for Scotland and the First of England (1603). James also was the son of a former Scottish Queen, whom Elizabeth had imprisoned and executed. A more diplomatic name was necessary during this reign, hence when the Englishmen founded James' towne, they built it as a fort first.

In June 1610, after a terrible drought and a deadly winter the colonists called the Starving Time, when dozens of souls perished, the surviving colonists packed, prepared to leave the site to return to England. They buried unneeded military gear at James Fort before they left, according to period accounts. Some of that gear has resurfaced near the first graveyard and church. Archæologists in 2007 recovered the arms and many other artifacts from a level about 3 feet below what was the ground in the 17th-century. The entire area had been thought to have eroded into the river until 1996, when the rediscovery of James Fort, the first settlement, was announced.

In the end, the colonists did not get beyond the mouth of the James River in their quest to leave. They ran into the fleet of Lord Thomas Leighton WEST, 3rd Lord De La Warr, the colony's governor and captain general, who arrived with supplies (and new hope) after a 3 month journey on June 9, 1610. Out of respect for his leadership and contributions to the struggling settlement, the Delaware River today bears his name. Unfortunately, Thomas West died at sea before he could do more (June 7, 1618). His death came just over two years before the Pilgrims would establish residence accidentally in New England. His brother, called Captain John WEST, immigrated to the New World and resided at West's Point, King William County, Virginia. Among other offices, he was acting Governor of Virginia (and Captain General ?) under the Stuart Crown from 1635-1636. He and his wife, Anne SHIRLEY, are the progenitors of many Americans who are alive today.

The week-long celebration of the founding of Historic Jamestowne, with visits by Queen Elizabeth II and her consort Prince Phillip and others (such as her cousin, the Vice President), culminated with the President's grounds-tour and speech. http://www.jamestown2007.org/ In 2008, historic Jamestowne continued the momentum of the 400th anniversary celebration. The major goal of this excavation season is to begin to uncover the remaining unexplored half of the 1607 James Fort searching for the original church, the Virginia Company storehouse, the guard house and an early well. http://www.apva.org/pressroom/press_release.php?pr_id=67

May 15, 1248: Kölner Erzbisch, Konrad von Hochstaden, laid the cornerstone for the Cologne Cathedral (Der Kölner Dom), which towers over the city on the western bank of the Rhine River. From 1880, when its west-facing spires were completed, until 1884 it was the World's tallest structure, losing its title at the completion of the Washington Monument in Washington DC. The Cathedral at Cologne remains the tallest Gothic-style structure in the world. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cologne_Cathedral During the 2nd World War, Allied bombing severely damaged the Cathedral. Not until 1956 would the Cathedral return to its intended purpose in all its glory. http://www.willkommeninkoeln.de/ You must visit the Römisch-Germanisches Museum, which is in front (western side) of the Cathedral. Many fine museums exist in this region, which display roman, germanic and celtic artifacts (e.g. Mainz {Mayence}, Frankfurt am Main {Francfort}). You do not want to miss them either. Our page on links to German cities is HERE.

May 15, 1889: In Paris at 11:50am this Tour de Force was opened to the public universelle. At about 1000 feet, it became the world's tallest free-standing structure, until the Chrysler building rises in NYC forty years later. Constructed by a well-known French bridge builder, it became a beloved symbol in the few short months of the fair.

In fact, Eiffel was actually erecting what ambitious English and American engineers had only dreamed of for decades: a thousand-foot tower. "What was the main obstacle I had to overcome in designing the tower?" asked (and then answered) Eiffel: "Its resistance to wind" -- a foe he had long ago bested in such pioneering bridge designs as his Pia Maria railway bridge in Oporto, Portugal. "And I submit that the curves of [the tower's] four piers as produced by our calculations, rising from an enormous base and narrowing toward the top, will give a great impression of strength and beauty." http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124182319989202299.html

May 16, 1794: The shroud of Turin was once on display at Besançon, or (perhaps) only its less-famous copy. In any event, history first records a shroud on display at Besançon before 1349. It is thought, but not proved, that the LaRoche family had possession of the Saint-Suaire for 150 years (probably at Saint-Etienne in Besançon or at the homeplace LaRoche (Rigney)). The Shroud of Besançon (by then a famous copy) was sent to Paris on 27 Floréal, an II (May 16, 1794) of the Revolution. It is then thrown into a fire, from which it did not escape. Reports in early April 2009, have Vatican documents now supporting a link between the Shroud known in 1204 and that seen in 1357. The known history of the Shroud of 1204 appears to go back hundreds of years to Odessa; so, therefore, scientific reports that the Shroud was only a medieval fake are themselves in question.

Starting in 2003, new evidence began to appear in secular, peer-reviewed, scientific journals that supported the Shroud of Turin's authenticity . . . in 2005, we learned that the carbon 14 dating was flawed. In fact we learned that the cloth could very well be 2000 years old.

* * *

As science moved forward, new historical information was coming to light. Indeed, there is evidence that the cloth, now called the Shroud of Turin, really was a treasure of the early church; not the Pauline communities with which we are so familiar, but the Church in the East . . . Odessa. In 544 CE, a cloth, with an image believed to be Jesus, was found above one of Odessa's gates in the walls of the city, a cloth that Gregory Referendarius of Constantinople would later describe with a full length image and bloodstains. There is strong evidence that the Odessa cloth is in fact the Shroud of Turin. Numerous writings, drawings, icons, pollen spores and limestone dust attest to this. from http://www.shroudstory.com/

A recent study by French scientist Thierry Castex has revealed that on the shroud are traces of words in Aramaic spelled with Hebrew letters. A Vatican researcher, Barbara Frale, told Vatican Radio July 26 that her own studies suggest the letters on the shroud were written more than 1,800 years ago. She said it would not be unusual for something to be written on a burial cloth in order to indicate the identity of the deceased. Scholars have suggested that Hebrew characters probably are part of the phrase "The king of the Jews." http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/0903394.htm The last public exhibition began on April 10, 2010, and ended on May 23rd of that year.



so called "Crusader Coin" of William LaRoche - Dutchy of Thebes
Link to French 
page on 
la Citadelle

Stamp that shows the city's famous citadel (right) as well as the symbol for the shroud (left) found in stain glass

Le front Royal est flanqué de deux guérites de surveillance : la tour du roi et la tour de la reine. Le front Royal et le front de Secours (à l’autre extrémité de la citadelle) ont été édifiés par les Espagnols et remaniés par Vauban. Ces fronts sont reliés par deux énormes murailles, qui épousent presque à la perfection le relief et le rocher. À cause des vues ennemies depuis les collines des alentours, pour faire écran, Vauban a construit des murailles très solides, en calcaire, de 5 à 6 m d’épaisseur et de 15 à 20 m de haut. La partie supérieure des parapets était construite en brique car leurs éclats étaient beaucoup moins meurtriers que le calcaire. Ces murs délimitent la cour intérieure, le corps de place et ils étaient surmontés d’un chemin de ronde sur lequel on pouvait déambuler pour monter la garde. De plus une dizaine de guérites (ce ne sont pas des échauguettes, ce nom étant applicable aux châteaux-forts médiévaux, alors qu'en fortification bastionnée, on parle de guérites) étaient disposées le long de ce circuit, pour servir de poste de guet et de combat. Elles étaient plus décoratives qu’efficaces car elles étaient très fragiles. Il n’en reste aujourd’hui plus que deux.

