All Saints - Tousaints
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The  VANGUARD --   2018

. . . text and images throughout this Website often contain active links . . ."forsan et hæc olim meminisse iuvabit"

We will begin our 22nd Year online in May 2018
". . . One Nation under God . . . ."

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History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies -- Alexis de Tocqueville

Slowly rocking the Max Schmeling Halle -- Craft Beer in Italy

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

Some French Cities HERE (and Belgium)
German and Swiss City links

Images of 1916 coinage, Early Roman Emperors, later Roman era, Byzantine Coinage -- Irish Copper Colonial Coinage (US) -- Seventeenth Century British Copper

Maclet -- A Mystery of Art -- Baseball Cards
More Art -- Sunsets -- Cumberland Falls

The past screams to us, but will we listen ???
The article's oldest link (and comments): HERE

A Paris Page -- Some Mountains in Southern France -- Austrian Wines -- German wine growing areas: Rheingau Wine region -- Ahr Wines -- Bad Schussenried

Stamp Link -- Engelberg -- Bremen, Hamburg und Hanover -- Salzburg -- US Gold Coinage (a small sample) -- (New: Winter 2018 )

A modern hymn -- Truth is heavy; therefore, few wear it. -- Midrash Shmuel on Avot: 4 (פרקי אבות)

More Verses and Selections: Page 1 -- Page 2 -- Page 3
Passover - Pesach

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; 
walk in that way and find rest for your souls

This is none other than the dwelling place of God,
and this is the Gate of Heaven
This is the Gate of the Lord, the Righteous shall enter into it

And, on the last day, I know that I shall stand,
in my own flesh,
and see God, my Redeemer [Job 19:25-27].
Dieu entendre moi
cri de mon cœur - étrangère
dans mon propre pays {Psalm 69}

Unto Thee {alone}
will I cry, O Lord my Rock
{and my Redeemer}

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord  Psalm 122.

Beloved, we are now the sons of God, but it doth not yet appear what we shall become;
however, we know that, when He shall return, we shall be like Him; for we shall see Him as He is [1 John 3:2].

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

"Treason doth never prosper: what's the reason ??   For if it prosper, none dare call it treason" - Sir John Harington --

November 15, 1864: With much of what was once downtown Atlanta (such as it was in this new city of the south) a smoking ruin ... more HERE.

Follow the numbers -- November 16, 1763: John Wilkes (born 1725), English journalist, MP, and friend of American Colonies, was injured in a duel. John Wilkes’ protest of the Treaty of Paris of 1763 appeared in The North Briton: No. 45. Silversmith and legendary Patriot Paul Revere crafted his Liberty Bowl to commemorate the two “Patriotic numbers” -- 92 and 45. The bowl, which weighed 45 ounces and held 45 gills (a measure of volume), was inscribed with Ninety-Two. The numbers had special significance to American Patriots, representing resistance to British taxation. The Massachusetts colonial assembly voted in 1768 92-17 to refuse British demands for repeal the Massachusetts Circular Letter, which had been penned by Samuel Adams in protest of the Townshend Revenue Act. Reference to the numbers 92 and 45, in songs and toasts, helped solidify opposition throughout the 13 colonies.

November 16, 1864: In order to celebrate General Sherman’s March to the Sea, Henry Clay wrote the song, called Marching through Georgia; but, he should have written a song about the Oklahoma Territory and made more cash. In any event, on November 16, 1907, the big OK became a state -- number 46. Speaking of numbers, Tennessee Ernie Ford drove to the top spot on the record charts on this day in 1955. Sixteen Tons, in which he owed his “soul to the company store,” became the fastest-selling record in history, jumping to #1 in just 3 weeks. The tune, on Capitol Records, stayed at #1 for eight weeks. So, returning to Georgia, Rhet Butler passed away on this date in 1960. The famed actor of the silver screen, Clark Gable, died at the age of 59 at about 11 o'clock in the evening (local time). He smoked too much.

November 17th -- feast day for Gregory of Tours: He is best remembered for his well-written history of the Franks, a long, vivid insight into the world in which he lived.; see also (en française) Interestingly, Tours has a few more saints in its history, including Saints Martin and Brice, whose feast days are celebrated the 11th and 13th of this month. More about Tours may be found on our pages.

With liberal culture on the wane, or rather perishing in the Gallic cities there were many deeds being done both good and evil: the heathen were raging fiercely; kings were growing more cruel; the church. attacked by heretics, was defended by Catholics; while the Christian faith was in general devoutly cherished, among some it was growing cold; the churches also were enriched by the faithful or plundered by traitors-and no grammarian skilled in the dialectic art could be found to describe these matters either in prose or verse; and many were lamenting and saying: "Woe to our day, since the pursuit of letters has perished from among us and no one can be found among the people who can set forth the deeds of the present on the written page." Hearing continually these complaints and others like them I [have undertaken] to commemorate the past, order that it may come to the knowledge of the future; and although my speech is rude, I have been unable to be silent as to the struggles between the wicked and the upright; and I have been especially ­ encouraged because, to my surprise, it has often been said by men of our day, that few understand the learned words of the rhetorician but many the rude language of the common people. I have decided also that for the reckoning of the years the first book shall begin with the very beginning of the world, and I have given its chapters below.

November 17, 1231: Death came to Saint Elisabeth von Thüringen after a brief but full life (1207 - 1231). Elisabeth was born in Hungary. At age 4 Elisabeth was engaged to the 11 year old son of the Duke of Thüringia. She was sent there for a German education in preparation. But Hermann, her intended's father, died in 1216. Elisabeth was sent back to Hungary. The new Duke of Thüringia, Ludwig IV, had fallen in love with her. They were married in 1221. Elisabeth devoted her energies to caring for the sick, most notably lepers. In the year of famine, 1226, she emptied Thüringia's granneries in order to feed the populace. Legends tell of a number of miracles that followed upon her good works. Ludwig participated in the 5th Crusade as a member of the Teutonic Knights of the „Deutscher Orden“ -- he grew ill and died. After his death Elisabeth left her home at the Wartburg, first to live with her uncle, the Bishop of Würzburg, then to live life in poverty as a caretaker of the ill in a hospital. She died on November 17, 1231. She was canonized by Gregory IX in 1235. In 1236 the construction of the Church of St. Elisabeth began in Marburg. Elisabeth's remains were then moved to the church. The church soon became one of the most observed pilgrimage sites of the times. She remains a very popular saint in Germany. Our page about some Thüringian cities ist HERE.

