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The  VANGUARD --   2019

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit"

We will begin our 23rd Year online in May 2019
". . . One Nation under God . . . ."

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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage -- Irish Copper Colonial Coinage (US) -- Seventeenth Century British Copper

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- US Gold Coinage (a small sample) -- (New: Spring 2019)

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3
Passover - Pesach

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; 
walk in that way and find rest for your souls

This is none other than the dwelling place of God,
and this is the Gate of Heaven
This is the Gate of the Lord, the Righteous shall enter into it

And, on the last day, I know that I shall stand,
in my own flesh,
and see God, my Redeemer [Job 19:25-27].
Dieu entendre moi
cri de mon cœur - étrangère
dans mon propre pays {Psalm 69}

Unto Thee {alone}
will I cry, O Lord my Rock
{and my Redeemer}

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord  Psalm 122.

There is sprung up a light for the righteous: And joyful gladness for such as are true-hearted [Psalm 97:11].

Beloved, we are now the sons of God, but it doth not yet appear what we shall become;
however, we know that, when He shall return, we shall be like Him; for we shall see Him as He is [1 John 3:2].

Passover - Pesach

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

Le dimanche de Pâques du 23-24 avril 1916: Les Irlandais se soulèvent contre le colonisateur britannique. Les «Pâques sanglantes» de Dublin annoncent l'indépendance de l'Eire, cinq ans plus tard. --

William Butler Yeats (June 13th, 1865 - January 28th, 1939):

Easter 1916

Too long a sacrifice
Can make a stone of the heart.
O when may it suffice?
That is Heaven's part, our part
To murmur name upon name ...
I wrote it out in a verse --
MacDonagh and MacBride
And Connolly and Pearse

Slow to Load
Now and in time to be
Wherever green is worn
Are changed, changed utterly:
A terrible beauty is born.

More Lyric about the Easter Irish Insurrection

Take away the blood-stained bandage from off an Irish brow
We fought and bled for Ireland and will not shirk it now
We have held in her struggle, in answer to her call
And because we sought to free her we are placed against a wall

April 24, 1184 BC: This is the last day of the siege where-upon combined Greek City-State forces (coalition of the willing) sacked Troy, after inventing and employing the first Trojan Horse, using it to bypass programmed defenses and gain access to a secure area. This would set off a series of counter-measures, arguably ending with the Viking raids on France and England.

Virgil describes a detonating meteor in such terms that I feel reasonably sure that either he had seen and heard, or else he had had direct conversations with others who had seen and heard, a splendid example of these meteors. The passage is in the second book of the Æneid. The city of Troy was captured and was burning. All was in confusion. The family of Æneas was gathered ready for flight, but Anchises would not go. An omen, lambent flames on the head of his grandson, began on to shake his purpose to perish with his country. He prayed for more positive guidance. It is Æneas who describes the scene "Hardly had the old man spoken when across the darkness a star ran down from the sky carrying a brilliant light torch We saw it go sweeping along above the roof of the house. It lighted up the streets, and disappeared in the woods on Mount Ida. A long train, a line of light, remained across the sky, and all around the place was a sulphurous smell. A heavy sound of thunder came from the left. Overcome now, father raised his hands to heaven, addressed the gods and worshipped the sacred star. Now, now, he cried, no longer delay." This story is, of course, all legendary, but Virgil's description of the scene is true to life as conceived by pagan Rome in his day.

So, it is only natural, one would suppose, that on the same day exactly 2250 years later (in 1066), Halley's comet was seen and thought to be an omen portending real change. Indeed, later in October of that year, Harold II of England died at the Battle of Hastings against Norseman (Normans) from France. England had a new sovereign. The comet is shown on the famous Bayeux Tapestry. The accounts, which have been preserved, indicate it as having appeared to be four times the size of Venus and to have shone with a light a fourth of that of the Moon.

There is evidence that some of the Norse predecessors were migratory Thracians (a name given them by the Greeks), an aggressive refugee boat-people, whose ancestors came from the ancient city of Troy. The famous Trojan War was fought between the Greeks and Trojans with their allies. Troy eventually was devastated from 10 years of fighting. The Greeks sacked the city, historically referred to as the Fall of Troy.

Thousands left Troy immediately after its Fall. Others remained for about 30 to 50 years. Then an estimated 30,000 Trojans/Thracians suddenly abandoned what was left of Troy. The city would lay vacant for nearly 500 years (to about 700 BC). Homer (a Greek writer/poet of the eighth century BC) and various sources (Etruscan, Roman, Merovingian and later Scandinavian) tend to confirm the departure. Most from Troy crossed the Mediterranean Sea into Italy, possibly becoming the dominating influence in the development of Rome.

Thor of Asgard

A minority of Trojans, mainly said to be chieftains and warriors, about 12,000 in all, moved north to navigate the Black Sea. They went into the Mare Mœtis or shallow sea, where the Don River ends (today in the Caucasus region of southern Russia). These émigrés established a kingdom about in 1150 BC.The Romans would later refer to the inhabitants as Sicambrians. The locals (nomadic Scythians) named the Trojan conquerors the Iron people, or the Æsir. They built the famous fortified city Æsgard or Asgard, described as Troy in the north. Various other sources collaborate this tradition, stating that the Trojans landed on the eastern shores with their superior weaponry, and claimed land.

Some historians suggest that Odin, who was later worshipped among the pagan pantheon by the Vikings, was actually a Thracian / Æsir leader who reigned in Sicambria from the city of Æsgard in the first century BC. Odin, indeed appears to be a Thracian ruler, who led a migration in about 70 BC with thousands of followers from the Black Sea region to Scandinavia. By the Viking era (800 years later), Odin and the Æsir had become gods, and Asgard/Troy was the home of the gods (such as Thor) -- the foundation for a Viking tradition. (link is no longer open-access)

It is well-argued that King Henry II, of England, and his progeny descend in some portion from these migrating peoples from Troy; and again, records dating back over a 1000 years show how King Priam of Troy, descends from Abraham and, of course Adam. Through Henry II's mother, Queen Maude, the King also can claim the ancient Royal Scots of Dalriada and related Irish line of Kings. The current royal family also directly descends from the Scots of Dalriada, through this line, by way of the House of York (White Rose), Mary, Queen of Scots, James I, Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, the Duke of Brunswick (Hanover) and his son George I, King of England. Go HERE for more information about this lineage.

And of Troyes in France: There is also a line of thought which says that some of the Sicambrians (called Franks) also migrated to an area west of the River Danube and settled in Germaniæ (named by the Romans after the Scythian phrase meaning genuine ones), near today's Köln along the River Rhine. It was from the time of King Meroveus, who was named Guardian of the Franks, that this line became known as the Merovingians. These in turn became the first truly French rulers. Indeed, one of the founders of the Frankish French Kings, clearly claimed to be a descendant of ancestors who once resided in ancient Troy. In any event, the French city of Troyes, was named by the Franks -- after a former abode -- Troy ?? Did the Romans title the City of Paris (Lutetia Parisiorum) for the Parisii people named after Prince Paris, the son of King Priam of Troy, based upon their knowledge of history ? More about Troyes in France is HERE.

April 24th: Today is the feast Day of St. Marianus von Regensburg. Marianus Scotus (? - 1083) was born in Ireland (his Gælic name was Muiredach). He left his home on a Pilgrimage to Rome but only got as far as Germany (Ratisbon). He became a Benedictine monk in Bamberg. He then moved to Regensburg where he founded the Monastery of St. Peter and became its Abbot. Others from Regensburg can be found here.

April 25th: Eusèbe de Césarée rapporte que Saint Marc l'évangéliste (Fête: 25 avril) aurait été le fondateur de l'Eglise d'Alexandrie (Egypte). SaintPierre établit aussi les églises d'Egypte, avec celle d'Alexandrie, non pas en personne, mais par Marc, son disciple. Car lui-même pendant ce temps s'occupait de l'Italie et des nations environnantes; il envoya donc Marc, son disciple, destiné à devenir le docteur et le conquérant de l'Egypte (Histoire ecclésiastique Livre II, chapitre XVI), ce qu'un texte arménien fixe à la première année du règne de Claude (41) et saint Jérôme la troisième (43); Eusèbe dit qu'il établit son successeur, Anien, la huitième année du règne de Néron (62). (Cæsarea in Palestine) --

Saint Mark established the Church at Alexandria Egypt in 41 or 43AD, he is the patron saint of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt, headquartered there. The great Saint and Martyr preached in Egypt, Libya, Cyprus, some areas in Asia and Rome. He is well-honored by Venice in its great structure. This painting by Bellini (1429-1507), shows the Coptic building as it looked in the middle ages; however, we can also see St. Mark preaching before the church. So it really is a fantastic painting, full of color and detail. I particularly like the mountains behind a town built on the Delta of the Nile -- would not look right for Venice either.