The origin of the name Front Royal remains uncertain. One version holds that, in early decades of European settlement, when the area was in the Colony of Virginia, the name referred to "le front royal" (in French) meaning the British frontier. French settlers, trappers, and explorers in the Ohio Territory of the mid-18th century were referring to the land grant made by King Charles II, then in control of Thomas, Lord Fairfax, Baron of Cameron. "Le front royal" translates to the "Royal Frontier" in English. The British and Colonial governments may have called the area Front Royal after 1763, when they set the so-called Proclamation Line along the spine of the Alleghenies to demarcate the settled portion of the colonies from the Native American lands further west.

However, another legendary version of the origin of the name has it that, during colonial days, a giant oak tree reminiscent of the "Royal Oak" of England (where Charles spent one cold night hiding to escape the Roundheads following the Battle of Worcester in 1651), stood in the public square where Chester and Main Streets intersect. There local militia, composed of raw recruits, slowly learned military commands and maneuvers by constant drill. On one occasion, the sorely tried drill sergeant became so exasperated that he hit upon a phrase that all could understand and shouted, "front the Royal Oak !" Among the spectators was a former professional soldier. He was so amused by the officer's coined order that he and his friends found much sport in telling the story, repeating "front the Royal Oak" until Front Royal became the resulting name for the town.

May 16, 1866: Congress authorized the U.S. Treasury Department to add another ¢oin to American currency, worth five cents. On its face was a shield, while on the reverse was a large 5. Before this time the regular-issue of this value was a half-dime, a silver item. We were very inventive back then with half-cent and two-cent denominations (both copper), two types of three-cent coins, along with the traditional penny (several different designs and sizes). With these you could buy a nickel root beer, which Charles Elmer Hires invented on May 16, 1866. Actually, most coinage had disappeared during the War Between the States. The new nickel was part of the no-nonsense effort to resupply the public, and remove small denomination paper script. Pictures of these odd coins: HERE

Jean Baptiste Charbonneau (born on February 11, 1805 at Fort Mandan, in what later would be known as North Dakota) died, also on May 16, 1866. Sacajawea's child was born at the Lewis and Clark Expedition's winter camp, son of a Shoshone captive, living among the Hidatsa tribe, and Toussaint Charbonneau, a French-Canadian trapper. Sacagawea carrying her infant son played a significant role in the foray into the unknown. Jean Baptiste has become an emblem of peace, pictured on one of the current U.S. $1 coins. http://www.findagrave.com/ During 2004 and 2005 the United States minted nickels featuring themes from the Lewis and Clark venture. It will take from 10 to 20 of these nickels (or more) to buy a real root beer in 2007. Indeed, in most places a nickel may not even cover the sales tax on this beverage. Prices are going up in 2008, and up and up in 2011.

May 17, 1220: The ancient Isle of Thorns or Thorn-Ey (an eyot is a small island) sat where the River Tyburn split (roughly on the site of the present Buckingham Place) paths to the Thames. It remains the place upon which stands today the Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey. This site is traditionally regarded as a Solar site. In times before the Saxon conquest of Kent and London in the 6th century AD, it had been a place where the Druids made laws and had a place of worship connected with trees (Tree College). This site would have been of great significance to our Celtic forebears. It's perhaps no coincidence that Thorn-Ey remains the seat of the British government, where laws continue to be made. Because one of the best river crossings existed here, there would have been Roman fortifications, from which or on which the original abbey/church may have been built; but time and many rebuilding projects have erased all of this. http://www.fantompowa.net/Flame/pagan_london.htm

According to a tradition reported about 1080, the first Abbey (in the time of Mellitus (d. 624), Bishop of London) first arose on Thorn-Ey (Thorn Island), because a fisherman named Aldrich received a vision of Saint Peter near the site astride the River Thames. A larger stone abbey replaced the original, built around 1045-1050 by Saint and King Edward the Confessor. It became part of his place of residence. It was consecrated on December 28, 1065, only a week before his death and subsequent funeral and burial. The only (possibly contemporary) extant depiction of the original abbey (in the Romanesque style that is called Norman in England), together with the adjacent Palace of Westminster, is in the Bayeux Tapestry (Musée de la Tapisserie de Bayeux). Work began on the present Gothic structure under Henry III, a devotee of Saint Edward the Confessor.

Since the time of both coronations in 1066 (King Harold and William the Conqueror), coronations of English and British monarchs have been held in the Abbey. Henry III could not be crowned in London, when he first came to the throne, because French Prince Louis had taken control of the city. His coronation took place at Gloucester Cathedral; however, the Pope ruled this coronation improper, and a further coronation was held at Westminster Abbey on May 17, 1220. The Archbishop of Canterbury remains the traditional cleric in the coronation ceremony. King Edward's Chair (or Saint Edward's Chair), the throne on which English and British sovereigns have been seated at the moment of coronation, sits within the Abbey. From 1301 to 1996 (except for a short time in 1950 when it was temporarily stolen by Scottish nationalists), the chair housed the Stone of Scone upon which the kings of the Scots are crowned. Although the Stone is now kept in Scotland (in Edinburgh Castle), it is intended that the Stone will be returned briefly to St. Edward's Chair for future coronations. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey Interestingly, Edward III as a youth (16) tried to return the stone to the Scots, but the Bishop in charge of it would not agree, chaining it to the floor so it could not be removed.

Actually, it may not be fair to say that the Stone of Scone was stolen in 1950, because arguably it belonged to Scotland. When James united the two Kingdoms after Elizabeth's death, it at least belonged to both (having really been first taken from the Scottish Nation by the English as an act of political subjugation). Never-the-less, the stone is reported to be that upon which Jacob's head rested at the time he saw his vision of the ladder to heaven. How it got to Scotland is another matter, and whether or not (and when) those frugal medieval Scots may have substituted a fake rock for the sacred stone makes for interesting speculation. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/scotland/2136221/Stone-of-Destiny-is-fake-claims-Alex-Salmond.html

May 17, 1689: King William's War (1689-1697) is declared between England and France (European War of the Grand Alliance). It pits New France {Canada} against the New England {American} colonies and their Iroquois allies, as the British try to check French growth in the New World. The English and French national interests still did not coincide at War's end, and the questions in dispute at the outset really never were settled. http://www.usahistory.info/colonial-wars/King-Williams-War.html Peace terms (the Treaty of Ryswick) would, thus, only set up conditions leading to a series of continuing wars, ending in the War of 1812 in the New World, involving Canadian and American claims to former French lands and the Napoleonic Wars in Europe.