Saint ELIZABETH appears to be an eighteenth-century tune from the Glatz area of (lower) Silesia (which has belonged to Bohemia, Germany and Poland during the past century). No factual data exists for the legend that this text and tune date back to the twelfth-century crusades, although those apocryphal stories explain one of the names by which this tune is known, namely, CRUSADER'S HYMN. After Franz Liszt used the tune for a crusaders' march in his oratorio The Legend of St. Elizabeth (1862), the tune also became known as ST. ELIZABETH.;

November 17, 1372: Part at least of the personal history of M. Mandeville is mere invention. No contemporary record corroborates the existence of Jehan de Mandeville. Some French manuscripts, not contemporary, give a Latin letter of presentation from him to Edward III, but so vague that it might have been penned by any writer on any subject. It is in fact beyond reasonable doubt that the travels were in large part compiled by a Liège physician, known as Johains a le Barbe or Jehan a la Barbe, otherwise known as Jehan de Bourgogne (Gentleman Johhnny's forbear ??). It is added that, having had the misfortune to kill an unnamed count in his own country, he engaged himself to travel through the rest of the world and arrived at Liège in 1343. He became a great naturalist, profound philosopher and astrologer and had a remarkable knowledge of physics. His identification is confirmed by the fact that in the now destroyed church of the Guillemins was a tombstone of Mandeville, with a Latin inscription stating that he was otherwise named ad Barbam, was a professor of medicine and died at Liège on November 17, 1372.

November 17, 1558 -- If only they had the fax: Queen Mary died on this date, the first queen to rule England in her own right, and known as Bloody Mary for her persecution of Protestants (during three years, some 300 of whom were burned at the stake), a vain attempt to restore Catholic discipline to the Church of England and her attempt to reclaim the lands of the Catholic Church, confiscated by her father English King Henry VIII. Unsuccessful in England, she sought to discipline revolutionaries in Eire -- ever the convenient whipping child of the English monarchs.

In 1558, Queen Mary charged learned Doctor Henry Cole, Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral, with a commission to the Privy Council of Ireland, instigating the persecution of the English Protestants residing in that far off land. On his way west en route for Dublin, the good doctor stopped a night in Chester, staying at the 'Blue Posts' on Bridge Street -- then kept by a Mrs. Mottershead. While there, he was visited by Chester's Mayor, to whom he he related his errand. Pointing to a leather box containing the commission, Dr. Cole was heard to exclaim, Here is what will lash the heretics of Ireland ! The eavesdropping landlady (Mottershead) had a brother in Ireland. When the room was empty, she removed said commission and replaced it with the devil's toy, a pack of cards, the Knave of Clubs uppermost. This humorous deception was not discovered right away. Dean Cole arrived in Dublin and in the presence of the Lord Deputy and Privy Council at the city's castle opened the box. The surprise of the whole assembly may be more easily imagined than in words described. Doctor Cole was immediately sent back to London for a more satisfactory authority, but before he could return, Queen Mary, alas, had breathed her last. Elizabeth rewarded the ingenuity of the landlady, who truly had risked her life, with a pension of £40 (Forty Pounds Sterling) per year -- a very considerable sum at the time. Queen Elizabeth I, came to the throne on November 17th, when Mary passed on to her greater reward. Don’t go away thinking that Elizabeth was a saint and Mary a demon. Elisabeth, as queen, proved every bit as ruthless (if not more) against the Catholic faith and the Irish.

Do not confuse Mary Tudor with Mary Stuart. In 1559, King Henry II of France, killed in a tournament, is succeeded by his son François II, whose wife, Mary, Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart), assumes the title Queen of England. She also desired a return to catholicism in England, but in a somewhat complicated story she is executed by her cousin, the very same Queen Elizabeth. Her son, however, becomes James I, King of England and Scotland, 16 years after Mary Stuart's death in 1587. In 1612, James (a Protestant) moved his mother's body to Westminster Abbey, in London, constructing a magnificent tomb that rivaled Elizabeth's monument. Tribulation has been to them {the saints and martyrs} as a furnace to fine gold - a means of proving {meaning perfecting} their virtue.
One of Several in townNovember 17, 1732: “After repeated delays, the frigate Anne set sail from Gravesend down the Thames River into the Straits of Dover, then southward into the English Channel, and then westward along the southern coast of England before embarking into the Atlantic Ocean. At last, James Oglethorpe and the 114 colonists being sent at Trustees' expense were on their way to build the first settlement in the new colony of Georgia.”   © Carl Vinson Institute of Government [est. 1983], The University of Georgia [established in 1785].

November 17, 1755 — Birth of Louis XVIII: Louis Stanislas Xavier de France , brother of Louis XVI . arrives in France. The execution of his brother and the death of his nephew, Louis XVII, causes the Nation to crown him Louis XVIII in 1814, when a coalition of European powers restored the Bourbon monarchy to the heirs. After the fall of the Empire and Napoleon, the Restoration of this constitutional monarchy lasted for only a few years under his rule. He died childless on September 16, 1824. His brother replaced him under the name of Charles X as King of France until the popular uprising of 1830.

Charles's dissolution of the chamber of deputies, his July Ordinances, which set up rigid control of the press, and his restriction of suffrage resulted in the July Revolution of 1830. The major cause of the regime's downfall, however, was that, while it managed to keep the support of the aristocracy, the Catholic Church and even much of the peasantry, the ultras' cause was deeply unpopular outside of parliament and with those who did not hold the franchise, especially the industrial workers and the bourgeoisie (middle class). Charles abdicated in favor of his grandson, the Comte de Chambord, and left for England. However, the liberal, bourgeois-controlled Chamber of Deputies refused to confirm the Count as Henri V. In a vote largely boycotted by conservative deputies, the body declared the French Nation to be without constitutional head, and elevated Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, to the throne.
November 17, 1800: The Sixth U.S. Congress (2nd session) convened for the first time in Washington, D.C. Previously, the Federal capital briefly had been moored in other cities, including New York, Philadelphia and Annapolis, Maryland. George Washington, a surveyor by profession, and assigned to find a site for a capital city somewhere along the upper Potomac River (which flows between Maryland and Virginia), chose a site that turned out to be a close commute to Mount Vernon, his home. This placed the new capital city in a swamp, a foggy bottom land. Indeed, the Mall sits today on fill placed in an old canal bed that drained the area when the city first was built. It still follows the lines suggested by Pierre Charles L’Enfant.

Sixty-nine years to the day, the Suez Canal opened in Egypt. It linked the Mediterranean and the Red seas, the Atlantic with the Indian Ocean, the east with the west. The 100 mile canal eliminated an extra 4000-mile trip around the Horn of Africa. Empress Eugenie, the wife of Napoléon III, together with Ferdinand de Lesseps, chief architect/engineer of the Suez venture, led the first ships, on board the French imperial yacht l'Aigle. The Rothschild banking empire had financed the Egyptian canal; but of course, this was not the first time that the Eagle had landed in Egypt (nor would it be the last).

le 29 octobre 1888 -- Internationalisation du canal de Suez: Un traité signé à Constantinople par plusieurs pays, dont l'Angleterre, donne au canal de Suez un statut international. Ainsi, il peut être emprunté par tous les navires sans exception, quelques soient leur nationalité, et ce, en temps de paix comme en temps de guerre. L’Angleterre détenant depuis 1875 la majorité des parts de la Compagnie du canal, la convention ne sera pas toujours respectée au cours des années futures, notamment lors des deux guerres mondiales.

Moving on in time, the Suez Crisis involved the former empires of France and England, NATO Allies. In 1956, the Egyptian leader, Gamel Abd al-Nasser, nationalized the canal, and Egypt would now run the project. This unilateral action greatly angered the British and the French, and eventually led to an Israeli-British-French attack on October 29, 1956. Their American ally however, did not lend support to either country invading Egypt, possibly fearing Egypt would fall into the Russian Soviet sphere of influence. Thus, the Suez Crisis ended quickly with all sides agreeing to a cease-fire on November 6, 1956, at the behest of the US and the UN. This US adventure into Middle-East politics turned out poorly, one can argue, demonstrating weakness and driving Nasser towards the communist camp.