The Gospel according to Saint Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον) was probably not written by him, but perhaps based on his "notes" or an oral tradition coming directly from him. The most concise (and perhaps earliest) narrative, the Gospel of Mark appears directed to a non-Jewish audience. The text uses a Greek version (written in Egypt) of the Hebrew Bible for most of the references to the Old Testament. Some words are clearly Latin in nature (not aramaic or Greek).

In addition, the earliest Codex of original ends Chapter 16 at verse 8, thereby containing no description of the post-resurrection appearances as found today. Indeed, Mark is the only canonical gospel with significant and various alternative endings; however, most of the contents of the traditionally accepted verses (the "Longer Ending" (Mark 16:9–20)) in general terms are found in other New Testament texts. So these points, even if added later, would not be unique to Mark. The one significant exception is 16:18b "and if they drink any deadly thing" it will not harm those who believe, which is a concept found only in the longer ending of Mark.

The French National Anthem 
is created 
by Rouget de I'Isle Seventeen-Hundred Fifty Years Later -- the 25th of April: En 1792, à la suite de la déclaration de guerre du Roi à l'Autriche, un officier français en poste à Strasbourg, Rouget de Lisle compose, dans la nuit du 25 au 26 avril, chez Dietrich, le maire de la ville, le Chant de guerre pour l'armée du Rhin.

Ce chant est repris par les fédérés de Marseille participant à l'insurrection des Tuileries le 10 août 1792. Son succès est tel qu'il est déclaré chant national le 14 juillet 1795. Don't become confused; Marchons, marchons -- Qu'un sang impur does not mean "March on, march on, all hearts resolved". It is more of a vivid farming image [Entendez-vous dans nos campagnes]. That being the case, I would invite you to take a few minutes to ponder the Declaration of July 4th. What is the difference; a few years and a few thousand miles ?

The gothic Cathedral at Strasbourg, France (Straßburg Frankreich) dominates the old city centre along the River Rhein. Indeed, it was the world's tallest building from 1625 to 1847 ( In this city, at the villa of the Mayor, Captain Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, an officer of Republican France, wrote this song of war during the night of April 25-26. Later the composition became known as La Marseillaise, the national anthem of France.

April 26, 1607: Ships under the command of Captain Christopher Newport sought shelter in Chesapeake Bay. The forced landing led to the founding of Jamestowne on the James River, the first successful English settlement on the North American continent. An expedition of English colonists, including Capt. John Smith, went ashore at Cape Henry, Virginia, to establish the first permanent English settlement in the Western Hemisphere. The first Anglican worship service was held three days later. Once thought lost by tidal creek shifts, the real Jamestowne lives again through archæological studies. Captain Newport would return several times, including the voyage that resulted in a shipwreck on Somers Island.
The Eagle has landed; another first for France -- April 26, 1803: Over 2,300 meteorite stones, weighing between one quarter ounce and 20 pounds, fell upon the people of l'Aigle, a village in Normandie, France. The meteorites rained down along an 8-mile-long strip of land near this town, 100 miles west of Paris. No one was hurt. It was the first time scientists could verify that stones could come from outer space,, but meteorites have been sought after and perhaps worshipped for centuries (such as at Mecca). Another rock with a bit of history behind it is the stone which is in the base of the royal throne of England, which comes from the Scots and was said to be that stone upon which Jacob placed his head in the desert, when he had his vision. Many would argue that the Stone of Scone is made from the same type of material from its Scottish homeland, not Palestine; but then maybe, just perhaps, the English who took the "stone" stole an impostor. The original may yet be hid.

The worship of an unwrought stone once established has wonderful vitality. For example, the Greek writers speak of such a worship in their day among the Arabian tribes. When Mohammed, with his intense iconoclasm, came down upon Mecca and took the sacred city, he either for reasons of policy, or from feeling, spared the ancient worship of this black stone. Entering into the sacred enclosure, he approached and saluted it with his staff (where it was built into the corner of the Kaaba), made the sevenfold circuit of the temple court, returned and kissed the stone, and then entered the building and destroyed the 360 idols within it. To-day that stone is the most sacred jewel of Islam. Towards it each devout Moslem is bidden to look five times a day as he prays. It is called the Right Hand of God on Earth. It is reputed to have been a stone of Paradise, to have dropped from heaven together with Adam. Or, again, it was given by Gabriel to Abraham to attest his divinity.

before the fire April 27, 1749: Today marks the first performance of Händel's music for fireworks at Green Park, London. Under contract from King George II (Great Britain), Georg Fredick Händel composed the festival work, in order to celebrate the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which treaty brought to a close the War of the Austrian Succession. Both the British monarch and treaty were unpopular with the English public, but Händel's music, as always, proved to be an instant success. Händel originally wrote his "Music for the Royal Fireworks" for wind instruments, but it quickly was adapted into a full orchestral arrangement. The first performance of the piece was said to be unrehearsed, well at least the incendiary coordination was not well planned. During the celebration, Giovanni Servandoni's Grand Pavilion caught fire and burned to the ground. In a fit of anger, Servandoni drew his sword on Charles Frederick, ("Comptroller of his Majesty's Fireworks, as well as for War as for Triumph"), was then disarmed, thereafter spending quiet time for the entire night in a prison conveniently located at Green Park.

Twenty-four years later, the British Parliament passed the infamous Tea Act, designed to prop-up the British East India Company, by granting it a monopoly over the North American tea trade, and to raise revenues to pay for the defense of the Colonies against the French in the most recent encounter. It was an unpopular move, that eventually led to the first Barbary War, when the US was forced to defend itself on the Seas, instead of relying on the British presence (and bribe money). On this date in 1805, United States Marines engaged the Tripolitan city of Derne (the reference to the shores of Tripoli in the Marines' Hymn). Interestingly in 1810, Beethoven composed his famous piano piece, Für Elise on April 27th; and three years later on the same date, United States troops capture and burn York, the capital of Ontario (present day Toronto, Canada). Not to be outdone, the President of the United States Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in 1861.

April 27, 1861: At the outset of the War Between the States, Richard B. Russell, Sr. was born near Marietta, GA. He attended the University of Georgia, obtaining an undergraduate degree in 1879 and a law degree in 1880. Russell began the practice of law in Athens. In 1882 was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives. Russell was committed to education, serving on the local boards of education in Athens, Winterville and in the village (and later town) of Russell. During his six years in the General Assembly, Russell supported creation of the Georgia Institute of Technology (then the Georgia School of Technology or Georgia Tech) and the Georgia Normal and Industrial College for Women at Milledgeville (now Georgia College and State University). He served on the governing boards of the University of Georgia and the new college for women at Milledgeville. He also served on the first Board of Regents for the new University System of Georgia (1932-33). However, Russell is probably best remembered for his judicial career. He served as both prosecuting attorney and later judge of the western superior court circuit, judge on the Georgia Court of Appeals and chief justice of the Georgia Supreme Court (1926-1938). During his career, Russell also ran unsuccessful races for governor, U.S. Representative, and U.S. Senator. He died in Russell, Ga. on Dec. 3, 1938. He was the father of the long-time United States Senator from Georgia from 1933 to 1971, Richard B. Russell, Jr.

Great Moments in the English Navy -- April 28, 1789: The mutiny on HMS Bounty took place this day. On the voyage home to England from Tahiti, a rebel crew took over the British vessel. Fletcher Christian led the mutiny. He set Captain William Bligh and 19 loyal officers and sailors adrift in a launch in the South Pacific, thousands of miles from civilization. The Bounty returned to Tahiti, but eventually set sail bound for its final resting place, Pitcairn Island. A trilogy about the event (one of several classics) is now a few generations old. If you have not read Men Against the Sea (1933-Nordoff and Hall), you should endeavor to find a copy at a local library. The three-book novel is one of the great written works in English, describing teamwork and struggle. There are several movies covering this fabled event -- Clark Gable, Marlin Brando and Mel Gibson portraying Christian, can you name the actors who portrayed Bligh?

The mutineers, shipped off to uninhabited Pitcairn Island, soon fell to drinking and fighting. Only one man and several women and children survived. The man, Alexander Smith, discovered the ship's neglected Bible, repented and transformed the community. This Bible is still on display in a Pitcairn church.