Her ordeal, connected to the Native raids, incited by the French and English during King William's War, led to the Coccecho Massacre in Dover, the Oyster River Raid in Durham and the Bracket Lane Attack in Rye, NH. The brutal experience of Hannah Dustin [Duston] at age 40 is reported among the most horrific in New England Colonial history. According to an early account by Cotton Mather, Dustin was captured on March 15, 1697, near the end of the conflict; her new infant was killed in Psalm 137:9 style, by a member of the raiding party; she and other hostages were forced-marched about 60 miles; and before escaping they exacted revenge by the Merrimack River, killing 10 of the captors. Hannah sold the scalps of her kidnappers for 50 pounds cash, incomplete reparation for the ordeal. John Greenleaf Whittier popularized the incident in poetry.

May 17, 1756: Great Britain declared war on France (some sources say 15th, a possible confusion with the start of the War of Spanish Succession or Queen Anne's War (May 15, 1701)). It has become known as the French and Indian War in North America, but it was really the fourth major episode of conflict between English / French relations in America since 1689. Britain's goal in the New World was to acquire all of Canada, which it achieved in 1763 at the Battle of Québec. The final defeat of the French came there on the Plains of Abraham before the Cité. Great Britain further consolidated its conquest of Canada. It expelled many French-speaking settlers, Cajuns, who resettled in the swamps of Louisiana.

In the end, however, the American colonies' new western boundary became the Mississippi River rather than the Pacific Ocean. Moreover, the cost of the war and the defense of the colonies would produce controversial ways to raise revenues and avoid future disputes on the western frontier. The plans imposed on the colonials would lead to another war, when they declared their independence from the British Crown.

May 17, 1939: On this day, King George VI and his Queen, Elizabeth, set foot dans la ville de Québec on the first visit to Canada by a reigning British sovereign. Exactly a year later Germany occupied Brussels, Belgium, and had begun its invasion of France. Occupation would last until late 1944. This time France and England were allies, with some history of cooperation already behind them. Interestingly, as part of the effort by the English to shore-up French resolve in the face of overwhelming odds, Churchill, after consulting with his King, offered full, unconditional Union with France at this time of crisis. The French government, suspicious of motives, rejected the offer, just too much to contemplate after 1000 years of histoire between the couple.

May 18, 1883: Today marks the birthday of Adolf Georg Walter Gropius in Berlin, Prussia, who was director of the Bauhaus School in Weimar and Dessau from 1919 until 1928. As an architect, Gropius would design buildings at the Bauhaus complex in Dessau, and later, the Harvard University Graduate Center and the U. S. Embassy in Athens. In 1915 he married Alma Schindler, she who at various times also had married several other literati, including Gustav Mahler and Franz Werfel. During World War I, Gropius served with the German cavalry, but he left Nazi Germany in 1934. By 1937, he had accepted a position at Harvard University in the United States. He was a pioneer in the field of building component construction and design (prefabrication). In the year 2009, the Bauhaus celebrates its 90th anniversary: More HERE.

The Architects Collaborative (TAC) introduced a then innovative group-approach to design. Formed in December 1945, with Walter Gropius as the senior member, the young founders of TAC brought the studio team method from their architectural school training into the professional sphere. Most were graduates of the School of Architecture at Yale, not Harvard. Gropius himself designed Harkness Commons / Graduate Center at Harvard (1947-49), as well as, the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Bundesverwaltungsgebäude (Boston 1961-66). The firm went on to design numerous other buildings in the U.S. and abroad, including Baghdad University (1957); the iconic Pan American World Airways Building (MetLife) in New York (1958); the firm’s own headquarters at 4-6 Story Street (1966); the Johns-Manville World Headquarters in Colorado (1973); the Bauhaus-Archive in Berlin {Museum für Gestaltung} (1976); Glaswerke der Thomas Glas- und Porzellan-AG (Amberg in der Oberpfalz 1968) and the U.S. Embassy in Athens (1956-61). A more complete listing of all his works along with a history of the Bauhaus can be found at http://www.arte-tv.com/fr/connaissance-decouverte/bauhaus/L_27Histoire_20du_20Bauhaus/772012,CmC=681134.html (français) oder heir http://www.tu-harburg.de/b/kuehn/wg1.html (auf deutsch).

The Rugby American -- May 18, 1924: At the Olympics then being held in the ancient City of Light, Paris, the American rugby team beat the French 17-3. Only France, Romania and America had fielded rugby teams in this world-wide contest. Rugby was eliminated as an Olympic sport after this 1924 event, in part because fans rioted following the American victory. Nous avons été volés, les fanatiques français réclamés.
 
May 19, 804: Alcuin (Alhwin) of Northumbria (schooled in York), an English scholar, dies at Tours, France. As an adviser to Charlemagne, he became a prominent figure in the Carolingian Renaissance (the rebirth of classical learning begun during Charlemagne's rule). Alcuin established a library and first led the school in Aachen (Acquisgrana in Latin), which was attended by members of the royal court, as well as, the sons of the noble families of the empire.

Alcuin's enlightenment affects us today. He devised a handwriting system using both small and capital letters for easier reading.

BEFORETHENEVERYTHINGLOOKEDTHESAMEOREVERYONEWASYELLINGATANUNPUNCTUATEDRATE
NONSTOPWITHOUTBREAKORPAUSEDEPENDINGONYOURPOINTOFVIEW  
Of his life he states:

In the morning, at the height of my powers, I sowed the seed in Britain, now in the evening when my blood is growing cold I am still sowing in France, hoping both {crops] will grow, by the Grace of God, giving some the honey of the Holy Scriptures, making others drunk on the old wine of ancient learning . . . . http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Alcuin.html

Church scholars today classify Alcuin's theological works as exegetical -- biblical, moral and dogmatic. Their driving motif is that of conservation rather than originality. His nine Scriptural commentaries {Genesis, The Psalms, The Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Hebrew Names, St. John's Gospel, the Epistles to Titus, Philemon and the Hebrews, The Sayings of St. Paul and the Apocalypse} consist mostly of sentences strung together as taken from the Church Fathers. He collected into convenient form the observations on the more important Scriptural passages from the best commentators who had preceded him. Another important Biblical undertaking, by Alcuin, was his revision of the text of the Latin Vulgate. Besides being an premier educator and a classical theologian, he became the principle agent in the great work of liturgical reform of his time. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm

May 19, 1382: The Earthquake Synod of London (so named because a quake interrupted the proceedings on the 19th), led by Archbishop Courtenay, condemns as heretical 24 theses from the writings of John Wycliffe. Wycliffe later claimed that God had sent the earthquake because the friars had put heresy upon Christ. The earth trembled, as it did when Christ was damned to bodily death. The same year, Wycliffe finish his translation of the Bible into English. For these actions, the Catholic Church expelled Wycliffe from his teaching position at Oxford, and 44 years after he died, the Pope ordered his bones exhumed and burned. But like Columbus' tale, there is so much more to this story.