November 17, 1903: Vladimir Lenin’s efforts to impose his own radical views on the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party split the Party into two factions. The followers of the Marxist revolutionary line espoused by V.I. Lenin called themselves the majority, or Bolsheviks, and referred to their rivals as the minority, or Mensheviks. The Mensheviks took a less radical position, seeking cooperation with the middle-class in forming a government. The two factions grew into separate parties, with Bolshevism becoming the strategy that led to the overthrow of Russian czarism and the establishment of Soviet power in following the Revolution of 1917. The Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Russian Communist Party in 1918 and the word Bolshevik was finally dropped from the official title of the Soviet Communist Party in 1956.

November 18, 1477: On this date the first book was printed in England by a process made popular in Mayence by Johan Gensfleisch. William Caxton had set up a press in Bruges (Brugge, Flanders), where he printed the first book in English (Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye, a translation by Caxton himself) produced in 1475, just 20 years after Gutenberg's premier effort. Our page on Brugge is HERE. Later, Caxton set up his press at Westminster in London (1476). The first book known printed: Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres on November 18, 1477. Other notable works printed by Caxton: Le Morte d'Arthur and Canterbury Tales. Interestingly, by the marriage of the daughter of Charles the Bold to Archduke Maximilian, Flanders passed to the House of Austria in 1477.

Moveable type printing started a revolution in Germany, France and later England. Now, many more would have access to the Bible, without the filter of the Roman Catholic Church and Latin texts. More about how this revolution affected England is HERE.

Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov November 19, 1711: Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov was born this day (November 8 under the old calendar). A Russian polymath, scientist and writer, made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus. He regarded heat as a form of motion, suggested the wave theory of light, contributed to the formulation of the kinetic theory of gases, and stated the idea of conservation of matter. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov was also a poet, who created the basis of the modern Russian literary language.

Lomonosov was born in the village of Denisovka (later renamed Lomonosovo in his honor) in the Arkangel Territory, on an island not far from Kholmogory, in the Far North of Russia; the son of prosperous peasant stock. His rise to Secretary of State (1764) and most of his accomplishments were unknown outside Russia until long after his death, and remain somewhat obscure today in the West. He died at age 54 in Saint Petersburg. His great-granddaughter was Princess Maria (Raevskaya) Volkonskaya, the wife of the Decembrist Prince Sergei Volkonsky. In 1755, he wrote a grammar that reformed the Russian literary language. He combining Old Church Slavonic of his early training with the vernacular tongue. To further his literary theories, he wrote more than 20 solemn ceremonial odes, notably the Evening Meditation on the God's Grandeur. Lomonosov Moscow State University is the largest university in Russia. Founded in 1755, the university is named in honor of its founder. Lomonosov published a classic history of Russia in 1760.

November 19, 1861: Julia Ward Howe, a Newport Rhode Island bon vivant, wrote The Battle Hymn of the Republic. A simple poem, it secured her place in American history. The hymn, as most of you will remember, was the center piece of the Service for the Dead at the National Cathedral on September 14, 2001. In 1853, William Steffe, a Southern composer of many Sunday School songs, had written this tune to accompany his sermons at camp meetings. It was originally called “Brothers will you meet us on Canaan’s happy shore?”

Mrs. Howe composed her verses in Washington after her visit to the soldiers and battlefields, just outside the Nation's Capital in occupied Virginia. There, she first heard Union soldiers singing John Brown's Body to the Steffe tune. Rev. Freeman Clarke, a clergyman who had read Julia’s published poems, suggested that she write new words for the war effort, saying the old tune deserved fresh words to encourage the fighting. Maybe he knew that this had become a popular tune of wartime because of circumstances with which she had already a close connection.

John Brown's body lies a-mouldering in the grave;
John Brown's body lies a-mouldering in the grave;
Oh, John Brown's body lies a-mouldering in the grave;
But his soul is marching on ...

Her then husband, Samuel, was one of a secret circle of Northern aristocrats that quietly aided Brown in his quest to ignite a nationwide slave revolt. They had called themselves the Secret Six. Brown's quest led him to seize the 60 year-old Federal armory at Harpers Ferry (October 16, 1859). Two days later, the raiders gazed upon a company of U.S. Marines, under the command of Lt. Colonel Robert E. Lee. A young lieutenant, James Ewell Brown Stuart, approached under a white flag, asking for surrender. Brown refused. The Marines stormed the building. Captured alive, Brown later was hanged for the offense. In contrast, the covert coven of conspirators who furnished financial aid, would not suffer a similar fate.

The Secret Six included the editor of the Atlantic Monthly. This abolitionist magazine would publish the verses Julia Ward Howe had written. Her husband fled to Canada, but soon returned and served in the Lincoln Administration. Mrs. Howe had her sixth and last child soon after the death of Brown. She wrote another less famous poem called The First Martyr at this time, the Winter of 1859-60.

O babe unborn! O future race!
Heir of our glory and disgrace,
We cannot see thy veiled face;
But shouldst thou keep our crime,
No new Apocalypse need say
In what wild woe shall pass away
The falsehood of the time.
{emphasis added}

Very early the next morning, after her visit to the bivouacs of the Army of the Potomac, she awoke quickly. Although startled from deep sleep at dawn, the "lines of the desired poem began to entwine themselves in my mind.” She arose and in the dim light “scrawled the verses almost without looking at the paper … I returned to bed and fell asleep, saying to myself, I like this better than most things that I have written.” This account is drawn from {link dead} as well as Her poem, when published by the Atlantic Monthly, February 1, 1862, was lightly lauded, but the War between the States had so engrossed public attention that few took strength from only its literary merits. It had a profound impact when coupled with music. “I knew, and was content to know, that the poem soon found its way to the camps, as I heard from time to time of its being sung in chorus by the soldiers.”

The Battle Hymn of the Republic: "Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord." This, of course, is ... the Nunc dimittis of Luke 2:29-30, where, upon the first presentation ... in the Temple, Simeon says, "Lord now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word. For mine eyes have seen thy salvation." National Review, ibid.

The Publication date (for The Battle Hymn of the Republic) was February 1st. Coincidence, or not, the Feast day observed February 2nd is that for the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple {or the older name Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary; another popular name for the day used to be “Candlemas,” which came from an early church custom of carrying candles in procession as part of the observance}. Nunc dimittis is a principle part of the reading, and often the focus of the sermon.

November 19, 1863: President Abraham Lincoln was asked to deliver a few appropriate remarks to the crowd at the dedication of the National Cemetery at the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Lincoln's address almost was ignored in the wake of the lengthy oration by main speaker Edwin Everett. In fact, Lincoln's speech ended before many in the crowd were even aware that he had spoken. Lincoln's "eloquent words of redemption and sacrifice" remain revered in American history. He concluded his thoughts with a National vow: We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this Nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth ... a work in progress still today.