Stung by the seven year itch -- April 29, 1941: The Boston Bees agreed to rename this National League team the Braves, the name used prior to 1935. Casey Stengel was the brave bee keeper from 1938 thru 1940 and beyond. In 2006, the team owner pawned off this asset, because Baseball no longer fit its corporate vision for entertainment. Too bad, it thought more highly of Court TV and reruns than America's historic pastime.

April 29, 1990: The official demolition of the Wall begins near Mr. Brandenburg's gate (in Berlin). Bits and pieces of it had been removed beginning in November 1989. The last state job of the East German border guards was the Wall's removal. Es gibt nur ein Berlin ... General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!

I noticed words crudely spray-painted upon the wall, perhaps by a young Berliner: "This wall will fall. Beliefs become reality." Yes, across Europe, this wall will fall. For it cannot withstand faith; it cannot withstand truth. The wall cannot withstand freedom.
American President Ronald Reagan was right, his critics were wrong.

April 30, 311: The Roman co-ruler (Augustus), commonly called Galerius, publicly had issued an edict of tolerance on this day, thereby ending the violent persecutions under Diocletian, who had recently retired to a villa on the Adriatic Sea. A year later in Milan, the act is confirmed and enlarged by Constantine [the Great]. Christianity would become the dominating force in the Empire in the years to come under his sole rule. Acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (modern-day York) after his father's death in 306 AD, Constantine emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against the emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both the west and east empires of Rome by 324 AD. The top picture is a Roman coin of Galerius from 311AD.

The denomination here is a follis (following the monetary reform begun under Diocletian; Billon - copper based metal possibly silvered at the mint) from Roman Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint. This is posthumous issue from 311 A.D. - obverse DIVO MAXIMIANO MAXIMINVS AVG FIL, with a laureate head facing right; reverse AETERNAE MEMORIAE GALERI MAXIMIANI, showing a lighted altar, garlanded, ornamented on front panel with eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak; MKVA in exerge (mint mark). The follis was issued by Maximianus II. The coin looks as if it had been in fairly dry ground for a while, after being in circulation. The hardened sediment has been partially removed by scraping (generally never a good idea).

Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Cæsar, tetrarch and later Augustus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He ended the persecution and asked for prayers for his return to health from a serious illness, which took his life less than a week later. Lest you think this somehow unfair, In 303 A.D., the persecution of Christians had increased, beginning at Nicomedia at Galerius' behest (Indeed, St. George was martyred there in 304AD). Galerius died at Sardica. Maximizes II and Licinius split his realm between them. (there are 18 pages of Galerius-related coins at this link)

Similar (second) coin, but struck by Licinius: Billon follis from Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, posthumous, 311 A.D. - obverse DIVO MAXIMIANO, veiled head right; reverse MEM DIVI MAXIMIANI, domed shrine, closed doors, surmounted by eagle, Although somewhat worn, this coin has been less abused (than the first one shown). Some cities that produced coins had more than one workshop (officinæ) for the same mintmark. On this issue, you see the letter "B" on the reverse for the second such workshop at that date in Thessalonica. Workshops might be indicated in Roman numerals or greek symbols, such as the Δ ("delta") for 4th workshop or II for the second one.

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece): many of you will recognize the ancient name of the city because of the letters of Paul that survive in the Bible which were written to the congregation in that city, as well as several other mentions. Acts 16:9 And a vision appeared to Paul in the night: a man of Macedonia was standing there, urging him and saying, “Come over to Macedonia and help us.” 16:10 And when Paul had seen the vision, immediately we {Paul, Silas and Luke} sought to go {about A.D. 53} on into Macedonia, concluding that God had called us to preach the good news to them. Thessalonica was in Macedonia, an important city; it develops historical status as the Συμβασιλεύουσα (Symvasilévousa) or "co-reigning" city of the Byzantine Empire, alongside Constantinople.

The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion) was a proclamation issued on March 31, 1492, by the Most Catholic monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the removal of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions. As a result a large community migrated to Thessalonica, residing in the center of the old city (and still speaking Spanish as late as the early 20th Century). Macedonia was under Turkish (Ottoman Empire) rule until the outset of the 20th century, when it came under Greek control. The Great Fire of August 1917 was a conflagration that did away with two thirds of the city, destroying most all of the old city. The sorrows of that community were not yet at an end. During World War II, the Nazis occupied Greece and removed its Jewish population to the death camps. Most did not survive that expulsion.
April 30, 1562: Off the Coast of Florida near what would become (under the Spanish) Saint Augustine, a French privateer and explorer first sights the New World. A Huguenot of the city of Dieppe, Jean Ribault was a successful captain for Admiral Gaspar de Coligny's navy. Coligny selected him to establish a Huguenot colony in Florida. Actually, it was to be a French colony, populated by persons of the Protestant faith (Huguenots), to stand in opposition to the Spanish, as well as to prove the loyalty of the Huguenots to the greater French cause.

With Rene Laudonnière as his lieutenant, Ribault reached the St. Johns River on April 30, 1562. Ribault selected a place to settle beside what is today known as Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, calling it Charlesfort. Today we know it as Paris Island. Returning to Europe to get supplies, Ribault discovered the French ports closed by the religious war between Protestants and Catholics. Seeking help from England, Ribault went to London, where he was arrested. By the time he was released, a new settlement near present-day Jacksonville (Fort Caroline) was under the command of Laudonnière, even though the Charlesfort effort had failed.

Spain sought the destruction of Fort Caroline. Spanish forces under Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and the relief effort under Ribault left Europe virtually at the same moment, the Spanish greatly outnumbering the French, but in ships of poorer quality. The French arrived a ahead of the Spanish fleet and beat off the first attack. Ribault went on the offensive, but a hurricane wrecked most of the his fleet. The Spanish, meanwhile, during the height of the storm, marched overland and caught the French offguard. A massacre ensued. Ribault later surrendered what was left of his men and he was executed by Menéndez, along with those who were not or would not become Catholic again on October 12, 1565 (Le massacre de Matanzas Inlet).
Great Moments in Banking History -- Think about it -- April 31, 1728: The Scottish Royal Bank invents first the overdraft when a Mr. William Hogg overdraws his account by 1000 Pounds sterling ($125,000 in today's value) {This week history in Scotland -- actually it was 31 May according to the Hogg Family page}

April 31, 1851: The town of Hazelton, Pennsylvania is first incorporated. Want to know more? On April 31, 1864, the Secretary of War requested Governor Seymour to furnish one or two regiments of militia to guard deserters, stragglers, etc., being forwarded to the army. Two days later Major-General Dix, by the authority of the President, called on the Governor for one or two more regiments to occupy the defenses of the New York Harbor from History of New York. After April 31, 1991, the gold córdoba became the sole legal currency of Nicaragua and was pegged to the United States dollar at a rate of US$1 = 5 gold córdobas, a rate it maintained throughout 1992 -- More Here.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

May 2nd -- should be the feast day of Athanasius of Alexandria: One of only 33 Roman Catholic Doctors of the Church, a Saint recognized by Orthodox denominations (17 had died before the formal disunion of the Eastern and Western traditions). Regarded as a great leader and doctor of the Universal Church by Protestants, Athanasius' feast day is actually celebrated on January 18th. Today is the anniversary of his death in 373AD. We think it still fitting today to recognize his achievements against the heresies of the day, when you consider other objects of faith that are recognized today. More important was his work in defining the received Cannon, that is the books that would later be known as the Bible. The relics of St. Athanasius the Great of Alexandria are currently preserved under the new St. Mark Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Deir El-Anba Rowais, Abbassiya, Cairo, Egypt, after their return from Italy in May of 1973.

The Coptic Church has the tradition that the original Nicean Creed (325AD) was authored by Athanasius, although many dispute this idea. -- Credo in unum Deo Patrem omnipotentem --- -- Πιστεύομεν εις ένα Θεόν, Πατέρα, Παντοκράτορα, ποιητήν ουρανού και γης, ορατόν ε πάντων και αοράτων. In any event there is a separate Creed of Athanasius: Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is is necessary that he hold the Catholic {meaning universal, accepted, not heretical} Faith. -- see also Book of Common Prayer, Episcopal Church USA, Kingsport Press (1977) pp 864-65.

May 2, 1670: In the 17th century the French had a monopoly on the Canadian fur trade. However, two French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers, learned from the Cree tribe that the best fur country was north and west of Lake Superior -- a frozen sea still further north. Correctly guessing that this was Hudson Bay, they sought French backing for a plan to set up a trading post on the Bay, thus reducing the cost of moving furs overland. In contrast, the recently appointed French Secretary of State, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, was trying to promote farming in the colony. He opposed exploration and trapping.