Wycliffe had stated that the Church did not need a pope; that the bread and wine of the Eucharist actually did not turn into Christ's blood and body; and that the Roman Catholic mass, as it then was practiced, was not instituted by Christ. He had thought of other reforms at a time when the Western portion of the Universal Church was not open to self-examination and reflection. Wycliffe based his claims directly on the literal text of the Bible, instead of tradition. AND, worse, Wycliffe sent for teachers who taught people in English instead of Latin.

Wycliffe's words had resonated with the peasant class of his Nation. As in Germany, many already were in a state akin to revolt, because of the economic and social effects of the Plague. The Catholic Church and the ruling class united to put down this first attempt in reformation within the Church in England. Strangely enough, even Saint Joan of Arc's death half of a century later can be related to English legislation to combat the political implications of Wycliff's views.

St Marys on the Georgia CoastReported May 19, 2005: At Peter Point near St. Marys, Georgia, archæologists have found extensive remains of a 200-plus-year-old fort in the coastal marshes of southeastern Georgia. Researchers have retrieved over 67,000 pieces of artifacts. The bulk of the structure still lies submerged in mud. The site is the scene of the last battle in the War of 1812 and last invasion of the United States (1815). The siege occurred after the conflict had ended (Treaty of Ghent) and after the American victory at New Orleans. The fort, built in 1776 on orders of General George Washington, was overrun by British troops, slow to get word about the end of the hostilities, and perhaps upset over the poor mardi gras reception they had experienced. The fort fell to disuse after the Spanish and American governments signed a treaty transferring Florida (1821).

May 19, 2016: My maternal Grandmother would have been 118 years old on this day. She was named for a child who died in the War between the States. Her Grandfather (father's side) walked home from Appomattox Courthouse (VA to GA). Her mother's father spent some time in a POW Camp during the same conflict. All now reside in the same Graveyard today. More Here.
 
May 20th is the 12th Kalends (or calends) of June (an old way of counting dates based on the Roman calendar): The Græco-Roman world had already known Gallic peoples for hundreds of years in both warfare and trade, before Rome established Narbonne first as a colonial outpost. The earliest known settlement in the area was the oppidum (a defended Iron Age village) at Montlaurès, about 4km north-west of the present city centre (of Narbonne). More HERE
 
May 20, 1506: A forgotten, impoverished Italian, died in Spain at age 55. Known to us by his English name, Christopher Columbus was interred within the monastery at Valladolid. Three years later, his remains went to another monastery (La Cartuja). In 1537, Maria de Rojas y Toledo, widow of Columbus' son Diego, sent the bones of her husband and his father to the new world Cathedral in Santo Domingo. They lay undisturbed until 1795. Spain ceded the Island of Hispaniola to France and determined that Columbus' remains should slip not into the hands of éstrangers. A set of bones, thought to be his, were shipped to a cathedral in Havana, Cuba where they remained for another 100 years. Upon the Spanish-American War (1898), Spain once again transported those Cuban-based bones to Seville. End of story ?

No, it still goes on ! In 1877, workers digging inside the Santo Domingo cathedral had unearthed a leaden box containing large and small bone fragments. It was inscribed Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon. Are these were the real remains of Columbus and did the Spanish remove the wrong ones in 1795 ? The story, based on evidence gathered in 2003 is here: Une énigme policière. We can report no happy ending, yet. On May 19th 2006 Spanish officials reported that DNA tests on the bones in Seville were positive, confirming that at least a portion of Columbus' remains are in Spain. Officials in Santo Domingo have refused access for similar tests, although the Spanish announcement may open the door to new entreaties.

May 20, 1932: Esploratore del mondo, Amelia Earhart took off from Newfoundland, bound for Ireland. She would become the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. Earhart landed near Londonderry, Ireland, after 13 ½ hours of flight. Her departure occurred 5 years to the day after that of Charles Lindbergh's solo flight from Roosevelt Field on Long Island, N.Y. aboard the [es]Spirit of St. Louis, on route to Paris France. Flying much further, it took him 33 hours and 30 minutes to achieve his goal. Seven years (to the day) after Earhart's flight, regular trans-Atlantic air service began as a Pan American Airways Yankee Clipper took off from Port Washington, N.Y. bound for Marseille, France.

May 20, 1916: This day in Georgia - http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/thisday/gahistory/05/20/dedication-ceremony-at-base-of-stone-mountain
 
May 21, 1172: The Compromise of Avranches in September 1172, marked the reconciliation of Henry II Plantagenêt of Normandy and England with the Catholic Church, after the murder in 1170 of Thomas Becket. Henry was relieved of any guilt in Becket's murder, but he agreed that the secular courts had no jurisdiction over the clergy, with the exceptions of high treason, highway robbery and arson. This is the origin of the Benefit of Clergy provision in modern English law, although it had a tradition before. The compromise grew out of a dispute between the King and the Church in England that had resulted in the Archbishop of Canterbury's death (December 29, 1170) at the hands of some rogue knights, for which murder the King was deemed responsible. The final stage setting for the agreement was a public humiliation of the King (a whipping, his request for forgiveness and the ceremony of reconciliation) on May 21, 1172, at the alter of the Cathedral of Avranches. Revolutionary zealots destroyed this structure in 1794. Today a paving stone marks the spot where apostolic absolution took place (La Plate-Forme) in the gardens of the Sous-Préfecture, Place Daniel Huet (17th century church scholar). The Abbot of Mont-Saint-Michel presided, which Abbey and the estuary of the Sée and the Baie rivers are visible from this spot today. Avranches, in the southwestern part of the region Manche (Cotentin Peninsula), also marks the spot from which General George Patton began his lightening fast advance east across France (July 31, 1944). Saint-Gaudens, Haute-Garonne, (since the autumn of 1944), has been a twin city, when that town fraternally assisted Avranches by furnishing clothing and food to it. The major church Notre Dame des Champs was constructed in a Gothic-revival style (in the 19th century) to restore the religious life of the town after the destruction of the cathedral. The Basilica of Saint-Gervais (Dagobert fonde l'église en 637) houses a treasury, best known for the skull of Saint Aubert (mourut en 725) featuring a hole where the Archangel Michael's finger pierced it when the messenger was prodding Aubert to finish construction of the Abbey in a timely manner.
 