A year later (1864), Sherman's army was taking its weekend stroll through Covington, where the pillage was ongoing. Mark Twain in contrast (in California), wrote about his observations of a meteor shower from the previous week. From the minutes of the Central (General) Council of the International Working Men's Association - November 19, 1864: Dr. [Karl] Marx then brought up the report of the subcommittee, also a draft of the address which had been drawn up for presentation to the people of America congratulating them on their having re-elected Abraham Lincoln as President.

November 20, 1947: Princess Elizabeth Alexandra Mary marries Phillip Mountbatten at the Westminster Abbey Church (London England), a ceremony broadcast worldwide by radio. Forty-five years later to the day, a fire breaks out in their Private Chapel at Windsor Castle, an event viewed live, world-wide. It burns through the night, seriously damaging a wing of the structure. You might recall that it was only a few years earlier on November 15, 1938, that television’s first on-the-scene event took place. A fire on Ward’s Island, New York City was seen by viewers of W2XBT. The station's cameras somehow caught the unexpected conflagration as it broke out, a bit of reality programming 70 years ago on what is today known as the flagship for NBC. In 2013, one expects a new birth for a future King, the great Grand issue of Elizabeth and Phillip, a child for Prince William.

November 21-22, 1922: Rebecca Latimer Felton of Georgia takes the required oath and becomes the first woman to hold office as United States Senator. Haven't heard of her ?  Well, as one might expect within these pages, much more underlies this story.

Following the death of U.S. Senator Tom Watson, on October 3, 1922, the Georgia Governor, Thomas Hardwick, had appointed Rebecca Latimer Felton temporarily to fill Watson's seat until Walter F. George, elected in a special election, could officially take office. Felton was 87 years old at the time, and Governor Hardwick was attempting to honor her for a life of service to causes in which she believed. She took the appointment seriously, although many senators opposed her actually being allowed to take the oath of office. They initially denied her a chance to become a senator. Felton attended Senate sessions on November 21st and 22nd, sitting in the gallery. Through the efforts of Walter George, senators finally gave in and Felton was officially sworn in, becoming the first woman to serve in the U.S. Senate. from

November 22, 1835: Frank Crawford Armstrong was born on November 22, 1835 at Choctaw Agency, Indian Territory (now the virtually abandoned village of Scullyville) where his father was stationed at the time. After his death, when Armstrong was a boy, Armstrong's mother married General Persifor Frazer Smith, one of the heroes of the Mexican War. Armstrong accompanied him on a military expedition across Texas into New Mexico in 1854, learning his trade out west. A Regular Officer in the Cavalry branch of the Army of the United States, and the youngest captain in the army at the time, he was transferred back east. Captain Armstrong fought for the Union at the First Battle of Bull Run (1861), later changing sides after resigning his commission. His last battle was at Selma, Alabama (April 2, 1865), when the remnant of Lt. General Forrest's corps faced far superior numbers and hundreds were taken prisoner. Armstrong escaped capture and was given a new command at Macon, but the war was over. He would retour the WEST as an Indian inspector and Commissioner for the Federal government. Armstrong passed away at Bar Harbor, Maine on September 8, 1909, but his journey was not yet complete, he had to return to Washington, where he had lived. He is buried in Rock Creek Cemetery, Georgetown, District of Columbia (Section L, Lot 41).

The Battle of Britton's Lane produced five men who would become general officers. Colonel (acting Brigadier) Frank Armstrong would shortly be made a {regular} full Brigadier General [January 20, 1863], and both William H. (Red) Jackson and Wirt Adams would rise to the rank of general during the war. On the Federal side, Colonel Elias S. Dennis would be promoted to general largely based upon his performance at Britton's lane, and his subordinate, Major Warren Shedd, who commanded the 30th Illinois at Britton's Lane, would also be a general before the end of the war. It is quite rare to find such a relatively small battle producing such a large number of general officers during the War Between the States. Over the intervening century, the Battle of Britton's Lane and Armstrong's Raid have generated many fascinating stories that have remained alive in the oral tradition and written history of Madison County and West Tennessee.

November 22, 2005: The first chancellor from East Germany ist auch die erste Bundeskanzlerin. Angela Merkel was chosen Tuesday, after weeks of uncertainty, to lead the German governing coalition (Koalition aus Union und SPD vom Parlament). Die Pfarrerstochter Merkel addierte zur Eidesformel den religiösen Zusatz „So wahr mir Gott helfe” hinzu -- her oath included by choice so help me God. Also, the seven Union and eight SPD Ministers were sworn to office in the afternoon. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

November 22, 1935: The first transpacific airmail flight departed with over 20,000 folks waving good-bye. The China Clipper began its 8,000-mile journey with 110,865 letters on board, piloted by Captain Edwin Musick. The Pan American Martin 130 took off from San Francisco International. Nearly 60 hours later, it landed at Manila in the Philippines Islands. Two other denominations featuring this aircraft may be seen HERE

JFK 50 years - 1963-2013 -- Death of CS Lewis

When President Kennedy spoke in Berlin, a few short months before his assassination, he emphasized his solidarity with the citizens of the beleaguered city, separated by The Wall. He could not know that another US President 20 years in the future would make a similar plea for freedom. Most forget the second German phrase used, equally compelling, roughly translated, "Let them come to Berlin." He was speaking about those who thought the Soviet system was not all that bad, that it was simply a different system for ordering economic priorities. The structure, the barbed wire, the guards, vividly loomed before all people, on which ever side of it one stood, with only one clear message, there is a prison here. Until it fell, all nations, like the citizens on both side of the Wall, were not fully free. If you seek peace, tear down this wall. Fifty years later . . .

November 23, 1846: The Augusta Canal system began operation. Conceived two years earlier as a way to to provide water power for manufacturing and thus aid Augusta's depressed economy, the canal system diverted water from the Savannah River seven miles north of Augusta. Because the city was situated on the Fall Line, the ground elevation was higher seven miles to the north. The thirteen-foot difference in elevations would cause the water in the canal to flow southward into Augusta with enough speed to power factory turbines. Water first flowed into the canal on Nov. 23, 1846, and Petersburg cotton boats quickly began using the canal. True to its intended purpose, the canal led to construction of the Augusta Factory -- a cloth manufacturing firm -- in 1847. WJBF TV channel 6 in Augusta, Georgia (ABC) began broadcasting this day in 1953 to commemorate this event. On November 23, 2009, the same station is broadcasting on digital channels 42-1 and 42-2.

November 24th: Today is the 329th day of the year (2008). Only 37 days remain until the end of the year. Tasmania was discovered today by the European culture of the time (1642). To celebrate the event, the Apollo 12 command module splashed safely in the Pacific Ocean, ending the second reported mission to earth's moon. Charles, Duke of Orléans arrived this day in 1394, as an unknown poet, as did William F. Buckley Jr. in 1925. John Knox of Scotland departed this day in 1572. At soon to be named Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, John Forbes (1707-1759) captured Fort Duquesne, after the French had destroyed it exothermically (1758), one of the first firework displays over the peaceful Point Park.

