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Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

A week in January 2015

"Liberty Leading the People" (Eugene Delacroix) and a Wartime poster illustration
(Liberty for France (its Liberation) ... means freedom for the French people).

"Ceci n'est pa une arms, C'est un outil d'expression"
Art is not a weapon, only an outlet for expression.

Marianne is a national symbol of the French Republic, an allegory or personification of liberty and reason. It can be seen in the portrayal of the Lady Liberty (France's gift to the American people, which sits in NY Harbour as well as beside the River Seine) in Paris. The events of yesterday, today and ....

Vous satisfaire votre soif, en buvant à la coupe de l'amertume et de la haine.
Vous désirez pour asservir le monde entier,
tout comme vous avez fait esclaves de votre peuple.

You have rejected Me,
a fountain of living waters,
and hewn out cisterns,
broken cisterns that can hold no water.
Jeremiah 2:13

Jesus said to her, “Everyone who drinks of this water will be thirsty again, but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never be thirsty again. The water that I will give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life [John 4:13-14]”

Il se brise comme se brise un vase de terre, 
Que l'on casse sans ménagement, 
Et dont les débris ne laissent pas un morceau
Pour prendre du feu au foyer,
Ou pour puiser de l'eau à la citerne.

Car ainsi a parlé le Seigneur, l'Éternel, le Saint d'Israël: C'est dans la tranquillité et le repos que sera votre salut, C'est dans le calme et la confiance que sera votre force. Mais vous ne l'avez pas voulu!

Vous avez dit: -Non! nous prendrons la course à cheval! --C'est pourquoi vous fuirez à la course. -Nous monterons des coursiers légers! --C'est pourquoi ceux qui vous poursuivront seront légers .… Ésaïe 30:14-16 (Louis Segond)
Whose collapse is like the smashing of a potter's jar, 
So ruthlessly shattered 
That a sherd will not be found among its pieces 
To take fire from a hearth 
Or to scoop water from a cistern." 

For thus the Lord GOD, the Holy One of Israel, has said, "In repentance and rest you will be saved, In quietness and trust is your strength." But you were not willing,

And you said, "No, for we will flee on horses," Therefore you shall [indeed] flee! "And we will ride on swift horses," Therefore those who pursue shall be swifter .…

Sunday's Rally Point: Place de la Republique in Paris

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

An historical recounting for the entire months of:  February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December

Epiphany -- Current Newsletter

January 12th -- 2009: For the first time in the Nation’s history, a regular circulating American coin featured the image of a past president looking forward, instead of in a position of profile The U.S. Mint struck the 2006 “Return to Monticello” nickel. The 2004 and 2005 5-cent issues commemorating the exploration of the Louisiana Territory are no longer being made or sold. New for 2007 were gold-colored $1 coins featuring Presidents, and actual gold bullion medals for the First Ladies. At the end of 2011, the Presedential series changed over to much lower mintages made for collectors. What will happen for Ms. Clinton; will she get a place in both series; and will Bill achieve double fame, too, as a first spouse? Perhaps in 2017, if her medical condition and the Libyan incident do not interfere.

Give a man an historical fact and interest him for a moment; teach him to enjoy history and inspire him for a lifetime. -- Quote from your Webmaster -- Roughly: Donnez à un homme un fait historique et intéressez-le pendant un moment; instillez dans lui une joie pour l'histoire et inspirez-le pour une vie.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

January 1st: On this day are born such personages as: 1735 -- Paul Revere, U.S. patriot, one of 13 children born to Apollos Rivoire and Deborah Hitchbourne; 1752 -- Betsy Ross (Elizabeth Griscom Ross), seamstress and sometime flag maker; 1785 -- The London Times; 1831 -- The Liberator, published by William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879), 24-year-old reformer abolitionist of Massachusetts. The Liberator ceased publication in 1865 after the 13th Amendment outlawed slavery; 1862 -- US Income Tax to fund the Union War effort, later declared unconstitutional; 1892 -- Ellis Island immigration center; 1909 Barry Goldwater (d.1998), author (Conscience of a Conservative), Republican senator for Arizona and presidential contender (1964), was born in Phoenix, in the Territory of Arizona, son of Baron and Josephine Goldwater; 1984 -- BellSouth: The break-up of AT&T took place as the telecommunications giant was divested of its 22 Bell System companies under terms of an antitrust agreement. Eight new operating companies emerged, however by 2006 much of break-up has been reversed with industry consolidation. Indeed, in 2006 at BellSouth an AT&T purchase (led by BellSouth) saw a new merged entity using the named AT&T; 1994 -- First day of the North American Free Trade Agreement. On January 1, 2009 the government of Dunwoody began. In 2010 DeKalb County still squabbles against the will of the voters -- ie over money -- essentially claiming it must unfairly reduce services to everyone else because it no longer gets subsidized, eventhough real-estate taxes have doubled in the last half-dozen years

January 1, 1484: Ulrich Zwingli is born in Wildhaus, near Zürich, Switzerland. He studied at the Universities of Vienna and Basel. He was ordained a priest in 1506. At first Zwingli criticized several Catholic practices. In a minor way, he questioned the use of indulgences. By 1522, he questioned fasting and the celibacy of priests. In 1523 he published his Artikel (67 points). Progressively, obtained the removal of images from Swiss churches, the removal of organs and the replacement of the mass with a communion service. In 1529 the Züricher Bibel was completed. Like Martin Luther, he married (Anna Reinhard -- 1524); but, fell into disagreement with Martin Luther on the question of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Ultimately, Swiss reforms caused the Second War of Kappel. Zwingli was killed on October 11, 1531 in St. Gallen, Switzerland along with most of the city council of Zürich and his eldest son. Ulrich Zwingli had become the most influential in Swiss Protestant reformists. As an interesting aside, some of Zwingli's family (related but not his descendants) first settled in Pennsylvania and Maryland (mid-18th Century), and later could be found in upper East Tennessee in the 1790's.

George Swingle lived in the Buffalo Valley in Washington (now Unicoi) County, Upper East Tennessee. He was born in Haggerstown Maryland during the Revolution (1779) and married Mary Magdalene Haynes in the Tennessee. She had been born in Carter County (1787) the daughter of George Haines (Haynes) and Margaret McInturf. George Haynes was from Winchester Virginia, moving to Tennessee after his service in the War (Pension #38,791). His grandsons include three Governors and Landon Carter Haynes a famous orator of the Old South. Margaret, his wife descended from Johanness Mcinterfier who immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1729 (Ship: Allen) and was of the German-Swiss reformed church. Haynes is a variation of the name Heinz of which there were many in Virginia (Shenandoah) and Eastern Pennsylvania.

George Swingle's father's name was Leonard, and family tradition (of my spouse) says that he descends from Huldrich [Ulrich] Zwingli the Swiss-Anabaptist Reformer, through his grandfather Johanness Nickel (Nicholas) Zwingli or Schwingel (immigrant circa 1740); but it gets confusing, because there are two Johanness Nickel immigrants and another Nikolaus all related through Michael of Saarbrüken in what is today Germany, but then was in a Protestant area being overrun by the French under the leadership of the Sun King in his quest to restore the true faith and get back the French population that had fled religious persecutions. Michael's heritage is clear to Jakob (born about 1540), then the path to Huldrich is again unclear. At best, Jakob is the grandson of Huldrich's brother Jakob, who was living in Zürich in 1515. In turn, their father was Johanness Ulrich Zwingle of Wildhaus (St. Gallen) Switzerland. The male Zwingli line from Huldrich died out in the 18th Century, although progeny still exist through his daughter.

January 1, 1720: Today marks the death of Francis Daniel Pastorius in Germantown, Pennsylvania (born in Sommerhausen, Germany). Pastorius, a German lawyer, first traveled to America as the agent of a German pietist organization looking for land in the New World. He purchased a large tract from William Penn, founding the city of Germantown, Pennsylvania. He remained as a teacher in Germantown, the author of A New Primer or Methodical Directions to Attain the True Spelling, Reading, and Writing of English (1698).

January 1, 1802: In a letter to the Danbury (Connecticut) Baptist Association, Thomas Jefferson coins the famous line, a wall of separation between Church and State, often misquoted by courts to strike at the very heart of American Society. One may argue over whether or not Jefferson used the term merely for political reasons or whether he meant it to explain the First Amendment, but several points are clear. (1) His view should have no more weight than other leaders of the time. He was not the author of the First Amendment (he was out of the Country). (2) The words clearly, in context, refer to establishmentarianism, which was the policy in England and in some of the American colonies to support a denomination (usually the Anglican church) with tax money. The First Amendment did not end this practice in the states when it was adopted -- it was most clearly aimed at preventing the Federal Government from supporting with money a religion as had been done in Britain. (3) The free exercise clause of the First Amendment must be given at least equal weight in any determination. At some point building an illegal wall of separation impinges upon our free exercise. Read and learn; compare and contrast:

Amendment One: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances."

Chapter X, ARTICLE 124 [Soviet Constitution of 1936]: "In order to ensure to citizens freedom of conscience, the church in the U.S.S.R. is separated from the state, and the school from the church. Freedom of religious worship and freedom of anti religious propaganda is recognized for all citizens."

Following the Bolshevik Revolution, all church property in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is confiscated and all religious instruction in schools abolished (January 20, 1918). What does the separation of church and state means in the material world ? The Soviet example (played out in China, too) suggests that it ultimately means repression.

January 1, 1819: Today is the birth date of Philip Schaff in Chur, Switzerland. Schaff, an early proponent of ecumenicism (Protestant and Catholic), was educated at the Universities of Tübingen, Halle, and Berlin. He lectured at Berlin until he immigrated to the United States (1844) and became professor of church history at the theological seminary in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. He thought that Roman Catholicism and Protestantism would one day blend into a new kind of ecumenical, evangelical Catholicism. The view, controversial for the times, was roundly attacked. He expanded these ideas into the equally controversial Mercersburg Theology.

Le 1er janvier 1822 -- « éleuthéria i thanatos »: Les Grecs proclament unilatéralement leur indépendance. À Épidaure, un congrès national appelle les nations chrétiennes au secours du peuple grec. La guerre d'indépendance contre les Turcs durera jusqu'en 1829 et sera marquée par de mémorables atrocités (massacres de Chio). Ελευθερια η θανατος: Liberty or Death was a cry that echoed history. The Greek Nation has employed the blue striped flag since 1822 (officially approved since 1833). The nine stripes symbolize the nine syllables of the Greek motto.