May 21, 1690: Throughout the last nearly 2000 years we have had a tradition of Apostleship -- that is the premier person to bring the Gospel to a region or people. Such examples include the Apostle to the Irish from England (Patrick); various Apostles to the Scots and English tribes; the Apostle to the Germans from Northumbria, England (Bishop Boniface); Remigius of Rheims, Bishop and Apostle to the Franks; and, those who brought the Faith to the Gauloise, Hungarians and the Russ.

In America we have our own, John Eliot. Born in England (1604) Eliot graduated from a college at Cambridge. He converted to the Puritain sect, immigrated and became a preacher to the colonists in Roxbury, Massachusetts. Eliot learned the native language and preached to the Algonquin People. He translated the Ten Commandments and the Lord’s Prayer. Eliot later published a catechism, Bible and a metrical version of the Psalms of David. Indeed, his was the first Bible published in North America. He trained native people to become missionaries to their own. http://www.greatsite.com/timeline-english-bible-history/john-eliot.html -- http://www.jesus.cam.ac.uk/ The date of his death in 1690 is celebrated by the Anglican Church. http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bio/164.html


May 22, 337: Today is the death date of Constantine the Great. Constantine was the emperor that reconsolidated the Roman Empire. He began a career path as one of the four Roman Emperors at the time of the division of power after Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus had split the empire into an east and west portion. http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/diocletian.html He ruled the Western Empire from the city of Trier (now in Germany). He later waged battle against the other leaders of the empire, emerging as the sole emperor. It was Constantine who first tolerated Christianity: in hoc signo vinces. Later he made the Roman (Orthodox) Catholic faith the official religion of his Empire. His basilica still stands in Trier, as do several other structures from the time of his rule from there. The present day Cathedral of Trier rests upon the remains of the home of Constantine's mother, Sainte Helena, who recovered the True Cross, among other relics.

May 22, 1915: Mount Lassen, a volcano in California, east of Redding, erupted on this day (one of a series of eruptions over 7 year period), resulting in a seven mile high ash cloud. Only one other mountain in the lower 48 has erupted during the 20th century -- Mount St. Helens in 1980. Nestled within Lassen’s peaceful forests and untouched wilderness, hissing fumaroles and boiling mud pots still shape and change the land, evidence of Lassen’s long fiery and active past. Lassen Peak, the southernmost active volcano in the Cascade Range has an official Website: Lassen Volcanic National Park. More HERE.

May 22, 2006: Montenegro had been one of six countries within Yugoslavia before the federation's violent unraveling, which began in in 1991. In 2003, after nearly a decade of war and political upheaval, Serbia and Montenegro replaced what remained of the Yugoslavia with a looser union. Once an independent kingdom (Montenegro after World War I) this nation merged into the newly formed Yugoslavia. Many resisted. A a seven-year guerrilla war followed. After World War II, the six-republic Yugoslavia became a communist-run state. During the breakup in the 1990s, Montenegro's leaders sided with Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic -- who would later stand trial for war crimes, during which he died. Voters in Montenegro narrowly decided to sever the country's union with Serbia. http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/05/22/montenegro.independence/ On Monday morning (22 May 2006) unofficial results showed that 55.3% (percent) voted in favor and 44.6% voted against leaving Serbia. At 55.3 %, the results just meet the threshold for being legitimate, according to EU standards. http://euobserver.com/9/21665 voi aussi http://permanent.nouvelobs.com/europe/20060522.OBS8629.html and our writings about Kosovo in February and March 2008: Please begin HERE.
 
May 23, 1430: The Burgundians captured Joan of Arc (age 18), near Compiègne. They sold her to the English for 10,000 gold coins (instead of 40 pieces of argent). She would be held by the English for about a year. After a fair trial, the English executed the maid. She died by fire in the marketplace behind the gray city walls of Rouen, Normandy (May 30, 1431). Her execution was to serve as a lesson for others who would challenge English claims to lands in France; but, she already had reversed the momentum of her enemy's victories during the Hundred Years War. Moreover, Sainte Jeanne d'Arc (http://www.stejeannedarc.net/), by her hideous death transformed what really was a barbaric clash of avaricious feuding clans into a holy war for national liberation from English tyranny. Perhaps there is a lesson for us today in this sad tale of youth ended so early, since her image and sacrifice transcend time.

Ironically, divorce caused this pain. In 1152, the Poitou region in France came under English control through the marriage of a divorced Eleanor d'Aquitaine to Henry II Plantagenêt. Poitou already had been reunited with the French crown in 1416, when Sainte Joan died. It stayed a province of France until the Revolution (1789-95), when it was divided into three departments, Vienne, Deux-Sevres, and Vendee. The region's first known inhabitants were the Pictavi, a Celtic tribe conquered in 56 BC by the Romans -- who incorporated the area into Gaul as part of the province of Aquitania. The Visigoths seized the region in AD 418, but it passed to the Franks in 507. In 732 and 733, Mayor Charles Martel CAROLINGIAN d'Austrasia ended the Saracen Moslem’s invasion of western Europe by, inter alia, his victories at Poitiers, capital of the historic region of Poitou. From the 10th to the mid-12th century, the Comtes du Poitou were also the Ducs d'Aquitaine. Charles Martel was the grandfather of King of France, Charles, Emperor Charlemagne CAROLINGIAN of Holy Roman Empire and King Carloman CAROLINGIAN of Burgundy, among others.

After Guillaume's return from the first Crusade, this duc d'Aquitaine participe à un épisode de la Reconquista. So, Aquitaine assists Aragon -- Alphonse, King of all Castille and León (le Batailleur), who had married Guillaume VIII's sister Béatrice. In the Moslem world, during the next three centuries, the name of Cutanda will become the synonym of catastrophe. At sunrise a small force headed by Aquitaine ambushes the enemy with the cry Dieu le veut ! La victoire est totale. http://svowebmaster.free.fr/Histoire_Cutanda.htm

