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The  VANGUARD --   2016

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit"

 
We begin our 20th Year online in May 2016
". . . One Nation under God . . . ."



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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links
Luxembourg

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage -- Irish Copper Colonial Coinage (US)

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- http://www.au-chateau.com/auChateauNews80.php (New: Summer 2016 )

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3
Passover - Pesach


« Il n'y a ni hommes ni femmes, ni Juifs ni Grecs, ni hommes libres ni esclaves,
vous êtes tous un en Jésus-Christ » (Saint Paul, Épître aux Galates)


Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !
This is none other than the dwelling place of God, and this is the Gate of Heaven
This is the Gate of the Lord, the Righteous shall enter into it


And, on the last day, I know that I shall stand, in my own flesh, and see God, my Redeemer [Job 19:25-27].
lumen ad revelationem gentium et gloriam plebis tuæ Israhel

The pre-Lenten Season begins February 12, 2017:

Lord, teach me Your paths, let me discover Thy course. Direct me to Your truth, instruct me, for Thou art the Lord, who saves. Remember, Lord, Your mercy, for Your love is everlasting. Forget my rebellion, the faults of my immaturity, for Your love, forget me not. He is right, He is good the Lord, He who reveals to transgressors the Way. His justice guides the humble, for He teaches the humble His Way [Psalm 25].
TURN ye even to Me with all your heart, and with fasting, and with weeping, and with mourning: [So] rend your heart, and not your garments, and turn unto the LORD your God: for the Lord God is gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness ... [Joel 2:12-13] They shall bear Thee up in their hands so that Thou dash not [even] Thy foot upon stones; You shall trample on the viper and the scorpion, You will overwhelm the lion and the dragon. "Because [like a little one] he clings to Me, I will deliver him I protect him, for he knows My name. He calls Me, and I answer him; I am with him in his ordeal [Psalm 91]."
And when the chamberlain {steward} tasted the water that had become wine, without knowing from where the wine was drawn (although the servers who had fetched the water knew), the steward called the groom and said to him, “Everyone serves good wine first, and then (when people have drunk freely), an inferior one; but, you have kept the good wine until now [John 2:9-10 ].”
Arise, shine; for your light has come,
and the Glory of the Lord has risen upon you {Jerusalem}
[Isaiah 60:1].

February 23, 155 (oldstyle (traditional) date): Saint Polycarp, a Bishop of Smyrna, dies a martyr. Reportedly a direct disciple of the Apostle John, Polycarp sent out apostles to found other churches like the one at Lyon. At age 86, he was condemned to be burned at the stake. It is written that Polycarp said upon his death pyre: You try to frighten me with fire that burns for an hour and forget the fire of hell that never burns out ! The flames, tradition says, would not touch him, and when Polycarp was run through with a sword, his blood killed the fire. (Eusèbe, Histoire eccl. (Pères apostoliques), 1. V, c. XX) http://missel.free.fr/Sanctoral/02/23.php

Venez-le,
[devant l'Autel de Dieu]
Crions de joie pour le Seigneur,
Acclamons notre Rocher, notre Salut !
Approchons devant lui en rendant grâce,
Par nos chants et nos hymnes,
[Nous] acclamons-tu !
{Psaume 94}
{So let us} come
{before the Alter of the Lord},
Cry out with joy for the Lord,
Hail our Rock, our Salvation !
Approach Him with thanksgiving,
With our songs and hymns, let us hail [extol] Him !
(Psalm 95 (eng numbering))

Saint Polycarp, who served as the bishop of the Church at Smyrna (modern day Izmir) He is recognized as one of three Church Fathers with a direct tie to an Apostle (in his case as noted above, John). Some assert that Polycarp suffered his martyrdom on the 22nd of February, but it is variously celebrated on the 23rd or in January on the 26th; moreover, the year of death also is a topic of dispute. Polycarp is regarded as a Saint in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran Churches. Irenæus, who remembered him from his youth, said of him; "a man who was of much greater weight, and a more steadfast witness of truth, than Valentinus, and Marcion, and the rest of the heretics." This is the same Saint Irenæus, Bishop of Lyon, who received a copy of a letter about Polycarp traced to the Church of Smyrna. One can further trace the cultus of Saint Polycarp to Lyons. It is said, but not proved, that his relics left Smyrna: reliquiæ ejus Lugduni in crypta habentur. Google has an entire book on file on Polycarp's life from 1898 (NY edition of London print) by Rev. Blomfield Jacksn, which contains many well-researched references:

Lucian, the witty litterateur of Samosata, writing circa A.D. 165-170 is one such source. Bishop Lightfoot (Apost. Fathers, II. i. p. 606) enumerates the possible references to the martyrdom of Polycarp in the satire on the "Death of Peregrinus," who committed suicide at the Olympic Games of A.D. 165. Salient points are (i) the lighting of the pyre with torches and fagots, (ii) the stripping off the clothes, (iii) the prayer on the pyre, (iv) the comparison with a baking and, (v) the eagerness of the crowd for his relics. Google Books Link is HERE

.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

February 24, 616: I have chosen the pictured Saxon gold coin to represent this day in history, exactly 1400 years ago (in 2016). On February 24, 616, the Jute kingdom of Kent sat in the southeast corner of England. The Christian Gospel arrived in Roman Britain well before 200AD. There are even mystic visions of its arrival in the first century. The Celtic and other peoples of the Isle were largely Christian within a century. Another 100 years passed, and even though the Island was no longer in contact with the greater Roman Empire, the population considered itself Roman. The ensuing years brought chaos from the invasions of pagan tribes from the north, the west and across the seas in the east. Christianity remained and eventually took hold in the pagan tribes. as Roman Britain was forged into Anglo Saxon England. In 597 a delegation of monks sent from Rome, arrived there with Augustine (d. 26 May 605 -- not Augustine of Hippo (28 August 430)) at the head.

During the 5th Century, southeastern Britain (what we now call England) had seen the influx of the non-believing Anglo-Saxons (Angles, Saxons and Jutes, tribes from the germanic coastlands of Europe). They subdued the Christian Romans, causing migrations north, west, as well as, south to France (Bretons). As a result, Celtic missionaries entering England from Ireland and Scotland / Northumbria began the reconversion of England along with Roman Catholic missionaries from Europe in the south and east of the Isle near Canterbury.

Æthlebert {Ethlebert or Eadbald -- the, great-grandson of Hengist, the "mythic" first Saxon conqueror of Britain}, the king of Kent, was a pagan, but his wife Bertha, the Frankish princess of Paris, was Christian. This princess of Paris was the daughter of Charibert I, King of the Paris-Franks and Ingoberge. Gregory of Tours was a close acquaintance of Bertha's mother, Ingoberge. In his history of the Franks, Gregory twice calls Æthelbert a man of Kent, meaning that Æthelbert had not become king at the time of their marriage. Charibert I was the grandson of Louis I (Chlodovech I, the Great King of the Franks) the first French Christian King and Ste. Chlotilde, a Princess of (greater) Burgundy.