January 1, 1865: In Savannah, General Sherman prepared an official report outlining his strategy and the outcome of his March to the Sea. Included in his report was the following estimate the value of property destroyed in Georgia during the campaign:

"I was thereby left with a well-appointed army to sever the enemy's only remaining railroad communications eastward and westward, for over 100 miles -- namely, the Georgia State Railroad, which is broken up from Fairburn Station to Madison and the Oconee, and the Central Railroad, from Gordon clear to Savannah, with numerous breaks on the latter road from Gordon to Eatonton and from Millen to Augusta, and the Savannah Gulf Railroad. We have also consumed the corn and fodder in the region of country thirty miles on either side of a line from Atlanta to Savannah, as also the sweet potatoes, cattle, hogs, sheep and poultry, and have carried away more than 10,000 horses and mules, as well as a countless number of their slaves. I estimate the damage done to the State of Georgia and its military resources at $100,000,000; at least $20,000,000 of which has inured to our advantage, and the remainder is simple waste and destruction. This may seem a hard species of warfare, but it brings the sad realities of war home to those who have been directly or indirectly instrumental in involving us in its attendant calamities."

Source: U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington:U.S. Government Printing Office, 1893, reprinted by The National Historical Society, 1971), Series I, Vol. XLIV, p. 13.

January 1, 1929: Georgia Tech defeated California 8-7, in its only Rose Bowl appearance. A California football team member, Roy (Wrong-way) Riegels, ran 69 yards toward the incorrect goal, after recovering a fumble in the January Classic against George Tech. This provided the margin for Victory, when he was downed on the one yard line and the Georgia Tech Team was then able to block California's punt. It is said that the Tech players also blocked the California offense from bringing down their errant team member. Mr. Riegels was the team center and captain in 1928-29 for California.

Le 1er janvier 1959, à Cuba: Fidel Castro (31 ans) chasse le dictateur Batista et s'empare des rênes du pouvoir. Fidel Castro a débarqué sur l'île deux ans plus tôt, le 2 décembre 1956, avec une troupe de fidèles. Parmi eux le populaire Ernesto Guevara, un jeune médecin argentin surnommé le Che l'Homme). Solidement installé dans la Sierra Maestra, il a combattu la dictature de Batista et lancé une grève générale. Sitôt au pouvoir, le guerillero nationalise les grandes plantations sucrières. Ses options socialistes lui aliènent la sympathie des États-Unis et l'amènent à s'aligner sur l'Union Soviétique. Cuba devient ainsi le premier pays communiste de l'hémisphère occidental. Durring the latter-half of 2006 Castro became ill, having to relinquish power to his brother Raoul, as pre-planned in 2005. He was unable to attend the 50th year celebrations in the fall 2006. He died in late 2016, to the chagrin of many fellow travellers.

January 2nd: In 366 – The Alemanni (as the Romans called them) cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers, invading the Roman Empire. Some 40 years earlier than the Alans, the Empire of Rome was beginning to crumble in the West. The unchurched were coming to Rome. The French word for Germany today reflects the Latin name for this group of tribes. In 533 – Mercurius becomes Pope John II, the first Bishop of Rome to adopt a new name upon elevation to the papacy. Great-martyr Mercurius (224–250) was a Christian saint and martyr. Born Philopater in the city of Eskentos in Cappadocia, Eastern Asia Minor, his original name means "lover of the Father". Saint Mercurius is also known by the name Abu-Seifein, which in Arabic means, "the holder [literally, owns/possess] of two swords", referring to a second sword given to him by Archangel Michael. Pope John II served for about 2 years, before his death. In 1492 – The Reconquista is completed, when the Emirate of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrenders. On November 25, 1491, the Treaty of Granada was signed, setting out the conditions for surrender. On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim leader, Muhammad XII, known as Boabdil to the Spanish, gave up complete control of Granada, to Ferdinand and Isabella, los Reyes Católicos. While in 1788 – The sovereign State of Georgia becomes the fourth to adopt the new US Constitution. The ratification process is about half way to its goal.

January 2, 1843: First production of Richard Wagner's Der Fliegende Hollender in Dresden.

January 2, 1959: Mint first produces Lincoln Cents bearing the Memorial reverse, a big change to celebrate 50 years of production.

2009 Lincoln Bicentennial Penny Program: New reverse designs arrived in 2009 -- a no nonsense approach to commemoration ! Four different reverses to the one-cent coins to recognize the bicentennial of President Abraham Lincoln's birth as well as the 100th anniversary of the Lincoln cent. In 2010 a new permanent reverse design-change was delivered -- to say it lacked excitement would be an extreme understatement. Please, go here for a great article on the last design: The Abraham Lincoln Dollar will be the final release of 2010 for the Presidential Dollar coin series and represent the sixteenth release in the series overall. As one of the most famous former Presidents of the United States, the release of the coin drew considerable public and collector interest. What will 2012 bring ? Perhaps the end of the penny all-together, and a change in metal content for the nickel. The mint loses money on these coins. Perhaps the end of the $1.00 paper dollar is around the corner, too.

January 3, 1766: The first (and only) agent of the British government to successfully administer the Stamp Act arrived by ship at Tybee Island, Georgia. Royal governor James Wright sent an armed party to have him escorted to the governor's house in Savannah (for safety reasons). After two weeks, this official left Georgia. Although Parliament would shortly repeal the Stamp Act, Georgia already had the unhappy distinction of being the only colony in which revenue was collected. On Dec. 5, 1765, when the stamps first arrived in Georgia, Savannah's port had been clogged with over 60 ships. Merchants had agreed to pay the tax so that the ships could be unloaded. The action resulted in other American colonies condemning Georgia. Some called for a boycott of that infamous colony.
As a result of the French-Indian War, Britain incurred large expenditures defending the American colonies. In an effort to recover some of these costs, Parliament in 1765 passed the Stamp Act -- the first direct tax on American colonists. The law required all legal documents, newspapers, advertisements, and many other printed items used in the American colonies to bear a British revenue stamp showing that a tax had been paid. Moreover, before printing documents, colonists had to use blank paper already bearing a revenue stamp showing that the required tax had been paid -- and this was only available from local British officials.

Sainte Geneviève, miniature du XIIIe siècle (CHAN)

Le 3 janvier -- C'est sa fête Geneviève: La sainte Geneviève est la patronne de Paris et de la gendarmerie. En quelque sorte une « Jeanne d'Arc des temps mérovingiens ». . . . Issue de la haute noblesse gallo-romaine, Geneviève se voue à Dieu dès sa plus tendre jeunesse tout en exerçant de hautes responsabilités à la tête de la cité. D'un caractère trempé, elle construit une église sur l'emplacement du tombeau de Saint Denis, premier évêque de Paris (qu'en ces temps anciens, on appelle encore Lutèce).

En 451, la vierge convainc les habitants de Lutèce de ne pas abandonner leur cité aux Huns et elle détourne la colère d'Attila par ses prières. Elle reçoit les fidèles dans l'ermitage de la montagne qui porte aujourd'hui son nom, au cœur de l'actuel Quartier latin de Paris. C'est là qu'elle meurt en 502, à l'âge de 89 ans, et c'est au même endroit qu'elle est inhumée. Sur son tombeau, le roi Clovis, son plus célèbre disciple, fait ériger la basilique des Saints Apôtres. Il y est lui-même enseveli à sa mort, en 511. Sa femme Clotilde l'y rejoindra beaucoup plus tard.

Some perspectives about the Past, Present and Future of Paris are HERE in English.
More Pictures of Paris are here

Consacrée le 24 décembre 520 et devenue église Sainte-Geneviève, la basilique sera beaucoup plus tard reconstruite par l'architecte Soufflot puis reconvertie en Panthéon des gloires nationales. Dispersées sous la Révolution, les reliques de la sainte sont depuis lors honorées dans l'église voisine de Saint-Étienne-du-Mont.

« Citoyens! – s'exclama-t-il – ne vous avisez pas de noyer celle dont saint Germain disait qu'elle avait été choisie par Dieu déjà dans le sein maternel. » Note: pours les habitants de Paris (Lutèce) de l'époque (La deuxième horrible invasion fut l'œuvre des Huns eux-mêmes qui en 451, franchirent le Rhin, Attila à leur tête), saint Germain était l'homme le plus vénéré, et chacun connaissait la femme qu'il estimait si hautement. Un an après Attila médita une nouvelle campagne contre la Gaule, mais après être tombé subitement malade, il mourut dans l'obscurité. Après sa mort le royaume des Huns se désintégra. Toute la longue vie de sainte Geneviève fut marquée de maints évènements miraculeux associés à l'expression de son amour et de sa pitié envers les gens. Les esclaves, les prisonniers, les captifs, tous les misérables et opprimés eurent en elle une protectrice et un intercesseur. D'après la légende relatée par l'hagiographe, sainte Geneviève se serait illustrée auprès du peuple par nombre d'exploits et de miracles qui témoignent qu'elle était le vase de la grâce divine et le siège de l'Esprit-saint. C'est pour cela que sa prière apaisait les tempêtes et chassait les démons. Tout comme le cierge allumé dans sa main pendant la prière, son cœur brûlait devant Dieu.

Geneviève a enterrée dans une ancienne crypte située sous le maître-autel de l'église des Saints-Apôtres. La reine Clotilde continua et acheva la construction grandiose entreprise (l'église St-Pierre-St-Paul) par son époux (Clovis) et y fut ensuite inhumée elle aussi. Mais la piété populaire rebaptisa bientôt l'église St-Pierre-St-Paul en basilique Sainte-Geneviève car ses reliques y étaient conservées. Et la colline où se trouvait cette basilique est appelée jusqu'à nos jours Montagne Sainte-Geneviève. Après la révolution de 1789 sa sépulture fut transférée à l'abbatiale Saint-Denis.

January 4, 1912: A charter by the British Parliament (1910) created the corporate structure for The Boy Scout Association, in order to provide a national body that could support the rapidly growing number of independent Scout Patrols and organize new units in a cohesive manner. A Royal Charter of January 4, 1912, incorporated the Boy Scout Association throughout the British Empire with the purpose of instructing boys of all classes in the principles of discipline, loyalty and good citizenship. The charter was granted by the British Ruler, King George V. On February 8, 1910, the movement came to the United States. In 1907, Robert Baden-Powell ran a camp on Brownsea Island for teenage boys of differing backgrounds as a way to improve using methods attractive to young men. This camp is now considered to be the start of Scouting. The year 2007 marked the 100th Year of the World Scouting Movement, which was marked by a World Jamboree near London England. This site, selected because the nearness to Brownsea Island, is also close to Gilwell Park, an important campsite and training center for adult Scout Leaders. The event was held for 12 days between the 27th of July and the 8th of August, in Hylands Park, Chelmsford, Essex, England.

Issue Date -- January 4, 1974: The train on this stamp could be described as a "streamlined locomotive and cars", but the design is simply a cartoon (or what was called at the time "Pop Art"). The stamp was one of the early USPS efforts to persuade the public to use ZIP codes on mail, and shows some of the types of vehicles used to move the mail - planes, trains, and trucks.