Radisson and des Groseilliers approached a group of businessmen in Boston, Massachusetts, to help finance the proposed northern explorations. The Bostonians agreed on the plan's merits. They sent the two men to England to elicit financing. In 1668, the English backers commissioned two ships to explore trade from Hudson Bay. The Nonsuch was commanded by Captain Zachariah Gillam and accompanied by Groseilliers, while the Eaglet was commanded by Captain William Stannard and accompanied by Radisson. On June 5, 1668, both ships left port at Deptford, England, but the Eaglet was forced to turn back off the coast of Ireland. After a successful trading expedition over the winter of 1668–1669, the Nonsuch returned to England.

The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay was incorporated on May 2, 1670, with a Royal Charter from King Charles II. The Company agreed to be sold in January of 2006, in effect ending the tradition of independent ownership of the oldest corporation in in Canada. Three Hundred Thirty-Five plus years, a nice run. from's_Bay_Company

May 3, 1491: Over 600 years ago, a man received a fatal wound from his scythe, this near today's Drei Ähren (französisch: Trois Épis) about 8 miles west of Colmar in Alsace. In his memory, neighbors placed a crucifix on an oak tree (chêne), naming the place de l'homme mort. On the 3rd of May, 1491, Dieter Schore (Thierry Schoéré), a sturdy man with no nonsense about him, was riding past the now ancient site of the tragedy, a lady in a white robe appeared veiled. In one hand she held an icicle, in the other she had three ears of corn. The sins and vices of the people would cause terrible diseases, heavy rain and frost, if they were not renounced (with suitable penance). But, Our Lady said that the ears of corn were a symbol of blessing and good harvests, which God would grant through her intercession.

Herr Schoéré was inclined not to convey this tale; however, when he was obtaining grain in the local market, he could not lift it on to his horse. The sack became heavier and heavier. Schore repented of his decision. He told the village about the vision {l'apparition de la Vierge}. Local Church authorities asked the faithful to process to the old (vieux) chêne de l'homme mort. "But ... Oh ... Miracle! Just as before he could as easily lift a bag and load it down immediately on his horse. After that, amid the joy of transportation assistance, Thierry Schoéré, the messenger of the Virgin, happily went home to his native village," riding off into history if you will ... never to be heard from again. And, the Virgin had an appointment to make in Mexico about 40 years later (Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe). This pilgrimage site is rather late in its appearing in this part of Europe, so perhaps it was a Holy site before (as had been the place in Mexico). An ancient oak tree in northern climes was sometimes a place of worship; perhaps it also had been here in this isolated spot.

The original holy painting of the Vierge (la sainte image), which was placed in a small wooden box beneath the famous oak, could not withstand the weather. A few years later a Pieta, itself a miracle working and beautiful statuette from the fifteenth century, replaced la peinture. Desecrated (saccagée) by Imperial regiments during the Thirty Years War, the simple [outdoor] chapel was rebuilt on the site of the oak, which by then had disappeared. A convent became attached to La Chapelle. So the vicissitudes of wars and revolts, the hurricane of nature and of human passions, destroyed the humble temple of faith, [at a place] where so many people still arrived to meditate and seek peace. Although [the place of worship was] restored, the old stones of the chapel had secured their own high significance and, [nestled] between the magnificent peaks, where trees rustle in the wind, these stones continue to inspire the contemplation of men. loosely translated from

La Chapelle de Notre-Dame-des-Trois-Épis, built on the site, became a well-known place of pilgrimage in Alsace, with Colmar the gateway to the shrine. The history of the legend, once maintained at village d'Orbey in its Abbey, is today conserved at Colmar. Orbey is composed of five typical hamlets. Val d’Orbey (part of the larger Vallée de Kaysersberg) has been important since the formation of the Abbey of Pairis in the 12th Century. Gunther of Pairis (c. 1150 – c. 1220), a German Cistercian monk and author, wrote Historia Constantinopolitana at the Abbey. It extols the Fourth Crusade, in a mixture of prose and verse, based on the account of Martin of Pairis, Abbot of Pairis Abbey, and included a description the siege and looting of Constantinople. Martin brought back relics from the Holy Land and Constantinople, placing them in the Abbey.

The region situated in the very heart of the Mid-Vosges mountains, around Orbey and Lapoutroie is called Pays Welche. It represents something of an exception in Alsace. The Alsatian dialect has never been used there. Only a romance dialect similar to the Belgian Walloon and French languages was spoken. The landscape of this micro-region comprises mountains and prairies, surrounded by extensive fir tree forests. The local Munster cheese comes from this valley (derived from Monastere the word for monastery, also close to the German word for a church). Numerous milk, cheese and honey producers can still be found here, produits complementing the wine of Alsace.

May 3, 1525: A Spanish slave-trader, Pedro de Quejo, piloted two ships from Hispaniola on a preliminary expedition for Lucas Vasquez de Ayllón, in order to explore the coast of land granted to Ayllón by the King of Spain. On this day, Quejo's ships land at the mouth of the Savannah River, marking the first known time Europeans set foot on present-day Georgia. Quejo had passed by the coast in 1521 seeking more natives, because the tribes of the island on which Spain first settled had been wiped out almost completely. A far more complete timeline of these events can be found at:

Less than a year later on September 29, 1526, Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón and 600 Spanish colonists (including African slaves and perhaps freemen) landed on the Georgia mainland opposite Sapelo Sound and founded the settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape. This was the first European settlement in North America since the time of the Vikings' exploration circa 1000 A.D. The colonists had sailed from the Caribbean island of Hispaniola in July aboard six ships. In August, they had landed at Winyah Bay on the Carolina coast. They sailed southward when that colony soon proved to be less than satisfactory. Now as the fall approached they had to find a place where they could rely on Native stores until the next year's harvest.

On the Georgia coast, Ayllón found the Guale tribe. Although physical remains of the settlement have not been found, historians and geographers have utilized surviving navigation logs and other records to reconstruct the 1526 voyage. (See Jeannine Cook, ed., Columbus and the Land of Ayllón, 1992.) Based on the latest research, the San Miguel de Gualdape settlement probably was situated on the mainland of what today is McIntosh County, opposite Sapelo Sound. (Click HERE to view map.) One source feels the most likely location was within the present-day Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge, which is located near the mouth of the Newport River facing St. Catherine's Island. To view a timeline of Spanish exploration and colonization in the New World, see

May 3, 1928 (or 1933): Soul and R&B (rhythm-and-blues) singer James Brown, was born. Little is known about his early life. He claimed to have been born in Macon, Georgia, but various biographies list his city of birth as Augusta (GA), Barnwell (SC) and Pulaski (TN). Regardless, he grew up in Augusta. In the early 1950s, Brown formed a band in Macon first known as The Flames -- and then changed the name to The Famous Flames. In November 1955, the group recorded Please, Please, Please. In 1956 it reached #6 on the R&B charts, then became the first of over 20 million sellers for the Godfather of Soul. In 1983, Brown was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame. see also James Brown died in Atlanta on Christmas Day 2006, of complications related to pneumonia. The Atlanta paper reported his age as 73.

May 4th: Today is the Feast Day of St. Florian ( ? – ca. 304). St. Florian was a Roman military officer stationed next to Lorch (at that time called Lauriacum in Latin -- the alternate Latin name for Lauriacum is Blaboriciaco), in what is today Enns in Oberösterreich. Florian adopted the new Christian religion. He refused to give up his faith when arrested during the persecution of Diocletian. Tortured first, a stone then was tied to Florian's neck. Soldiers tossed him into the river Enns. As a martyr, Florian was regarded as set apart or sanctified long before the formal practice of canonization by a pope, his feast day being May 4th. A millstone, said to be the stone which was tied around Florian's neck, is kept in the crypt of the monastery (Stiff) church of St. Florian near Linz. He is the patron Saint of Austria and of fireman (Feuerwehr), depicted often (as here in the foyer of the volunteer fire department of Bickenbach, crafted in tile by Peter Weigold)holding the flag of St. George (or a millstone), while pouring water on a burning house: O heiliger Sankt Florian, verschon´ mein Haus, zünd' and´re an !!!

O heiliger Sankt Florian
mit frommen Sinn wir kommen an.
Laß deine Fürsprach
uns erfahrn in Wassersnot und Feuersgefahrn
Und wenn im Herzen sich entzündt
das Feuer schwerer Schuld und Sünd,
dann lösch das Feuer, steh uns bei,
auf daß uns Gott sein Gnad verleih.
Geht es dereinst zum letzten End,
mach, daß das Herz in Lieb entbrennt
zum Vater der Barmherzigkeit,
der uns schenkt die ewig´ Seligkeit.