Æthelbert listened to the invitation to convert given by Augustine's party. He decided to remain in the religion of his fathers, but gave the delegation a plot of ground to build a church. Their efforts converted some 10 thousand of his subjects within 4 years. King Æthelbert was baptized, built the cathedral of Saint Andrew in Rochester and the monastery of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (later the cathedral of Saint Augustine) at Canterbury. All this influenced the conversion of King Sabert of the East Saxons, in whose territory he built the church of Saint Paul, London. This king of Kent died on February 24 616; but because that is the Feast of Matthias the Apostle, Æthelbert's death is commemorated on the 25th of February. http://elvis.rowan.edu/~kilroy/JEK/02/25.html

Æthelberg, the daughter of Bertha and Æthlebert, and wife of Edwin ( or Æduini of Northumbria), founded and was abbess at Lyming. Æthelberg was instrumental in the conversion of her husband Edwin (April 12, 627) and the region, through the preaching of Paulinus. In Book 2 of Bede's work on the history of the Church in England, Chapter 20, we have a dramatic climax with the overthrow and death of Edwin at the battle of Hatfield (October 12, 632 A.D.); the devastation of Northumbria by the British king, Cædwalla, and Penda of Mercia; and the flight of Æthelberg and her daughter Ænflæd, taking with her Paulinus, to Kent to take refuge with her brother, Ædbald, the new King of Kent. If we have counted correctly, Ædbald is only 7 generations removed from Egbert {He was first King of Wessex in 800; but, he reduced the other kingdoms and rendered them dependent upon him by 829 and thus may be considered the first sovereign ruler of all England}, making all of them our relations, through the West family of early Virginia -- and it stretches back even beyond to inter alia Nero Claudius Germanicus Drusus of Rome, father of the Roman Emperor born August 1 in Lyon, in this line.

Paulinus' life ends with him leading the church at Rochester. Only James the Deacon remains heroically at his post in the north country to keep alive the smoldering embers of the faith. http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/bede/hist002.htm Ænflæd becomes the wife of Oswy and is found alive living with her daughter Ælfled, the abbess at Whitby, by 685AD. http://web.archive.org/web/20100613024817/http://www.faculty.de.gcsu.edu/~dvess/ids/medieval/asout.htm
 
February 24th is Flag {Bandera Nacional} Day in Mexico: Do you know what the colors of this flag represent ? Today, young children are told that Green is for hope and victory; White is for the purity of Mexico's ideals; Red is for the blood Mexico's national heroes who died defending unity. The colors in truth have another, historical meaning -- Tres Garantías. Thus, white represented the Catholic Faith; green was for independence; while red stood for the union between Europeans and America's native peoples; but, according to Zárate, a Mexican historian, red, originally stood for Spanish heritage, the red of Castile.

The Treaty of Iguala, established on 24th February 1821, recognized the independence of Mexico and established the Tres Garantías for real. The flag of the army, the Trigarante, was adopted on 14th April, 1821, and was made by the taylor of Iguala, José Magdaleno Ocampo. The Army of the Three Guarantees entered Mexico City on 23rd September, 1821. A decree of Iturbide established the flag colored after the fashion of the Trigarante. That flag was raised on 7th January, 1822, and was declared perpetual, and a derivative of it remains in use today. http://flags.efb.ch/

In addition to the bands of color, Mexico's flag also has an emblem. The emblem is based on a legend which tells how the Mexicas {Aztecs} traveled from Aztlán (now the state of Nayarit) in search of the sign that Huitzilopochtli had told them they would discover at the place where they should establish their empire. This sign was an eagle on top of a Nopal cactus devouring a serpent. They found this on a small island in the middle of a lake and settled there. Thus, began the city of Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City.

February 24, 1857: The first shipment of perforated postage stamps was received by the U.S. Government. Only imperforate ones had been used previously. As early as March 1855, Postmaster General James Campbell anticipated that high-volume use would render the act of cutting stamps apart with scissors inconvenient to post offices and to the public. In response to seeing examples of British stamps, which had been perforated since 1854, Campbell had his staff investigate the means used to perforate stamps and report on the efficacy and estimated cost of adopting similar methods in the United States. Finally, in February 1857, the first perforated stamp, the 3-cent Type I (Scott Catalog #25), made its appearance (earliest known use was February 28th). Beginning in July 1857, other values were issued with perforations. http://www.siegelauctions.com/enc/1857.htm The picture at the left vividly illustrates the rough quality of the first perforations.

February 25th -- Feast Day of Ste. Walpurgis (ca. 710-779): Saint Walpurgis (her name also can be spelled Walpurga or Walburga) was the daughter of Saint Boniface's sister (and herself the sister of Saint Winebald and Saint Willibald, Bishop of Eichstädt). In about 748 she was called by Saint Boniface to assist in the missionary effort in Germany. In 761 she became the abbess of the Benedictine convent in Heidenheim (near Eichstätt). She is entombed in Eichstädt in the Bavarian Church named in her honor. She was canonized by Pope Adrian II. Saint Walpurgis and her brothers were English, fruit of the spirit of Augustine and Æthlebert and others. Christianity was back on the move, eastward through Germany.

February 25, 1999: Atlanta artist and illustrator Harry Rossoll died at age 89. Rossoll, who worked as an illustrator for the U.S. Forest Service from 1937-1971, is best remembered for conceiving the idea and image of Smokey Bear in 1941 as part of a new forest fire prevention promotion. During the following decades, Rossoll crafted over 1,000 Smokey Bear messages. http://www.honoraryunsubscribe.com/harry_rossoll.html

February 26, 1797: In 1759, gold shortages caused by the Seven Years War forced the Bank to issue a £10 note for the first time. The first £5 notes followed in 1793 at the start of the war against Revolutionary France. This remained the lowest denomination until 1797, when a series of runs on the Bank, caused by the uncertainty of the war, drained its bullion reserve to the point where it was forced to stop paying out gold for its notes. Instead, it issued £1 and £2 notes. The Restriction Period, as it was known, lasted until 1821 after which gold sovereigns took the place of the £1 and £2 notes. http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/about/history.htm
 

£5-1792 
a fiverEarly Bank of England notes were printed in black on white with no design on the back. They were much larger than modern notes. Although the Bank experimented with colour, new designs and printing techniques, its notes remained essentially the same throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. The £ sign developed over the years, a stylized form of the letter L, the initial letter of the Latin word libra meaning a pound (Silver) of money.


The French Revolution brought about a radical and violent reorganization of French society. France soon found itself at war with most of the monarchies of Europe as it tried to spread its revolutionary ideals. In order to finance these wars and revolutionary changes, vast quantities of paper money, called Assignats were issued. The Assignat was supposedly backed by land confiscated from the church and nobility that fled the country (in hopes of keeping their heads attached). Pictured is a 5 Livre denomination from 1793, meaning 5 Pounds.


Le 26 février 1815: Napoléon 1er quitte l'île d'Elbe en catimini avec quelques compagnons d'infortune. Dédaignant la souveraineté de l'île, à lui concédée par ses vainqueurs, il projette rien moins que de restaurer l'Empire français. Son entreprise réussira à la barbe des gouvernants européens, réunis en Congrès en Vienne pour remodeler l'Europe. Il ne faudra que Cent jours. avant que Napoléon 1er rende définitivement les armes. Les royalistes et les réactionnaires de tout poil prendront alors leur revanche.

During the retreat after the Russian War, Napoleon's troops fought the Austrians at Mâcon (just south of Tournus -- January 1814). Unexpected support by three hundred Tournusien volunteers fighting courageously still did not sway the outcome. Napoleon was exiled to Elba, but he did not forget the sacrifice of lives. He awarded (on his brief his return) the Legion of Honor to the town of Tournus on May 22, 1815. Stage 7 (Saturday, July 10, 2010) of the Tour de France ran from Tournus sur Saône (another Roman fortress town with important ancient Christian heritage) to Station des Rousses (a resort town).

February 26, 1829: On this day, Levi Strauss was born in Buttenheim, Bavaria, lying on the on the edge of the Regnitz Valley. In 1017, Buttenheim is first mentioned as one of the entrance points to what will become Franconian Switzerland. Because of its location on the North-South transport corridor, it was up to the middle of the 17th Century one of the most important trade cities between Bamberg and Forchheim. A French King's exploits in Germany changed its economic fate. So, in time, Herr Strauss immigrated to America and participated in the California gold rush, arriving in San Francisco in 1850. He sought his wealth through the sale of clothing to the gold miners by meeting the need for pants that would stand up to a rugged lifestyle. Levi Strauss and Co. was founded in 1853 by Levi and his brothers Jonas and Louis. Although the 49'ers were soon gone, Levi gave birth to a worldwide phenomenal popularity of jeans, which began in the 1960's.