In 1930, more than 10,000 trains were used to move the mail into every city, town, and village in the United States. Following passage of the Transportation Act of 1958, mail-carrying passenger trains declined rapidly. By 1965, only 190 trains carried mail; by 1970, the railroads carried virtually no First-Class Mail. On April 30, 1971, the Post Office Department terminated seven of the eight remaining routes. The lone, surviving railway post office ran between New York and Washington, D.C., and made its last run on June 30, 1977. see generally (a link)
January 5, 1876: Konrad Adenauer was born in Köln, Germany. In 1917 he became Oberbürgermeister of that city. An opponent of the Nazi regime, he was sent to a concentration camp in 1944. After the war he worked in the founding and development of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) political party for which he was chairman for 16 years. In 1949 he became the first Chancellor of the new Federal Republic of Germany, a post which he held until 1963.

Russia {USSR} holds the eastern half of Germany, Poland, the Balkans, apparently Hungary, and a part of Austria. Russia is withdrawing more and more from cooperation with the other great powers and directs affairs in the countries dominated by her entirely as she sees fit. The countries ruled by her are already governed by economic and political principles that are totally different from those accepted in the rest of Europe. Thus the division of Europe into Eastern Europe, the Russian territory, and Western Europe is a fact.


In the long run the French and Belgian demand for security can only be met by the economic integration of Western Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and Holland. If Britain, too, were to decide to participate in this economic integration, we would be much closer to the ultimate goal of a Union of the States of Western Europe. Konrad Adenauer in a letter to the Oberbürgermeister of Duisburg (October 31, 1945).

January 6th: When the days were dropped from the year with the switch from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar by the Catholic Church in 1582 (and later in the Protestant world), December 25 was effectively moved backwards; As a result, some Christian Church sects, called old calendarists, still celebrate Christmas or the Feast of the Nativity in January, because previously it was December 25 in the Julian calendar calculation. In the USA and other countries of English tradition, this stretch of time is the 12 Days of Christmas, ending in the Anglican Feast of the Epiphany. It has its roots in a much older tradition based upon the announcement of Christ's birth:; see also

The Three Kings (Drei Könige), also referred to as the Magi are said to be buried in the Cologne's great cathedral, where their tomb is pointed out to visitors. The coin here is from the period (1516) the city was under Spanish occupation. Throughout western Europe, Epiphany is the Feast associated with the three Kings -- in Spanish influenced cultures la Fiesta de Reyes or el Dia de los Reyes Magos. It is customary in France to eat from a Galette des Rois (gâteau des rois), which holds a miniature figurine inside and a crown on top. The person finding the figurine in the cake is ruler or king for the day (roi de la fève). So whenever one has an unexpected, pleasant discovery -- "trouver la fève au gâteau" -- a lucky find.

In Germany Epiphany is called the day of the Heilige Drei Könige (or Dreikönigentag -- the "wise men," "Three Kings," the Magi). Traditionally, the initials of the Three Kings (Kaspar, Melchior and Balthazar) -- K+M+B -- plus the year are inscribed in chalk over doorways in German-speaking countries on the eve of January 6 to protect house and home. In many parts of Europe, including Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, the Christmas celebration does not end until this date, now considered the arrival of the three "kings of the orient" in Bethlehem -- and the end of the "twelve days of Christmas" between Christmas and January 6.

Une GALETTE: Sorte de pâtifferie fort fimple que l'on fait en étendant de la pâte dans une forme plate & approchant de celle du gâteau. On peut rendre les Galettes d'un bien meilleur goût, fi on y met du beurre à difcrétion avec du fel, & en repliant plufieurs fois la pâte ; il ne faut lui donner qu'un bon pouce d'épaiffeur, & la laiffer près d'une heure dans le four -- A kind of extremely simple pastry made from bread-like dough with a consistency approaching that of the cake. One can obtain cakes of a much better taste, if one puts more butter in it with salt (cook's discretion), & folding up several times in the dough -- one should make the cake only a good inch thick, & leave it nearly one hour in the furnace -- from an 18th century cookbook where some s's look like f 's (ie. pâtifferie would look like pâtisserie today).

January 6, 1088 – Berengar of Tours: This theologian and scholar of in France, whose leadership of the cathedral school at Chartres, set an example of intellectual inquiry through the revived tools of dialectic and who disputed with the Church leadership over the doctrine of transubstantiation in the Eucharist. He paid more attention to the Bible and early Christian writers, especially Gregory of Tours and Augustine of Hippo, than others of his day; and, thus Berengar came to formal theology with a different perspective. His opposition to accepted Catholic practice was limited to the eucharistic doctrine of his time, but there were hints of the Reformation here in France at an early date.

Jeanne d'Arc, Sainte, est née à Domrémy, entre Lorraine et Champagne (Domrémy-la-Pucelle), le 6 janvier 1412. François Villon, né en 1431, l'année même de sa mort, évoqua le souvenir de Jeanne dans la belle Ballade des Dames du temps jadis:

« ... Et Jeanne, la bonne Lorraine
Qu'Anglais brûlèrent à Rouen;
Où sont-ils, où, Vierge souveraine ?
Mais où sont les neiges d'antan ? »
see also

Isaiah 60:1 Arise, shine; for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord has risen upon you. --
Le Noël orthodoxe en Ukraine

January 6, 1893: The Federal government authorized the Washington National Cathedral, chartered by Congress like the Boy Scouts were in 1910. President Benjamin Harrison signed the charter. Its construction began in 1907 with a foundation stone, laid in the presence of Theodore Roosevelt. Work continued for 83 years; the final finial was put in place in the presence of George H.W. Bush in 1990.

Harrison selected President of the United States in 1888, received 100,000 fewer popular votes than Cleveland, but carried the Electoral College 233 to 168. Harrison was known as the Centennial President as his inauguration (1889) came on the 100th anniversary of that of George Washington. Harrison became the first president to ever attend a baseball game. President William Henry Harrison was the grandfather of Benjamin Harrison. The Wounded Knee Massacre was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux Nation and the United States of America. It occurred on December 29, 1890.

Western States admitted to the Union under Harrison: North Dakota – November 2, 1889; South Dakota – November 2, 1889; Montana – November 8, 1889; Washington – November 11, 1889; Idaho – July 3, 1890; Wyoming – July 10, 1890.

Le 7 Janvier 1558: The French, under the grand du, Duke of Guise, captured the port of Calais from the English. It has not been returned. On this date in 1608 a fire devastated the Jamestown Settlement (Virginia Colony). Two years later, Galileo Galilei (physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher -- who died January 8th, 1642) sighted three of Jupiter's moons, discovering what today is known as Io, Europa and Callisto. He found Ganymede six days later. He observed that the moon possessed mountains and valleys, that Jupiter had satellites of its own and that the sun has spots which change over time. He also observed Venus and Mars. Galileo also found the planet Neptune in 1612, but (thinking it a weak star) did not realize that it was a planet. These studies supported his belief that the Sun was at the center of the solar system. In 1785, Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard and American John Jeffries travel from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in a gas balloon. In 1934, six-thousand pastors in Berlin and elsewhere read from their pulpits (on the 7th and 14th) in defiance of an order to remain silent. These men opposed the Nazis government's plan to consolidate into one German-Christian Church, and by speaking out, risked their lives and position. In contrast on this date in 2006, singer Harry Belafonte led a delegation of Americans including the actor Danny Glover, PBS late night host Tavis Smiley and the Princeton University educator and philosopher Dr. Cornel West in a meeting with Venezuela's president Hugo Chavez. Albert Bierstadt in California 
before the traffic

January 7, 1742: On this day was born the enlightenment philosopher, Christian Garve. Garve was a professor at the University of Leipzig. He was noted as the translator into German of Cicero's De Officiis and the works of 18th Century giants, Edmund Burke and Adam Smith.

January 7, 1830: Albert Bierstadt was born in Düsseldorf, Germany (Nord-Rhein-Westphalia). Bierstadt immigrated to the U.S.A. and became a very popular painter with grandiose scenes of the American West. He became part of the famous Hudson River School of painters.

January 8th Today is the feast Day of Saint Severinus (ca. 410 – 482). Severinus, born in about 410 in North Africa, traveled to the area which is now Austria in about 453 to be of assistance to those afflicted by the attacks Odoacer of the Huns. The Apostle to Austria {Celtic Noricum}, Severinus founded a series of monasteries there to attempt to restore some order and civil organization after the chaos and destruction brought by the invasion of pagans from the East. His relics were taken to Naples after his death and are, today, enshrined in the monastery of San Severino. His designation as a saint predates the practice of canonization by a Pope. Let everything that has breath praise the Lord. -- see also

It would be difficult to find a writing more worthy of introduction to English readers than the work which Teuffel terms "the incomparable biography of Saint Severinus:" these facts, I trust, may be considered in some measure to justify the present publication. THE LIFE OF SAINT SEVERINUS by Eugippius [English Translation by G.W. Robinson (Harvard: July, 1914)]

Do not confuse this Saint with Tommaso San Severino, who founded a Carthusian monastery in 1306, the Chartreuse of Padula -- these drops of nocturnal light which at times reveal the architecture in all its extraordinary purity down to the smallest detail, and at times conceal it completely. These sudden changes in light seemed to conjure up white phantoms in the depths of the porticos as though the ghosts of the old inhabitants of the monastery had risen, as was their custom, to celebrate night office.

January 8th is also the feast Day of Saint Erhard von Regensburg (8th Century). Erhard, also known as Albert, possibly born in Eastern France, became as a missionary to Germany. Little clearly is known about his life. He may have spent some time in Trier working with its archbishop. He spent considerable time in Regensburg, and for a time as the Bishop of Regensburg. He predates the practice of formal canonization by a pope, but histories of the period indicate that he was declared to be a saint by Pope Leo IX in the presence of the Emperor Heinrich III in 1052. His crosier is a relic found in the parish church in Neidemunster. Saints of January 8th -- HERE -- Abo to Wulsin -- Other Bishops of Regensburg include: St. Wolfgang (c. 934-994 A.D.) and ALBERT the Great (1206-1280)

January 8, 1815: US armed forces led by General Andrew Jackson, together with French-speaking pirate Jean Lafitte (and his men), and some additional 3,100 backwoodsmen, achieved victory against 7,500 British veterans at Chalmette (better known as the Battle of New Orleans) in the closing engagement of the War of 1812, several weeks after the peace treaty had been signed. In a one-sided battle, marked by serious British errors of command, 2,044 British troops, including three generals, fell dead, wounded or missing before General Andrew Jackson's well-prepared earthworks. Only 71 American casualties are recorded.

John Adam's son, John Quincy Adams (the sixth President) would negotiate the Treaty of Ghent (December 24, 1814), ending that conflict. News of the signing would not reach the North American combatants until early 1815. General Andrew Jackson, then a US General, later a US President, achieved the greatest American victory after war's formal end. He had expected the assault and had prepared well. The shallow-draft steamboat Enterprise, completed in Pittsburgh under the direction of keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve, left for New Orleans to deliver guns and ammunition to General Jackson on December 1st of 1814.