According to legend, Charles of Valois, Duke of Orléans and father of the popular King Louis XII (Father of the People), sent the first Valentine messages (letters and poems) to his second wife, Bonne of Armagnac, in 1415, when he was imprisoned in the Tower of London after the Battle of Agincourt {100 Years' War}. He, however, was not beheaded, and lived a full life. Unfortunately, until 1440, it was spent in English captivity. He never saw his wife Bonne again. Orléans, an accomplished poet, composing in both French and English, was exceptional among his French contemporaries. So it is that the British Library has a copy of his works from about 1500, composed in French, English and Latin. He makes an appearance in Shakespeare's King Henry V (Act 4. Scene VIII), when his name is mentioned as one of the captives taken on October 25th -- Saint Crispin's Day.

November 24, 2003: Former Brave's pitcher Warren Spahn died at age 82. Spahn was an ace for the Boston and later Milwaukee, Braves. He won more games than any other left-hander in the history of professional baseball. Although he never pitched for the Braves after the franchise moved to Atlanta, he was honored in 2003 with a statue at Turner Field, also known as Atlanta's Olympic stadium. In 1973, in his first year of eligibility, Spahn was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame. He received the Cy Young Award in 1957.

November 24, 2006: William Diehl passed away this day. His death, announced on the 28th was followed by an obituary that appeared in the Atlanta morning paper on November 29th. He was working on the ending of what would be his 10th novel at the time of his death. Mr. Diehl’s other novels included Primal Fear, a tale about a defense lawyer and a client accused of killing an archbishop (an open and shut case). It too became a film in 1996. from The LA Times

Sharky's Machine, a 1981 motion picture directed by Burt Reynolds (who also starred in the title role of Sgt Tom Sharky), adapts William Diehl's first novel, Sharky's Machine (1978), to the big screen. Diehl, who was age fifty when he wrote the novel, saw the movie shot on location in and around his hometown of Atlanta, Georgia. According to the Internet Movie Database, this film has the distinction of a stunt record. As of 2004, at 220 feet, the stunt from Atlanta's Hyatt Regency Hotel still holds up as the longest outdoor free-fall (no wires) stunt to ever be performed for commercial film. The stuntman was Dar Robinson. Diehl had a cameo role.

Diehl joined the Army Air Corps at age 17 after falsifying his birth date. Never-the-less, he served as a ball turret gunner on a B-24 during World War II. His conduct in action earned the Distinguished Flying Cross, Purple Heart and Air Medal with three Oak Leaf Clusters.

Without the Channel, how would history have changedNovember 25, 1120: The events collectively known as "The Anarchy" represent one of the least known periods of English history (post 1066). This particular period of English civil unrest has its origins on the fateful night of the 25th of November 1120, when the "White Ship" sank in the Channel off the Normandy coast when it struck a submerged rock. The shipwreck killed the only direct heir of King Henry I, William Adelin. The cause of the ship's sinking remains uncertain, but some reports describe a night of binge drinking by crew and passengers alike; and, rumors of purposeful destruction persist today. The "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" recalls the 19-year reign of King Stephen, that followed Henry's death as an era “when Christ and his saints were asleep." Henry I King of all England and Normandy had designated Matilda (known as Maud) his daughter to be the Queen (she was married to Geoffrey of Anjou who had contested the control of Normandy by Henry). After trading victories in battle Maud and Stephen were at a stalemate. Before the coronation of the Queen could take place, Londoners stormed out of the "City" to attack Westminster, compelling Matilda to flee, her plans in flames. Eventually, an agreement recognized Henry II (Henry 's grandson by Maud) as rightful heir, when the men of the opposing armies refused to fight, weary of the seemingly unending struggle. Indeed, after the accord the once and future Kings were at peace personally, appearing together.

HENRI Plantagenêt, born March 5, 1133, in Le Mans, Maine Province (Sarthe), France; died July 6, 1189 at Chinon, Indre-et-Loire, France; was crowned HENRY II, King of England, on December 19, 1154. He is buried at Abbey-et-Fontevrault, Maine-et-Loire, France. On May 11, 1152, Henry married ELEANOR of Aquitaine, born about 1122 in Aquitaine, France. She passed on June 26, 1202, at Mirabell Castle, France. ELEANOR was the daughter of GUILLAUME X, Duke of Aquitaine, and his wife ELEANORE. Æleanor d'Aquitaine previously had married to LOUIS VII, King of France, on July 4th or 22nd, 1137, but was divorced by him on March 21, 1152. This change of heart, as you might expect, fostered problems between the two countries, as ownership issues were again in play. ÆLEANOR of Aquitaine is buried at the Monastery of Fontevrault located in Maine-et-Loire, France.

MATILDA (Maud) was the daughter of MATILDA, born about 1082 in Scotland; died May 1, 1118 at Winchester, Hampshire, England; baptized name was EDITH of SCOTLAND, a Princess of Scotland. On November 11, 1100, MATILDA married English King HENRY I BEAUCLERC, born about 1068 at Selby, Yorkshire, England; died December 1, 1135, at Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France. Henry I was the youngest son of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR, King of England. HENRY I, crowned King of England on August 5, 1100, at Westminster was buried at Reading Abbey, Berkshire, England on January 4, 1136. William the Conquerors heritage back to Charlemagne and before is well-known.

MATILDA was the daughter of Sainte MARGARET, born about 1043 in England; died November 16, 1093, at Edinburgh Castle, Mid-Lothian, Scotland. She was a Princess of England; buried at Dunferline, Fife, Scotland; canonized as a Saint by Pope Innocent IV in 1251. In 1068 she had married Scottish King MALCOLM III CEANNMOR, born about 1031 in Scotland; died November 13, 1093, near Alnwick in Northumberland, England. Three of Sainte MARGARET's children became Scottish Kings, the fourth married the English ruler.

It is through the heritage of Queen Matilda, who was the spouse of King Henry I of England (he the son of William I, First Norman King of England) and the daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland, that many of the later Kings and Queens of England and Scotland are able to claim direct descent from the earlier English (Anglo Saxon) Kings as will be shown below, as well as the Scots of Dalriada (Malcom III's line). The current royal family also directly descends from the Scots of Dalriada, through this line, by way of the House of York (White Rose), Mary, Queen of Scots, James I, Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, the Duke of Brunswick (Hanover) and his son George I, King of England. The lineage of the Scots of Dalriada goes back about 95 generations before Matlida, where we find one named Gaodhal (or Gæls) son of Niul, grandson of Phœniusa and further back to Japhet one of the sons of Noah. From there it is only 10 generations to Adam.

November 25th: The devotion to Sainte Catherine (of Alexandria), which grew greatly in Europe starting in the 12th Century, peaked in France (15th century), when it was rumoured that she had spoken to Jeanne d'Arc and, together with Ste. Margaret, had been divinely appointed Joan's adviser. Many think Catherine did not exist or was some amalgam of many martyrs, and she was removed from the Catholic Church's calendar of feast days (1969-2002). Adam of Saint-Victor wrote a magnificent poem in her honor for a Latin Hymn, which begins: vox sonora nostri chori. (the sonorous (pleasant but powerful) voice of our choir [in praise]

Then [Roman Emperor] Maximin, with his heart of stone, commanded that Catherine be carried outside the city, and scourged and then beheaded. So it was done; but when she was dead, angels bore her body over the desert and over the Red Sea, and laid it away on the top of Mt. Sinai. As for the tyrant, he was slain in battle, and the vultures devoured him. Raphael; A Collection Of Fifteen Pictures And A Portrait Of The Painter With Introduction And Interpretation, Estelle M. (Estelle May) Hurll, EText-No. 19314, Release Date: 2006-09-19

So, I will leave it to you to discern what all this has to do with the price of hats for a few lassies in Paris.