February 27, 1594: Prince of Navarre, Henri de Bourbon was crowned Henri IV, King of all France at the Cathedral of Chartres. The Cathedral at Chartes is undergoing its latest controversial restoration (begun in 2009-still underway). Looking toward the famous rose window and across the location of the Roman-era forum/market, the western façade has a heavy-looking late Romanesque tower on the right, as compared to the lighter Gothic-style tower (left). The rose window is very small compared to the other sides, as it was the first one built. The floor of the central nave (near the western end) contains a labyrinth of about 50 feet in diameter. If one were unable to go on a physical pilgrimage, one could walk the labyrinth, as a spiritual substitute. Many still take that challenge, as they have for over 800 years on this floor. http://www.a-sense-of-place.com/2013/07/chartres-cathedral-in-18-photographs.html

Actually, pilgrimages appear to have taken place to this site for at least 1000 years before the current Cathedral was built. An ancient well lies within the crypt, probably dating from before the Roman era: https://www.labyrinthdesigners.org/alchemy-mystery/archaeological-studies-on-the-crypt-well-in-chartres/ (english language article). A number of Cathedrals have existed on the site, most of which left no trace after their destruction. Thus, nothing survives of the earliest church, which was destroyed during an attack on the city by the Danes in 858. In June of 1194, another fire caused extensive damage to the 11th Century structure, but a rebuilding program began almost immediately, yielding the main structure visible today.

Contrary to historic precedents, Henri was not coronated at Reims, because that city was the traditional home of the family (de Guise ), which had begun the slaughter of many of his Protestant subjects. Henri issued into being a brief period of tolerance in France, ending the religious wars. This open attitude deteriorated after his death, and by the time of the reign of Louis IV {the Sun King} Protestant persecution had returned -- see http://www.herodote.net/histoire02271.htm (french); see also Edict of Nantes

King Henry's Edict of 1598 only temporarily reduced the flight from France. It began in earnest, again as the freedoms granted were taken away, one by one, with the final step -- the revocation of the "Edict of Nantes" in 1685 (Édit de Fontainebleau), by Louis XIV, roi-soleil de France -- the "Sun King".

We forbid our subjects of the {Protestants} to meet any more for the exercise of the said religion in any place or private house, under any pretext whatever, . . . . [Paragraph II]

We repeat our most express prohibition to all our subjects of the said {Protestants}, together with their wives and children, against leaving our kingdom, lands, and territories subject to us, or transporting their goods and effects therefrom under penalty, as respects the men, of being sent to the galleys, and as respects the women, of imprisonment and confiscation. [Paragraph X]

As Louis entered German territories to reclaim his citizens and settle old scores, Huguenots immigrants soon began arriving in South Carolina in 1669. In 1699/1700 there were five embarkations from England to Virginia and the Carolinas. The names of some of the ships that carried Huguenot refugees were the "Nassau", the "Peter and Anthony" and the "Mary Ann", which was the first vessel to reach Virginia (at the mouth of the James River). About five hundred Huguenots settled in the Carolinas by 1700.

Many of the Huguenots were artisans, following the trades in the New World learned in the Old; blacksmiths, coopers, clockmakers and gunsmiths. Many were newly married, a younger generation seems more willing to undertake the long, dangerous ocean passage. The French-speaking settlers quickly moved into the political life of the English colonies; but, also quickly organized and built their own church in Charlestown, which still exists today. [Source: A Religious History of America, Gaustad, Edwin Scott - Harper - San Francisco (1990)] For more about a Huguenot family in Georgia and how it became allied with others in the colony, please read on, starting with two other events that occurred on the 27th.

Interestingly, exactly 200 years later after Henri's coronation, the government of Maximilien Robespierre, the architect of the French Revolution’s Reign of Terror, is overthrown and he is arrested by the National Convention. As the leading member of the Committee of Public Safety from 1793, Robespierre encouraged the execution, mostly by guillotine, of more than 17,000 enemies of the State. The day after his arrest, Robespierre and 21 of his followers were guillotined, before a cheering mob in the Place de la Révolution in Paris. In 1795, under the Directory, the square was renamed Place de la Concorde as a gesture of reconciliation after the turmoil of the French Revolution. After the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, the name was changed back to Place Louis XV, and in 1826 the square was renamed Place Louis XVI. After the July Revolution of 1830 the name was returned to Place de la Concorde and has remained since that time. http://www.evous.fr/A-decouvrir-l-histoire-de-la-place,1145712.html

February 27, 1736: Aboard the Symond near the mouth of Tybee Creek, James Oglethorpe wrote the Trustees about the arrival of the first colonists on St. Simons Island and his subsequent visit with the Scottish Highlanders at New Inverness (Darien):

". . . I arrived at Saint Simon the 18th and found the sloop and a detachment of men whom I had sent with her there. . . . We immediately got up a house and thatched it with palmettoes, dug a cellar, traced out a fort with four bastions by cutting up the turf from the ground, dug enough of the ditch and raised enough of the rampart for a sample for the men to work upon.

"On the 22nd a boat arrived with a detachment of the workmen and the same day I left Saint Simon, rowing up the Altamaha three hours. I arrived at the Scotch settlement which they desire may be called Darien. They were all under arms upon seeing a boat and made a most manly appearance with their plaids, broadswords, targets and firearms . . . . They have mounted a battery of four pieces of cannon, built a guard house, a storehouse, a chapel and several huts for particular people. . . ."

Source: Mills Lane (ed.), General Oglethorpe's Georgia: Colonial Letters, 1733-1743 (Savannah: Beehive Press, 1990), Vol. I, pp. 239-240. -- found at http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/thisday/gahistory/02/27

February 27, 1743: In 1740, James Oglethorpe led an unsuccessful attempt to take the Spanish fortress at St. Augustine. Buoyed by his victory over the Spanish invasion force on St. Simons Island in 1742, Oglethorpe -- now an official brigadier general in the British Army -- was ready to try a second time to take the capital of Spanish Florida. On St. Simons Island, Edward Kimber, a volunteer in Gen. Oglethorpe's invasion force, recorded their departure from St. Simons Island in his diary:

"The whole detachment, rangers, &c. embark'd on board the guard schooner and the two hir'd schooners at ten in the morning. At two, weigh'd and fell down below the point-guard, saluting the town [Frederica] with twenty-one guns."

Source: Mills Lane (ed.), Georgia: History written by Those who lived It (Savannah: Beehive Press, 1995), p. 24. -- found at http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.eduthisday/gahistory/02/27

Why are these two items on early Georgia recounted here? Records indicate that a close relation to one of the Trustees was a soldier (named Isaac LaRoche) in the American Revolution. Isaac's wife, Elizabeth, was the granddaughter of a Scotsman, Donald MacKay, who as a child first settled at New Inverness (Darien Ga.) in January 1736. His father, James MacKay was killed or captured (and then killed by the Spanish or the Native-Americans employed by them) at a battle where many of the settlement, including friendly Creeks, died (Moosa June 15, 1740). This incident was one of many in the Spanish British relations, begun by a Spanish sneak-attack on November 14, 1739, during which the Spanish beheaded their surprised victims. The Georgia Rangers, the Highlanders [led by Hugh MacKaye] and some of the Creek Indians had but too fatal an occasion of giving proofs of their resolution at [Fort] Moosa, where most of those who died fought with an obstinacy worthy of the Greeks or Romans. quote found at: http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/thisday/gahistory/01/25

Donald fought the double disadvantages of poverty (the Highlanders were impoverished by the English in attempt to depopulate Scotland -- many embarked to Ireland and later the 13 Colonies -- the Scots-Irish) and the lack of a father to end up owning most of St. Simons Island, including the abandoned town of Fredrika. In a somewhat similar story, the first leader of the initial Georgia Rangers under Oglethorpe, Captain John Barnard (Georgia rank under Colonial governor Ellis -- Major under Oglethorpe), died defending the Colony (September 2, 1757). After the Spanish were driven out of the Southern Georgia Islands the Rangers had been disbanded. In 1756 they were re-established under Barnard's command. His son ended up owning Wilmington Island near Savannah. Descendants from both families married in the late 1800's producing several sons including my grandfather (1900). For me it puts history in a more real context.
 