On December 13th General Andrew Jackson announced martial law in New Orleans, as British troops disembarked at Lake Borne, 40 miles east of the city. On the next jump, the British landed south and east of the Chalmette Plantation, a then goodly distance outside the old city (vieux carrie). On the 23rd of December General Jackson stopped the first enemy advance, yet tactically retreated about 3 miles and dug in.

On the 8th of January 1815, the British resumed the march toward New Orleans. In separating Louisiana from the rest of the United States, they would control the Mississippi and the trade to America's heartland. The British found the volunteer militia, citizens and Gentleman Pirate Jean Lafitte's men (all under General Andrew Jackson's command), strongly entrenched at the Rodriquez Canal, 6 miles from town centre.

The 7,500 British soldiers under Sir Edward Pakenham could not penetrate these defenses. Jackson's 4,500 troops, many of them expert marksmen from Kentucky and Tennessee, more than decimated the British lines. In half an hour, the British retreated. General Pakenham died, along with nearly 2,000 of his men (killed, wounded or missing). US forces suffered only eight killed and 13 wounded during this time.

Although the battle had no bearing on the outcome of the war, Gen. Jackson's overwhelming victory elevated national honour, which had suffered a number of setbacks during the war, and it certainly was a major factor in Jackson's later life. The Battle of New Orleans was also the last major armed engagement between the United States and Great Britain, although there is a little-remembered invasion in 1815 along the Georgia coast that resulted in a British victory.

The Louisiana Society of the United States Daughters of 1776 and 1812 placed a small stone monument near what is today the southwest corner of the Chalmette Unit of the Battle of New Orleans National Monument (Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve). Located some distance behind the remnant of Rodriquez Canal, the loving cup-shaped monument memorialized the role of Samuel Spotts (3rd Regiment, seventh battery) in the campaign, who fired the first heavy gun at the battle on January 8th. The Daughters and others prepared to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Battle of New Orleans, and to formally dedicate the large monument six years after its completion. On January 9, 1915, The New Orleans Morning Star gave a vivid account of the previous day's grand celebration, attended by descendants of battle participants, representatives of the United States and British governments, and several thousand spectators: The long story about the trials and tribulations of the grand Chalmette Monument -- and if you are wondering, June 1, 1959, was the date the J. Horton song reached its peak on the US charts.

January 9, 1904: General and native-born Georgia politician John B. Gordon died. Born February 6, 1832, in Upson County along the banks of the Flint River, Gordon attended the University of Georgia. After reading law, he was admitted to the bar and practiced law in Atlanta. Gordon also was involved in a coal mining operation when the war between the States began. Though he had no previous military training, Gordon quickly distinguished himself through great courage and inspirational leadership. By the end of the war he had attained the rank of lieutenant general -- one of only three Georgians so to do. At the Battle of Antietam he was wounded five times, but refused to leave the field, until he passed out of consciousness. Gordon also fought at the large famous engagements of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Spotsylvania, Petersburg, and Appomattox Courthouse, in addition to smaller lesser-known battles.

General Gordon's military accomplishments made him quite popular in Georgia. He turned to politics when he came home. Opposing radical reconstruction policies, Gordon served in the United States Senate (beginning 1873). Gordon, Alfred Colquitt and Joseph E. Brown were to dominate Georgia politics in the post-war era, becoming known as the Bourbon Triumvirate. In 1886, Gordon and Atlanta Constitution editor Henry Grady persuaded ex-Confederate president Jefferson Davis to come to Atlanta for the unveiling of a statue. Other Civil War luminaries also were present. Gordon used this emotional event to announce his candidacy for governor. With his popularity, personal magnetism, along with a healthy dose of Grady's publicity, Gordon won the 1886 election. As governor he oversaw the establishment of the Georgia Institute of Technology, and the beginnings of Grady's New South dream of cities, factories, and railroads.

After his term as Georgia governor, Gordon became commander-in-chief of the newly formed United Confederate Veterans, a post he held until his death. In 1903 he published his account of the battles in which he fought -- Reminiscences of the Civil War. He also traveled extensively, delivering his famous speech entitled The Last Days of the Confederacy. Gordon died during one of these trips while in Miami Florida. His body was returned to Atlanta and he is buried in Oakland Cemetery. Later, a statue of General Gordon in uniform sitting on his horse sits at the northwestern corner of the Georgia State Capitol square.

Other notable Georgia governor events this day: 1784; John Houstoun (pronounced "House-ton") was inaugurated for his second term as governor. In 1790, Houstoun was elected mayor of Savannah, where he died on July 20, 1796. Upon his death, Houstoun was eulogized by historian Charles C. Jones as being amongst the most zealous advocates of the rights of the colonists. The Georgia General Assembly named a county in his honor on May 15, 1821. 1786; Edward Telfair began his first term as governor. Born in Scotland around 1735, Telfair arrived in Georgia in 1766. Almost immediately, he became a successful businessman in partnership with his brother. He was elected to the Commons House of Assembly in 1768 and also held some local elected offices in Savannah. Telfair was among the group of Whigs who seized the ammunition stored in Savannah on May 11, 1775. As governor, Telfair was influential in moving the state capital from Savannah to Augusta, worked to resolve the Georgia-South Carolina boundary dispute. Telfair died in Savannah on Oct. 17, 1807. Two months later, the legislature named a new county in his honor. 1787; George Mathews was inaugurated for his first term as governor of Georgia. Born Aug. 30, 1739 in Augusta County, Virginia. Mathews served with Virginia troops in the Revolutionary War until he was captured at Germantown in 1777. After spending four years in captivity, he was exchanged in 1781, serving with further honor under General Greene in the South.

Also on January 9th: The legends about Honorius tell us that he was likable and roguish, somewhat of a tease, never devout, never ascetic, never a mystic, never given to any particular austerities. He was very much like the stereotypical Frenchman -- with a bit of the pagan and a bit of the Christian in him. He danced with the ladies at the local parties, did not hesitate to drink with other men. He was, in short, full of life and in due course he married and succeeded as an dealer in cattle and sheep.

So, perhaps his life didn't exhibit heroic virtue, but what about his death? It seems that Honorius returned from a voyage to learn that he had been robbed by two of his servants and confronted them. These two murdered him. What then can be astonishing about the life of Saint Honorius? How is he declared a saint? It seems that immediately after his death, so many miracles were worked by his relics that his cultus was approved by Pope Eugenius in 1444 (about 200 years later). See also, for other lives celebrated this day.

For example, Adrian became Abbot of Nerida, a Benedictine monastery near Naples, when he was very young. Pope Vitalian intended to appoint him Archbishop of Canterbury to succeed St. Deusdedit, who had died in 664, but Adrian considered himself unworthy of so great a dignity, and begged the Pope to appoint Theodore, a Greek-born monk, in his place. The Pope yielded, on condition that Adrian accompany Theodore to England and be his adviser in the administration of the Diocese of Canterbury. The new Archbishop of Canterbury appointed him abbot of the monastery of Saints Peter and Paul in Canterbury (669AD). Thanks to his leadership skills, the facility became one of the most important centers of learning. The school attracted many outstanding scholars from far and wide and produced numerous future bishops and archbishops. Students reportedly learned Greek and Latin and spoke Latin as well as their own native languages. Adrian taught at the school for 40 years. He died there, probably in the year 710, and was buried in the monastery. Several hundred years later, when reconstruction was being done, Adrian’s body was discovered in an incorrupt state. As word spread, people flocked to his tomb, which became famous for miracles, and which propelled him into recognized sainthood. see also

Le 10 janvier 1776: Thomas Paine publie un pamphlet, Common Sense, où il appelle ses concitoyens des Treize Colonies anglaises d'Amérique du nord à s'unir dans une grande nation libérée des servitudes et de la monarchie. «Un seul honnête homme est plus précieux à la société et au regard de Dieu que tous les bandits couronnés qui ont jamais existé,» écrit-il en guise de profession de foi républicaine. L'ouvrage se vend à 100.000 exemplaires. Un succès fabuleux, prémonitoire de la Déclaration d'indépendance du 4 juillet suivant.

O! ye that love mankind! Ye that dare opposed not only the tyranny but the tyrant, stand forth! Every spot of the Old World is overrun with oppression. Freedom hath been hunted around the globe ... O! receive the fugitive and prepare in time an asylum for mankind ....

Citizen Paine should be a hero and inspiration to the Democrats everywhere. During the Révolution he found himself in France (he had fled there when he was about to be put on trial for sedition), where ultimately he was arrested -and- eventually, released in one piece. He wrote his infamous work against religion while in French custody, and his reputation soured in the States.

January 10, 1976: Chester "Howlin Wolf" Burnett, a Blues Musician passes away. He was schooled in Mississippi by Delta blues great, Charlie Patton. In he 1949 fronted his own band, which started performing on KWEM in West Memphis, Arkansas. He alternated between musical performances and pitching farm equipment. At this time, the legendary Sam Phillips recorded him for for Sun Records. He moved to Chess in 1951. A prominent harmonica player, proficient guitarist and master showman, Wolf penned such blues classics as Sitting On Top Of The World, Smokestack Lighting, Tell Me, Killing Floor and Tell Me What I've Done, plus recorded numerous Willie Dixion compositions. The final contribution to his legacy was the 1970 "Howlin' Wolf" London Sessions, recorded with British admirers Eric Clapton, Steve Winwood, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, and Ringo "Richie" Starr -- along with longtime guitarist and friend, Hubert Sumlin. By the mid 70s health problems had taken their toll and his last performance was in November 1975 at the Chicago Amphitheater with B.B. King, Bobby "Blue" Bland and Little Milton. He entered the Veterans Administration Hospital at Hines, Illinois in mid-December and died a month later at age 65 of complications from kidney disease. Howlin' Wolf was posthumously inducted into the "Rock and Roll Hall of Fame" in 1991.

Le 11 janvier 1923: En Allemagne, 60.000 soldats français et belges pénètrent dans le bassin de la Ruhr -- suite de l'article. This was part of the payback for World War I, and was a prime example of the over-zealous acts of humiliation, which acts were used by the Nazi thugs to support their rise to power. French troops occupying the Ruhr, justified their action on the assertion that full reparations for World War I had not been delivered at the rate agreed under the Versailles Treaty. In protest, the Weimar Republic ceased the payment of all reparations. In truth, most of the funds in circulation, and used for repayment, were supplied by the USA as loans to both the victors and losers. The severe inflation of the German Currency of the 1920's was a purposeful action by Germany to affect the terms and conditions of its loss, to the detriment of the foreign victors and German population alike. Essen is in the middle of the Ruhr region. The area was heavily bombed during World War II, both civilian and industrial targets.

