+ The Vanguard - 2017 -- Some historical events, a few pictures, links for all months; some current comments, on rare occasion, too.

All Saints - Tousaints
Feast of Epiphany
Liturgical Year

The  VANGUARD --   2017

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit"

We began our 21st Year online in May 2017
". . . One Nation under God . . . ."

The Vanguard is a Presentation of LaRocheUSA.org

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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage -- Irish Copper Colonial Coinage (US) -- Seventeenth Century British Copper

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- http://www.au-chateau.com/auChateauNews83.php (New: Summer 2017 )

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3
Passover - Pesach

« Il n'y a ni hommes ni femmes, ni Juifs ni Grecs, ni hommes libres ni esclaves,
vous êtes tous un en Jésus-Christ » (Saint Paul, Épître aux Galates)

This is none other than the dwelling place of God, and this is the Gate of Heaven
This is the Gate of the Lord, the Righteous shall enter into it

And, on the last day, I know that I shall stand, in my own flesh,
and see God, my Redeemer [Job 19:25-27].
Dieu entendre moi
cri de mon cœur - étrangère
dans mon propre pays {Psalm 69}

Unto Thee {alone}
will I cry, O Lord my Rock
{and my Redeemer}

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

July 24, 1534: Jacques Cartier landed in what today is part of the Canadian Maritime Provinces, claiming North America for France. Jacques Cartier, while probing for a northern route to Asia, visited Labrador and of it reportedly said: Fit only for wild beasts ... This must be the land God gave to Cain. A few years later (1701) to the day, Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac established Fort Ponchartrain for France on the future site of the city of Detroit, Michigan, in an attempt to halt the advance of the British into the western Great Lakes region, who also possessed a rightful claim to North America, through John Cabot's mysterious exploits.

Le 24 juillet 1967: Au cours d'une visite officielle à Montréal, la première d'un chef d'État français au Québec, le général de Gaulle lance du balcon de l'Hôtel de ville à la foule médusée et ravie un cri vibrant : «Vive le Québec libre» ! C'est un encouragement spectaculaire et décisif aux revendications indépendantistes que promeut en particulier l'Union nationale du Premier ministre québécois Daniel Johnson, à l'origine de l'invitation du président français.

July 25, 1909: A French aviator, Louis Blériot, made the first crossing of the English Channel from Calais to Dover in a powered-aircraft, winning a £1,000 prize offered by the London Daily Mail. Piloting his Type XI monoplane at an average of 39 miles per hour, Blériot made the trip of 23.2 miles in just over 35 minutes. National Public Broadcasting in the USA (PBS) has presented a program about the event (it is several years old now, but still well worth a view): http://web.archive.org/web/20070304091700/http://www.pbs.org/kcet/chasingthesun/innovators/lbleriot.html

The 5¢ Beacon Air Mail Postage-stamp -- July 26, 1928: A new 5¢ airmail rate went into effect August 1, 1928. The purpose of a rate decrease (from 10¢) was to increase the volume of air-shipped mail, thereby increasing the revenue of the private air mail carriers, keeping them in business. Call it the Laffer curve of postage rates. The 5¢ Beacon Air Mail stamp was issued to meet this new rate.

- First Day issued: July 26th -

The beacon design symbolized the new lighted airways that had been put up across the country, reflecting an awareness of safety, vital if the new air mail service was to keep public support. This stamp was, in effect, advertising for the new air mail service and rates. Extra features that were not found on other stamps such as a bi-colored design and an unusual size has led to a wealth of plate and imprint varieties for philatelists. First Day sales were at the Philatelic Agency in Washington, D.C., but the number of First Day covers are exceedingly scarce. This was perhaps because First Day covers issued on July 26 required two 5¢ stamps to cover the existing 10¢ rate, whereas if the collector were willing to wait a week, the August 1st rate would be 5¢ and only one stamp would be necessary. Sure enough, covers from August 1st, the first day of the new rate, are common.

- Error exists ?? -

Why was the 26th chosen for issuance instead of the 1st of August when the rates changed ? My guess is that it had something to do with the fact that the Continental Congress established a postal system for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general in Philadelphia on July 26, 1775.

The regular snail-mail was still 2¢ in July of 1928 and would not increase to 3¢ until July 6, 1932 during the heart of the hardship and at the height of deflation. Indeed, on July 8, 1932, the stock market fell to its lowest point during the era. The Great Crash, as it was known, had begun in the autumn of 1929, sparking a decade of economic stagnation known as the Great Depression. What a great time for a rate increase of 50%. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul08.html Beginning in 2008, we have had another increase during hard times; however, the value of our currency has fallen so much, that the change is barely noticeable (in real purchasing power). An additional Resource: HERE.
July 26th: On this day in 1941 in response to the Japanese occupation of French Indochina, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States. This was essentially an act of War. Three years later, the war in the European theatre had begun to wind down (although many lives were still to be lost); and, on July 26, 1944, the Soviet Army entered Lviv, a major city in western Ukraine, liberating it from the Nazis. While on the western front as an aggressive last gasp, the first German V-2 rocket hits the United Kingdom. Most people do not realize that most of these rocket attacks were launched against positions in Belgium. The war ended in Europe before July or even June rolled around again. So on this date in 1945 the grateful British people reward Churchill's great War efforts by removing Winston from power and electing the Labour Party (general election of July 5th). Yet too is Russia rewarded, when the Allies signed the Potsdam Declaration; while on the same day the HMS Vestal sinks, becoming the last major British Royal Navy vessel to slip under the water in the Second World War.

Interestingly, the Navy cruiser USS Indianapolis arrives at an Island called Tinian with parts of a warhead for an atomic weapon that will level downtown Hiroshima. The crew of the ship would not fare well on the return voyage. Arguably the most well known reference to the events that occur on the return voyage can be found in Jaws during a monologue by the late Robert Shaw, whose character Samuel Quint had survived of the Indianapolis sinking. The monologue focuses on the numerous deaths caused by shark attacks after the loss. This soliloquy refers the date of the sinking as the 29th June, when the ship actually sunk on July 30th. The USS Indianapolis is the last major US ship to sink in World War II.

July 26, 2016: Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France (située dans le département de la Seine-Maritime et la région Normandie). A hamlet called Sancti Stephani and dependent on the Abbey of Saint-Wandrille was reported in the ninth century in a royal charter. The village then developed along the road connecting Paris to Rouen (4 miles south of Rouen's city centre). During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the parish had five hundred inhabitants. This small village has several churches, the sixteenth-century church of St Étienne (Stephen), a church of St Thérèse and the twentieth-century church of Notre-Dame. The priest of the Parish of Saint-Étienne was Father Jacques Hamel who was ordained in 1958 and had been the parish's priest for 20 years. He was murdered during the Mass. One of the parishioners was also wounded in the attack and the French interior ministry said the number of injured could rise, with a second parishioner "fighting for life" with a throat wound. L'État islamique revendique l'attaque le jour-même. http://www.express.co.uk/…/Normandy-attack-hostages-taken-a…

Stephen is the patron saint of deacons, headaches, horses, coffin makers and masons. He is often represented carrying a pile of rocks or with rocks on his head. St Stephen's Feast Day is 26th December He is named in the Christmas carol "Good King Wenceslas." Stephen's name means "crown," and he was the first disciple of Jesus to receive the martyr's crown. http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=137

Acts 7:58 And they stoned Stephen, invoking, and saying: "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit."