February 28, 1533: Michel-Eyquem de Montaigne (d.1592), was born near Bordeaux, France. He was the French moralist who created the personal essay. Montaigne was brought up by his father under peasant guidance and a German tutor for Latin. He spent a lifetime of political service under Henry IV, and then composed his Essays. This was the first book to reveal with utter honesty and frankness the author's mind and heart. Montaigne sought to reach beyond his own illusions, to see himself as he really was, which was not just the way others saw him. Nothing is so firmly believed as what we least know.

Montaigne became Mayor of Bordeaux (a port city on the Garonne River ) in 1581, after he had established himself as a non-conformist. He maintained peace between Catholics and Protestants during his term in office. Louis XIV entering the city in 1653 and effectively annexing Bordeaux to the Kingdom of France, ending all pretext of independence and tolerance. Ironically, the city now prospered more. http://www.bls-frenchcourses.com/school-bordeaux-history-golden-GB.html

Le 28 février 1712: Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Saint-Véran, Marquis de Montcalm, Seigneur de Candiac, Tournemine, Vestric, Saint-Julien et Arpaon, Baron de Gabriac, est né le 28 février 1712, au Château de Candiac, près de Nîmes (il est mort en défendant Québec le 14 septembre 1759 (guerre de Sept Ans) -- Le général Anglais James Wolfe a été lui aussi mortellement blessé). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis-Joseph_de_Montcalm {en anglais} Quand reverrai-je mon cher Candiac !

Au début de 1757, les Anglais préparent de nouvelles attaques, et Vaudreuil dépêche donc Montcalm, lui demandant de prendre le fort William Henry, défendu par 2500 hommes sous le commandement du général Georges Monro. Le 6 août, Montcalm fait creuser une tranchée qui amène ses huit pièces d'artillerie à tir courbe à portée du fort. Les Anglais obtiennent de se retirer avec les honneurs, c'est-à-dire avec armes et bagages. En contrepartie ils s'engagent à ne pas combattre les Français pendant 18 mois et à rendre tous leurs prisonniers.

Mais ainsi qu'il est relaté dans le célèbre roman de Fénimore Cooper, Le Dernier des Mohicans, les troupes supplétives indiennes, difficiles à contrôler et dont Montcalm disait qu'il valait mieux les avoir avec soi plutôt que contre soi, se livrent à des exactions, et pas des moindres, tuant de nombreux Anglais et en faisant prisonniers 500. http://www.herodote.net/17590914.htm

On the other hand, France, engrossed by European wars, left her American colonies almost without succor, and Montcalm, with scanty resources, disordered finances, and a discouraged people, was left to the well-nigh hopeless task of defending Canada. Some call the British victory in Canada the birthdate of the British Empire. http://www.famousamericans.net/louisjosephmontcalmgozondesaintveran/

February 28, 1863: Four Union gunboats -- the USS Montauk, Wissahickon, Seneca, and Dawn -- shelled and ultimately destroyed the blockade runner Rattlesnake (formerly the CSS Nashville) near Fort McAllister, Georgia. This loss was two years and a week to the day of the birth of the Confederate Navy. One of its first vessels was the USS (now CSS) United States. Built in 1797, the vessel saw distinguished action during the War of 1812 and on Pacific duty along with the USS Yorktown. The ship was recaptured by the North and broken up after the War Between the States http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-u/u-states.htm.

February 29, 1836: Giacomo Meyerbeer's (born, Jakob Liebmann Meyer Beer in Tasdorf, Germany) opera Les Huguenots premiers in France (Théâtre de l'Opéra, Paris). His brother, Michael Beer, became a well known German playwright, author of two successful plays, Struensee and Der Pariah. His brother Wilhelm Beer became a businessman and an amateur astronomer who achieved fame by publishing the first map of the moon in the 1820's and participated in the first scientific observations of Mars. http://www.meyerbeer.com/whois.htm

If ye should find yerself drawn towards the sea, Take the moral compass of poetry.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

March 1, 1562: The persecution against Protestants had been ongoing since the outset of the Reformation. A thirty year period of history, known as the Religious Wars of France, began on this day, however when armed men, under the command of the King's representative, Duke François II de Guise, slaughtered some 200 Protestant villagers in Vassy (in the Champagne region, his family's fiefdom centered about Reims).  http://nationalhistoryday.org/03_educators/2001-2002curbook/new_page_13.htm   This Duke de Guise, François, is an uncle of Mary, Queen of Scots. As a Stuart contender to the English throne, she tried to restore Catholicism to Scotland and England.  http://www.englishhistory.net/tudor/relative/maryqosbio.html  De Guise committed the Massacre at Vassy against a congregation of unarmed Huguenots attending a religious service. He died by an assassins hand in 1563. The next Duc de Guise (Henri I de Lorraine) proved no better a man, and would meet the same end. http://www.pierrechastain.com/timeline.htm

When in 1594, the Prince of Navarre, Henri de Bourbon, became King of all Fance, he was crowned at Chartres (as Roi Henri IV). Contrary to long practice, he was not crowned at Reims (Rheims), because that place harbored still the de Guise family, which had spurred the slaughter of so many Protestants. Although himself a Protestant, Henri returned to Roman Catholicism in order to bring peaceful rule France, as a leader acceptable to the vast majority. As King, he began a brief period of tolerance in France that ended the religious wars. The open attitude of tolerance deteriorated after Henri's murder. By the time of the reign of Louis IV {the Sun King}, persecution of Protestants had returned in earnest -- and projected beyond the borders see http://www.herodote.net/histoire02271.htm; see also Edict of Nantes -- one of our Website's top dozen pages way back in 2006.

Henri IV the first Bourbon King was buried at Basilique St. Denis, just outside Paris, along with his later family in the Bourbon Chapel (part of the Church Crypt) and in the same place as dozens of other earlier French Kings and Queens. All this can be reached by Métro line 12 and a very short walk -- well worth the time and effort.

The first bishop of Paris (pronounced dawn-ee) and his companions, martyred in 270AD on a large hill overlooking Gare du Nord and all Paris, were buried several miles north of the spot of the execution. The small chapel built over the spot and named for this martyr, became a very famous, pilgrimage church, during the fifth and sixth centuries. In 630 King Dagobert (a Merovingian ruler of France) founded an abbey for Benedictine monks, replacing the original chapel by a large basilica. This basilique has been much rebuilt and expanded -- only the burial crypt remains of the original structure.

March 1, 1579: On this date, Sir Francis Drake, an English Explorer, waylaid a Spanish treasure galleon, the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, nick-named Cacafuego, off the coast of Panama. On March 1st, 6 years later, the Portuguese hired Estácio de Sá in order to finally rid the area, known as Rio today, of the French. It was Carnival celebration. He fully destroyed the existing French colony, mainly consisting of Protestant refugees, fleeing the Religious Wars of France. De Sá is viewed as the official founder of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Cacafuego would sink in 1638, again laden with new-world gold and silver riches.

March 1, 1781: Maryland ratified the Articles of Confederation, the last state so to sign on the undotted line. Ratification by all 13 colonies set into motion the period of formal Confederation of the United States (who were not yet really united in common goals, and who had not yet won the war against the British Empire). Because of disputes over representation, voting and disputed claims to western lands, full ratification had been delayed until Maryland was able to concur. Thereafter, the Congress of the Confederation came into being. The Confederated State articles lasted until 1789 when the 13 sovereign entities adopted a new Constitution for a more fully United States. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=3 Some would argue that it was not until after the War Between the States that a truly Federal system of government was imposed.