A station went on the air on January 11, 1949: as WDTV ("W - DuMont TeleVision") on channel 3; it was owned and operated by the DuMont Television Network. It was the 51st television station in the U.S., the third and last DuMont-owned station to sign on the air, behind WABD (now WNYW) in New York City and WTTG in Washington, D.C., and the first owned-and-operated station located in the state of Pennsylvania. To mark the occasion, a live television special aired that day from 8:30 to 11 p.m. ET on WDTV, which began with a one-hour local program broadcast from Syria Mosque in Pittsburgh. The remainder of the show featured live segments from DuMont, CBS, NBC, and ABC with Arthur Godfrey, Milton Berle, DuMont host Ted Steele, and many other artists of the new media.

The station also represented a milestone in the television industry, providing the first "network" that included Pittsburgh and 13 other cities from Boston to St. Louis. WDTV was one of the last stations to receive a construction permit before the Federal Communications Commission-imposed four-year freeze on new television station licenses (that ended in 1952). WDTV moved to channel 2 on November 23, 1954, and soon (for a while at least) was on the air 24 hours a day.

By 1954, DuMont was in serious financial trouble. Westinghouse (which could not get a license in its hometown because of FCC policy) turned its attention to WDTV, offering DuMont a then-record $9.75 million for the station in late 1954. After the sale closed in January 1955, Westinghouse changed WDTV's call letters to KDKA-TV, after Westinghouse's pioneering radio station KDKA (1020 AM). As such, it became one of the few stations east of the Mississippi River with a "K" call sign.

Two years after the ownership change, channel 2 became a primary affiliate of the higher-rated CBS network instead. KDKA-TV retained secondary affiliations with NBC until WIIC-TV (channel 11, now WPXI) signed on in 1957, and ABC until WTAE-TV (channel 4) signed on in 1958. Despite the ending of its commercial VHF monopoly, KDKA-TV did welcome competitor WIIC-TV on the air. from

12 January 475, at 9 am: Emperor Leo I ruled 16 years, dying in 474AD. Zeno took over. Basilicus (Leo's Brother-in-law) revolted against the barbarian usurper and was crowned head of the Eastern Roman Empire on this date; but, Zeno escapes. The ensuing struggle between Basiliscus and Zeno impeded the intervention of the Eastern Empire in the fall of the Western Roman Empire (early September 476), when the chieftain of the Heruli tribe, ODOACER, deposed Western Emperor Romulus Augustus. Zeno had just regained the eastern throne and could only appoint Odoacer the dux of Italy. Thus, the Western Roman Empire ended. Zeno succeeded largely because Basilicus alienated the established religion of the state with his heretical beliefs, and because he was easily misled by his staff.

January 12th -- Benedict Biscop (also known as Benet Biscop, Biscop Baducing): Born in Northumbria, England, c. 628; died at Wearmouth, England, on January 12, c. 690; former historical errors have confused him with Benedict of Nursia, leading to several other feast days on different liturgical calendars. Born of the highest Anglo-Saxon nobility, Biscop Baducing held office in the household of King Oswy (Oswiu) of Northumbria. But, after a journey to Rome when he was 25 (653) in the company of Saint Wilfrid, he renounced his inheritance and dedicated himself to studying the Scriptures and to prayer. In 666, he became a monk in the monastery of Saint-Honorat in Lérins near Cannes, France, taking the name Benedict. There he remained for two years strictly observing its rules of devotion.

Saint Theodore was selected to replace Wighard as archbishop of Canterbury, and Pope Saint Vitalian ordered Benedict to accompany Theodore and Saint Adrian to England as a missionary, which he did in obedience. Theodore appointed Benedict abbot of SS. Peter and Paul (now St. Augustine's) monastery in Canterbury, where he remained for two years before returning to Northumbria. Benedict was succeeded as abbot by Saint Adrian, who held this position for 39 years. Benedict travelled between Britain and Rome (beginning in 671). His fourth journey was made with the view of perfecting himself in the rules and practice of a monastic life, so he stayed for a while in Rome and visited other monasteries. Returning home with books and relics, he also brought back craftsmen, which were to build and enrich the churches of Britain.

In 674, he was granted 70 hides of land by Oswy's son, Egfrid, at the mouth of the river Wear (Wearmouth), where he built a great stone church and monastery dedicated to Saint Peter. Benedict was the first to introduce glass into England, which he brought from France along with stone and other materials. His foreign masons, glaziers, and carpenters taught their skill to the Anglo-Saxons. From his trip to Rome in 679, Benedict brought back Abbot John of Saint Martin's, the precentor (arch cantor) from Saint Peter's. This was a result of Benedict persuading Pope Saint Agatho that Abbot John would be able to instruct the English monks, so that the music and ceremonies at Wearmouth might follow exactly the Roman pattern. All this and much more immeasurably enriched the early English Church. Indeed, it was due directly to Benedict Biscop's diligence and scholarship that so much material lay at hand for Venerable Bede and others to use.

Benedict's biography was written by Bede, who had been entrusted to his care at age seven, and whose learning was made possible by the library Benedict collected at Jarrow. Venerable Bede the historian says that the civilization and learning of the 8th century rested in the monastery founded by Benedict. see The golden age of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Monastery began to draw to a close in the late 8th century, as Northumbrian monasteries became vulnerable to Viking raids, with Monkwearmouth-Jarrow itself being attacked in 794 (the second target in England of the Vikings, after raids on Lindisfarne in 793). Both were destroyed by the Danes about 860, and seem to have been finally abandoned by the monks in the late 9th century. Rebuilt, both monasteries suffered at the hands of Malcolm III of Scotland, and fared no better under English King Henry VIII. The present parish church of St-Peter at Monkwearmouth, on the north bank of the River Wear, occupies the ancient priory church building and is one of the oldest extant churches in Great Britain.

The name Great Heathen Army (OE: mycel hæþen here or mycel heathen here) is derived from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 865. Legend has it that the force was led by three brothers (Halfdan, Inwaer (Ivar) and Hubba), sons of Ragnar Lodbrok (as is presented in the Vikings TV series in 2017-19). The campaign of invasion and conquest against the four remaining Anglo-Saxon kingdoms lasted 14 years. Unlike many of the Scandinavian raiding armies of the period, surviving sources give no firm indication of its numbers, but it was clearly amongst the largest forces of its kind in that era.

Historically, the Viking invaders initially disembarked in East Anglia, where the ruler there (Edmund, who was executed) furnished horses for the campaign hoping for peace. The force spent the winter of 865–66 at Thetford, before marching north to capture York in November 866. York had been founded as a Roman legionary fortress called Eboracum (Constantine the Great's post when he became Emperor at the declaration of his troops, after his father's death in 306 AD); and, after falling on hard times, had been revived as the Anglo-Saxon trading port of Eoforwic in Northumbria. Viking raids had begun in AD 793 along the coast near Wearmouth, the monastery founded in 674 by Benedict Biscop.

January 12, 1598: In Paris France, King Henri IV, the first Bourbon ruler, awards Troilus de Mesgouez, Marquis de La Roche (1540-1606) further ownership rights and a trade monopoly for New France. In addition, Henri IV appoints him Lieutenant General of "Canada," Newfoundland and Labrador. At that time the canadienne area extended into the Mississippi watershed. Spain contested France's claims to the Texas area, Britain and France would begin to clash in the "West" (indeed on this date in 1759 at Louisbourg (Nova Scotia), James Wolfe (1727-1759) was appointed Major-General and Commander-in-Chief of land forces in the expedition against Quebec that would succeed but at the cost to him of his life). Spain eliminated (with extreme prejudice) all the French settlers on the East Coast of North America in the Carolina's, Georgia and Florida in the 16th century. The French claim rests on the assertion that Jean François de la Rocque, Sieur de Roberval (1500-1560) took possession of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) for France in 1540, along with several other exploratory missions in the 1540's. Cartier and LaRocque had conducted several explorations together (1541-1543).

JEAN-FRANÇOIS de LA ROCQUE DE ROBERVAL, lieutenant general of Canada, born around 1500 probably in the city of Carcassone (Languedoc-Roussillon), of which his father Bernard de La Roque called Couillaud, was the governor. His mother was Isabeau de Poitiers. Roberval died in Paris in 1560. Roberval maternal grand-mother was Alix de Popincourt, lady of Roberval in Picardy. Other LaRoche cousins included: La Roque of Blaizins in Languedoc, and de La Roque in Armagnac. The entire family of La Roque belonged to a very old noble family of the south of France (first found in Languedoc where the family has been seated since ancient times).

As a Protestant convert to the reform church (Calvinism) he became an outlaw along with other Protestants such as Clément Marot among others. He soon returned to France, and again lived the life of the court. The painting of Jean François de La Rocque de Roberval, by Clouet, is among a collection of 310 portraits of the court of France at Chateau de Chantilly. Roberval stayed faithful to his Protestant faith and he became one of the first victims of the wars of religion in France. As he was leaving a meeting on a night in 1560, he was attacked and died along with his fellow Protestants at the edge of Les Innocents Cemetery in Paris, near Église Saint Eustache.

The cemetery was cleared of its dead along with others in Paris for health and economic reasons in the late 18th Century, Cimetière des Saint-Innocents alone had an estimated 6,000,000 dead, the contents of all were moved to the Catacombs of Paris, an underground tourist spot today (Denchfert-Rochereau). The cleaned area now is the site of the Forum des Halles, just south of Les Halles proper. The fountain from the mid-16th Century, designed and sculpted by architect Jean Goujon, was relocated to the new square next to the Forum. It is featured, in case you have forgotten, in a movie about a family vacation to Europe.

January 12, 1969:   Led Zeppelin's debut album -- how many more things need we say without leaving you -- dazed -- confused ?

By August 1968, an ancient British rock&roll band called The Yardbirds had disbanded. Guitarist Jimmy Page, The Yardbirds' sole remaining member, held rights to the group's name and the contractual obligation for a series of concerts in the Viking Royaume. For the last tour, Page recruited bassist John Paul Jones, a vocalist, Robert Plant, and John Bonham, who knew how to play percussion instruments. During September 1968, the group performed as The New Yardbirds, using traditional Yardbirds' material as well as new works, such as "Communication Breakdown," "I Can't Quit You Baby," "You Shook Me," "Babe I'm Gonna Leave You" and "How Many More Times". When the members returned home, Monsieur Page changed the band's name to Led Zeppelin. The group employed Olympic Studios in London to record this debut album. Page was barely 25 years old (January 9, 1944).

Saint  Hilaire au concile du pape Léon, par Jean Fouquet (vers 1455), enluminure du musée de Chantilly Le 13 Janvier -- C'est sa fête  Hilaire de Poitiers: Issu d'une noble famille païenne de Poitiers, Hilaire se passionne pour les sages de l'Antiquité avant de découvrir l'Évangile et de se convertir. Bien que marié et père de famille, il est élu évêque de sa ville à 35 ans, en 350, puis porté à la tête de l'épiscopat gaulois.

À la différence des autres évêques gaulois, il lutte activement contre l'arianisme qu'a condamné le concile de Nicée. C'est ainsi qu'il réunit un synode pour excommunier le primat d'Arles, Saturnin, coupable de sympathie pour l'hérésie.