Acts 7:59 And falling on his knees, he cried with a loud voice, saying: "Lord, lay not this sin to their charge." And when he had said this, he fell asleep in the Lord....

Also on July 26th: The public devotion of Sainte Anne (the mother of Mary) probably was introduced into the Western Church in the 8th century. In 1378, the feast of St. Anne was celebrated for the first time on July 26th in England. Devotion to St. Anne spread rapidly everywhere in the West. Pilgrimages developed around the many churches or shrines dedicated to St. Anne. The most famous are those of Düren in Germany, since 1501; Sainte Anne d’Auray, in Brittany, France, since 1623; and Sainte Anne de Beaupré in Québec City, Canada, since 1670.

The devotion to Sainte Anne was brought to the United States and Canada by the first missionaries of North America, who came from France at a time when St. Anne had become important through her shrine in Brittany (http://www.sainteanne-sanctuaire.com/?mode=histoire). Today, St. Anne has hundreds of churches and shrines dedicated to her in the United States and Canada and remains a popular subject of prayer and veneration.

July 27, 82AD: It is reported that Joseph of Arimathea died and was buried in the tomb he once lent to Jesus, or so the story goes. Because Jerusalem by then was destroyed as had been predicted, and the Jewish people already were exiled from their homeland by the Romans, it is a remote possibility that this report (and date) is correct as stated.

Others say that Joseph died at Glastonbury, Somersetshire, England on that date. http://www.isleofavalon.co.uk/avalon-history.html An English Tradition recounts Jesus' visit to Somersetshire as a lad and also states that Joseph of Arimathea built a church here. The last British Roman Emperor, Arthur, and his Empress, Guinevere, lived and died here, at what was already an ancient place of pagan worship. Somersetshire was home to saints, including Patrick of Irish fame, Dunstan, Benedict, David and Bridget. We need not believe that the Glastonbury legends are records of facts; but the existence of those legends has had an important unifying effect on English history.

But then again, you only need to remember the greatest of truths, the tomb was empty on that first Resurrection Sunday. See http://web.archive.org/web/20070813194628/http://www.sundayschoolcourses.com/joseph/joscont.htm

"Wherever a saint has dwelt, wherever a martyr has given his blood for the blood of Christ, There is holy ground, and the sanctity shall not depart from it Though armies trample over it, though sightseers come with guide-books looking over it; From where the western seas gnaw at the coast of Iona, To the death in the desert, the prayer in forgotten places by {next to} the broken imperial column, From this ground springs that which forever renews the earth ...." T.S. Eliot (http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2015/01/how-ts-eliot-invented-the-hipsters/384175/)

Some have said that Glastonbury was one of the places on this earth where the boundaries between history and myth, as well as tradition and legend remain unmarked. Indeed, a pilgrim today might easily be overwhelmed by the way the town has been taken over by the hucksters of a new age -- sometimes thinly veiled, and sometimes an open revival of ancient spiritism that dominated this land before Roman times. Never-the-less, a principal reason for the importance of Glastonbury, as an English Christian center, devolves from its heritage an ancient religious center. http://fullhomelydivinity.org/Glastonburytraditionsfullpage.htm

July 27, 1784: Just seven years after the first French daily was published in Paris, Courier De L’Amerique became the first French-language newspaper to be published in the United States. The paper, printed in Philadelphia (PA) served all the many citizens in that fair city of brotherly love who spoke French. It ceased operation on October 26 of that year (or at least the library has no copy of it beyond that date in 1784). L'Imprimerie de Charles Cist, & se distribue chez Boinod & Gaillard, editeurs Danie Boinod and ...???... Gaillard. It had another brief run from le 04 Decembre 1792 - le 22 Fevrier 1793 (again, the source of these dates is from the library copies that remain). One wonders if perhaps another French paper could have been printed in Charlestowne (SC) at about this time ?

July 28, 1609: Admiral George Somers shipwrecks in Bermuda. His ship was on a voyage to Virginia, the British colony founded a few years earlier -- named in tribute to the late Queen, Elizabeth. He and other survivors were presumed dead for nearly a year, but finally improvised a vessel and reached their original destination. William Strachey, secretary of the colony at Jamestowne, Virginia, later sent a letter to England that described the event. His letter is thought by many to have been an inspiration for Shakespeare’s "Tempest."

Somers almost immediately returns to Bermuda, but passes away at Virgineola - a smaller version of the Virginia settlement established on the island. For leadership, courage at sea and other skills Admiral Sir George Somers showed, the islands became the Somers Isles, which is still Bermuda's official alternate name. http://www.bermuda-online.org/sirgeorgesomers.htm

The Battle of the Summer Islands (named for Bermuda's alternate name, the Somers or Summer Islands), was a mock-heroic poem penned by the renowned English poet Edmund Waller. It was published in the first edition of his Poems in 1645.   So was the huntsman by the bear oppressed, whose hide he sold before he caught the beast .... It is the line from which we get the economic term Bear Market.

In Pgh for July 4th weekend (2010) Waller did more than write. He sat for Ilchester (Somerset) in the final Parliament under James I, for Chipping Wycombe (Buckinghamshire, which town has had a continuous representative for nearly 710 years) in the first Parliament of Charles I, for Amersham (Chiltern district in Buckinghamshire) in the third Parliament of Charles I and the Short Parliament and for St. Ives (Cambridgeshire -- Kits, Cats, Sacks and Wives; how many to St. Ives) in the Long Parliament. No Parliament was summoned from 1629 to 1640. Waller became a prominent and famous speaker in the House of Commons: at the troubles first outbreak, he took the side of the popular leaders, and took part in the opposition to ship-money. But, by 1642, he was gradually drawn closer to the party of the via media; and his parliamentary career ended, for the time, in 1643, with the discovery of his complicity in a royalist conspiracy, which became known as Waller’s plot. http://www.bartleby.com/217/0304.html

Banished from England, after being committed briefly to the Tower of London for treason in July, 1643, Waller left for France. He resided in Rouen until his sentence was revoked by Oliver Cromwell in November, 1651. Indeed, the Islands have another fascinating connection with France. The first confirmed visit to Bermuda by a Frenchman was by Captain Russel or Roussel, shipwrecked here sometime between 1560 and 1570. Because of this close encounter and other shipwrecks, the French would call them Isle of Devils http://www.bermuda-online.org/france.htm

July 28, 1935: Today the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress took wing for the first time (Model 299). Boeing did not get a primary Federal contract (for 200 bombers) because the prototype crashed; however, the US Army Air Corps (later "Air Forces") still was captivated with Boeing's design, so that they ordered thirteen (13) B-17s. The B-17 Flying Fortress overtime evolved through numerous design advances. Barely 20 years after air warfare was introduced over the fields of France, the US would have one of its primary workhorses for World War II. Its primary job became precision daylight bombing in Europe and the plane played a somewhat lesser role in the Pacific. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_B-17_Flying_Fortress