March 1, 1848: Irish born Augustus Saint-Gaudens entered this world in Dublin. He immigrated to New York City before the year was out. Five weeks before his birth, on January 24, 1848, a Swiss-born immigrant at Sutter's Mill, California, found a gold nugget in a fast-flowing waterway. The rush was on. Saint-Gaudens designed the last regularly issued, and many would argue most beautiful, of the U.S. $10 and $20 gold pieces (1907) -- called eagles and double-eagles. While he had already become a world-famous sculptor and designer during the 19th-20th Century, his coin designs truly culminated the art of a gilded age and secured his fame for a hundred years.

Interestingly, the Tour de France (2011) began at Saint-Gaudens (Stage 14). As far as I can tell, he has nothing to do with Saint-Gaudens, a commune in the Haute-Garonne (Midi-Pyrénées region) department in southwestern France. The town faces the Pyrenees and is a natural crossroads for routes between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Toulouse and the Val d'Aran in Spain. It has been inhabited since ancient times (traces of the Iron Age and of Roman occupation) and was originally called Mas-Saint-Pierre, before taking the name of the young shepherd, Gaudens, martyred by the Visigoths in about 475AD for refusing to renounce his faith.

March 1, 1917 -- Yet another angle on the Great War (to end all wars): On this first day of March, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson revealed the contents of a secret letter to the Press {it was not the media back then}. The German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann, had sent this secret missive to the German Ambassador in Mexico City via the German Ambassador for Washington. In the intercepted communication, the Empire of Germany offered Mexico an alliance against the neutral United States. Germany, at the height of World War I, proposed to assist Mexico in its never ending goal of reconquista (the retaking Texas, New Mexico and Arizona (not to mention California, Nevada, Utah or Colorado)). The message, decoded by those crafty British, was handed to the American President. This revelation of intrigue became instrumental in forming the public's opinion against Germany. The United States entered into the Great War five weeks later.

Militärverwaltung in RumänienSo surveillance is not a new issue to the executive branch; and, results being selectively used to form public opinion is well-documented, this being just a well-known, historical example. Why so important today ?? If the USA had not entered the Great War, its outcome might have differed, significantly. For the good or the bad ??? One could have argued that the US presence turned what would have been a stalemate into an Allied win. If so, how would Europe have looked in the 1920's, bankrupt and demoralized as it was going to be, with or without American help to the Allies. How would it have looked in the 30's ?

Lacking any clearly victorious allied countries, different borders would have been redrawn after the conflict. Certainly, Germany would have kept more land and would have had no de-militarized zone imposed upon it. Perhaps, later friction caused by the victors' terms would have been lessened. Monarchies might have survived or been replaced by truly representative long-lasting forms. German financial collapse would have been less likely. The economic excesses that threw the western world into panic in the thirties, might have culminated earlier, or, just maybe, not occurred at all. AND, what of Russia and 70 years of Soviet-styled rule and expansionism ? Indeed, World War II and the holocaust reckoned in millions of civilians by Russian as well as German actions might have been avoided or lessened. AND, what of the A-bomb ? AND, what of the Middle-east, as the sickman {Ottoman Empire} passed from this world. Certainly, we or Britain would have had more political energy to supervise the China and Japanese disputes that led to World War II.

So, one could argue that Wilson did more to hurt the quest for Peace, when he joined the fray, than he could have accomplished, if he had pursued a policy ridiculed as isolation -- i.e. staying out of the European, royal-family squabble. The peace conservatives of World War I were hounded. Those who refused service were jailed and beaten as unpatriotic, seditious -- enemies, when perhaps, they were the best republican friends America has had.

Sometimes, turning around is the right course (metenoia -- metanoew) -- as the operator once said, Sir, I will not yield. With all due respect, I don't care if you are the Admiral's Flagship. Sir, I am a lighthouse. Contrast the essence of a revolutionary organization. It is willing, indeed eager, to push its own agenda to the ultimate conclusion or die trying (and so by martyrdom still advance the cause). We are not talking about the corps of fellow travelers (in it for the money or the intellectual thrill). We are talking about the cadre of true believers -- those who devise the talking points, not the ones who recite them. An arrogant stubbornness and revolutionary zeal could have us reach the same deadly destination, as the traitor who sells us out directly.

The idea of the Patriot Act in liberal hands is ... frightening. How long before the warrantless searches and wiretaps of gun owners and anti-abortion groups begin? "The thesis of the Bush administration is, Give us your freedoms and we will make you safer," Napolitano said. "That has never worked in history."

***

"This crowd are not conservatives," Napolitano said. "They're just big-government Republicans. They are prepared to crush the individual to exalt the state. They don't believe freedom comes from the individual. They believe freedom comes from the government."

***

Government cannot provide rights, but it sure can take them away in a hurry. (links now dead)

March 2, 1836: Texas declared itself an independent sovereign nation, leaving Mexico on Sam Houston's 43rd birthday. Sam hailed from Lexington in Virginia. He became a Texan by necessity and by choice. The first vice-president of the Nation of Texas was Manuel Lorenzo Justiniano de Zavala y Sáenz. Mr. de Zavala, born in the village of Tecoh, had years of loyal service to his native land, Mexico, before Santa Anna ignored Mexico's constitution, forcing de Zavala to make his hard but inexorable choice. http://www.lsjunction.com/people/zavala.htm. He became a free and independent Tejano as did Mr. Houston on this bodeful day.

In honor of the occasion, Samuel Colt manufactured his first pistol, the 34-caliber "Texas" model, on March 5th. Mexico refused to recognize Texas, but diplomatic relations soon were established with the Britain and France. US President Andrew Jackson and Congress recognized the Republic of Texas on March 3, 1837. Texas was an independent republic until 1845, when on March 1st, President Tyler signed a congressional resolution that annexed the Republic of Texas, an act which soon provoked a war with Mexico and Sam's nemesis, Santa Anna. Our page devoted to Texas is found HERE.
 
March 2, 1925: State and federal highway officials developed a nationwide route numbering system and adopted the familiar U.S. shield-shaped, numbered marker. For instance, in the east, there is U.S. 1 that runs from New England to Florida and in the west, the corresponding Pacific Highway, U.S. 101, starts in Tacoma, WA and ends at San Diego, CA, where it intersects Harbor Drive and ends 100 yards later at Seaport Village. http://www.us-highways.com/

The direct predecessor to US 1 was the Atlantic Highway, an auto trail established in 1911 as the Quebec-Miami International Highway. In 1915 it was renamed the Atlantic Highway, and the northern terminus was changed to Calais, Maine. Due to the overlapping of auto trail designations, portions of the route had other names that remain in common use, such as the Boston Post Road between Boston and New York, the Lincoln Highway between New York and Philadelphia, Baltimore Pike between Philadelphia and Baltimore, and the Dixie Highway in and south of eastern Georgia. North of Augusta, Georgia, the highway generally followed the fall line, rather than a more easterly route through the swamps of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. When the New England road marking system was established in 1922, the Atlantic Highway within New England was signed as Route 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Route_1

March 2, 1939: For some reason, which must have seemed important at the time, the Massachusetts legislature in its wisdom ratified the Bill of Rights, only 147 years after the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution had gone into effect (December 15th 1791). Inspired, two other States followed suite: Georgia, March 18, 1939; and Connecticut, April 19, 1939. Anyone hazard to guess why?

March 2, 1945: The American flag flies again over the Philippine Island of Corregidor. General Douglas MacArthur, commander of U.S. Army Forces in the Far East, had fled his Philippine headquarters in early March 1942, as the Japanese forces closed in. MacArthur, ordered to leave, in turn ordered General Wainwright to remain. Wainwright was captured. MacArthur vowed I shall return. On February 16, 1945, elements of the U.S. Sixth Army began the assault on Corregidor. After furious fighting, MacArthur made good his promise. Meanwhile, fighting on Iwo Jima continued. General Wainwright survived his capture, whereas many did not. He was aboard the Battleship USS Missouri when representatives of Imperial Japan signed the surrender ending the long struggle, known as World War II. On March 9, 1974, the last Japanese soldier, a guerrilla operating in the Philippines, surrendered, 29 years after that war.