O Holy Saint Florian
with due reverence, we arrive.
Let thy intercession
keep us from drowning and danger of fire.
And when our hearts are inflamed
[with] the fire of heavy guilt and sin,
then quench that fire, stand by us,
[stand] by us for whom God imparts His Grace.
Go with us till the last day;
kindle love in our hearts
for the Father of Mercies,
who gives us the Etern'l Salvation.

Trying to explain Saint Florian's principle to others: A good contribution may be found in Wikipedia: The "Florian Principle" (known in German language areas as "Sankt-Florians-Prinzip") is named after a somewhat ironic "prayer" to Saint Florian: "O heiliger Sankt Florian, verschon' mein Haus, zünd' and're an" -translating to- "O holy Saint Florian, spare my house, kindle others." This saying imparts a meaning in German much like the English "not in my back yard" -as when the speaker wants to point out that some person tries to get out of an unpleasant situation by an action that will put others in that very same situation.

On May 4, 1865: St. John and several other Confederate cabinet members met with Jefferson Davis for what turned out to be the dissolution of the government. His name is included on the list of those participating in that meeting and on the a stone memorial found in Washington, GA. Newspaper writer, civil engineer, and soldier Isaac Munroe St. John was born in Augusta, Georgia. With the outbreak of the Civil War, he joined the Fort Hill Guards as a private. In 1862, he served as Magruder's chief engineer and rose to the rank of captain and then major. The next year, he was promoted to Lt. Col. in the Confederate Niter and Mining Corps. In Feb. 1865, St. John was promoted to the rank of brigadier general and at the time of the war's end, he was Confederate Commissary General with responsibility for supplying the Confederacy with gunpowder and metals. He survived the war and passed away April 7, 1880, in White Sulphur Springs, WV (near today's Greenbrier and its formerly secret underground facilities for Congress in the event of a National Emergency) and was buried in Richmond, Virginia.

May 4, 1973: Led Zeppelin opened its 1973 U.S. tour before a crowd of nearly 40,000 in Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium. The 34-concert tour was described by promoters then as the largest and most profitable rock and roll tour in the history of the United States. How many more times did they visit Atlanta ??? The band performed July 24, 1973, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at Three Rivers Stadium, then only 3 years old (which concert this Webmaster attended). This was the last venue before the final 3 shows at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Led Zeppelin's music has out lived the Pittsburgh venue, which lasted for only about 30 years. ("Over the Hills and Far Away" is the third track from English rock band Led Zeppelin's 1973 album "Houses of the Holy")

A note from the Netherlands -- May 4, 2007: "Tonight in Holland we commemorate all those who have fallen in WWII. With a two minute silence the Nation reflects on those who for ever shall live on in our memory, as those who fought for freedom and for our people. For that we shall be forever grateful and it is a part of my website tribute to you and all other who without question and without hesitation rose and stood up to the call of duty and many of you went beyond that call.

To you my friends and to all those who forever are embraced in the soils on the battlefields of Europe, I humbly bow and salute you and thank you from the bottom of my heart for your efforts to make part of the world a free place to live. As for our enduring friendship will always be considered as a special gift between world far apart and yet so connected. I thank you deeply and from us to you .... thank you.

Tomorrow we celebrate liberation day .... but we will always reflect on those who gave all for they will always be remembered and never forgotten ..... Thank you, stay safe and take care my friends," Frank C. Everards, Webmaster:

The Netherlands is unique among its European neighbors, because it has two national holidays stemming from the second World War: Remembrance Day - Dodenherdenking and Liberation Day - Bevrijdingsdag. Dodenherdenking (May 4th) remembers the fallen Dutch, who died in defense of their land and freedom. Bevrijdingsdag is celebrated each year on May 5th in the Netherlands to mark the end of the German occupation during the Second World War. The nation was liberated largely by Canadian troops on May 5, 1945. --

May 5, 1525: This day saw the passing of Friederick III (the Wise), Elector of Saxony in Lochau, Germany. Friederick served as the protector of Martin Luther after the imperial ban of 1521. He housed Luther at the castle named the Wartburg at Eisenach, where Luther prepared his German language translation of the Bible. Friedrich was a patron of the great artist Albrecht Dürer, and the less well-known Lucas Cranach the Elder, who painted Luther in 1529. Friederich der Dritte founded the University of Wittenberg in 1502.

Ein’ feste Burg ist unser Gott,
Ein gute Wehr und Waffen;
Er hilft uns frei aus aller Not,
Die uns jetzt hat betroffen.
Der alt’ böse Feind,
Mit Ernst er’s jetzt meint,
Gross’ Macht und viel List
Sein’ grausam’ Rüstung ist,
Auf Erd’ ist nicht seinsgleichen. (1529)
Based on Psalm 46
A mighty fortress is our God, a trusty shield and weapon;
He helps us free from every need that hath us now overtaken.
The old evil foe now means deadly woe; deep guile and great might
Are his dread arms in fight; on Earth is not his equal.

Mai das Fünftel: Karl Marx, German philosopher, was born in Prussia (May 5, 1818). He argued a staged view of class struggle: Capitalism, which had overcome Feudalism (private property rights growing out of the sovereign's holdings), would in turn be overcome by Socialism, with the elimination of private property. Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto and Das Capital. Both works expounded this new economic theory and view of history.

Interestingly, on May 5, 1912, the Soviet Communist Party newspaper Pravda began publishing. Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili took a new name, meaning “man of steel,” at about the same time that he helped found this newspaper. Stalin specialized in writing about national minorities in Russia and went on to become editor of Pravda. This gives you some idea of the power potential of the press in modern life.

Cinco de Mayo (1862): Today marks the anniversary of a battle at Puebla. General Ignacio Zaragoza (born in Texas when it was still governed by México) led troops, outnumbered three to one, against an invading French army, a force thought to be the best in the world. The Mexican forces defeated Napoléon III's army and Puebla remained in Zaragoza's hands.

Empereur en 1852, dès 1853 les timbres porteront 
la même effigie (à 1848) mais avec la légende Empire Français indiqué * EMPIRE * FRANC *El 8 de diciembre de 1861, los poderes europeos desembarcaron en el Puerto de Veracruz y lo ocuparon, siendo España la primera en llegar. Para el 11 de abril de 1862 España e Inglaterra se enteraron de las intenciones de Francia y abandonaron su apoyo embarcándose hacia Europa. Mientras tanto, en la ciudad de México, el Presidente Juárez (indio zapoteca que se había licenciado como abogado y había estudiado para el sacerdocio) tomaba medidas para contrarrestar la invasión:

El gobierno de la República...en vista de la declaración de los plenipotenciarios franceses, no puede ni debe hacer otra cosa que rechazar la fuerza con la fuerza y defender a la nación de la agresión injusta con la que se la amenaza. ...Tengamos fe en la justicia de nuestra causa... haciendo triunfar no sólo a nuestra patria, sino a los principios de respeto y de inviolabilidad de la soberanía de las naciones Full article Here

Emperor Maximilian featured on A 25-centavo, 
orange postage stamp, of Mexico-Scott 29One year after La Batalla de Puebla, the French brought in more troops and re-attacked. On this occasion the forces made their way to ciudad de México, took the capital and installed Emperor Maximilian of the Hapsburgs (Austrian-Hungary Empire) as the reigning monarch of México. Maximilian ruled México for about four years, until his execution in 1867 by troops loyal to President Benito Juárez, who had regained power. The attempt to re-establish a European Empire in the New World had failed, so reason enough to celebrate an event not critical to the desired outcome.

I tried to find a French article about this day (May 2006), but only one appeared on-line, and it did not touch upon the French role in this historic day

... Il y a le 1er mai, fêté partout dans le monde, il y a le 3 mai, la journée mondiale de la presse, et il y a le 6 mai dédié, au Liban, aux martyrs, y compris ceux de la presse …

Il y a aussi un autre jour de ce mois de l’année marquant un événement propre à un pays (le Mexique), mais célébré davantage dans un autre (les États-Unis-USA). Il s’agit du «cinco de mayo» (le 5 mai en espagnol), qui est l’une des fêtes nationales du Mexique. Il commémore la victoire des forces mexicaines, menées par le général Ignacio Zaragoza, sur les forces expéditionnaires françaises dans la bataille de Puebla (5 mai 1862). Si cette page de l’histoire passe presque inaperçue au pays où elle a été écrite, elle est donc source de grande liesse et de pavoisement au pays de l’Oncle Sam.