In somewhat unrelated news, the Battle of Ezra Church, also known as the Battle of Ezra Chapel or the Battle of the Poor House was fought on July 28, 1864, in Fulton County, Georgia. The battle was part of the Atlanta Campaign. Unfortunately for General Hood, he did not surprise the defenders under General Howard, who had predicted such a manœuver. Like so many other examples of officers who faced each other in battle, both men had attended West Point at the same time. So, the northern troops simply awaited Hood's offensive, in trenches behind a hastily built bulwark of logs and rails. The Confederate army attacked, but fell back before the Union's improvised breastwork. The southern forces defeated this day, still managed to keep Howard from reaching the railroad line. In all, about 3,562 men became casualties; 3,000 on the Confederate side and 562 on the Union side. Wikipedia has an English Language entry for this battle, if you want to know more.
July 29, 1786: - The first newspaper west of the Alleghenies was published. The newspaper was founded in 1786 when John Scull and Joseph Hall brought a printing press from Philadelphia and set it up in a small shop in the village which was growing up around Fort Pitt {Pittsburgh}. Originally called The Pittsburgh Gazette, it still is being published, but is now titled The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, having acquired the Pittsburgh Press, the Pittsburgh Post and one guesses a few more along the way. http://www.post-gazette.com/

July 29, 1740: From Ebenezer, an early settlement in the Georgia Colony, John Martin Boltzius recorded in his journal the different types of peaches grown in colonial Georgia:

This year God has very richly blessed our two gardens by the old torn-down cottages with peaches of all kinds, with which we can give joy and refreshment to many adults and children . . . . We did not notice in Germany whether the types of peaches were also as varied as they are here in our gardens. I believe we have over ten different kinds, all of which have a very pleasant, wholesome, and refreshing taste, but different in each fruit. Some kinds come loose from the pit and have various colors, others grow tight around the pit and are either all yellow or yellow and red, or all dark red. Some taste quite sweet, others tangy, others have a wine-like taste and pleasant sharpness, others seem to us to taste like the big plums in Germany and have externally a round, pretty appearance like apples. God be praised for this benefaction! Who could have imagined anything like it a few years ago when we were still in Old Ebenezer! We often compare the old and the present times.

Source: George Fenwick Jones and Don Savelle (ed. and trans.), Detailed Reports on the Salzburger Emigrants Who Settled in America, . . . Edited by Samuel Urlsperger (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1983), Vol. VII, pp. 190-191.

Le 29 juillet 1805: Alexis de Tocqueville est né à Paris. http://www.herodote.net/histoire04160.htm

« Les nations de nos jours ne sauraient faire que dans leur sein les conditions ne soient pas égales; mais il dépend d'elles que l'égalité les conduise à la servitude ou à la liberté, aux lumières ou à la barbarie, à la prospérité ou aux misères. »

The characteristics of the American journalist consist in an open and coarse appeal to the passions of his readers; he abandons principles to assail the characters of individuals, to track them into private life and disclose all their weaknesses and vices.

The personal opinions of the editors have no weight in the eyes of the public. What they seek in a newspaper is a knowledge of facts, and it is only by altering or distorting those facts that a journalist can contribute to the support of his own views.

The pursuit of wealth generally diverts men of great talents and strong passions from the pursuit of power; and it frequently happens that a man does not undertake to direct the fortunes of the State until he has shown himself incompetent to conduct his own. Quotes from Alexis deTocqueville -- More HERE

Many persons in France think that the violence of the press originates in the instability of the social state, in our political passions and the general feeling of uneasiness that consequently prevails; and it is therefore supposed that as soon as society has resumed a certain degree of composure, the press will abandon its present vehemence. For my own part, I would willingly attribute to these causes the extraordinary ascendancy which the press has acquired over the nation; but I do not think that they exercise much influence on its language. The periodical press appears to me to have passions and instincts of its own, independent of the circumstances in which it is placed; and the present condition of America corroborates this opinion. America is perhaps, at this moment, the country of the whole world that contains the fewest germs of revolution; but the press is not less destructive in its principles there than in France, and it displays the same violence without the same reasons for indignation http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/1_ch11.htm

Another revolution in France -- Révolution des Trois Glorieuses -- Le 27-28-29 juillet 1830: An inept ruler, King Charles X (1757-1836) inspired resentment in the French middle class and its press, especially against ultra-royalist advisers; when he directed his reactionary favorite Jules de Polignac (1780-1847) to form a new ministry, the Chamber of Deputies hotly objected. Charles' angry dismissal of the chamber (1829) turned an attempt to curb a hated functionary into the total collapse of the regime. An 1830 French election revealed even greater opposition in the chamber, and Charles again dismissed it as he and Polignac published the "July Ordinances," which established strong press controls and reduced the electorate. As usual, the Parisians revolted and blockaded the streets on July 27, 1830; among those manning the barricades were army units and former members of the National Guard disbanded in 1827. Charles acted too late in annulling the new ordinances and dismissing Polignac (July 30, 1830); the minister was arrested and condemned to life imprisonment and later (1836) amnestied. Charles fled, then abdicated in favor of a grandson; the rebels, divided into republicans favoring the Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834) and monarchists desiring the conservative Duke of Orléans, Louis-Philippe (1773-1850). They continued to argue among themselves until the dismissed bourgeois legislature declared the throne vacant and proclaimed Louis-Philippe King of the Republic of France. He later claimed for himself the title of Emperor. His ineptness led to the French Revolution of 1848 and the true Second Republic. from http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/foxtrot/france1830.htm

Le 29 juillet 1907 -- naît le mouvement Scouting, d'un mot anglais qui signifie éclaireur: Sur l'île de Brownsea, dans le Dorsetshire, le colonel Robert Baden-Powell, héros de la Guerre des Boers entraîne une vingtaine de jeunes gens à des jeux de piste. Il veut fabriquer des citoyens émérites, épanouis tant au moral qu'au physique. Son idéal connaîtra une fortune prodigieuse. Il sera aussi dévoyé par les partis totalitaires, qui créeront sur le même modèle des mouvements de jeunesse à leur dévotion. http://brownsea.org/?page=history {anglais}

July 29, 1977: The Atlanta Braves knuckle-ball hurler, Phil Niekro, struck out four Pittsburgh Pirates in one inning. Niekro became the first pitcher in Braves history (Boston, Milwaukee and Atlanta) to do so. Baseball rules provide that a batter can try to make first base, if a catcher fails to catch the ball on a batter's third strike. In such a case, if the batter reaches first base before the ball arrives, the pitcher will be credited with a strike-out, but the out does not count against the team at bat. More Baseball is here

July 30th: Saint Ursus (d. 508 AD) of Autissiodorensis (Auxerre) was bishop of that city. He had been a hermit monk at the church of Saint Amator before being elected bishop at the age of 75. It is said he was selected after he had saved the town from a fire thru his prayers. July 30th is his feast day. In 1619 at Jamestown, Virginia Colony, the premier representative assembly in the Americas, the House of Burgesses, convenes for the first time. In 1864, Union forces attempt to end the stalemate at Petersburg, Virginia by exploding a large bomb under the Confederate fortifications. The northern troops failed to capitalize on the surprise attack. On 30 July 1945, shortly after it delivered the final portion of the first atomic bomb to the US airfield at Tinian, the Imperial Japanese Navy submarine I-58 torpedoed the USS Indianapolis. It sunk in 12 minutes with great loss of life. In 1975, Union boss, Jimmy Hoffa disappeared from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox restaurant in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.