This is not the date, as some report, of the 8th Air Corps fire-bombing of Dresden (actually this action occurred in mid-February 1945).

March 2, 1955: Ms. Claudette Colvin refused to give up her seat in Montgomery, Alabama, nine months before Ms. Rosa Parks had the honor of arrest for a similar action.

March 3rd -- Busy Day at the Nation's Treasury: 1791 -- The United States Mint is created by the U.S. Congress. 1835 -- An Act of Congress authorized the Charlotte Mint in North Carolina. It was in operation from 1838 until 1861. 1835 -- An Act of Congress authorized the Dahlonega Mint in Georgia. It was in operation from 1838 until 1861. 1835 -- An Act of Congress authorized the New Orleans Mint in Louisiana. 1863 -- An Act of Congress authorized the Carson City Mint in Nevada. It was in operation from 1870 until 1893. http://rarecoins.org/us_mint_history.htm 1865 -- An Act of Congress authorized the Director of the Philadelphia Mint to place the motto In God We Trust on all gold and silver coins. 1849 -- The gold one-dollar coin was approved. 1851 -- The three-cent coin was approved. 1875 -- The twenty-cent coin was approved.

Washington-March 3, 1863: The Conscription Act was signed by President Lincoln. The first draft would cause riots in New York City. Congress also authorized this day the Medal of Honor. In addition, the United States would produce the first legal fractional currency notes dated this day. The Nation had already circulated postage currency notes, because of a prevalent coin shortage, "RECEIVABLE FOR" postage stamps. These first notes illegally were issued under the Act of Congress of July 17, 1862, because that Act only authorized payments in the form of postage stamps, hence the express authorization in 1863.

March 3rd -- A busy day in Music: In 1931, Cab Calloway and his orchestra recorded Minnie the Moocher on Brunswick Records. It was the first recording of the well-known bandleader's theme song. The song was featured prominently in the motion picture, The Blues Brothers (1980), which some have called the ultimate Road-trip flick. http://www.heptune.com/minnieth.html

It was first called "In Defense of Fort McHenry" and published September 20, 1814. It gained instant popularity and was renamed The Star-Spangled Banner; but, not until March 3, 1931, was it officially recognized as the National Anthem. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Star-Spangled_Banner

This same day in 1955, a truck driver from Tupelo, Mississippi (later Sergeant, 1st Battalion, 32d Armor Regiment, 3d Armored Division, Ray Barracks, Friedberg, Germany) made his first-ever TV appearance on Louisiana Hayride. You guessed right, if you said that this night Elvis Aron Presley was the man featured on the show. His first appearance (on radio), again performing at the Louisiana Hayride, was October 16, 1954 (Shreveport, Louisiana Municipal Auditorium). He had played the Grand Ole Opry, at Ryman Auditorium in Nashville just two weeks before.



A World of Stamps -- March 3: To the left is a commemorative stamp issued by Canada on March 3, 1947, for the 100th anniversary of the birth date of the inventor of the telephone, British born, Alexander Graham Bell. It was at Brantford, Ontario that he first conceived the idea the telephone. Bell became an American citizen in 1882, but spent most of his later life on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, where he died in 1922.

The Canada Postal Archives web site includes the following comments about the design: The symbolic figure and the portrait of Dr. Bell surmount a representation of the Western Hemisphere, indicating the main theatre of his activities. Dr. Bell's invention of the telephone is suggested by the poles with wires in background .... Underneath the 1947 stamp is an American issue marking a solemn day when Manila regained its freedom (March 3, 1945). It had taken about a month to fully liberate the city and American bombs and shells had taken a terrible toll on the city's beauty. And then, the full horror of Japanese war atrocities in the city began to be known.

Overlooking a tranquil bay, the so-called "Pearl of the Orient" was home to a unique culture drawn from four continents. No stranger to conflict, the city had been seized by the Spanish in the 16th century, attacked by the Chinese in the 17th, occupied by the British in the 18th, and taken by the Americans at the end of the 19th. Even this tumultuous record, however, could not have prepared the Filipinos for what happened in 1945, when Manila was utterly destroyed within a single month. PBS.org

The year 1947 marks a turning point in Canadian philatelic art: the Alexander Graham Bell stamp was the last classically engraved work that the country would issue. Although Canada would engrave some later ones, none would meet the same standards of superb craftsmanship seen in this 1947 commemorative. Alas, the same loss can be seen in postal craft from the USA, too.

In 1867, Nova Scotia was one of the founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with New Brunswick, and the Province of Canada (which became the separate provinces of Quebec and Ontario). It is most widely believed that the Italian explorer John Cabot visited present-day Cape Breton in 1497. The first European settlement in Nova Scotia was established more than a century later in 1604. The French, led by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts established the first capital for the colony Acadia at Port Royal that year at the head of the Annapolis Basin. Also, French fishermen established a settlement at Canso the same year. So began a long period of competing claims.


March 4, 1394: Prince Henry the Navigator was born (Infante Dom Henrique). He would become a man of vision http://www.thornr.demon.co.uk/kchrist/phenry.html.  Prince Henry was chiefly responsible for Portugal's age of exploration. By systematically exploring the African coast, he inaugurated a process that built upon the knowledge of previous voyages, using the end of one voyage as the beginning point for the next. http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/henry3.html

Henrique was the third son of Portuguese King Joao I (John) and his English wife, Queen Philippa of Lancaster, a daughter of John of Gaunt, granddaughter of a King (Edward III) and sister of a King (Henry IV né Henry of Bolingbroke). John of Gaunt was Uncle to Richard II and is the Lancaster featured in the play by Shakespeare about King Richard. Just in case you were left wondering, the first recorded production of Richard II was in 1601 on February 7th, just few years before Jamestowne was founded.

Of further interest, John of Gaunt supported John Wyclif (1320 - 1384), the Morning Star of the Reformation. Wyclif lived in England at a time when the Pope's interests had become too closely identified with those of France in the eyes of the British. Wyclif did not recognize the Church as the only authority. The Crown hired him in 1366, when he took a position against tributes, to translate the Bible into English, so that the English people could read it. His hand-written translations circulated country-wide. In 1378, the people rioted to protect their leader against charges of heresy. Some copies made their way to Bohemia, where they were read by Jan Hus. Wyclif died on December 31, 1384, but the Catholic Church named him a heretic in 1415. In 1428, it had his bones dug up and burned. The ashes were thrown into a river, a twist to the drama of Shakespearean proportion. http://doug.johansonfamily.com/History_files/Kapitel%206.htm see also History of the Moravian Church

Wm. Wordsworth -- http://semicolon.reachcoop.org/?p=997
ONCE more the Church is seized with sudden fear,
And at her call is Wicliffe disinhumed:
Yea, his dry bones to ashes are consumed
And flung into the brook that travels near;
Forthwith, that ancient Voice which Streams can hear
Thus speaks (that Voice which walks upon the wind,
Though seldom heard by busy human kind) –
“As thou these ashes, little Brook! wilt bear
Into the Avon, Avon to the tide
Of Severn, Severn to the narrow seas,
Into main Ocean they, this deed accurst
An emblem yields to friends and enemies
How the bold Teacher’s Doctrine, sanctified
By truth, shall spread, throughout the world dispersed.”