Quel lien y-a-t-il entre la bannière étoilée et celle de la patrie de Zapata et de Poncho Villa? Réponse: les chicanos. C’est ainsi que l’on appelle les hispaniques, et plus particulièrement les Mexicains, ayant émigré aux États-Unis et dont la plupart se sont établis en Californie et au Texas. À la fin des années 60, les étudiants de cette souche ont lancé le mouvement chicano pour marquer leur identité. Ils ont notamment voulu avoir «leur» jour de célébration qui refléterait leur ascendance mexicaine. De prime abord, le choix évident aurait dû être «el dieciséis de septiembre», ou le 16 septembre, date de l’indépendance du Mexique en 1810. Cependant, le 16 septembre coïncidait avec le début de l’année universitaire. Alors, le «cinco de mayo» est devenu l’alternative de fait pour ces étudiants, d’autant que leur plus grand héros, le général Zaragoza, était né au Texas.

«Latinos», «chicanos» et «hispaniques» -- Au fil des ans, les festivités du 5 mai ont débordé le cadre universitaire et tout activisme pour s’enraciner dans la culture traditionnelle du Sud-Ouest des États-Unis. Pour beaucoup de communautés américano-mexicaines, «cinco de mayo» est une manière importante d’honorer fièrement l’héritage de leur pays d’origine, éclipsant le jour d’indépendance du Mexique. Les Américains non mexicains participent également aux célébrations, de la même manière que les non-Irlandais observent le jour de la Saint-Patrick. Et le melting pot aidant, tout le monde trinque à la tequila et à la bière mexicaine. Au Mexique même, «cinco de mayo» est remémoré en particulier dans l’État de Puebla, où la célèbre bataille a eu lieu.

À noter que la population hispanique (qualifiée d’abord de latinos puis de chicanos et d’hispaniques) est actuellement la première minorité aux États- Unis. Elle représente déjà 11% de la population américaine. Elle englobe des émigrés originaires des divers pays sud-américains qui ont néanmoins en commun la langue et la religion catholique. Elle se caractérise aussi par une diversité de classes sociales: les plus riches étant les Cubains, viennent ensuite les Mexicains puis les Portoricains. Diversité de statuts également, car il y a millions de clandestins aux États-Unis, dont millions de Mexicains. C’est dire que le pays-hôte n’a pu que se mettre lui aussi à l’heure du «cinco de mayo» et sa kyrielle d’us et coutumes hérités des Aztèques: des fresques murales, auxquelles Diego Rivera et sa compagne Frida Kahlo ont donné leurs lettres de noblesses modernes, au taco et autres spécialités culinaires baptisées Tex-mex. see also (voi aussi),0,3131919.story

May 5, 1891: In the City of New York, its citizens attended the dedication of a famous building. When it first opened, Carnegie Hall had just three auditoriums: the Main Hall, the Chamber Music Hall and the Recital Hall, located underneath the Main Hall. The opening festival, held for five days, featured a guest conductor, Tchaikovsky.

Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (d. Nov 6, 1893) was born at Kamsko-Votinsk, in the Ural region of imperial Russia (May 7, 1840). His family moved to St. Petersburg in 1850. There he studied Law and graduated from the school of jurisprudence, from where he entered the Ministry of Justice as a clerk, first-class in 1859. He didn't start to study music seriously until he was 21, under Nicolai Zaremba. Tchaikovsky enrolled into the St. Petersburg Conservatory when it opened in 1862. His works included many well-known pieces, including the 1812 Overture, which celebrated the Russian victory over the French at the doorsteps of Moscow.

The structure in which Tchaikovsky partied was named Carnegie Hall, in honor of Andrew Carnegie, an immigrant from Dunfermline, Scotland and a real Man of Steel. Carnegie set up 2,500 libraries in Great Britain and North America. He did many other acts of Charity. Believing it a sin to die with great wealth, he set up a foundation that still provides money today. All four of the older Scottish universities received bequests, as did Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University). He forgot not his birthplace -- the most sacred spot to me on earth. Among his endowments, Pittencrieff House and its gardens were acquired for Dunfermline.

More: Another man of iron, Cy Young, then a member of the Boston Red Sox baseball team, tossed a perfect game (May 5, 1903) against the Philadelphia Americans. The final score was 3-0. No player on the Philadelphia team reached first base. It was the third perfect game ever thrown in the major leagues. Do you know who pitched the first two? They occurred only 5 days apart -- in 1880 -- On June 16, 1880, L. R., who would eventually become a medical doctor (if you build it they will come), was awarded his bachelors degree from Brown University. The place where L. R. stood when he tossed this perfect game is now marked by a plaque located on the campus of Becker College in Worcester, Massachusetts.

May 6, 1527: The Sack of Rome on this date, carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between the Holy Roman Empire and the League of Cognac (1526–1529) — the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy. Pope Clement VII had given his support to the Kingdom of France in an attempt to alter the balance of power in the region, and free the Papacy from what many considered to be 'Imperial domination' by the Holy Roman Empire (and the Habsburg dynasty). The army of the Holy Roman Emperor defeated the French army in Italy, but funds were not available to pay the soldiers, so at the army's insistence, it was given Rome instead. Numerous bandits, along with the League's deserters, joined with the army during the march. One of the Swiss Guard's most notable hours occurred during this day. Almost the entire guard was massacred by Imperial troops on the steps of St. Peter's Basilica. Only 42 survived, but their bravery ensured that Pope Clement VII escaped to safety, down the passetto di Borgo, a secret corridor which still links the Vatican City to Castel Sant'Angelo.

This marked the end of the Roman Renaissance, damaged the papacy's prestige and freed Charles V's hands to act against the Reformation in Germany and against the rebellious German princes allied with Luther. In commemoration of the Sack and the Guard's bravery, new recruits to the Swiss Guard are sworn in on May 6th every year. The Defenders of the Church celebrated 500 years of service in January 2006. Two-hundred Guards first arrived in Rome on January 22, 1505/6. Even at that time, these Helvetian soldiers, employed as mercenaries, were renowned for their courage and loyalty. The main event (in 2006) was a march to Rome, from Bellinzona in southern Switzerland, by some 80 veterans, to recall the march of the original 200.

Only a large picture gives the proper perspectiveDuring this sack of Rome, the Pope took refuge at Orvieto. Fearing that in the event of siege by Charles' troops the town's water might prove insufficient, he had a spectacular well constructed (Pozzo di S. Patrizio) by the architect-engineer Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (1527-37). It had a double helical ramps for one-way traffic, so that mules laden with water-jars might pass down then up again unobstructed. Orvieto is noted for its Gothic-style cathedral (the duomo-style construction began in 1290), striped in white travertine and greenish-black basalt in narrow bands; its design has often been attributed to Arnolfo di Cambio, but the prevailing modern opinion is that its master mason was an obscure monk named Fra' Bevignate from Perugia. The façade includes some remarkable sculpture by Lorenzo Maitani (14th century). Inside the cathedral, the Chapel of San Brizio is frescoed by Fra` Angelico and with Luca Signorelli's masterpiece, his Last Judgment (1449-51).

Orvieto is home to Etruscan ruins, the remnants of a wall that enclosed the city more than 2000 years ago and many tunnels. At the foot of the butte, surrounded by peach and apple trees and a vineyard, the Etruscan necropolis of Crocefisso di Tufo counts a hundred or so chamber tombs laid along a rectangular street grid. Orvieto was annexed by Rome in the 3rd century BC. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Orvieto's defensible ground gained new importance. The episcopal see was transferred from Bolsena, and the town was held both by Goths and Lombards, before Orvieto gained a self-governing commune in the 10th century. from

The white wine of the Orvieto district, to the northeast of the city, is one of the major Umbrian (Terni) products and is prized highly. The two principal types of red wine are "Orvieto" and "Orvieto Classico", depending on the specific area where the nectar was made. There is also a sweet wine made from late harvests where the grapes have been attacked by the muffa nobile (noble mold - français: pourriture noble; Deutsch: Edelfälee).

May 6, 1590: This day is the feast day (in the Catholic Church, not the COE) of an English martyr from the town of Middleton in Yorkshire. Anthony was educated and ordained at Reims, France. He returned to England in order to serve remaining Catholics after the rule of Elizabeth and her father, both of whom sought to purge the land of Catholic influence. The government arrested Anthony then hanged him. As if this was not enough he was thereafter drawn and quartered in London (and I suppose that he was then distributed throughout the land as an example). Edward Jones came from North Wales, and died the same day under similar circumstances in London.