November 26, 1864: A day after the anniversary of the Battle of Missionary Ridge (Chattanooga, Tennessee-in a defeat that many believe ended the South's hope of a negotiated end to the war), southern troops reoccupy Atlanta, as General Sherman moves south and east toward Savannah. The town is a mess. Civilians, who were forced to leave after the battle, slowly return. You may find the previous two week period recounted HERE.

November 27, 511: Clovis, often called the first King of France, died on this date. Shortly before his death, Clovis called a synod of Gallic bishops to meet in Orléans to reform the church and create a strong link between the Crown and the Catholic episcopate. This was the First Council of Orléans. Clovis I is interred today at Église Saint-Étienne-du-Mont (pictured here), not in the Saint Denis Basilica (near Paris) and not in Tournai (Belgium), as was his father and previous Salian Frank kings. The Parisian church that rises near where the Roman Forum once stood, contains Pascal’s tomb, who died while he was in the parish and Racine’s ashes -- transferred to this church from Port-Royal in 1711. Furthermore, it contains the shrine of Ste. Geneviève’s remains, the patroness of Paris. The reliquary contains only a few fingers, bones and ashes, because during the la Révolution français , the remains were burned and scattered. Also with Clovis is his wife Ste. Clotilda. Upon his death, Clovis's realm was divided into 4 parts, creating about a 240 year period of disunity for the resulting kingdoms. A map and timeline of kings, mayors and other rulers is HERE on our page about Metz.

November 28, 1095: – On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse to lead the First Crusade to the Holy Land. The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the western Church. Pope Urban delivered a speech at the closing of the Council, purportedly ending his oration with the words Deus vult ("God wills {it}"). This phrase became the battle cry of the Crusaders. Filled with zeal at the prospect of liberating the Holy Land (and earning an indulgence, that erased time in Purgatory, they ended the Council. In 1095, Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus had sent envoys to the west to request military assistance against the Seljuk Turks. The message was received well by Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza. Later that year, in November, Urban called the Council of Clermont to discuss the matter further. In convoking the council, Urban urged the bishops and abbots, whom he addressed directly, to bring with them the prominent lords in their provinces.

On this date in 1520, After navigating through a strait at the southern end of South America, three ships under the command of the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães) reach the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first known Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean from the east. Ferdinand Magellan set out from Spain on this voyage with five ships, but the voyage proved more difficult than anticipated. Indeed, Megellan and most of his men and ships did not survive this voyage. The aim of Christopher Columbus' 1492–1503 voyages to the West had been to reach the Indies and to establish direct commercial relations between Spain and the Asian kingdoms. The Spanish soon realized that the lands of the Americas were not a part of Asia, but a new continent. The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas reserved for Portugal the eastern routes that went around Africa, and Vasco da Gama and the Portuguese arrived in India in 1498. It became urgent for Spain to find a new commercial route to Asia, and after the Junta de Toro conference of 1505, the Spanish Crown set out to discover a route to the west. Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513 after crossing the Isthmus of Panama. Magellan's voyage would open the "spice route" without damaging relations with the neighboring Portuguese. On August 10, 1519, the five ships under Magellan's command, the Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepción, Victoria and Santiago, left Seville. It took 3 and 1/2 months to find the Pacific.

In 1666 on this date, some 3000 men of the Scottish Royal Army led by Tam Dalyell of the Binns defeated 900 Covenanter rebels in the Battle of Rullion Green, in Lothian, Scotland. The rebels included experienced professional soldiers as well as citizenry, and were commanded by Colonel James Wallace of Auchens. The Pentland Rising (of which this was the penultimate battle) must be viewed in the context of the long-running government campaign to impose episcopalianism upon Scotland (versus Presbyterianism (Calvin) or Catholicism) against the will of the people.

November 28, 1794: On this date, Friedrich von Steuben passed away at Remsen, New York (born in Magdeburg, Germany). Steuben had been a Prussian officer. At the behest of Benjamin Franklin, he aided the ailing effort of the American Colonies. Arriving in 1777, Washington placed von Steuben in the line of command for troops at Valley Forge. He retrained these forces and wrote a manual, Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States. The city of Steubenville, Ohio bears his name.

November 28, 2007: Churches and schools for many years sponsored Boy and Girl Scout units in Waltham. Indeed, in 1974, the W.R. Nichols Company was the chartering organization for a Sea-Scout Ship. Today such a group would be a crew within Venturing, a program for young men and women under the BSA umbrella. This evening, was the 97th anniversary of the founding of the earliest documented maritime-themed Scout unit in the United States. That date in 1910 was a Monday and the time was evening at 321 Crescent Dr, Waltham, Massachusetts. The man who first brought a Sea Scout group together (in the USA), Arthur Astor Carey, lived in Waltham, which is on the Charles River. A prominent worker in the burgeoning arena of youth development of the period, Carey founded the local Scout district council, too. Carey's Little chapel Harbor -- Waltham, Massachusetts Public Library from same time period.

Carey's unit began as a Scout troop, of course, as that was the only type of Scouting program that existed then. Less than a month later these Scouts had acquired the use of an eighty-two (82) foot converted fishing boat, then moored in nearby Boston. The group spent much of the following months working on their water skills at Camp Sherwood on the Sudbury River. In the summer of 1911, the newly-christened BSS Pioneer conducted the first Long Cruise.

Mr. Carey apparently was never actually a Sea Scout Skipper [often called a Seascoutmaster in the early days], he functioned more as a combination Chartered Partner Representative and Committee Chairman in today's terms. He did go out on the Pioneer and participated in the Long Cruise. A wealthy man who was active in such diverse fields as the arts deco and neurasthenic studies, he is considered to be the first national Sea Scout director, preceding James Wilder of Hawaii.

There is some evidence pointing to a possibility that Mr. Carey had been acquainted with General Baden-Powell in England (1909) and that his encounter may have been a factor in his interest in Scouting. His daughter Alida married into the Gulick family, the founders of the Campfire Girls. Carey was the same age as Sir Robert Baden-Powell, but predeceased him by some 18 years (1923). information researched by D R McKeon SSS Sargasso Ship 22 (Atlanta Area Council) Tucker, GA.

Some say November 29, 1745-the monument on the site says the 28th, but I say serendipity like a pendulum swings: In November 1745, French troops and native allies burn Saratoga, New York (and later Albany), to retaliate for British efforts to encourage the Iroquois to fight during King George's War (War of the Austrian Succession (1744-1748)). The Saratoga of 1745 was on the site of the present Schuylerville, NY, on the west bank of the Hudson River about eleven miles east of the present Saratoga. One hundred forty-five years later in nearby West Point, New York, the United States Naval Academy defeated the United States Military Academy 24-0 in the first Army-Navy football game. Another interesting point, if you look for counseling at 1745 Saratoga Avenue, you will be in San Jose, California. You might be surprised to learn that San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe. It is the first civilian settlement, or pueblo, in Alta California.
November 30th 1016, saw an important event in English History, when the son of King Æthelræd the Unready met an untimely end. ÆTHELRÆD II {the Unready} was the son of EDGAR THE PEACEFUL. Coinage of the King shows his portrait as well as the hand of God, between the alpha and omega symbols.