The tents of the Emir are ransacked, his trunks broken, the spoils -- enormous! The Comte William (Guillaume VIII de Poitiers, duc d'Aquitaine, le Troubadour) permits his troops to benefit -- gold, rare stones and delicate silk trade goods. William eyes an enormous vase in the shape of drop, cut in a block of rock crystal. It measures approximately a foot and its size makes it precious. This vase will become the symbol of the Picto-Aquitaine power, handed down from Count to comte, until Eleanor takes its possession. She will offer it to Louis VII at the time of their marriage, as a sign of Aquitaine's allegiance. After their unhappy divorce, Louis VII will keep the vase and Aquitaine. Encircled later by a frame out of horn, encrusted with invaluable stones, the Sacracen vase now sits atop a pedestal of gold on which is engraved the history of its origin. The object is currently visible in the musée du Louvre. But who of its visitors knows that this object comes from the tent of an enemy, overcome by a Count of Poitou, at the time of the battle of Cutanda (May 18, 1120) ? http://livingthehistoryelizabethchadwick.blogspot.com/2011/01/eleanor-vase.html

A day of science -- May 24th: In 1543 Copernicus died, a man whose scientific observations underpin the modern assumptions about the world. Earth was no longer the center of God's creation, but a small weather-beaten rock circling some unremarkable sun in some obscure part of one galaxy -- a galaxy with just an unremarkable collection of stars, one among billions of other collections. Congratulations, an age of enlightenment was just around the corner. At the urging of a local bishop, scientists began searching in 2004 for the astronomer's remains and eventually discovered a skull and bones of a 70 year old male - the age of Copernicus when he passed away. On May 22, 2010, Copernicus was given a second burial with a Mass led by Jozef Kowalczyk, the former papal nuncio to Poland (newly named Primate of Poland). Copernicus' remains were interred in the same place within Frombork Cathedral where part of his skull and other bones had been found (confirmed by DNA testing that matched remains with that from hairs found in one of his books). A black granite tombstone now identifies him as the founder of the heliocentric theory and also as a church canon, at that time a cleric ranking below a priest. The tombstone bears a representation of Copernicus' model of the solar system, a golden sun encircled by six of the planets. Wojciech Ziemba, the archbishop of the region surrounding Frombork, said the Catholic Church is proud that Copernicus left the region a legacy of "his hard work, devotion and above all of his scientific genius."

In contrast to the cold reception that Copernicus has received until now, it was on May 24, 1686, that the German physicist, Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit was born in Danzig, East Prussia (now in Poland). Fahrenheit, the inventor of the alcohol thermometer and the mercury thermometer (1714), as his name may suggest, also developed the Fahrenheit temperature scale (now out-of-favor in most of the world, but still in use in the United States) Fahrenheit also discovered that water can remain in its liquid state below its normal freezing point (32 degrees F) and the boiling temperature of water will vary, depending on air pressure. Interestingly, Frombork (Copernicus' hometown) was also part of Germany. When Russian troops occupied the rubble that was once Frombork, they expelled all the German people and sent them to the worker's paradise that was called East Germany. The region was then resettled by Polish citizens, many of whom came from the Polish lands that the Soviets had annexed. Beginning in 1966 the Boy Scouts began clearing the rubble and rebuilding the town (one supposes this was mainly the city-centre). A monument to this effort is there today.

In a somewhat similar vein, Alexander Graham Bell would utter some famous words into his telephone (a recording of his voice found in 2013), ushering into being the modern analog communications age; but, before he did, Mr. Morse had invented the telegraph, a digital device. The first telegram was sent by Sam between Washington DC (still the centre of the universe known and unknown for some), and Baltimore MD, on May 24, 1844.

The City of New York could be said to have invented modern transportation infrastructure for the commuting public. A keystone was its bridges (and later tunnels), the most famous (and most resold) being the Brooklyn Bridge. This modern marvel of science was dedicated on May 24, 1883. It took 14 years to build and, unfortunately, construction took many lives, including even its designer / engineer. John Röbling of Mühlhausen, Thuringia (located in central Germany not in Elaß) was born in 1806. Roebling died in New York in July 1869 of injuries sustained on the site of the Brooklyn Bridge construction project. This noble river crossing was finished by his son.

Finally the noble Science of War advanced this day in 1941 when the German Battleship Bismark fired a salvo which disintegrated a somewhat older, but still powerful, H.M.S. Hood. Thereafter, a rather small, old and aged plane crippled the steering of the Bismark. This event coupled with events that would soon occur in the Pacific ended modern naval warfare with its reliance on big guns on big ship platforms. In the post-modern world we rely on smarter more scientific weapons.

You may also remember that the Hood participated in the destruction of much of the French Fleet in Africa (Mers-el-Kébir-Algeria). Elsewhere, England appropriated French ships without much problem (some damage to a ship in Dakar and a few deaths in a submarine at a port in England), but on July 03, 1940, a Royal Navy taskforce destroyed a number of vessels to keep them out of Nazi hands. The French planned to sink the ships if the Germans approached, but would not accede to British demands to transfer the ships. Almost 1300 French mariners died. As retaliation for the actions at Mers-el-Kébir and Dakar, French bomber raids were made on Gibraltar. The ships Dunkerque, Provence and Mogador were partially repaired and sailed back to Toulon. The Strasbourg (and several others) escaped without harm. The action remains controversial today, but it convinced Roosevelt the British were serious about fighting to the last man. The Vichy government (or at least loyal French sailors) scuttled the rest of the fleet at Toulon a year later when German and Italian troops surrounded that port-city. The ships Dunkerque and Strasbourg were among those sunk at Toulon.

Speaking of Great River Crossings -- May 24, 1816: Emanuel Leutze was born in Schwäbisch-Gmünd, Germany. Leutze came to America with his family when young. In 1841 he returned to Germany to study at the art academy in Düsseldorf. He remained in Germany for 20 years, but was dedicated to painting a series of works on American history. His most known painting is Washington Crossing the Delaware. He returned to the United States in 1859 and in 1860 was commissioned to decorate a stairway in the Capitol Building. The name of his composition there is Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way.

May 25, 735: Bede (The Venerable), father of English history, dies. In addition to his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731), biographies of abbots and Scriptural commentaries, Bede wrote the primary source document about how Celtic and Roman Christianity clashed at the Synod of Whitby in 664. For the full story in context of the times -- Go HERE to read more. His feast day is celebrated by some on the 27th of May, but for most in the English Church it is today the 25th. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. Thus he prayed on the floor, and when he had named the Holy Ghost, he breathed out his soul. All declared that they had never seen any one die with such great devotion and tranquillity -- reported by a witness, soon to be a Saint, too.