Mais l'empereur Constance 1er, fils de Constantin 1er et lui-même arien, fait exiler Hilaire en Phrygie. En exil, Hilaire en profite pour rédiger son ouvrage majeur, De trinitate (La Trinité). De retour en Gaule au bout de 3 ans, il a enfin raison de l'arianisme et encourage le zèle évangélisateur de Martin, futur évêque de Tours.

Hilaire, mort en 367, a été proclamé en 1851 Docteur de l'Église -- Coins of the Constantine era

January 13, 1505: Today Joachim II Hektor was born in Köln, Germany. Joachim II was the Elector of Brandenburg at the time of the Reformation. He remained true to the Catholic Church and to the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, but he tolerated Protestantism in the areas under his governance. On several occasions he served as a mediator between Catholic and Protestant factions within the empire. He played a significant role in the processes leading to the Peace of Augsburg (1555).

In the late 14th century, Count Friedrich von Zollern, from a castle located in southern Germany, was given the Duchy of Brandenburg as an hereditary fief. Thus begins the HOHENZOLLERN DYNASTY, which was to rule over Brandenburg / Prussia / Germany until 1918. The territory had a parliament, the LANDTAG, which met irregularly, primarily to discuss the Duke's proposal to raise taxes. It was dominated by the notoriously obstinate nobility, the JUNKERS.

The Duchy of Brandenburg was located in the east of the Holy Roman Empire, and it was one of the largest territories. Its duke had a special status among the Empire's princes, because he was one of the 7 ELECTORS who, whenever the throne was vacant, were to meet and elect a new Emperor. When the Empire was reorganized in Imperial circles in 1512, Brandenburg was allocated to the UPPER SAXON CIRCLE. The cities within Brandenburg -- foremost BRANDENBURG, BERLIN, POTSDAM, FRANKFURT am ODER, were of secondary importance in the Empire. Brandenburg administratively was divided in 3 parts - the ALTMARK (to the west of the Elbe), the KURMARK (between Elbe and Oder) and the NEUMARK (to the East of the Oder). Berlin was the area's capital, the seat of the Duchy and the place where the Landtag met.

January 14, 1784: The Continental Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris on January 14, 1784, officially establishing the United States as in independent and sovereign nation. The Continental Congress approved preliminary articles of peace on April 15, 1783. The treaty, signed in Paris on September 3, 1783, required Congress to return the ratified document to England within six months. Although scheduled to convene at the Maryland State House in November, as late as January 12 only seven of the thirteen states had legal representatives at the ratifying convention. Operating under the weak Articles of Confederation, Congress lacked power to enforce attendance at the convention. With the journey to England requiring approximately two months, time was running short ...

In order to commemorate the occasion on this date in 1943 a stamp was issued. In addition, Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first President of the United States to travel by airplane (while in office). He flew from Miami, Florida, arriving the 14th in Casablanca, Morocco. He met with Winston Churchill (Prime Minister of the British Empire during World War II) at Rick's Place, although Rick was not there. In further celebration, eleven years later to the day, Marilyn Monroe (movie star and consort to presidents) married Joe DiMaggio, a baseball player of some repute.

Issued Jan 14th 
Coincidence ??

Allied Nations for Peace: U.S. #907 (Scott), like the “Win the War” stamp before it, was issued as part of a campaign to raise support for U.S. involvement in World War II.

January 14, 1784: The Continental Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris on January 14, 1784, officially establishing the United States as in independent and sovereign nation. The Continental Congress approved preliminary articles of peace on April 15, 1783. The treaty, signed in Paris on September 3, 1783, required Congress to return the ratified document to England within six months. Although scheduled to convene at the Maryland State House in November, as late as January 12 only seven of the thirteen states had legal representatives at the ratifying convention. Operating under the weak Articles of Confederation, Congress lacked power to enforce attendance at the convention. With the journey to England requiring approximately two months, time was running short ... Following the harsh criticism of the “Win the War” stamp (U.S. #905) several artists submitted more creative designs with similar war victory themes. President Roosevelt rejected them all, as he believed the stamps should represent World Peace and cooperation in addition to victory.

President Roosevelt eventually selected a drawing by Leon Helguera ( depicting an army of upraised swords behind an uplifted palm branch of peace. This image perfectly illustrated the message desired by the President; however, when the stamp confounded collectors and some of the general public, who did not entirely understand the stamp’s meaning. Many were also uncomfortable with the use of so many uplifted swords. Despite these setbacks, this release, along with the “Win the War” and “Four Freedoms” issues, became one of the biggest-selling stamps during the Second World War. -- see also (related?)

Issued Jan 14th 
Coincidence ??

15 Januar 1791 -- Another Casablanca Tale: Franz Grillparzer wurde am 15. Jänner 1791 in Wien, am heutigen Bauernmarkt 10, geboren. Grillparzers erstes Gedicht ist aus dem Jahr 1804 überliefert. Seine erste größere dramatische Arbeit Blanka von Kastilien reichte er 1810 beim Hofburgtheater ein, wo sie jedoch abgelehnt wurde.

Grillparzer is emblematic of the late Austrian monarchy for several reasons. As an artist he combined German classicism inspired by Friedrich Schiller and exuberant lyricism. Franz Grillparzer is generally considered to be the greatest Austrian playwright. Very often, the power of fate is a central topic in his plays. In Weh dem, der lügt he investigates the question of the end justifying the means. The conclusion is somewhat philosophical, more than a little bit scary: As long as the good results outweigh the bad means employed, how one accomplishes the task does not mean (ultimately) all that much. But then, truth becomes a mighty slippery concept wth disastrous results in the 20th Century for Germany, Japan, China, Russia, um so weiter ad infinitum -- et cætera.

Wer deutet mir die buntverworrne Welt!
Sie reden alle Wahrheit, sind drauf stolz,
Und sie belügt sich selbst und ihn; er mich
Und wieder sie; der lügt, weil man ihm log -
Und reden alle Wahrheit, alle. Alle !
Das Unkraut, merk ich, rottet man nicht aus,
Glück auf, wächst nur der Weizen etwa drüber.

January 15, 1957: There is still no cure for polio, but a vaccine developed by Jonas Salk prevented the disease. This stamp honors those who helped in the struggle against polio. The Vaccine has changed the World. Stamp Information: The United States Postal Service issued the 3¢ stamp to the right in mid-January.

"Salk and Sabin came from the two competing schools of vaccine research. Sabin, like Louis Pasteur, believed the way to produce immunity was to create a mild infection with a "live" but crippled virus, and he concocted his competing vaccine accordingly. Salk, from his flu-fighting days, knew the immune system could be triggered without infection, using deactivated, or "killed," viruses. And, as it turned out, his quick-and-dirty killed viruses were better suited to a crash program than Sabin's carefully attenuated live ones." Time 100



Modern City Map Link

In 2007, service to Reims began by TGV, making it an hour and a half away from Paris. Voila, a day trip just as is Chartres

Le baptême de Clovis par Rémi (plaque de reliure  en ivoire du IXe siècle) Le 15 Janvier -- C'est sa fête Rémi: L'évêque de Reims est célèbre pour avoir baptisé Clovis, le roi des Francs, après la bataille légendaire de Tolbiac. Tandis que Clovis n'était encore que le roi des Francs de Tournai, Rémi a commencé de l'instruire dans la religion. Il écrit au jeune roi encore païen : Secourez les affligés, ayez soin des veuves, nourrissez les orphelins . . . . Toutes les richesses de vos pères, vous les emploierez à libérer les captifs et à délier le lien d'esclavage.

Clovis est le premier roi barbare à se convertir au catholicisme (les autres ont choisi l'hérésie arienne). Cela lui vaut la bienveillance du clergé gallo-romain et lui permet d'imposer son autorité sur la Gaule et les pays rhénans. Rémi est mort à 90 ans, vers 530, avec, selon le chroniqueur Grégoire de Tours, une grande réputation de charité !

Throughout French history, most French Kings went to Reims to receive their crown at the place where Clovis was baptised and were laid to rest at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris. Notre-Dame de Reims is a masterpiece of French Gothic sculpture, one of the Champagne region's impressive cathedrals (Soissons, Laon, Troyes, and Châlons-sur-Marne), a testament to enduring Faith, through art. Also not to be missed is the former Archbishop's residence built by Mansart and Robert de Cotte in 1690. Today the Tau Palace contains the cathedral museum with tapestries, sculptures and artifacts from the kings' coronations.

Nearby is Saint-Rémi Basilica, the largest Romanesque pilgrimage church in northern France. As the name indicates, it was built in honor of Saint-Rémi. The nave was consecrated in 1049, the apse is from the late 12th century (an example of early Gothic style). The famous Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Rémi, the shrine of the Holy Ampula used for French kings' coronations, is built in the classical style. It now houses the city's Museum of History and Archeology with impressive collections from prehistory to the Renaissance.

Finally, we suggest this link: Remigius of Rheims, Bishop, Apostle of the Franks -- resources/bio/257.html -- it ties together the French, Northumbria, Augustine and Cajuns, all in one neat package. You might also want to consider where BP was stationed, when he returned from the Boer War, if you are still confused by why we do all of this.

January 15th; In 1541 – Roi François I (then King of France) gives Jean-François de La Rocque sieur de Roberval a commission to settle the province of New France (now called Canada) and provide for the spread of the Holy catholic faith among the native populations Yes, de La Rocque is a form of de LaRoche, but apparently of no direct relation for at least 1000 years. Interestingly Jean-François died in Paris as one of the first Huguenot martyrs (1560). In 1535 he narrowly had escaped hanging as a Protestant only by the intervention of the King.

In 1559 – Elizabeth I is crowned Queen of England in Westminster Abbey, London, England. Later in her career, she would have her cousin (Mary Queen of Scots) executed; her half-sister Mary, had been her predecessor, and had persecuted the Protestants in England. Elizabeth's mother had been executed by Elizabeth's father, Henry VIII. Elizabeth was England's first fully Protestant ruler. Her brother and father, when they ruled, had not realized fully that they were no longer Catholic.

In 1777, during American Revolutionary War – New Connecticut (present day Vermont) declares its independence from another state. Because of vehement objections from New York, which had conflicting property claims, the Continental Congress declined to recognize Vermont, then called the New Hampshire Grants. Vermont's overtures to join the British Province of Quebec failed. In 1791, Vermont was admitted to the United States as the 14th state. It should be noted that Tennessee was once part of North Carolina, and Kentucky was carved out of Olde Virginia.

Reverse of the 1785 and 1786 design features of the Vermont Penny an "all-seeing eye" with 13 stars encircled by the Latin motto STELLA. QUARTA. DECIMA. meaning the fourteenth star. Obverse of the 1785 design shows a plow and the sun rising over the Green Mountains. The Latin motto VERMONTS. RES. PUBLICA. may reasonably be translated either to mean the republic, or commonwealth, of Vermont.