March 4, 1540: On this day, Protestant supporter, Landgrave (Count) Philip of Hessen married his 2nd wife. Some few have argued that, like English King Henry VIII, it was his desire for a new spouse, rather than his desire for true doctrine, which drove him to split with Rome. Never-the-less, Phillip the Magnanimous (1504-67), Landgraf von Hessen, was the German Prince (Fürst) who helped ensure survival of Protestantism, forming the League of Torgau in 1526. In addition to the Lutheran reformers who were supported by many of the secular princes against the excesses of the populace, there were theocrats or those with Calvinist leanings, first expressed by Huldreich Zwingli from Switzerland (born January 1, 1484), as well as the independent-thinking Anabaptists. After the reforms (about justification) at the Council of Trent, many southern German leaders would strongly support Catholicism.

Briefmarke - Niederlande 1940Phillip failed in his attempts to reconcile Swiss and Lutheran doctrine (1529). Because he was a principal organizer (1531) in efforts to counteract Emperor Charles V and the Emperor's wars to defeat Lutheranism, he was imprisoned (1547-52). His stance, however had assured the 1555 compromise {the Peace of Augsburg}.

Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540 - 1609), er gilt als Erfinder der wissenschaftlichen Chronologie. Seine Studien ermöglichten es, die verschiedensten Kalendersysteme ineinander umzurechnen. In the preface to Harvard University Press's 1927 edition of Joseph Scaliger's autobiography, George W. Robinson opines that "whether Joseph Scaliger should be reckoned the greatest scholar of all time, or should share that palm with Aristotle, is, perhaps, an open question.

Of Scaliger's primacy among scholars of modern times there can be no doubt. Phoenix of Europe, light of the world, sea of sciences, bottomless pit of erudition, perpetual dictator of letters, the greatest work and miracle of nature, victor over time -- to seek to limn the portrait of a man to whom such terms can be applied, without even a thought of incongruity, by the staidest of professors and the most learned of critics, is indeed a task to make even a stout heart hesitate." http://members.tripod.com/~classicspage/scaliger.html Of Italian heritage, teacher in Paris and later the Netherlands, it is likely that Phillip took no notice of Scaliger's birth in 1540, but this man was the first to try to make sense of history by classifying its epochs, when Europe seemed to be going crazy.

March 4, 1678: Antonio Vivaldi (d.1741), the Italian Baroque composer (The Four Seasons) and violinist, was born in Venice. Some of his contemporaries were composers such as Johann Sebastian Bach, Georg Händel, Johann Pachelbel, Georg Telemann and Henry Purcell. Most of his music was lost until the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. The first major discovery was in a music cabinet in Dresden. Vivaldi had composed a large quantity of music specifically for the Dresden orchestra, and once it had fallen out of fashion (in the 1760's), his works had been placed in storage where they collected dust for a century. Forgotten at the time of his death, Vivaldi was buried in a pauper's grave (just like Mozart). Ironically, the young composer Joseph Haydn was a choir boy at Master Vivaldi's funeral.

March 4, 1947: France and Great Britain signed the first defensive (and economic) alliance treaty between the two countries, called the Dunkirk Treaty. The Kremlin, however, believed that this was a Winston Churchill scheme to foster an anti-communist bloc and strengthen Europe (more specifically, unity against the Soviets). In any event, Stalin did nothing. It may be remembered that at Dunkirk, the British (and French) made an heroic stand after an unsuccessful defense against a German invasion of of France, and Belgium. Allied troops were forced into a trap and had to evacuate by any means available, under heavy German fire. This treaty acknowledged a real need for more cooperation. It was a first step, soon leading to other agreements for Europe. The first economic treaty covering European Steel and Coal markets was enacted on April 18, 1951. This treaty has often been called the first European Community agreement (France, West Germany and Benelux nations). The €uro Zone and earlier Common Market also can clearly claim the Dunkirk Treaty as an ancestor.
 
March 5, 1496: He was a man of vision, too. John Cabot sought to reach Asia by sailing west across the northern Atlantic Ocean. He estimated that this would be better than the longer Columbus route. In England, Cabot received the backing, which Spain and Portugal had refused him. The merchants of Bristol agreed to support his scheme. They had sponsored probes into the north Atlantic since the early 1480s, looking for possible trading opportunities. Some historians think that Bristol mariners might even have reached Newfoundland and Labrador before Cabot's proposal. English King Henry VII hired John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) to explore the New World for England. Those facts are all we will really know.

It is a mystery what Cabot found on his first successful voyage and when the discovery may have occurred. Sometime during June-July 1497, Cabot landed somewhere along the coast of what today is a Canadian province. There is simply no first-hand account of what happened. Cabot would disappear on his last voyage for the English, in search of Japan. http://www.heritage.nf.ca/exploration/cabot.html -- verily, a fascinating account !!!

March 5, 1512: Born this day one Gerald Kremer. His name 'Kremer' means 'merchant' in German, and he was sometimes known as 'Cremer' which is its Dutch equivalent (pronounced Kray-mer in English). While still in his teens, he chose Mercator for a new name, the Latin term for 'merchant' and gave himself the full name of Gerardus Mercator de Rupelmonde {of Flanders (now in Belgium)}. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Mercator_Gerardus.html

Cleves & Mark Mercator became a well-educated Flemish philosopher and cartographer. Flat maps of the world are often shown in what is called a Mercator projection derived from a round globe. Well, in order to believe in a round globe, one had to dismiss the notion of a flat earth. So, Mercator was arrested in February 1544 and charged with heresy. This was partly due to his Protestant beliefs (in a Catholic Flanders), partly because he travelled to acquire data for his maps, so that suspicions about loyalty had arisen. He spent seven months in prison in the beautiful and modern Rupelmonde château.

Sometime after his release, he wisely moved to Duisburg, Duchy of Cleves (now in Germany). Mercator was appointed Court Cosmographer to Duke Wilhelm of Cleves, in 1564. During this period he began to perfect the new map projection technique for which he is best remembered (1569). He later put together a collection of maps -and- for the first time an Atlas was available. http://www.navis.gr/men/mercator.htm

March 5, 1658: Antoine Laumet, a French colonial governor of America, was born -- later known as Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac (Sieur de Cadillac, Donaquec and Mount Desert). M. Cadillac and his men reached the Detroit River on July 23, 1701. The following day, July 24, 1701, the group traveled north on the Detroit River and chose a place to build a settlement. Cadillac named the settlement Fort Ponchartrain du Detroit in honor of King Louis the 14th's Minister of Marine. In 1710, Cadillac was removed from duty at Fort Ponchartrain and made governor of the French Province of Louisiana. In June of 1717, Cadillac, left the Province of Louisiana for France. http://www.historydetroit.com/people/antoine_cadillac.asp But, read on, the story is not yet over.

It was on the 3rd of November 1762, that France and Spain would agree to the Treaty of Fontainebleau, by which the Louisiana Colony went from France to Spain. Why did the French let go of their holdings in America ?  France was sacrificing about seven thousand of its subjects, but to King Louis XV and his ministers, in particular Etienne François de Choiseul, the Minister of State, other factors took precedence over the people. First, France was unloading the financial disaster festering in Louisiana. Second, France would rather have a Louisiana owned by Spain rather than one in possession of Great Britain. Third, France was repaying Spain for its help during the past war and compensating it for the loss of Florida to the British. Lastly, since the most lucrative colony of New France (that is Canada) had been lost to the British Empire, France no longer had any strategic reason to keep Louisiana. The British would force many French Canadians to leave its northern (Acadian) possessions -- many of these cajuns (at least those who survived the forced exile) go to Louisiana.