May 26th: In 1918 the sovereign Nation of Georgia declared itself independent, however the country was subsumed quickly by the Soviet empire. By 1922 the recognition of that day ended. As the Soviet collective began to crumble, citizens took to the streets in Georgia, where in April 1989 a number of protestors were killed. On May 22nd of that year, Independence Day (დამოუკიდებლობის დღე) took on a renewed meaning. The date remained problematic, never-the-less, until the Georgian Dream coalition acceded to power in 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independence_Day_(Georgia)

May 26th -- more tolerance demonstrated: May 26, 1232 -- Pope Gregory IX sends the first Inquisition team to Aragon, Spain.   1328 -- William of Ockham was forced to flee from Avignon by Pope John XXII.   1521 -- Martin Luther was banned by the first Edict of Worms because of his religious beliefs and writings. eventually, he had to flee this part of Germany in order to save his life.   1538 -- The City State of Geneva threw out John Calvin and his followers, whom were deemed zealots. Calvin was exiled from Geneva for three years and lived in Strasbourg. http://www.herodote.net/histoire05213.htm

The great reformer, Martin Luther, preached in Leipzig on Pentecost Sunday in 1539. Also on this Pentecost Sunday, in 1539, explorer Hernando DeSoto sailed up Old Tampa Bay and named the springs he found there ”Espiritu Santo” (Holy Spirit) in honor of the religious holiday. http://fcit.usf.edu/florida/docs/d/desoto.htm   Archbishop Cranmer had insight into this; his 1539 translation of Acts 2:1 is as follows -- “When the fifty days had come to an end, they were all with one accord in one place.” See also: http://www.mariancalendar.org/mother-of-god-of-rzevsk-okovtsy-selizharovsky-tver-russia/ (another 1539 discovery) No one can agree on what date Pentecost occurred (25, 26 and 28 are the most popular choices, but Europe was on 2 different calendars then) But, as usual, I digreß

1637 -- The first Battle of Pequot at New Haven, CT. Some 500 Natives died.   1647 -- A new law banned Catholic priests from the Colony of Massachusetts. The penalty for a second offense was death .   1691 -- Jacob Leiser and co-conspirator Jacob Milborne were hanged for Treason on orders of Governor Henry Sloughter of Colonial New York. They led a popular non-English (Dutch) uprising (1688) in support of William and Mary’s accession to the English Crown (against James II).   1797 -- Gracchus Babeuf et un acolyte, Darthé, sont guillotinés à Vendôme. Leur mort met un point final à la «Conjuration des Égaux». http://www.herodote.net/histoire05262.htm   1798 -- The British killed about 500 Irish insurgents at the Battle of Tara.

19th Century tolerance -- May 26, 1831 -- Death of Georg Hermes in Bonn, Germany: Georg Hermes was a Roman Catholic theologian who was a follower of the systems of Immanuel Kant. He originated a theological system called Hermesianism by which he sought to prove the rational necessity of Christianity: Einleitung in die christkatholische Theologie (1819-29). He was ordained a priest in 1799 and became a professor of dogmatic theology at the Universities of Münster and Bonn. After his death he fell out of favor and his writings were listed on the Roman Catholic Index of Forbidden books. Pope Gregory XVI and the first Vatican Council condemned his theology. Compare René Descartes' Cogito, ergo sum with Credo, in unum Deo.   May 26, 1868: Michael Barrett, Irish nationalist, was executed in the last British public execution. Some believe that his martyrdom was unnecessary.

Love, Love American Style -- May 26, 1930: The United States Supreme Court ruled that buying liquor did not violate the Constitution.   1959 - Pittsburgh Pirates pitcher, Harvey Haddix, threw a no-hitter for 12 innings; but still recorded a loss to the Braves 1-0 in the 13th inning. Milwaukee Braves slugger Joe Adcock whacked in a run to win the game; however, one must remember that an error had let the game continue to this point. The Pirates tolerated this failure, so Haddix won game seven in the 1960 World Series in Pittsburgh, giving the Pirates a World title, the first in a long, long time.

May 27, 1819: Julia Ward Howe, writer of the Battle Hymn of the Republic, arrivée. JW was born on the feast day of Augustine of Canterbury, first English Archbishop and the Apostle to the Anglo-Saxons. En 596, ce moine bénédictin fut envoyé en Angleterre par le pape, Grégoire 1er (le Grand), afin de convertir les Anglo-Saxons. Il débarqua sur l'île avec une quarantaine de moines et il prêcha l'Évangile sans violenter les cultes païens. Il baptisa Éthelbert, le roi saxon du Kent, et créa ensuite l'évêché de Cantorbéry. Augustin est considéré comme le fondateur de l'Église anglaise. The tomb of Gregory's envoy bears this epitaph: Here rests Augustine, first archbishop of Canterbury, who being sent hither by {Pope} Gregory {the Great}, Bishop of Rome, reduced King Ethelbert and the {English} nation from the worship of idols to the faith of Christ.

Better than Reality TV -- May 27, 1873: Survivor won the Preakness Stakes at Pimlico race track in Baltimore, Maryland. This event concluded the first Run for the Black-Eyed Susans. Today the horse race continues as the second jewel in racing’s Triple Crown, two weeks after the Kentucky Derby and before the Belmont Stakes (New York). The Black-Eyed Susan is the state flower, however it normally does not bloom until June that far north. The coverlet (or blanket) of Susans that the victorious received was made from daisies with the centers painted black. In 2006 the 131st race was run on May 20th at about 6:10pm local time (EDT).

Bernardini captured the 131st Preakness Stakes by 51/4 lengths over Sweetnorthernsaint. As with the 1995 Donn, the overarching story wasn't who won but the life-threatening breakdown of a standout horse -- in this case unbeaten Kentucky Derby winner Barbaro, who fractured his right hind leg just over an eighth-mile into the 13/16-mile race. http://www.courier-journal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060522/SPORTS08/605220395

In 1957 (May 27th), Brunswick Records released That’ll be the Day, by The Crickets (featuring Buddy Holly). On September 14th, the tune became the most popular record in the U.S. It was their first hit. Two previous releases had gone nowhere on Decca Records in 1956. Just a day later, the Dodgers and Giants (U.S. Baseball teams) were permitted to move from New York City to California -- that was the day we said goodbye, and for some the day baseball died. Finally, four years and a day later, in 1961, Ricky Nelson reached the top spot on Billboard's pop-singles chart with Travelin’ Man.
 
Great moments in history - May 28, 1918: : This date saw the first American offensive action of the Great War (WWI) take place at Cantigny, France -- It was a small offensive operation but successful -- Lafayette we are here.

Crown of 1716 Some years earlier, George I of Great Britain, arrived in Osnabrück, Kingdom of Hanover (now Germany) on May 28, 1660. The English Parliament's "Act of Settlement" (1701) named George (then the first Elector of Hanover in the Holy Roman Empire) third in line to the crown rather than James Edward. At the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the Whig party urged him to accept the British titles and crown. George did not know English. Because George's ministers did not know German, he dealt with them in French. George remained the ruler of Hanover, in addition to being the British King, which German realm he visited frequently. On such a visit he died in Osnabrück (Osnabrueck) in 1727. George the First was followed on the throne by his son, George II and great-grandson, George III.