Speaking of Birthdays, in 1889 – The Coca-Cola Company, then known as the Pemberton Medicine Company, is incorporated in Atlanta. In 1981, Pope John Paul II received a delegation from Solidarity (a Polish "trades" organization) at the Vatican led by Lech Wałęsa. Wikipedia, a free Wiki content encyclopedia, went online on January 15, Y2k+1 (information from which this post was gathered).

January 16, 1604: At the Hampton Court Conference in England, John Rainolds presents to King James I the motion that there might bee a newe translation of the Bible. Rainolds' motion and its approval on the next day will lead to the publication of what will be known as The King James' Bible in 1611.

Other royal happenings this day in history -- 27BC: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian becomes Augustus; 550AD: The Ostrogoths, under King Totila, conquer Rome after a long siege; 1412: The Medici family is appointed official banker of the Papacy; 1492: The Spanish tongue, is presented to Queen Isabella with rules for formal grammar, the first modern language so blessed; 1547: Ivan the Terrible becomes Tsar of all the Russias; The full title of the Russian Emperors, according to Article 59 of the 1906 Russian Constitution, was given as:

Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, Tsar of Poland, Tsar of Siberia, Tsar of Chersonesos Taurica, Tsar of Georgia, Lord of Pskov, and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and Finland, Prince of Estland, Livland, Courland and Semigalia, Samogitia, Belostok, Karelia, Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgaria and other territories; Lord and Grand Duke of Nizhni Novgorod, Sovereign of Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozero, Udoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislavl, and all northern territories; Sovereign of Iveria, Kartalinia, and the Kabardinian lands and Armenian territories – hereditary Lord and Ruler of the Circassians and Mountain Princes and others; Lord of Turkestan, Heir of Norway, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Oldenburg, and so forth, and so forth, and so forth. {said three times to invoke the triune God of the Russias from whom the power descends DEI GRATIA -- део разовые деи}

1556: Phillip II officially becomes King of Spain, when his ailing father (Charles V) signs the act of abdication. The crown of Germany reverts to Charles' brother Ferdinand; 1707: The Scottish Parliament ratifies the Act of Union, paving way for the creation of Great Britain; 1847: John C. Fremont is appointed the Governator of the new California Territory; and, 1979: The ailing Shah of Iran flees the oppressors in his Kingdom with his family and relocates to Egypt (remind you of anything). President Carter (део разовые деи) refuses to throw him fully under the bus; whereupon, great tribulation will begin for some US hostages, specifically and the Nation as a whole. 1991: Coalition Forces go to war with Iraq, beginning the Gulf War (U.S. Time), and so the planned destabilization of the Middle East (which ends with the overthrow of the illegitimate Iranian regime) has begun, still proceeding with great expense 26 years later at the cost of countless lives.
Le 17 janvier 1562: Jeune roi, Charles IX, signe l'Édit de tolérance de Saint-Germain -- -- Le chancelier et la reine mère (la régente Catherine de Médicis) désirent apaiser les tensions religieuses entre les nobles protestants et catholiques. Paradoxalement, cette mesure attise la haine entre les deux communautés, tant il est vrai que l'esprit de tolérance ne dépasse pas le cercle étroit des milieux cultivés. Le Parlement de Paris refuse ainsi de ratifier l'Édit de Janvier. C'est le début des guerres de religion. Elle dureront plus de trente ans.

Forgotten by many in their analysis of the causes of the French Revolution, is the Edict of St. Germain, that recognized Protestants (Huguenots) in France. It really did not resolve the issue to any degree. Within a matter of weeks, the Vassy massacre (March 1, 1562) opened the first religious war, which in fact was a victory for the more influential and most-grand Duke de Guise (who since the Defense of Metz in 1552 had held sway over government policy) and a defeat for the conciliatory moves of Catherine, the Regent. The Huguenots soon seized Orléans, then towns along the Rhône and other rivers in the west. Catherine was forced by events to declare that two paths could not co-exist in France. Un roi, une loi, une foi became the catchword, the test of faith as well as loyalty. So, by the summer, events in France (like elsewhere in Europe) had outpaced her Edict. Ten Years pass and St. Germain becomes a symbol for massacre.

January 17, 1736: "Many People were very impatient at the contrary Wind. At Seven in the Evening they were quieted by a Storm. It rose higher and higher till . . . the Sea broke over us from Stem to Stern: burst through the Windows of the State Cabin, where three or four of us were, and cover'd us all over, tho' a Bureau shelter'd me from the main Shock. About 11,  I lay down in the great Cabin, and in a short time fell asleep, tho' very uncertain whether I should wake alive, and much ashamed of my Unwillingness to die. O how pure in Heart must he be, who wou'd rejoice to appear before God at a Moment's Warning! Toward Morning, he rebuked the Winds and the Sea, and there was a great Calm." -- John Wesley (Georgia Missionary, English Circuit Rider and Evangelical Revivalist)

January 17, 2006: The US Mint released two commemorative dollars for the 300th birthday of a Philadelphian with the name Benjamin Franklin. The first coins were struck in a special ceremony on December 19, 2005. One coin depicts Franklin as an inventor and scientist (his theories were well-respected in the 18th Century). The other shows Franklin as America's first elder statesman (and ambassador to France). France is also releasing a series of Gold and Silver Euro-based coins to the Ami de la France, Philosophe, Diplomate, Écrivain and Savant. All coins from both nations have a limited mintage and carry a premium over face value. Surcharges from the sale of the American coins are authorized go to the Franklin Institute for the purposes of the Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary Commission. Benjamin Franklin was a statesman, scientist, philosopher and patriot, and his life and achievements stand unparalleled in our history, said Acting Director Lebryk. One of the Republic’s most renowned founding fathers, Franklin was also a favorite son of Philadelphia. As a contributor of designs for the Nation's first coins [Fugio Cent], it is fitting that he rests in Christ Church burial ground next to the United States Mint at Philadelphia.

January 18, 1796: The first United States ten-penny coins were produced at the US Mint in Philadelphia. These silver dimes were slightly larger than those coins of a similar denomination still minted today. On this day in 1837, Congress revised and standardized United States coinage laws, by prescribing the motto and the devices that should be placed upon United States denominations of various types and metals. The dime was physically smaller by then.
Le 18 janvier 1871: L'Empire allemand est proclamé, dans la galerie des Glaces du château de Versailles. Ce IIe Reich (Empire) succède au Saint Empire romain germanique fondé par Otton le Grand et aboli par Napoléon ... Since 1815, Germany had consisted of 39 land-states loosely tied into a German confederation. The two largest German states where Prussia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and they gradually consolidated power. In 1861 Wilhelm I succeeded Friedrich Wilhelm IV and took further steps, militarizing the government under Otto Von Bismarck his first minister. Bismarck would unite all German states (under Prussian rule) not with elaborate speeches and votes, but with blood and iron. France, under Napoleon III encouraged the Austro-Prussian conflict in hopes that they would tire each other out and France could expand eastward into Germany with little resistance. He was unhappy, to say the least, when the conflict only lasted seven weeks with a German victory.

Ever since the days of Cardinal Richelieu (and before) France had made it a centerpiece of foreign policy to prevent unification of Germany. Now Germany had achieved unification. Napoleon III's declaration of war was a godsend to Bismarck, resulting in a loss of French territory, ambition and treasure; moreover Napoleon was overthrown in another lesser-known French Revolution. The new Republic capitulated (see our page on Belfort, one city that resisted conquest). Once news of defeat hit Paris, the city rose in revolt by the Reds. The Reds in Paris declared a Socialist Commune and civil war broke out in other French cities between Republicans and Communards. Soon, however only Paris was under Communist control. Bismarck who had besieged the city, finally had to part the Prussian encirclement (Peripherique) of the city to enable Republican forces to attack the Reds. After a string of atrocities on both sides, the Republic finally reconquered Paris and won the right to surrender to the Prussians.

In the meantime, on January 18, 1871 (ten days before Paris was taken-back) Wilhelm I was proclaimed Emperor of Germany at the military headquarters in Versailles. The Holy Roman Empire technically had now ended and the Second Reich (the German Empire) came forth. Bismarck was appointed the new Reich’s first imperial Chancellor.

The Third Republic of France had to give up Alsace-Lorrain to the Second Reich, pay 5 billion francs, and accept Prussian army occupation. It was expected that France would take decades to pay off such a huge reparations; however, the French would pay off the entire debt to Prussia in only three years, by foregoing nearly all other expenditures and by borrowing nearly every franc in the nation in order to rid France of the hated Prussian troops. World War I ended all of this rule. The French in 1918, then fully repaid Germany for its generous terms of 1871. After the Franco-Prussian War, Wilhelm I and Bismarck tried to avoid conflicts so the newly formed united Empire could develop.

And prosper they did until ambition (hubris) caught up with the empire. from

Of course, America is not like imperial Germany. But there may be a lesson from a country whose wartime rulers, quarrelling among themselves, inflicted unimaginable harm on their people and to the world with their mendacious, secretive and paranoid style. The consequences of their leadership became manifest only later, as an aggrieved nation’s people turned against each other in their deep political and moral divisions and hatreds.

It took a worse catastrophe, a world-historical scourge, to teach these people a lesson. Let us hope that Americans learn their lesson about the dangers and follies of imperial hubris sooner.

The Metz SCNF station is a relic of Second Reich architecture. When you get off the slow-train at Metz, whether you're coming from Paris, Brussels, Zurich or Frankfurt, you can stand amazed by the station that looks like a Romanesque cathedral! This colossal (over 300 m long) monument was built from 1905 to 1908 on the orders of Kaiser Wilhelm II who wanted Metz to be the prestigious symbol of German architecture, Lorraine having been annexed by Germany after the Franco-Prussian War. This building is the work of the Berlin architect, Jürgen Kröger, who also built around the station a new town in pink or grey sandstone and in granite, this in sharp contrast to the city-centre on the overlooking hill. The new TGV terminal has its own unique features.

January 18, 1947: Herman Talmadge, son of Senator Gene Talmadge and a write-in candidate on the 1946 ballot, had claimed the governorship of Georgia. The outgoing Governor, Ellis Arnall, refused to acknowledge Talmadge's claim to office. So began one of the most bizarre incidents took place in the history of U.S. state politics -- Georgia's Three Governors Controversy. The seeds of the famous controversy were sown when the 1945 constitution was written, leaving open to debate the order of succession in the event a governor-elect never took office:

January 18, 2007: A spokesperson for Georgia revealed today that the state's official record of the Declaration of Independence, rediscovered in the State Archives is now under safer lock and key. Lost and misfiled the engrossed copy dates from March 2, 1777. It was likely transcribed from the State's first copy sent to it by the Second Continental Congress, John Hancock, President, after the action of July 4th. This record of Declaration now joins an official copy of the Georgia Royal Charter (1732) as one of Georgia's most important historical documents in its possession. The names of the 56 signatories - including Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall and George Walton from Georgia - appear on the document, although they are not originally signed.