March 5, 1766: The Spanish astronomer and naval officer don Antonio de Ulloa y Garcia de La Torre arrived in New Orleans to take possession of the Louisiana Territory from the French. http://www.fuenterrebollo.com/FernandoVII/antonio-ulloa.html The Spanish who arrived took no thrill with the masking, raucous parading and other Mardi Gras frolics. The good Governor banned the celebration . Needless to say, he was not well-loved. By Printemps 1768, Spain had ordered the colonists in Louisiana to use only Spanish ships and to trade only with Spanish ports. Ruling-class popularity slipped downhill fast. In October, rebellious elements had called a convention to condemn Ulloa and command him to leave Louisiana, which he did fearing for his life. Less than a year later Spanish troops executed these rebels. Irish born, General Alejandro O'Reilly, who had arrived to become the new governor of Louisiana, led the effort at restoring law and order to New Orleans. http://usm.maine.edu/lac/francoamericanstudies/classproject/so/

France, under Napoléon Bonaparte, would briefly have possession of Louisiana again, quickly transferring it to the United States for cash. On November 30, 1803, 21 years to the day after the preliminary agreement ending the war for American freedom was reached, at the Cabildo building in New Orleans, the Spanish (Governor Manuel de Salcedo) officially transferred the Louisiana Territory to the French. Just 20 days later, France transferred the same land to the United States. Spain would reclaim the entire area of East and West Florida for its role in defeating the British during the Revolutionary War. Never-the-less, the Florida Territories would come into US possession by treaty in 1819.

by Paul Revere, silversmith and engraveur March 5, 1770: British troops taunted by a crowd of colonists fired on an unruly mob in Boston and killed five citizens in what came to be known as the Boston Massacre. The confrontation between a few angry Boston men and one British sentry ended with five men dead or dying in the icy street corner of King Street and Shrimton's Lane. British Captain Thomas Preston did not order the eight soldiers under his command to fire into the hostile crowd. The nervous soldiers claimed to be confused by shouts of Why do you not fire ? coming from all sides. Versions of the event rapidly circulated through the colonies, bolstering public support for the Patriot cause. At trial, the British Captain Preston and seven soldiers were defended by John Adams (later US President). The captain and five of the soldiers were acquitted, the other two soldiers (Montgomery and Killroy) were found guilty of manslaughter. They were branded on the hand with a hot iron. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/bostonmassacre/keyfigures.html The first colonist killed in the American Revolution was a former slave, Crispus Attucks. Indeed, Attucks was the first to fall, stuck twice in the chest by British bullets.

More links: The Boston Massacre -- http://www.bostonmassacre.net/   A Behind the Scenes Look -- http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/winter96/massacre.html   Captain Thomas Preston's account of the Boston Massacre -- http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/D/1751-1775/bostonmassacre/prest.htm   Reprint of the Boston Gazette from March 12, 1770 -- http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/winter96/massacre/massacretext.htm

March 5, 1807: Oddly enough, today marks the first performance of Ludwig von Beethoven's 4th Symphony (in the Key of B of course). Beethoven's Fourth Symphony has suffered an unenviable fate, that of obscurity. Standing as it does immediately after his heroic Third and just before his tragic Fifth. It was, in Robert Schumann's words, a slender Greek maiden between two Norse[men]. In 1806 when Beethoven wrote the Fourth Symphony, he was enjoying a rare period of happiness. In this work, as in its contemporaries, the Fourth Piano Concerto and the Violin Concerto, we have proof that Beethoven was not always an artist with angst. http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/beethoven_sym4.html

Hey Culligan Man: Emmett J. Culligan, founder of the famous water treatment firm, was born this day in 1893, in South Dakota. After a brief stint in the Army during World War I, he ended up in Porter Minnesota in the mid-1920's. The rest is history http://www.portermn.org/culligan_canby_news_2000sept6.html, or water under the bridge, if you will.
 
March 5, 1946: At Westminster College near Fulton, Missouri, Winston Churchill tells a crowd that an iron curtain has descended on the Continent [of Europe]. http://history.acusd.edu/gen/20th/fulton.html

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow. Athens alone - Greece with its immortal glories - is free to decide its future at an election under British, American and French observation.

* * *

The safety of the world requires a new unity in Europe, from which no nation should be permanently outcast. It is from the quarrels of the strong parent races in Europe that the world wars we have witnessed, or which occurred in former times, have sprung. Twice in our own lifetime we have seen the United States, against their wishes and their traditions, against arguments, the force of which it is impossible not to comprehend, drawn by irresistible forces, into these wars in time to secure the victory of the good cause, but only after frightful slaughter and devastation had occurred. Twice the United States has had to send several millions of its young men across the Atlantic to find the war; but now war can find any nation, wherever it may dwell between dusk and dawn.

Calling it the Iron curtain was a not so gentle dig at Stalin, whose name was not originally Stalin. He chose the name, which means man of steel, for his political career, which in the Soviet Union was a deadly serious matter. Mr. Churchill was entering the last two decades of his life, his career in politics, mostly behind him.

Winston Churchill loved the great music of war. When, in his eighties, he became too old to get pleasure out of books he used to sit with his record player in the afternoons and listen to military marches. He liked especially the high-souled trumpet calls. After his death in 1965 some of these were played at his state funeral, and their notes sounded in the baroque spaces of Saint Paul's Cathedral in London. Reveille was played, together with The Last Post, by trumpeters high up in the Whispering Gallery of the structure's massive dome that towers over olde London; Fight the Good Fight was sung; and so, too, was The Battle Hymn of the Republic. He had become an honorary U.S. Citizen on March 12, 1964.

Churchill descended from American as well as British stock. In particular was one Sarah Jennings, who married John Churchill, first Duke of Marborough, and was a power during Anne's reign (the last Stuart Queen) -- Queen Anne became Queen March 8, 1702, at age 37.

1708 
ShillingQueen Anne's reign would be characterized by the attempts of others to manipulate her. Most significantly among these individuals was Sarah Churchill. A friend of Anne's since childhood, Anne leaned heavily on her for companionship. After Anne's marriage she named Sarah to the prestigious position of "Lady of the Bedchamber". After Anne became queen, she named Sarah to other prominent posts including Keeper of the Privy Purse, Mistress of the Robes and Groom of the Stole. Their relationship for many years was a close one with Anne showering Sarah with large allowances and gifts, such as the huge and extravagant Blenheim estate. The estate was given to the Churchill's as a reward for John Churchill's important military victory in the War of Spanish Succession. Sarah, however, would fall out of favor and would be replaced as Anne's favorite by a distant cousin, Abigail Masham.

The end of Anne's friendship with Sarah signaled a change in political influences as well. Although Anne had always been a strong Tory throughout her reign she had vigorously supported the War of Spanish Succession, a Whig war. Sarah Churchill was a Whig and her husband John, though a Tory, was the leading English general in the conflict. Because of the Churchill's influence, Anne had always been inclined to support the war which was the most important event in foreign affairs during Anne's reign.

Anne married Prince George of Denmark. This was an arrangement Anne's father negotiated in secret with sponsorship by King Louis XIV of France, who hoped for a Anglo-Danish alliance against William of Orange and the Dutch. No such alliance would ever materialize. Prince George's influence in matters of state would remain small throughout their marriage. The relationship he had with Anne was a close one and she loved him deeply, however, their marriage was saddened by Anne's twelve miscarriages and the fact that none of their other five children reached adulthood. from http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/anne.html A man named Peter LaRoche was the Prince of Denmark's "Gentleman of the Bedchamber" More HERE
 
March 5th -- The Day the Music Died: A private plane crash near Camden, Tenn., claimed the lives of country music performer Virginia Patterson Hensley {Patsy Cline} and several others this day in 1963. Four years earlier on February 3rd (1959), Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens and J.P. Richardson had suffered the same fate in an airplane crash near Clear Lake, Iowa. More here about these and other musicians who died in airplanes.

More of March is HERE

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Mérovingiens and Metz -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure: http://www.catholic-convert.com/

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from (original URL may have changed):
http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-jan.htm -- http://timelines.ws/days/01_01.HTML -- http://www.herodote.net/jour0101.htm -- http://www.440.com/twtd/archives/jan01.html -- http://www.treas.gov/education/history/events/01-jan.shtml -- http://missel.free.fr/calendrier.php?mois=1&annee=2010 -- http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/features/twich/01.html -- http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/paschons/language_http/calendar/Jan1.html

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December



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The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at that moment.