The end of July 1945 -- More to write about the "Indianapolis" incident: The Captain was court-martialed and convicted for the sinking (and loss of nearly 900 men), the only Navy leader tried for a ship loss during the Second World War. Later he was fully exonerated, but he took his own life because of the internal grief and/or guilt he felt. The heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis earned ten battle stars, including one for its participation at Iwo Jima and one for its last engagement during the bombardment of Okinawa in March 1945 during which it was struck by a kamikaze, resulting in 38 casualties (12 fatalities). Captain Charles Butler McVay III, a 1920 Naval Academy graduate and career naval officer who had taken command in November 1944, returned the ship safely to Mare Island in California for repairs, before the mission to Tinian. http://milhomme.blogspot.com/2012/06/fr-thomas-m-conway-chaplain-uss.html (a must read)

Thomas Helms, in his book, Ordeal by Sea wrote:

“Father Thomas Michael Conway swam from group to group, never stopping to rest, praying with the men, encouraging those who were frightened, trying to reason with the maddened. His faith and his prayers gave solace to many ... Father Conway, like Ensign Park, Seaman Rich and many others, burned himself out keeping up a constant patrol among the men, ministering to the dying, talking reason into others who had become momentarily deranged and calming the frightened with prayers until all at once he reached the limit of his endurance, and his life drained away.”

And so it was that on August 2, 1945, Father Conway became the last chaplain to die in combat in this war. He was awarded a Purple Heart posthumously.

More-July 30, 1619: In April, 1619, Governor General George Yeardley arrived in Virginia from England and announced that the Virginia Company had voted to abolish martial law and to establish a legislative assembly, that became the House of Burgesses — the first legislative assembly in the American colonies. The first assembly met on July 30, 1619, in the church at Jamestown. The first church on the site was constructed in 1617. It was in this church where the first Representative Legislative Assembly met, which convened there on July 30, 1619. A replacement, that was begun in 1639 remains today (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamestown_Church). Present were Governor Yeardley, Council, and 22 burgesses representing 11 plantations (or settlements) Burgesses were elected representatives.

  "But forasmuch as men's affaires doe litle prosper where God's service is neglected, all the Burgesses tooke their places in the Quire till a prayer was said by Mr. Bucke, the Minister, that it would please God to guide and sanctifie all our proceedings to his own glory and the good of this Plantation ... The Speaker ... delivered in briefe to the whole assembly the occasions of their meeting. Which done he read unto them the commission for establishing the Counsell of Estate and the general Assembly, wherein their duties were described to the life ... And forasmuch as our intente is to establish one equall and uniforme kinde of government over all Virginia &c."

– John Pory, "A Reporte of the Manner of Proceeding in the General Assembly Convented at James City" (July 30, 1619) -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_members_of_the_Virginia_House_of_Burgesses

July 31, 2015 -- 11th Annual, System Administrator Appreciation Day: Today's the day to remember -- http://www.sysadminday.com/.
July 31, 1451: French merchant prince and financier Jacques Cœur (ou Coeur) is arrested upon the order of his King, Charles VII. Cœur is accused of poisoning la maîtresse du roi, Agnès Sorel; but more seriously, for having used his trusted position in the government for personal enrichment, an unheard of practice in France. His arrest resulted in the famous French quote: «A vaillans cuers, riens impossible,» which is a pun on his name. Today the adage may be best translated: Such a valiant heart, it is not possible. Accordingly, for the many services that he had provided to his King, he was not pardoned and the substantial wealth he and his father had gathered was confiscated (1451) -- which forfeiture may explain his fate. http://www.xenophongroup.com/montjoie/j_coeur.htm. Cœur spent more than three years in jail, but finally escaped from prison into Provence. He reached Rome and was honorably received by Pope Nicholas V (1455). Jacques Cœur would die the following year in service to the Pope against the Ottoman Turks.

His Gothic palace, which was once his home, still remains, constructed over a portion of a Gallo-Roman wall that surrounds the city of Bourges. It was a precursor of the mansions of the Renaissance period. The façade on the street side and that of the main building are decorated with Jacques Cœur's coat-of-arms, plus a multitude of sculptures portraying religious themes. The residence includes a barrel-vaulted gallery, painted chapel and hall that housed Turkish-style baths.

July 31, 1777: The Marquis de Lafayette (Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier), a 19-year-old French nobleman, was made a major-general in the American Continental Army. His contributions to the American cause are well-documented. After the War he served France and avoided losing his head over the Révolution, unlike some others (Comte d'Estaing) who had helped America win its freedom. On this same date, just 23 years later, the cornerstone to the United States Mint was placed in Philadelphia. This was also the first Government Services building ever built by the Federal government.

To celebrate both these occasions in 1988, Willie Stargell became the 200th man inducted into Baseball’s Hall of Fame. Mr. Stargell had 475 career homers, twice leading the National League (NL) (48 in 1971, 44 in 1973). He drove in 1540 runs, scored 1195 and had 2232 hits with a lifetime batting average of .282, and Stargell's inspirational leadership contributed greatly to Pittsburgh Pirate "World" championships in 1971 and 1979, years when he shared National League Most Valuable Player honors. The Pirates retired his #8 (team field-shirt number) in 1982.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

At times, you may come across people who say that moral truth is relative, or call a religious faith a comforting allusion. They may question the values you learn in Scouting. But remember, lives of purpose are constructed on the conviction there is right and there is wrong, and we can know the difference.

In 2007 World Scouting celebrated its 100th year, once again in the English countryside -- A World Jamboree. The 21st World Scout Jamboree took place at Hylands Park, Chelmsford, England (July 27-August 8). In 2010, the Boy Scouts of America met for the last time in Virginia to celebrate the 100th Anniversary of Scouting in the USA (July 26 thru August 4, 2010 -- at Camp A.P. Hill). The opening arena show is always a grand production. The staff show was cancelled because of heat and potential severe storms. A new 44 cent postage stamp appeared on Tuesday July 27th at the Court of Flags at the Jamboree, celebrating 100 years of Scouting and this years theme: A Century of Scouting. See http://scouting.org/100years/100years/100YearsStamp.aspx and http://www.bsajamboree.org/ The next Jamboree already is being promoted. It will be held in West Virginia on land recently given to the Scouts. This will be the new permanent location.

The 2017 US Jamboree will be held at its permanent home in West Virginia, with the official beginning on July 19th.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes!

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

A total solar eclipse will occur on August 2, 2027. The path of the eclipse will pass over all the countries of north Africa and the middle east. It will not be seen as a full eclipse in the Holy Land, but will be viewable in Mecca. Some have seen this day as the day of the Great Earthquake that splits the Mount of Olives. http://www.august2nd2027.com/ And, of course, a great eclipse will appear over North America on August 21st of 2017.

... the mountain of the Lord’s temple will be established as the highest of the mountains;
it will be exalted above the hills, and peoples will stream to it ....