England, under one rule since Alfred's son, Edward, had unified the title in 921, was ruled by Æthelræd the Unready who had become monarch aged 10 in 979. But his perceived non-preparedness had persuaded a new generation of Vikings that Britain was again for the taking and since the 980s they had been trying to do just that. East Anglia was in the front line.

King Edmund II of England (nicknamed Ironside for his military prowess), the son of King Æthelræd, was elected King of England in London upon his father's death in 1016, but his Danish rival, Canute the Great, enjoyed greater support throughout the rest of the countryside. Edmund was eventually defeated by the Danes, but he was allowed by Canute to keep the Kingdom of Wessex (Wessex is key because traditionally it held the overlordship of the rest of England), under an understanding that whoever of them survived the other would become ruler of the whole of England. Shortly after making this agreement, Edmund II died, on November 30, 1016, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey on the Isle of Avalon. A Danish claim was established over the whole of England for the next 50 years. To secure the claim, one of Canute's first order of business was to marry Emma, Æthelræd's widow of Norman descent. One of Æthelræd's children outlived Canute's direct heirs (Emma was the mother of all Canute's and Æthelræd's children).

Some years later, the survivor -- King Edward the Confessor, another son of Anglo-Saxon King Æthelred (the Unready), was recalled from Normandy after decades of exile, where he had secured sanctuary with his Norman Christian cousins. Not unexpectedly, Edward's reign witnessed increasing Norman-French influence, which had begun when Canute married Æthelred's widow, Emma of Normandy, daughter of Richard the Fearless, then Duke of Normandy. Edward oversaw completion of Westminster Abbey, which he finished just in time for his burial in January 1065/66. Before his death he had named a Norman heir, but the Saxon council of electors (witenagemot) wanted a man closer to their own cultural heritage.

WilliamEdward's unexpected death without an heir left the succession in doubt and in dispute. The electors of the witenagemot chose Harold, Earl of Wessex. The Earl had once been held hostage by a Scandinavian cousin, named Harald (Haardraade). He was released only upon giving up any interest in the English throne. This relative, now King Harald III of Norway, wished to claim his prize. The third contender and cousin was William Duke of Normandy (also of Scandanavian-Viking heritage and related to Edward and Harold and Harald).

Harold, then currently English King, Harold II, fought off an invasion by the first Scandinavian claimant, defeating him at Stamford Bridge on September 25, 1066. Notwithstanding this success, the course of world history radically changed at the Battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066; because, Duke William (the Conqueror) established a beachhead in England without opposition, while Harold had busied himself up north. When Harold's exhausted Anglo-Saxon army turned its attention to the second set of invaders, time and energy had run their course. French Barons, née Viking pirates, had established the new English royal family and noble retinue. English King William was crowned in Westminster Abbey on the next Christmas Day in 1066. More HERE. All of this is every bit as complicated as the events we would see later regarding the succession to the English Crown as the Tudor line ended and the Reformation of the Church in England began. A very good anglo-saxon Websource:

Richard I of Normandy (born 28 August 933, in Fécamp, Haute Normandy, France died November 20, 996, in Fécamp) was the leader of Normandy (princeps Nortmannorum at Rouen) from 942 to 996; many consider him to be the first to actually have held that title. He was called Richard the Fearless (French, Sans Peur). Richard was still a boy when his father died, and so he was powerless to stop Louis IV of France when he seized Normandy. Louis kept him in confinement in his youth at Laon, but he escaped with the assistance of Osmond de Centville, Bernard de Senlis (who had been a companion of Rollo of Normandy), Ivo de Bellèsme and Bernard the Dane (common ancestor of houses of Harcourt and Beaumont). In 968, Richard agreed to "commend" himself to Hugh, Count of Paris. He then allied himself with the Norman and Viking leaders, drove Louis out of Rouen, and took back Normandy by 947. He later quarreled with Æthelred II of England. The Dukes of Normandy descend in an unbroken line to Wooden (Odin of Nordic Mythology) of the Thracian Æsir, whose peoples migrated from the Black Sea; said to be a remnant of the House of Troy.

Facing the abbey church (L'Abbatiale de la Trinité), the remains of the ducal palace bring to mind the Norman Rolland (Rollo) of Fécamp, and rest upon the remains of an early 10th century castle built by William I. Today the site hints at what housing was like in the 10th and 11th centuries. Behind the abbey church , the old town bears witness to Fécamp's rich past, along France's Alabaster Coast. The abbey church of the Trinity, a masterpiece of primitive gothic (12th century), possesses the grandeur of a bishop's cathedral. It still retains numerous gems, including the chapel of the Virgin and its 14th century stained glass as well as later additions and art. The Church of Saint Stephen (Étienne) is a much later structure from the 16th Century.

Fécamp is situated in the valley of the river Valmont, at the heart of the Pays de Caux. It sits about 50 miles NE of Cæn and about 40 miles NW of Rouen. According to legend, the trunk of a fig tree carrying the Precious Blood of Christ collected by Joseph of Arimathea was washed ashore on the riverbank at Fécamp in the 1st century. In short order, the relic attracted many pilgrims. Many items of the Gallo-Roman period have been found locally, such as gold coins and celtic axes. Two Gallo-Roman cemeteries have also been discovered.écamp Charles II of England landed at Fécamp in November 1651, soon after the Battle of Worcester, where he had been defeated by Cromwell. This recalls Edward the Confessor (son of Æthelred the Unready and his second wife, Emma of Normandy), King of England's exile to the same city, where he stayed with his cousins.

November 30, 1782: In Paris, representatives from the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign preliminary peace articles, later formalized in the Treaty of Paris (September 3, 1783). The British recognized the independence of the American states. John Adams, who would become the second President, was one of four named American Representatives on the negotiating team (Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Henry Laurens were the other three).

The US and British negotiators agreed on the new nation's boundaries. The two sides secretly agreed to an article that affected Georgia's southern boundary west of the Chattahoochee River. If Spain allowed Britain to retain her two Florida colonies, the northern boundary of West Florida would continue as it was prior to the American Revolution -- a line marked at latitude 32° 22' N stretching from the Chattahoochee River to the Mississippi River. If, however, Spain insisted on the return of the two Floridas, West Florida's norther boundary would return to 31° (as originally stipulated in the Treaty of Paris of 1763). Thus, a substantial area of Georgia's western territory was in question. Spain would claim, in due course, the entire area of West Florida for its role in defeating the British. The secret text would plague U.S.-Spanish relations until 1795, when Spain finally agreed to give up its claim to western Georgia north of the 31st parallel, still holding on to the rest of its Florida empire. see

However, all was not really settled, and we went to war with the British Empire once again in 1812. In September 1814, an impressive American naval victory on Lake Champlain forced invading British forces back into Canada. This led to the final peace arrangements concluded in Ghent, Belgium. John Adam's son, John Quincy Adams (the sixth US President) would negotiate the Treaty of Ghent (December 24, 1814), ending that conflict. News of the signing would not reach the USA until 1815. This delay gave US General Andrew Jackson, later a US President, the time to achieve a still greater American victory at the Battle of New Orleans.