Le 29 mai 1453: Ce figure traditionnellement parmi les dates clé de l'Histoire occidentale. Ce jour-là, la ville de Constantinople tombe aux mains du sultan ottoman Mehmet II. http://www.herodote.net/14530529.htm Constantinople, capital of Eastern Christianity since Constantine founded it in 324AD, falls and this event ends the Byzantine Empire. Muslim rulers began referring to the city as Istanbul, turned its lavishly decorated Christian cathedral, named Hagia Sophia, into a mosque and changed the course of history.

May 29, 2005: The Dutch had a referendum on the new EU constitution on June 1, 2005. One day before the vote, the preference was „Nr -- zullen wij niet ja stemmen.” This rejection by the Dutch, along with the French vote of May 29th, have caused pan-European leaders to rethink the strategies for achieving political, as well as, economic union. The proposed EU constitution envisions that the ratification process would continue until November 2006. To date, 10 countries have made a decision -- the French and Dutch having cast negative votes, one may well think the matter is dead for now. Once all have spoken, a special summit would then be called to discuss what to do next, but only if 20 of the 25 members had approved the treaty. The economic problems of the second decade of the 21st century has muddied the water.
 
Rouen After a year -- Le 30 mai 1431: Ste. Jeanne d'Arc est brûlée vive à Rouen, Normandie, sur la place du Vieux-Marché, après avoir été abandonnée par son roi. http://www.herodote.net/histoire05301 It is a traditional feast day for the French, and not much recognized by the English, who once questioned her:

... Chez moi, on m’appelait Jeannette .... Quel âge avez-vous ?

A peu près dix-neuf ans. J’ai été baptisée en l’église de Domrémy [Domrémy-la-Pucelle, Vosges, Lorraine] par maître Jean Minzet, à ce que je crois. C’est de ma mère que j’ai appris Pater noster, Ave Maria, Credo. Je n’ai appris ma créance d’ailleurs que de ma mère. Quand je fus grande, après l’âge de raison, en général je ne gardais pas les bêtes, mais j’aidais à les mener au pré. Je ne suis venue en France que sur l’ordre de Dieu. Puisque Dieu le commandait, il le convenait faire. Si j’eusse eu cent pères et cent mères, et si j’eusse été fille de roi, je serais partie. http://missel.free.fr/Sanctoral/05/30.php

May 30, 1922: The Lincoln Memorial (carved from Georgia marble by Daniel Chester French, who earlier created the monument of James Oglethorpe in Savannah) was dedicated on Memorial Day in Washington, D.C. from http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-may/may30.htm The Lincoln Memorial was dedicated by Chief Justice William Howard Taft. The Memorial has 48 sculptured festoons above the columns representing the number of states in the Union at the time of its dedication. The 36 Doric columns in the Lincoln Memorial represent the number of stars in the Flag at the time of Lincoln’s death on April 15, 1865. The limestone and marble edifice, which is situated at the western end of the Mall, was designed by Henry Bacon in the style of a Greek temple. On May 18, 1923, the Gold Medal of Honor of the American Institute of Architects was awarded to Bacon by then President Warren Harding. The presentation was made on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial he had begun planning in 1915 during the Wilson administration.

Memorial Day in the United States (since 1968) is now set for the last Monday in May; the traditional date is May 30th. Memorial Day in 2005 was remembered on the 30th. In 2006 the government holiday fell on the 29th -- returned to the 30th in 2011.   Two More -- Links -- Send a Memorial Day e-card: http://www.usmemorialday.com/

May 31, 1578: Italian archæologist Antonio Bosio is credited with discovering the catacombs in Rome, once used by Christians. Some have called them places of refuge or worship, but the faithful appear to have used them chiefly for burial, worship mainly connected with burial rites. Today most of the catacombs are controlled by the Roman Catholic Church, some open to the public. A Jewish presence in Rome dates to the second century before Christ. The Jewish catacombs closely resemble the better known Christian ones, except for two differences in style. The corridors in the Christian sepulchers are very narrow, where the corridors in the Jewish catacombs are broader. The other difference is that the so-called Kokim-tombs, more closely resemble the chamber-type tombs found in Judæa, which the Mishna describes in detail. The Kokim-tombs are closed to public viewing. http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diaspora/rome.html

Le 31 mai -- C'est la fête de la Visitation de Marie: Cette fête catholique rappelle la visite de la Vierge Marie à sa cousine Élizabeth. Celle-ci, bien que très âgée, portait en son sein, depuis cinq mois un enfant qui fut plus tard connu sous le nom de Jean-Baptiste car il baptisa les Juifs dans le Jourdain. Marie venait d'apprendre qu'elle était elle-même enceinte de Jésus et sa cousine la salua par les mots célèbres (Évangile selon Saint Luc, I, 42):

«Tu es bénie entre toutes les femmes et le fruit de ton sein est béni . . . .»

Ces paroles sont entrées dans la deuxième partie de la prière. Ces imitent la salutation de l'ange Gabriel (Salutem Maria): Je vous salue, Marie !!!

Marie y répondit par le cantique du Magnificat:

Mon âme exalte le Seigneur
et mon esprit s'est rempli d'allégresse
A cause de Dieu, mon Sauveur,
parce qu'il a porté son regard sur son humble    
servante
. . . .
My soul exalts in the Lord
and my spirit overflows with joy
Because of God, my Savior,
for His regard for His humble
maidservant . . . . [ Luke 1:46-48 ]

Mais, tout en reconnaissant l’importance de cet arrière-plan de l’Ancien Testament dans le Magnificat, il est également essentiel de noter que le Cantique de Marie est écrit à partir d’une perspective post-Résurrection. C’est une hymne de la communauté du Nouveau Testament. Luc l’a incorporée dans son évangile, probablement avec quelques légers changements, autour des années 80-90. Elle manifeste la foi de la communauté qui se répandait déjà rapidement à travers le monde, la plupart de ses membres venaient des couches les plus pauvres de la société. http://web.archive.org/web/20081120023638/http://www.secretariadojmv.org/inter/frances/temas_de_formacion/la_spiritualite_du_maginificat.htm

Ce dialogue plein de tendresse a inspiré les artistes, les peintres et les compositeurs au cours des siècles. http://missel.free.fr/Sanctoral/05/31.php

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure: http://www.catholic-convert.com/

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from (original URL may have changed):
http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-jan.htm -- http://timelines.ws/days/01_01.HTML -- http://www.herodote.net/jour0101.htm -- http://www.440.com/twtd/archives/jan01.html -- http://www.treas.gov/education/history/events/01-jan.shtml -- http://missel.free.fr/calendrier.php?mois=1&annee=2010 -- http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/features/twich/01.html -- http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Jan1.html

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December



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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at that moment.