... {but} for now you must leave the city to camp in the open field.
You will go to Babylon;
{but} there you will be rescued.
There the Lord will redeem you out of the hand of your enemies ....

see Micah 4:1-5:1

Micah also rebuked his government, because of its dishonesty in the marketplace and corruption in its officials. While he prophesied destruction, Micah also told them what the LORD required of them:

He hath shewed thee, O man, what is good;
and what doth the LORD require of thee,
but to do justly, and to love mercy,
and to walk humbly with thy God? — Micah 6:8

Micah'is prophetic service began around the year 778 B.C. and continued for almost 50 years under the kings of Judah: Jotham, Ahaz, and Righteous Hezekiah (721-691 B.C. - August 28th). He is commemorated with the other minor prophets in the Calendar of Saints (Armenian Apostolic Church) on July 31st. In the Eastern Orthodox Church he is commemorated twice in the year. The first feast day is January 5 (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, January 5th currently falls on January 18th of the modern Gregorian Calendar). Because January 5th is also the Eve of the Epiphany, his major celebration is on August 14th (which is also the forefeast of the Dormition (the death of Mary-her falling asleep in the Lord).

August 25, 325: The first Council of Nicæa ended with adoption of the Nicene Creed. http://web.archive.org/web/20071031045332/http://www.piar.hu/councils/ecum01.htm It may be assumed that the synod, having been convoked for May 20th, in the absence of the Emperor held meetings of a less solemn character until June 14th, when the Council was opened by Constantine the Great in more solemn form. After the Emperor's arrival, the sessions, properly so called, began. The Council formulated the symbol on the 19th of June, after which various matters - such as the paschal controversy (date to celebrate) - were dealt with. The sessions came to an end on 25 August. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Council_of_Nicaea

The Nicene Creed (Greek: Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας or τῆς πίστεως, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) -- The belief of the Western Church finds succinct expression in this profession of Faith or Credo called the Nicene Creed: I BELIEVE in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, And of all things visible and invisible:

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God; Begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of very God; Begotten, not made; Being of one substance with the Father; By whom all things were made: Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, And was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, And was made man: And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; He suffered and was buried: And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures: And ascended into heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of the Father: And he shall come again, with glory, to judge both the quick and the dead; Whose kingdom shall have no end.

And I believe in the Holy Ghost, The Lord, and Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son; Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; Who spake by the Prophets: And I believe one Catholic and Apostolic Church: I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins: And I look for the Resurrection of the dead: And the Life of the world to come. Amen. see http://www.spurgeon.org/~phil/creeds/nicene.htm

Bithynia, Nicaea in Bitthynia ARICTWN MEG in two lines within city walls of Nicaea, NIKAIE/WN in ex-gate clearly visible CREDO in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, factorem cæli et terrae, visibilium omnium, et invisibilium.

Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum. Et ex Patre natum ante omnia sæcula. Deum de Deo, Lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum, non factum, consubstantialem Patri: per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines, et propter nostram salutem descendit de cælis. Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine: Et homo factus est. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis: sub Pontio Pilato passus, et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die, secundum Scripturas. Et ascendit in cælum: sedet ad dexteram Patris. Et iterum venturus est cum gloria, judicare vivos et mortuos: cuius regni non erit finis.

Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum, et vivificantem: qui ex Patre Filioque procedit. Qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur, et conglorificatur: qui locutus est per Prophetas. Et unam sanctam catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum. Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum. Et vitam venturi sæculi futuri. Amen. http://www.earlychurchtexts.com/public/nicene_creed.htm

In the Roman Rite Mass, the Latin text of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, with Deum de Deo (God from God) and Filioque (and from the Son), phrases absent in the original text, was previously the only form used for the "profession of faith". The Roman Missal now refers to it jointly with the Apostles' Creed as "the Symbol or Profession of Faith or Creed", describing the second as the baptismal Symbol of the Roman Church, known as the Apostles' Creed. The liturgies of the ancient Churches of Eastern Christianity (Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, Assyrian Church of the East and the Eastern Catholic Churches), use the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, never the Western Apostles' Creed.

While in certain places where the Byzantine Rite is used, the choir or congregation sings the Creed at the Divine Liturgy, in many places the Creed is typically recited by the cantor, who in this capacity represents the whole congregation although many, and sometimes all, members of the congregation may join in rhythmic recitation. Where the latter is the practice, it is customary to invite, as a token of honor, any prominent lay member of the congregation who happens to be present, e.g., royalty, a visiting dignitary, the Mayor, etc., to recite the Creed in lieu of the cantor. This practice stems from the tradition that the prerogative to recite the Creed belonged to the Emperor, speaking for his populace. Some evangelical and other Christians consider the Nicene Creed helpful and to a certain extent authoritative, but not infallibly so in view of their belief that only Scripture is truly authoritative. Other groups, such as the Church of the New Jerusalem, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and the Jehovah's Witnesses explicitly reject some of the statements in the Creed.

Mortem tuam annuntiamus, Domine, et tuam resurrectionem confitemur, donec venias. see http://www.davidscottwritings.com/CPStudyGuide8.html

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

August 1, 10BC: On this day in Lugdunum today's Lyon], Gaul, was born Claudius Cæsar Tiberius Drusus Nero Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and grandson of the wife of Augustus. He became emperor after Caligula. Julius Cæsar founded Roman Lugdunum, when he subdued the Gaulois, at the confluence of the Rhône and Saône rivers, overlooking a native celtic village. Modern Lyon encompasses these two towns and much more.

Glastonbury Claudius ruled from 41-54 AD. He built many buildings and public works, for example the harbor at Ostia (ancient port for Rome). He was interested in the judicial system and spent much of his time judging trials. He set in motion the successful conquest of Britain, where the other two attempts by Julius Cæsar and Caligula had failed. Never-the-less, Britain's distance and expense to rule weighed heavily on Roman tax receipts. Claudius died, probably from poison, by the hand of his 4th wife, the mother of Nero.
The BBC's Masterpiece Theatre made the lives of the early Roman rulers highly accessible to the public TV audience. For some years, the third Julian Emperor, known as Tiberius, ran the Roman Empire through Lucius Aelius Sejanus, the head (Prefect) of the Prætorian Guard (Praetorian Præfectus), an elite unit formed first by Augustus for personal protection. Sejanus tried to take too much power, especially after he became Consul. He had made too many enemies and met an untimely end when Tiberius found out about Sejanus' ultimate plot to sieze the throne. A young actor, Patrick Stewart, portrayed Sejanus for several episodes on BBC's classic tale of Roman intrigue -- I, Claudius (1976), named for the first book in a series authored by Robert Graves. Interesting side note: On August 1, 1971 Masterpiece Theatre's 6 Wives of Henry VIII aired on US TV for the first time. On the same day, exactly 10 years later, the rock 'n' role music-video cable channel MTV made its debut. Video Killed the Radio Star, by the Buggles, was the first piece shown.