Jackson expected the British assault and had prepared. The shallow-draft steamboat Enterprise, completed in Pittsburgh under the direction of keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve, left for New Orleans to deliver guns and ammunition to General Jackson on December 1st of 1814. On December 13th General Andrew Jackson announced martial law in New Orleans, as British troops disembark at Lake Borne, 40 miles east of the city. The British then moved south and east of the Chalmette Plantation, a then goodly distance out from town. On the 23rd of December General Jackson stopped the first advance, but tactically retreated about 3 miles within the Parish of Saint Bernard and threw up fortifications.

On the 8th of January 1815, the British resumed their march toward New Orleans. In separating Louisiana from the rest of the United States, the British had aimed to control and would have in fact controlled the Mississippi and the trade to America's heartland, thereby protecting their possessions on the American frontier and in Canada. The British found the volunteer militia, citizens and Gentleman Pirate Jean Lafitte's men (all under General Andrew Jackson's command), strongly entrenched at the Rodriquez Canal, 6 miles from the French Quarter.

Because of its provisions of the treaty ending our last declared war with Great Britain, regarding the Georgia borders, many Georgia politicians called on the President Madison (who authored the Bill of Rights) to renounce the Treaty of Ghent and continue the war against Britain. This did not happen, the United States was exhausted. Never-the-less, the Florida Territories would come into US possession by treaty in 1819.

On November 30th: In 1803, 21 years after the preliminary agreement ending the war for freedom was reached, at the Cabildo building in New Orleans, the Spanish (Governor Manuel de Salcedo and the Marqués de Casa Calvo) officially transfered the Louisiana Territory to the French. Pierre-Clément de Laussat (Napoléon's Colonial Prefect, born in Pau) accepts possession of Louisiana from Spain in a retrocession ceremony at noon. Jean Ètienne de Boré (1741-1820) becomes the first Mayor of the city, a democratic ville for the first time. Just 20 days later, France transferred the same land to the United States and the US Flag rose on the 20th of December above the Cabildo. William C. C. Claiborne and General James Wilkinson are commissioners overseeing the transfer.

On this date in 1819: The steamship Savannah returned home after being the first steam-powered vessel to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Actually the ship had sails, carried very little coal and so could use steam only as an assist when wind failed (or to steam into port up the Savannah River). It had left the City of Savannah in May. For more information, please see our Georgia Sea Traditions Webpage.

In the mid-20th Century: On November 30th 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (who celebrated his birth in 1874 that day) and the leader of the Soviets (USSR), Josef Stalin, would agree to an invasion of Europe, codenamed Operation Overlord. The Allies, sans Josef, would come ashore at Normandie.

Ah, (eleven years later) elle a sorti le ciel, débarquant juste un peu de sud de Sylacaugie !!! In Alabama, a small {eight pound-eight ounce} sulfide stony meteorite strikes a home across from the Comet Drive-In Théâtre, near Sylacauga. The object hits Mrs. Elizabeth Hodges in the living room, after it punctures her roof and actively ricochets off her radio. As you may guess, this results in a rather nasty bruise, but she becomes the first person in recorded history to survive a close encounter of this kind -- at least the first American, well maybe first Alabamian -- You do not want to miss this story at Website:

Not one web site claimed the Hodges meteorite was a hoax, a cover up or a conspiracy. None claimed the Hodges event never happened. Interesting. Could it be that some strange stuff you read on the net is actually ... true? Yes. Some.
To celebrate this event, Creedence Clearwater Revival placed a track called It Came Out Of The Sky on its First Album, released November 2, 1969: It came out of the Sky -- con subtitulos

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, 
where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

In case you have forgotten (or just need a reminder), November 22, 2018, is designated Thanksgiving Day in the USA: We may envision a Thanksgiving image of a group of stiff collars, people dressed in black and white, eating turkey, pumpkin pie and corn on the cob. They sit at a picnic table with a bunch of fully head-dressed native Americans on a bright, colorful New England fall day. The people were called pilgrims because they moved around a lot. The Pilgrims called the meal “thanksgiving” because they appreciated how much the locals had helped them in the past year. All of this takes place on a conveniently large stone called Plymouth Rock in 1620; we are sure of this, because the granite edifice is so dated. More than just the style of dress is wrong with this picture. We discuss this image and much more HERE.

Lesson appointed for the Sunday next before Advent:

“Behold, the days are coming,” says the LORD, “when I will raise up a righteous Branch to David; As king he shall reign and govern wisely, he shall do what is just and right on the earth. In his days Judah shall be saved, Israel shall dwell in security. This is the name they give him: The LORD our righteousness. Therefore, the days will come,” says the LORD, “when one shall no longer say, As the LORD lives, who brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; but rather, As the LORD lives, who led the house of Israel up from the land of the north and from all the lands to which they were banished; these descendants shall again live on their own land.” Jeremiah 5-8 {link has Jerome's Latin rendering}

Pope Anastasius I was Pope from November 27, 399 until 401AD. He condemned the writings of the theologian Origen (Alexandria). Among Anastasius' colleagues were Saints Augustine, Jerome and Paulinus (of Nola). St. Jerome speaks of Anastasius as a man of great holiness who was rich in his poverty. Barbarian relations became the challenge of the times.

Several years after emperor Theodosius died in 395, when Roman imperial rule was divided between Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West, rivalries within the court over-exaggerated the Gothic danger. These Goths (germanic tribes) had begun to integrate into the western Roman Empire. Not many years later, Constantinople, the capital of the eastern empire saw a massacre, where thousands of Goths were butchered by Roman citizens. As a consequence, in 401AD these gothic barbarians (led by Alaric I) directly threatened northern Italy and in August 410 sacked Rome. In so doing, the course of European history changed.


Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, 
where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

A Paris area Page -- And Another -- Paris Environs -- Late-winter in Paris 2007 (an impression of what is out in the plain air)

Art in Bercy -- Mont Saint-Michel -- Other Churches and structures -- Art -- Maclet -- Clymer --- Georgia's Golden Isles

Who Were The Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes? . . . the Essenes? -- Images of Pittsburgh -- Texas
May we also suggest for adventure:

We have obtained ideas from a lot of places, but in particular from (original URL may have changed): -- -- -- -- -- -- --

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December

More Flags -- Flag Day
Early GA Flag Gwenn Ha Du 
qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

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Last update: November 15, 2018
0800 EST

The scrolling digital display shows Universal Time (UTC), which is 5 hours in winter and 4 hours in summer ahead of Eastern and EDT, respectively. So, the summer solstice took place on Friday, June 21, 2013 at 0504 Universal time, which was 1:04 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time and 11:04 P.M. on the 20th, if you were in Casper Wyoming (Mountain Time) at that moment.