The "Douai Martyrs" is a name applied by the Catholic Church to approximately 160 Catholic priests trained in the English College at Douai, France (Reims), who were executed by the state between 1577 and 1680. Having completed their training at Douai, many returned to England and Wales with the intent to minister to the Catholic population of England, and to undermine the Church of England and the governments of Elizabeth I and her successors. Many were arrested under charges of treason and conspiracy, resulting in torture and execution.

A large group - more than eighty - were beatified as martyrs by Pope Pius XI in 1929. Today, British Catholic dioceses celebrate their feast days separately and en masse (October 30th). The Douay Martyrs School in Ickenham, Middlesex is named in their honor. The Douay–Rheims Bible (also known as the Rheims–Douai Bible or Douai Bible, and abbreviated as D–R and DV) is a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church. The New Testament portion was published in Reims, France, in 1582, in one volume with extensive commentary and notes. The Old Testament portion was published in two volumes thirty years later by the University of Douai.

May 6, 1840 -- Cento de Mayo: The Penny Black was the world's first official adhesive postage stamp, issued in the city of Bath by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on May 1, 1840, for use from May 6th onward. The stamps were printed by Perkins Bacon. In addition, the two upper corners contained star like designs and the lower corners contained letters designating the position of each stamp in the sheet, "A A", "A B", and so forth. As the name suggests, the stamp was printed all in black. "T" was the last row and "L" was the last column. The stamps were cut from sheets and many advanced collectors try to reassemble sheets, based on the letter positions. A picture of this concept is found at the following link, which also shows the Two Pence Blue issued on the 8th:

There are known covers postmarked May 2nd, due to postmasters selling the stamps from May 1st. Stamps used on letters before May 6th should have been treated as unpaid and charged double the rate on delivery. A single example is also known on a cover dated May 1, 1840. The Penny Black was utilized for about a year. Experience showed that a red cancellation on a black stamp (as was the custom) was difficult to see, and the red cancellation could be cleaned from the stamp, allowing its illegal re-use. In 1841 the Treasury switched to the Penny Red and cancelled it with black ink, much harder, but not impossible, to clean. An original printing press for the Penny Black is on display to the public at the British Library in London. No regular-issue British stamp has been inscribed with the name of the nation, although the portrait of the monarch is instantly recognizable, a privilege (if you will) reserved for the country that invented the postage stamp.

May 6, 1937 – Hindenburg disaster: The German zeppelin Hindenburg (LZ 129) catches fire. Flames fueled by hydrogen fully engulf it within a minute. The airship had attempted to dock at a mooring at Lakehurst, New Jersey. Thirty-six people died.

May 7, 1915: A German submarine sank the British luxury liner Lusitania (1198 passengers and crew die). Among the dead 124 are American citizens. Public animus in the U. S. against Germany rises considerably. Four years to the day on May 7, 1919, the German delegation is summoned to the Trianon Palace at Versailles, where it learns the terms of the treaty prepared by the representatives of the United States, Britain, France, Italy and Japan. The Rhineland was to be occupied by the victors for a minimum of 15 years; Alsace-Lorraine was to go back to France (taken in 1871, but originally expropriated by the French in the 17th century); parts of the most eastern portion of Germany went to Poland; Danzig (a north-eastern port on the Baltic) was to become a free state; and finally, Germany forfeited all colonies to the victors.

In short, Germany had to accept full responsibility for the Great War. There were to be trials for war crimes. The German army was to be limited to 100,000 soldiers; the Rhineland became permanently demilitarized; the production of military planes was forbidden -- no air force necessary for modern war. Then came the large reparations in money and goods. The German representatives, who had been called to Versailles, refused to sign reminding everyone of the prior agreement to the Armistice based upon the 14 points of US President Wilson. From Berlin, Chancellor Scheidemann denounced the treaty. The Allies, however, had maintained the naval blockade of Germany and their mood was soon clear. The only alternative to signing the treaty was starvation. There were public demonstrations on June 21st, but Germany signed under protest on June 28th.

On another May 7th: Does one not have to talk about Reims in hushed tones ? -- Names come to mind, like Bishop Remigius {Saint Remi [Rémy]}, Evêque de Reims {Rheims}, Apostle of the Franks, who baptizes Clovis, France's first Roi (Christmas day 496) after the King is persuaded by Sainte Clotilde, his Queen. -- The crowning place of many other kings, sanctified to rule. -- Archbishop Turpin (whose seat of power (See) was in Reims back in the 8th century) gives communion to Roland, while the treacherous Saracen king Marsile looks on in the Cathedral. -- Sainte Jeanne was here too, alongside Charles VII, 'though the first Bourbon was not (the coronation for him was at Chartres). -- Crown jewel of the Champagne, a region further consecrated by the blood of two World Wars in the last century. -- It was in Reims, at 2:41 on the morning of May 7, 1945, that General Eisenhower and the Allies received the unconditional surrender of the Nazi's.
She entered the city leading a relief column on April 29th 
and the siege was lifted on the 8th May 8th: Le 8 mai 1429, Sainte Jeanne d'Arc délivre Orléans -- Every year on May 8th at Orléans, a pageant re-enacts Joan's entry into the city, today a city with mixture of of old and new architecture. On the plaza her memory is commemorated by statue. In about two years she would be dead at Rouen in Normandy by English hands: Ste. Jeanne d'Arc (May 30, 1431) -- est condamnée à être brûlée vive  See also: Maid of Orleans -- but by her death she had more power, transcending time and place.

In 1541, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto discovered and crossed the Mississippi River, which he called Rio de Espiritu Santo. De Soto encountered native tribes, including the Cherokee, who then numbered about 25,000 souls and inhabited an area between the Ohio River and the Chattahoochee River in present day Georgia, and from the Valley of the Tennessee River east across the Great Smoky Mountains to the Piedmont of the Carolinas. In May 1542 he died while still on this expedition. His body was sunk in the Mississippi to avoid desecration (May 28th).

On this date in 1819, President Monroe visited Savannah, Georgia to take part in christening ceremonies for the S.S. Savannah. The President's visited two weeks before the ship departed for Liverpool, England. The vessel became the first steamship to cross any ocean. During his visit, Monroe rode the Savannah on a tour to Charleston, SC. Exactly 100 years later, on May 8, 1919, a US Navy seaplane took-off on the first transatlantic flight.

Speaking of a pick me up, on this date in 1886, that the first Coca-Cola fountain drink was purchased. The event took place in Jacob's Pharmacy, located in the City of Atlanta, Georgia.

May 8, 1828: Henri Dunant, founder of the International Red Cross (October 29, 1863), is born in Geneva. Dunant was co-winner of the first Nobel Peace Prize in 1901. The Young Men's Christian Association (Y M C A) originated in London in 1844. Within a few years, this society of young men organized for mutual improvement on a distinctly religious basis had spread over Europe. Henry Dunant was president of the Geneva Association of the YMCA in 1859. Through him this institution first came into contact with the need for welfare support during a war situation. The movement was planted in America in 1851, where it began to play an important part in the U.S. War between the States (1861-65). By the time that the U.S. entered the Great War (1914-18) the role of the YMCA and of the International Red Cross during times of conflict had been well established.

May 8, 1945: President Harry Truman (who also celebrated his 61st birthday on May 8th) announced the surrender of Germany to the American public; Axis Sally had made her final propaganda broadcast to Allied troops just two days before. After over five years (much more, if you want to include the fascist takeover of Spain or the fascist annexation of Ethiopia by Italy), World War II in Europe ended officially when Colonel General Alfred Jodl, the last chief of staff of the German Army, had signed the unconditional surrender at General Dwight D. Eisenhower's headquarters at Reims, France (May 7th).

And for those of you who have forgotten the recent past, the State of Georgia got a new flag on this day in 2003:

May 9, 1754 -- Speaking of Flags: The rattlesnake motif was popular during the Revolutionary War. The first political cartoon appeared on this date in The Pennsylvania Gazette, featuring this symbol for the first time. No rioting by snake-worshippers was reported. The Gazette was the premier newspaper in Philadelphia, PA, and much like the Times today, it was the media of record. Philadelphia was Benjamin Franklin’s hometown. The cartoon appeared as part of an editorial by Franklin commenting on “the present disunited state of the British Colonies” -- title of the featured cartoon is JOIN, or DIE. The drawing is of a rattlesnake, sliced into eight pieces. Each of the pieces are labeled with the abbreviation for one of the colonies (New England was one slice, Georgia was missing, Delaware was part of Pennsylvania at this time). The intended message was that the Britsh colonies’ continued failure to unite would result in their eventual doom (loss of political and economic freedom).

What Russia fears

May 9, 1955: West Germany is taken into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) ten years to the day of the end of World War II in Europe. Since that time May 9th has been celebrated as a day of peace, and more lately as European Union Day.