From http://asis.com/~stag/paulbrit.html we read:

Arviragus, a British King is given Venius Julia, Emperor Claudius' daughter, at peace negotiations in Rome during a six month hiatus of hostilities. Gladys Pomponia Græcina, the sister of Caradoc, Pendragon and Military Dictator of England, marries Aulus Plautius, supreme commander of the Roman forces in England. Gladys-Claudia, the daughter of Caradoc, is not only adopted by Emperor Claudius after her father's defeat, but marries Rufus Pudens, the aide-de-camp of the Roman Commander, Aulus Plautius. Of Caradoc's family, four generations were taken captive to Rome, when he was betrayed by his cousin Aricia, Queen of the Brigantes. Caradoc and his family establish residence at the Palatium Britanicum (Palace of the British) nearby to the Emperor Claudius' home. The Apostle Paul spent his time in Rome at the home of Caradoc's mother or at the Palatium Britanicum, which by then had become a Christian sanctuary. Saint Paul taught the children of Claudia and Pudens, and ordained Caradoc's son, Linus, as first Bishop of Rome; however, they suffer martyrdom under Nero. see also http://asis.com/~stag/x2consta.html

Also from http://asis.com/~stag/roylsoap.html, we learn more of this history, plus the Roman ties of today's royal family, not to mention the ties to Julia, the sister of Julius Cæsar, grandmother of Augustus Cæsar (http://www.angelfire.com/ego/et_deo/empire2britain.wps.htm) nor even the ties from Cleopatra http://www.angelfire.com/ego/et_deo/egypt2britain.wps.htm.

It is said that King Arviragus was confirmed in his faith by Joeseph of Arimathea (37AD) http://celts.org.uk/. As mentioned above, his wife, Venus (Venissa Julia Iceni), was the blood-daughter of Claudius and herself descendant of the founders of Rome and City of Troy. Their children include Queen Boudicca (Boadicea) of the Iceni, who will later lead a revolt against Roman rule (grandmother to King Cloius I (Cœl) "Old King Cole" of Britain). Generatons will pass but her descendant is King Clovis I "The Great" (Chlodovech ) of the Franks, and later Charlemagne, by different children of Clodius, the Long Haired, of the Franks and his consort Basina de Thuringia.

August 02, 216BC: Hannibal Barca of Carthage won his greatest victory over the Romans at Cannæ. Hannibal had seized a grain depot in the small village of Cannæ hoping to lure the Roman forces into battle. Having crossed over the Alps, Hannibal had defeated the Romans at the Trebia River and also at Lake Trasimene. Therefore, the Romans were unwilling to commit any large force into attacking Hannibal. However, Hannibal‘s spies had learned two Roman consuls shared command of the legions and attempted to goad the more impetuous of the two into battle. For most of the next century Rome and Carthage would fight four wars, known as the Punic Wars. The capital city of Carthage would be destroyed and northern Africa would become a Roman Province. http://www.herodote.net/264_a_146_avant_JC-synthese-134.php -- Map here toward the bottom of the page.

Utica, the Punic city which changed loyalties at the beginning of the siege of Carthage 70 years later, became the capital of the Roman province of Africa when Carthage was systematically burned. A century later, the site of Carthage was rebuilt as a Roman city by Julius Caesar, and would later become one of the main cities of Roman Africa by the time of the Empire. The area had become the breadbasket of Rome. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Punic_War

August 2nd: This date would see the first general civil war break out in France (the Jacquerie 1358); Henri III, is assassinated by Jacques Clément (stabbed August 1, 1589); Napoléon Bonaparte becomes Consul for Life (1802) and l'Empire has begun. England becomes the protector of Egypt in 1882; the first day of hostilities takes place along the border (at Belfort) between France and Germany (1914) and the Allies set the new German borders after the end of World War II at Potsdam (1945).

Notable birth on August 2nd: At the City of Colmar, 1834, Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, in the disputed Alsace region of France. Best known as the sculptor of the Statue of Liberty he also designed, inter alia, the Lion of Belfort. Bartholdi passed away October 4, 1904 in Paris.

Isabella & Columbus August 3, 1492: Christopher Columbus sets sail from Spain looking for the Indies. In part driven by a quest for gold and glory, he also saw himself as a missionary. Columbus departed Palos, Spain, in the Santa Maria, with the Pinta and the Nina on a voyage that would take him to the present-day Americas. A forgotten Italian, Christopher Columbus, died in Spain at age 55. Columbus, then impoverished, initially was interred within the monastery at Valladolid. Reports that he stopped moving after his demise are greatly exaggerated. More HERE

August 3, 1914: Today marks the third day of the European Great War, known better today as World War I, which began with the assassination of the Archduke of the Empire of Austria-Hungry at Sarajevo on June 28th by a Serbian. This drew Russia into the fray as a fellow-slavic nation coming to the aid of another. Germany soon would declare war on Russia on August 1st and on France on the 3rd. Later declarations and hostilities would follow http://www.herodote.net/histoire08010.htm. Independence for the Balken states had ended. Once separate kingdoms, after World War I were merged into a newly formed Yugoslavia. It was not until the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of chaos that followed, that some of the nations reemerged.

Hostilities broke out near Belfort on August 2nd; but, Germany attacked through neutral Belgium (as it did again in 1939). The French had prepared for a traditional assault through the Ardennes and Lorraine. In a few weeks, hundreds of thousands lay dead. In a month, the French capital was moved from Paris to Bordeaux as the Germans now threatened the city of light.

August 4, 1792: In contravention of the Declaration of the Rights of Man, by order of progressive revolutionaries, all houses of worship are closed in the Republic of France on this day. http://chi.gospelcom.net/DAILYF/2001/08/daily-08-04-2001.shtml Just three years earlier, the upper segments of society had been forced to give up their privileges; http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_archives/kropotkin/frenchrev/xvii.html and, there were other changes, too, including the abolition of mandatory tithes (10%) to the Catholic Church. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/august4.html The year of Terror was just ahead as the Révolution continued. Some churches would reopen as temples dedicated to humanism, some would be destroyed, others just desecrated and / or put to secular use -- many later reopened as Parish churches in the 1800's.

The French Declaration of 1789 is not simply a copy of the American Declaration of Independence, it takes as a starting point the reflexions of the philosophy of the Enlightenment and in particular of authors like Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau. Admittedly, the US document had a great influence on the French; but, the originality of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was conceived to recognize eternal and universal values. It thus had, after its publication, a great repercussion on the Western thought.

Moreover, the powerful aspiration to equality, inherited from the Enlightenment philosophy of Rousseau, stands out as the most resonant principle of the Declaration and following revolutionary movements. Unfortunately, because of the troubles during the Reformation and its repression supported by the Catholic powers, the "enlightened ones" had in France an anti-religious fervor (which they have bequeathed down through the ages). Never-the-less "equality" is the most enduring, original characteristic of the French Revolution, within the great sweep of political change which first radiated from the shores of the United States.

Caveat Emptor: One risks a serious error in judgment to take an isolated event out of context. Relying on only one source (such as this) to explain an event only heightens that risk. The storming of the Bastille evokes man's pride of self-accomplishment: the throwing-off of the yoke of tyranny. Indeed the event still is glorified today; but, it has another side. Tyranny is not just about cruelty or oppression. It is the rule by persons who lack legitimacy, even if initially benevolent (and most writers of history would argue that the benevolent become malevolent in order to maintain power).

Tous les gouvernements ont tendance à abuser des principes sur lesquels ils reposent.
La monarchie, gouvernement d’un seul a tendance à dégénérer en tyrannie.
L’aristocratie, gouvernement des meilleurs, a tendance à devenir oligarchie, gouvernement de quelques-uns uns.
La démocratie, gouvernement du peuple, a tendance à devenir démagogie.


One can argue from the "classical" sources, however, that tyranacide is only used as a last resort, and only when the likelihood of success is very high, and only if the government that replaces the tyrant is assured to be better. This is because there is value to public order, even under a tyranny. Revolution tends toward chaos and anarchy, unless human nature is soon held in check by the new regime.

The leaders of the French Revolution threw off a long-established institution, a partnership of state and church, which they thought had no continuing claim to be legitimate. They replaced it with a secular experimental model that became (eventually) far worse. Why did this occur? Perhaps, the "First Republic" had insufficient checks and balances. Perhaps, the founding principles (the Declaration of the Rights of Man) were faulty, based on incorrect assumptions, lacking a firm foundation. In contrast the United States government remains today, eventhough it may at times seem frail. The US Declaration of Independence says much about the original causes of separation from the British monarch, Parliament and the establishment of a more legitimate representative government. American (Federal) leadership, since 1789, has always had an unbroken record of accountability, through the framework of a written, observed Constitution. It, of course, calls for the regular election of key officials, who represent the people. More important is the division of powers among branches and persons. The Constitution avoids a concentration of powers in the hands of a few persons who could, over time, abuse those powers.

The storming of the Bastille had set off a chain of events. It deserves celebration in remembrance of all that occurred. It is not just a symbol of freedom, but a warning about the dangers of revolution. Do you disagree? Des suggestions d'amélioration sont bienvenues.
August 5, 642: King Oswald's death came in battle. The pagan ruler, Penda of Mercia (a kingdom in what is today the English Midlands), who had earlier defeated Edwin, raised an army and met Oswald with overwhelming forces. Surrounded by enemies, Oswald prayed one last prayer -- for God's mercy on the souls of his soldiers. He was considered a martyr because he died at the hand of a pagan while defending a Christian nation. He was named a Saint, set-apart for God's work. See our article on Saint Aidan below. Penda was the last great pagan warrior-king among the Anglo-Saxons. Higham wrote that his destruction sounded the death-knell of English paganism as a political ideology and public religion. After Penda's death, the Mercian tribes were converted to Christianity, and all three of Penda's reigning sons ruled as Christians. Five daughters became Saintes. http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/adversaries/bios/penda.html.

August 5, 1789: Full of expectation, elected members of the government of a now United States were in session and working in a hot, muggy New York City. For the first time, the Senate refused to confirm a presidential appointee, ignoring the budding concept of senatorial courtesy, The first US President, George Washington, had nominated Benjamin Fishbourn to the post of Naval Officer for the Port of Savannah without clearing his choice with Georgia's two senators. Favoring another candidate, who was a member of their own political circle, these two men engineered Officer Fishbourn's rejection. Two days later, the Washington conveyed his irritation to the Senate. Permit me to submit to your consideration whether on occasions where the propriety of Nominations appear questionable to you, it would not be expedient to communicate that circumstance to me, and thereby avail yourselves of the information which led me to make them, and which I would with pleasure lay before you. http://web.archive.org/web/20080401042712/http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/e-resources/ebooks/records/824.html

Contemporaneously, the reports of savage violence that broke out in France during July, 1789, shocked Thomas Jefferson, who was at his post as the American representative to France; but, reactionary conflict did not undermine his belief in the essential rightness of the cause or the ultimate triumph of its progressive principles. He remained optimistic about the prospect for an enduring and peaceful political settlement. He seemed oblivious (or at least silent) to the deep, irreconcilable and anti-religious class hatred that drove the mobs. Repeatedly, Jefferson expressed a belief that the worst of the slaughter had passed. The future looked bright to him. He wrote on August 5, 1789, the National Assembly [of popular representatives] are wise, firm and moderate. They will establish the English constitution, purged of its numerous and capital defects. Jefferson also began to express his belief in the benefits of periodic revolutions -- at generational intervals of about 19 years. http://www.futurecasts.com/Ellis, Jefferson, American Sphinx.htm

According to the US Treasury, also on this date (August 5, 1789), the brigantine Persis, which arrived at the port of New York from Leghorn, Italy (Livorno is a port city astride the Ligurian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany), had the honour of being the first vessel to be affected by the Tariff Act of July 4, 1789. The duty collected amounted to $774.71 (which was worth about 50 ounces in gold coin). The US Customs Service virtually provided the country its only direct source revenue from 1789 to 1913, until the 16th Amendment to the US Constitution, the reason for the income tax being a popular revenue source today.

The land of Persis was located in what is now southern Iran. Persians settled the area as early as the 8th century B.C. Alexander the Great gained control of Persis, and after his death it became part of the Seleucid Kingdom. About 290 B.C. Persis regained independence. Coinage during this period reflected Greek heritage, but inscriptions were in Aramaic script. Sometime between c. 250 and 223 B.C., the Seleucids took control once more. King Mithradates II later incorporated Persis as a sub-kingdom of Parthia. Under Parthian domination, the coins and depicted rulers assumed a Parthian style. The last King of Persis, Artaxerxes (Artâkhshatra-Ardshir), defeated the Parthians in the 3rd century AD and founded the Sassanian Empire. He also established Zoroastrianism as the state religion. http://www.forumancientcoins.com/Roman-Coins.asp?e=Kingdom_of_Persis&par=775&pos=1&target=54 He should not be confused with Artaxerxes (meaning "righteous ruler") who was a Persian king who initially obstructed the rebuilding of the Temple at Jerusalem (Ezra 4:7). Fourteen years later, he permitted Nehemiah to return and rebuild Jerusalem.

Raphael -- picture sometimes will not load A great light was seen -- August 6th -- C'est sa fête -- Transfiguration du Seigneur: Cette fête commémore un événement que rapportent les évangélistes Marc, Matthieu et Luc. Jésus, un jour, se fit accompagner par ses disciples Jacques, Jean et Pierre au sommet d'une montagne. Et là, les trois disciples virent le Christ dans un vêtement blanc resplendissant, entouré de deux hommes dans lesquels ils reconnurent les prophètes de l'Ancien Testament Moïse et Élie. Une nuée descendit du ciel et une voix proclama: « Celui-ci est mon Fils bien-aimé, c'est lui qu'il faut écouter ».