NATO was a triumph of organization and effort, but is was also something very new and very different. For NATO derived its strength directly from the moral values of the people it represented, from their high ideals, their love of liberty, and their commitment to peace. But perhaps the greatest triumph of all was not in the realm of a sound defense or material achievement. No, the greatest triumph after the war is that in spite of all of the chaos, poverty, sickness, and misfortune that plagued this continent, the people of Western Europe resisted the call of new tyrants and the lure of their seductive ideologies. Your nations did not become the breeding ground for new extremist philosophies. You resisted the totalitarian temptation. Your people embraced democracy, the dream the Fascists could not kill. They chose freedom. And today we celebrate the leaders who led the way -- Churchill and Monnet, Adenauer and Schuman, De Gasperi and Spaak, Truman and Marshall. {President Ronald Reagan, May 8, 1985, before the European Parliament in Strasbourg}

Reported May 9, 2006: Les autorités d'Ankara ont rappelé hier «pour consultation» leurs ambassadeurs à Paris et à Ottawa, durcissant le ton face à ce que le ministère turc des Affaires étrangères appelle «les développements récents survenus en France et au Canada relatifs aux affirmations infondées sur un prétendu génocide arménien». Le premier ministre canadien avait récemment évoqué dans un discours «le génocide arménien», déchaînant l'ire du gouvernement turc. Mais c'est surtout avec la France que la crise s'aggrave. De 1915 à 1917, les massacres et déportations des Arméniens de l'Empire ottoman ont fait jusqu'à 1,5 million de morts. Ces faits reconnus par la plupart des historiens, même s'ils divergent dans leurs interprétations, sont, en revanche, niés par Ankara qui parle seulement d'un demi-million de victimes parmi les Arméniens, et rejette surtout le qualificatif de génocide, clamant qu'il y eut des massacres des deux côtés alors que des Arméniens s'étaient alliés aux Russes. Although the current President (of the USA) in the past has called upon Turkey to recognize its culpabilité, when he visited in April 2009, he was silent about the atrocité.

Alas, on May 10, 1291, some Scottish nobles recognized the authority of Edward I of England over their lives and destiny. The Hammer of the Scots holds sway for a few years more. On May 10, 1503, Christopher Columbus visited the Cayman Islands and names them Las Tortugas because of the numerous sea turtles found there. Just 31 years later, Jacques Cartier visited Newfoundland for the first time. In 1774, Louis XVI lost his head and in a brash moment became Roi de France. A year later in 1775, British Fort Ticonderoga is taken by a small force led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold; while on the same day, Representatives from the 13 colonies met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to raise the Continental Army to defend the new republic, soon to be formed. They place the army under command of George Washington of Virginia, who has had a somewhat checkered military career.

May 10, 1801: Muslim (Barbary) pirates sailing from ports at Tripoli declare war on the United States of America. In 1869, the competing factions building the Transcontinental Railroad, linking the eastern and western portions of the USA, meet at Promontory Summit, Utah and seal the deal with the golden spike. While on the 10h of May 1872, Victoria Woodhull becomes the first female nominee for the position President of the United States. And, as everyone knows, on May 10, 1954, Messers. Bill Haley and the Comets release Rock Around the Clock, said to be the first rock and roll recording to reach number one on the popular music charts.

May 10, 2014: Are you ready for Astronomy Day ? This day represents a grass roots movement for the general population to Bring Astronomy to the People. During this year's Astronomy Day on May 2nd, thousands of people who have never looked through a telescope will have an opportunity to see the stars! Astronomy clubs, science museums, observatories, universities, planetariums, laboratories, libraries and nature centers host special events and activities to acquaint the general population with local astronomical resources. Many of these events will occur at non-astronomical sites; shopping malls, parks, urban centers. If you're interested in attending such an event, take a look at where current Astronomy Day events being held. This list only encompasses those groups who choose to advertise on the Astronomical League website, so please be sure to check your local news media for other events.

Saints de glace -- Les 11, 12 et 13 mai: La France connaît souvent des gelées tardives et l'on parle à cette occasion des « Saints de glace ». Il s'agit des anciens saints de ces jours: Les Saints de Glace: mythe, légende ou réalité ? After the passage of the Ice Saints' days it will be safe to plant (no frost). But these "brave Ice Saints" have been deleted from the Church Calendars, as well as other healers, retrouveurs of lost objects and those dealing with the weather (1960). Of course these three every year thereafter were still venerated by farmers and growers, who can be found on this occasion in processions with the parish priest in the lead, with pious prayers that were not necessarily devoid of ulterior motives involved. Yet if we look for the distant origins, even ancient, the people of those times had seen in May sudden drops in temperature at night (or rather early-morning) lasting around three days.

Qui sont ces trois zozos ? Saint Mamert: il est fêté le 11 Mai -- Saint patron des Pompiers, Evêque de Vienne (452), mort en 475. Frère du poète Claudius Mamert, il semble s'être distingué comme lui, par son éducation littéraire, comme par sa science Théologique. Il entra en conflit avec l'archevêque d'Arles, dont il contestait la suprématie, mais il dut se soumettre (463). Il institua ou introduisit en Gaule la procession des Rogations (Larousse du XXe siècle).

Saint Servais: il est fêté le 12 Mai -- Martyr né en 290, mort à Rome durant la persécution de Dioclétien en 304. C'était le neveu de Saint Denis. Dés le temps de Grégoire de Tours, il était vénéré en France. Il à donné son nom à un titre cardinalice, à Rome, ou ses reliques furent conservées jusqu'en 1798 (Larousse du XXe siècle).

Saint Pancrace: il est fêté le 13 Mai -- Evêque de Tongres en Belgique, né vers 300, mort à Tongres en 384. Il assista aux conciles de Cologne (346) et de Sartique (347), combattit les ariens; mais au concile de Rimini (359), il signa une profession de foi ambiguë, trompé par les arguties des évêques ariens Ursace et Valens et par sa connaissance imparfaite de la langue grecque. A l'approche des Huns, il se rendit à Rome pour implorer le secours des papes Jean VIII et Martin 1er (Larousse du XXe siècle).

Saint Mamert, Saint Servais, Saint Pancrace sont toujours de vrais saints de glace (Dicton de Haute-Loire) --

The Eisheiligen encompasses a time in May when, according to a popular farmers’ tale, the weather remains too unstable to plant crops, because of the danger of frost. The Ice Saints (Eisheilige in German, les Saints de Glace in France) is a name given to St. Mamertus, St. Pancras, and St. Servatius in Flemish, French, Dutch, Hungarian, German, Austrian, Polish, Swiss and Croatian folklore. They are so named because their feast days fall on the days of May 11, May 12 and May 13 respectively. In Poland and the Czech Republic, the Ice Saints are St. Pancras, St. Servatus and St. Boniface of Tarsus (i.e., May 12 to May 14). To the Poles, the trio are known collectively as zimni ogrodnicy (cold gardeners), and are followed by zimna Zośka (cold Sophias) on the feast day of St. Sophia which falls on May 15. In Czech, the three saints are collectively referred to as "ledoví muži" (ice-men or icy men), and Sophia is known as "Žofie, ledová žena" (Sophia, the ice-woman). The period from May 12 to May 15 was noted to bring a brief spell of colder weather in many years, including the last nightly frosts of the spring, in the Northern Hemisphere under the Julian calendar. The introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1582 involved skipping 10 days in the calendar, so that the equivalent days from the climatic point of view became May 22–25. A year's colder than normal spring suggests that it may be prudent advice that year to wait some before planting.

In Sweden, the German legend of the ice saints has resulted in the belief that there are special "iron nights," especially in the middle of June, which is susceptible to frost. The term "iron nights" (järnnätter) has probably arisen through a mistranslation of German sources, where the term "Eismänner" (ice men) was read as "Eisenmänner" (iron men) and their nights then termed "iron nights," which then became shifted from May to June. Some once believed that it was not safe to plant crops until after the Ice Men of pagan lore were gone. There’s also a proverb in England: "Ne’er cast a clout till May be out." --- meaning: "Don’t remove winter clothes until the end of May." Scientists have been unable to determine that a higher chance of frost in May scientifically exists (really ? -- you think that would just be a math probleme), but anytime the weather dips from warm to cool in May, Germans folks are likely to discuss those "Ice Saints."

More of May is HERE

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, 
where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure:

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from (original URL may have changed): -- -- -- -- -- -- --

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December

More Flags -- Flag Day
Early GA Flag Gwenn Ha Du 
qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

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Last update: April 24, 2019
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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at that moment.