Sainte lumière, splendeur du Père, louange à toi, Jésus Christ !
Venez, crions de joie pour le Seigneur,
acclamons notre Rocher, notre salut !
Allons jusqu'à lui en rendant grâce,
par nos hymnes de fête acclamons-le !
Car le Seigneur est un grand Dieu,
et un grand Roi au-dessus de tous les autres.
Psaume 94 (d'invitatoire: v. 1-3)

Les cieux ont proclamé Sa justice,
et tous les peuples ont vu Sa gloire.
Tu es, Seigneur, le Très-Haut sur toute la terre,
Tu domines de haut tous les dieux.
Psaume 96
Come on, shout with joy for the Lord;
Acclaim the Rock of our Salvation!
Come to Him giving thanks,
Our festive hymns hail Him !
For the Lord is a great God,
and a great King above all others.
- Psalm 95 (the Invitatory: v. 1-3)

The heavens have declared His Justice
and all people have seen His Glory.
You, Lord, are the Most High over all the earth,
You are exalted above all others. - from Psalm 97

About a week after His sojourn in Cæsarea Philippi, Jesus took with him Peter and James and John and led them to a high mountain apart, where He was transformed before their eyes. Saints Matthew and Mark express this phenomenon by the word metemorphothe, which the Latin Vulgate renders as transfiguratus est. The Synoptic gospels more clearly explain the full meaning of the word by adding his face did shine as the sun and his garments became white as snow, according to the Vulgate, or as light, according to the original Greek text -- the luminosity coming from within -- a glimpse of the divine nature.

In the fourth century AD, Mount Thabor, the acknowledged as the scene of Christ's Transfiguration (near Nazereth), became a place of pilgrimage and was surmounted by a basilica and several churches and chapels. In 1101 the Benedictine monks rebuilt these edifices and constructed a fortified abbey, later destroyed the Saracens (1187). They in turn built (1210-12) a large fortress that the Crusaders attacked in vain (1217). The plateau of Mount Thabor is now occupied by Franciscans and Schismatic Greek monks. http://home.newadvent.org/cathen/14551a.htm

The Feast of the Transfiguration is a very ancient one in the Christian East. It very early was fixed to August 6th in midsummer (August 19th is the feast of the Transfiguration for the Russian Orthodox Church). In the tenth century, the same day became, by decision of the emperor, a statutory holiday throughout the Byzantine empire. In the West, after long being a locally recognized holiday, it was made a universal celebration after the Christian victory that stopped the Turkish advance into Europe (1456). The liturgical date of celebration was determined by the practice of the Eastern Churches. Along with the Baptism of Christ, it is a feast of Theophany, that is to say, the manifestation of Christ as Son of God. It is celebrated today by the Church of the West and all eastern denominations of Byzantine, Syrian and Coptic. The Armenian Church celebrates the feast on the next Sunday following the 6th.

Au moment de commencer sa montée vers sa Passion, Jésus prend avec lui Pierre, Jacques et Jean et les emmène sur une montagne, le mont Thabor selon la tradition. Là, il est transfiguré devant eux et reçoit du Père ce témoignage: "Celui-ci est mon Fils bien-aimé." Au jardin des Oliviers, au soir de son arrestation, ce sont les mêmes, Pierre, Jacques et Jean, que Jésus prendra avec lui. Ce n'est pas une coïncidence. Ceux qui allaient le voir défiguré ("il n'avait plus figure humaine" avait annoncé le prophète Isaïe) ce sont eux qui devaient, auparavant, l'avoir vu transfiguré: le Jésus Fils de Dieu est le même que le Jésus crucifié. La fête de la Transfiguration est très ancienne dans l'Orient chrétien. Elle fut très tôt fixée au 6 août, en plein été (Le 19 août, c'est la fête de la Transfiguration pour l'église orthodoxe russe). Au Xe siècle, elle devint même, par décision de l'empereur, fête chômée dans tout l'empire byzantin. En Occident, après avoir été longtemps fête locale, elle fut constituée fête universelle après la victoire qui stoppa l'avance turque en 1456. La date liturgique de sa célébration fut choisie d'après la pratique des églises orientales. Avec le Baptême du Christ, c'est une fête de théophanie, c'est-à-dire de manifestation du Christ comme Fils de Dieu. Elle est célébrée en ce jour par l'église d'Occident et tous les Orientaux byzantins, syriens et coptes. L'église arménienne la reporte au dimanche suivant. see also http://www.biblelieux.com/mont_thabor.htm

August 7, 1928: The vanishing dollar, or more correctly, the new shrinking bill. Paper money, one third smaller than previous issues, began to be released by the U.S. Treasury Department. The $1 denomination of 1928 would be worth about $11-20 in terms of today's purchasing power. A handful ($100) in common circulated US Gold Coins in 1928 would be worth at least 70 times as much ($7000) in 2014.


Federal Reserve Note backed by US Debt

United States Note & Gold-backed Note

Certificate Backed by Silver (when issued)

History is full of Irony August 8, 1792: If peace cannot be maintained with honor, it is no longer peace. -- Lord John Russell for whom the Russell Square was named. For those of you who have forgotten, that was where one of the London bombs went off on July 7, 2005. John Russell was born on August 8, 1792, the third son of the sixth Duke of Bedford. Russell went to the Westminster School and the University of Edinburgh. As prime minister, his government's efforts to prevent widespread starvation from the Irish potato famine of 1846-1847 were ineffective. During this first term (1846-1852), he helped pass legislation limiting working hours in factories in the Factory Act of 1847, and was responsible for the passing of the Public Health Act of 1848. This ministry also ended restrictions on colonial trade by repealing the Navigation Acts in 1849. http://www.victorianweb.org/history/pms/russell.html

August 8, 1945: President Truman signed the United Nations Charter; in the meantime, the Soviet Union had declared war against Imperial Japan and launched the Manchurian Strategic Offensive (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция - Operation August Storm as it is called in the US) against the Japanese Imperial forces occupying Northeast China. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_invasion_of_Manchuria While the Soviets established a communist-style peoples' republic in North Korea (which continues to plague us today), the U.S had devastated Hiroshima on August 6th: A auspicious beginning to the UN's peacekeeping mission.

August 9-near Paris, 1754: Pierre Charles L’Enfant, an architect, engineer, American Revolutionary War officer, was born at Anet (near Dreux) in the province of Eure-et-Loir. Today's chief attraction there is the Château d'Anet was built in the middle of the 16th century by Henry II. for Diana of Poitiers. Near it is the plain of Ivry-la-Bataille, where soon to be King Henry IV defeated the armies of the Catholic League on March 14, 1590. But I digress.

L’Enfant planned the layout of the District of Columbia (City of Washington, the Nation's Capital). L'Enfant was wounded while leading troops in the attack on British-held Savannah (9 October 1779). He was taken to Charleston, S.C. to recover. Leaving his sick-bed, L'Enfant participated in the defense of the city during the British siege in 1780. He was taken prisoner when the city surrendered on 12 May 1780. L'Enfant was not released until Rochambeau arranged for his exchange in January 1782. Returning to Philadelphia in May 1782, l'Enfant was breveted Major in the American Army. http://xenophongroup.com/mcjoynt/volunt.htm He died June 14, 1825, and is now buried in Arlington National Cemetery (1909). http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/l-enfant.htm

More of August is HERE.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure: http://www.catholic-convert.com/

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from (original URL may have changed):
http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-jan.htm -- http://timelines.ws/days/01_01.HTML -- http://www.herodote.net/jour0101.htm -- http://www.440.com/twtd/archives/jan01.html -- http://www.treas.gov/education/history/events/01-jan.shtml -- http://missel.free.fr/calendrier.php?mois=1&annee=2010 -- http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/features/twich/01.html -- http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Jan1.html

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December

More Flags -- Flag Day
Early GA Flag Gwenn Ha Du 
qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at that moment.