Button Gwinnett was the Commander of Georgia's Continental Battalion. He was elected to the 2nd Continental Congress, (1776). He became president of the Georgia Council of Safety, (1777), dying May 19, 1777, following a duel with General Lachlan McIntosh (a distant cousin of mine). The direct dispute was over a failed expedition into Florida, headed by Gwinnett, but these two men had careers that clashed. George Washington brought the survivor north, not wanting to lose a good tactician. Parts of Georgia mostly were lost to the British for a number of years, thereafter. It is not that simple of course; but see,

Lyman Hall was elected to Continental Congress (1775) and as a delegate to the Georgia House of Assembly, as well as governor of Georgia (1783). He became a judge in 1785, passing away October 19, 1790. George Walton (a more direct cousin) was elected to the Continental Congress in 1776 and in 1777, 1780 and 1781. He was a Colonel of the First State of Georgia Militia (1778) and governor of Georgia (1779 and 1789). For six years he served as chief justice of the Georgia Supreme Court (1783-89) and thereafter a Superior Court Judge at Augusta Georgia (1789-98), while serving as a US Senator in 1795 for a short term (he was not reelected). He died February 2, 1804, at his home at Meadow Garden (still on 13th Street in Augusta). See --

January 19th -- Feast day of Saint Agricius (Agritius) von Trier (ca. 260 – ca. 329): Tradition relates that Agricius had been the Patriarch of Antioch until moved to Trier (arguably the oldest German city) by Pope Sylvester at the request of Saint Helena (mother of the Emperor Constantine the Great, who ruled from Trier). Agricius became the Bishop of Trier. Some legends report that he brought the relics of the Apostle, Saint Matthias and Christ's Robe to the city. Indeed, those relics still rest in the Cathedral at Trier and in the Church of St. Matthias. see Agricius' recognition as a saint predates the practice of formal canonization by a pope. Excavations show that during the lifetime of Agricius the Imperial Palace at Trier became the Cathedral. Materials from the building during its use as a the residence of Helena may be seen today in the Bishop's Museum in Trier. In 315AD construction began in the eastern part of the South Church (now Our Lady), the first of the double church plan by Agricius. He completed the work in 321 AD. Five years later (326AD), once again under Agricius, work started on the North Church (today's Dom).

Founded in 16 B.C. under Emperor Augustus, Augusta Treverorum (Trier) expanded into an imperial residence and capital of the Western Roman Empire. Behind the medieval façades of the Cathedral, architectural styles from the 4th through 18th centuries can be seen. Indeed, the throne room of Emperor Constantine (built by his father Constantius early 4th century) represents the largest surviving unsupported room of antiquity. Along with the cathedral, Trier has over 90 churches and chapels, such as the church of St. Antonius (13th century), the former Jesuit establishments (Jesuitenkirche, 13th century), St. Irminen (18th century), the baroque St. Paulin’s Church, St. Gangolf’s Kirche and the Church of our Lady (Liebfrauenkirche), Germany’s oldest Gothic church ( -- links here). The Rheinisches Landesmuseum contains an outstanding archæological collection with Germany’s most extensive Roman artifacts. Trier is considered the true cradle of German wine culture, a tradition begun by the Romans when they established the still-active Mosel vineyards.

January 19, 1086 -- Canute IV the Pius: Today is a day to remember Canute IV the Pius, the King of Denmark and Patron Saint. On this day in 1086, he is murdered by some of his revolting subjects. Although Denmark was already nominally Christian, when he became king, he went to great lengths to revitalize and firmly establish the Faith. He restored existing churches and monasteries, built new ones and created laws to protect the clergy. His new order, however, included higher taxes and mandatory tithes, which led to the revolt and his demise. Canute was killed reportedly in church while attending the Celebration of Mass. He was declared a martyr and Saint in 1101. Do not confuse him with Canute the Great of England, who had reigned as King of England, Denmark and Norway from 1016 until 1035 ( Canute IV had succeeded his brother, Harald III. Canute desired royal authority founded upon a strong church. He considered the title of King of England to be his, as he was the grandnephew of Canute the Great; but, he took insufficient steps to perfect this claim. see also

Let all men know how empty and worthless is the power of kings
For there is none worthy of the name but God, whom heaven, earth and sea obey
-- “Lad alle mænd vide hvor tom og værdiløs kongers magt er. For der er ingen anden der er navnet værdigt end Gud som himmel, jord og hav adlyder.”

Naissance le 20 Janvier 1775: Only a few months before the American Revolution began, André-Marie Ampère appeared in the ancient city of Lyon France. Credit Ampère as one of the principle pioneers in the field of electro-magnetic energy. One of the main units of electricity, the Amp (a unit of electrical current) bears his name. The others, the Ohm and the Volt, were named after equally talented men. Ampère died at Marseilles and is buried in the Cimetière de Montmartre, Paris. Some people have the birth date as January 22nd, which I believe is an error; however the clearest picture of the grave looks like "21 Juin" -- -- so now you be the judge. He is buried next to his son (Jean-Jacques). Jean-Jacques was also a man of letters with an interest in Roman history and French literature. Jean died in Pau. Seeé_Marie_Ampère (2007).

Harry S. TrumanJanuary 20, 1949: The inauguration of the first US President elected after the end of World War II took place on January 20th. The President, who took over upon the death of FDR, awoke up to a chilly day in Washington D.C. At 10:00, he drove with Bess and Margaret to St. John's Episcopal Church for a prayer service. After the prayer service he rode to the Hill with Alben Barkley. The Ceremony began with an invocation by Dr. Edwards Pruden. Then Phil Regan, a tenor, sung the National Anthem. Mr. Barkely was sworn in as Vice President, followed by another prayer.

The Chief of Justice of the US Supreme Court, Frederick Moore Vinson, administered the oath of office, taken on two Bibles, one from the people of Independence Missouri (a Gutenberg Bible), and the other was the personal one which he used on that fateful day in April 12, 1945, when he first took the oath. Harry S. Truman's Inaugural Address was short compared to those speeches of recent history, but full of new ideas based on old obligations

The peoples of the earth face the future with grave uncertainty, composed almost equally of great hopes and great fears. In this time of doubt, they look to the United States as never before for good will, strength, and wise leadership. It is fitting, therefore, that we take this occasion to proclaim to the world the essential principles of the Faith by which we live, and to declare our aims to all peoples.

The American people stand firm in the Faith which has inspired this Nation from the beginning. We believe that all men have a right to equal justice under law and equal opportunity to share in the common good. We believe that all men have a right to freedom of thought and expression. We believe that all men are created equal because they are created in the image of God. From this Faith we will not be moved.


Steadfast in our faith in the Almighty, we will advance toward a world where man's freedom is secure. To that end we will devote our strength, our resources, and our firmness of resolve. With God's help, the future of mankind will be assured in a world of justice, harmony, and peace.

The President's personal Bible was open to Matthew 5, verses 3-11 (Beatitudes). The Gutenberg was open at Exodus 20, verses 3-17 (Ten Commandments). After FDR's death in 1945, Truman appointed Fred Vinson Secretary of the Treasury. When Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone died in mid-1946, he became Chief Justice. Vinson died on September 8, 1953.

When Senator Truman heard rumors of war profiteering, he got into his own car (a Dodge) and, during a Congressional recess, drove some 30,000 miles throughout the Nation, paying unannounced visits to corporate offices and worksites. The Senate committee that he chaired then launched an aggressive investigation into shady wartime business practices. It found waste, inefficiency, mismanagement and {worst of all} profiteering. Truman simply argued that such behavior was unpatriotic. Truman, who became a national hero for his fight against the profiteers, was tapped to be FDR's running mate in 1944. The rest is history.

FYI, in 1948 the Atomic Energy Commission first realized a need for establishing a daily newspaper in FDR's secret city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first edition of the Oak Ridger came out on the 20th of January in 1949. Through the years, the paper has served the needs of the sophisticated and ever-growing community. Also of interest, on this date in 1981, President Reagan was Inaugurated to serve his first term. The Iranian hostage "conclusion" was timed, so that the release would take place when Carter was no longer in office. This still rings true. Concerns about the restart of Iran's nuclear program only hint at what may lie ahead. Some say that oil prices will exceed $150 a barrel, when peace in the Middle East becomes becomes an Iranian fiefdom; but then, such an outcome would pale in comparison to a nuclear exchange in the Middle East. And what do we make of:

January 21, 1844: A Lt. William Tecumseh Sherman (an Ohio citizen), then stationed at Charleston SC, received orders to report to Marietta, GA. A young officer Sherman would help take depositions in Alabama and Georgia with respect to personal losses of horses and equipment by militia members. During this assignment, the then 23-year-old officer had a chance to familiarize himself with the area of northwest Georgia, which he would visit again under vastly different circumstances. Exactly, twenty-one years later in 1865 Gen. Sherman and his staff left Savannah for Beaufort, South Carolina. General Sherman's Carolina excursion was now underway, his stroll through the great State of Georgia now having ended.

Pictured is the Rhett Butler home, located in the historic district of beautiful Beaufort, South Carolina. Rhett was a famous blockade runner, whose life was made into a movie in 1939. Rhett also maintained a summer home in Atlanta, which he visited from time to time. The structure in Beaufort still stands, while the residence in Atlanta has come and gone like the wind.

Interestingly, on January 21, 1733, James Edward Oglethorpe and a few SC Rangers left the Port of Beaufort, by boat heading for Savannah. Oglethorpe and his small party sailed southward along the inland coastal waterway, spending the night on one of Carolina’s barrier islands – most likely Trench’s Island (today a place named after William Hilton who was never there). Their destination was the mouth of the Savannah River, at which point they would sail upriver looking for a site for the Georgia colony’s first settlement. After Hilton Head, Tybee might seem a little desolate.

Rhett House in Beaufort SC
Beaufort SC

January 21, 1947: The "Three Governors Affair" became a two-governor rivalry on this day when M.E. Thompson became lieutenant governor. Outgoing governor Ellis Arnall, who still claimed the office and refused to recognize the General Assembly's naming of write-in candidate Herman Talmadge, resigned as governor. With Arnall's resignation, Thompson claimed that under the state constitution, he now became governor. Talmadge, however, insisted that the legislature constitutionally had elected him the governor. The case ended up in the Georgia Supreme Court, which on March 19 ruled in Thompson's favor. No cries that he was selected, not elected were heard, we just weren't as smart back then.

Of interest, but probably forgotten by most, was that during this event students from Georgia Tech and others gathered at the State Capitol to protest the rough justice evident. My father was one of the radicals present at the "march."

January 21, 1990: The East German party, the SED, changes its name to the PDS. The SED (Socialist Unity Party of Germany) was the name of the communist party of East Germany until 1990. In preparation for {re}unification, the Party, wishing to continue as a viable entity; but, realizing the negative implications of its identity with the East German regime, changed its name to a more media-friendly PDS (Party of Democratic Socialism). The PDS has had seats in parliament after each election since the unification. The name change harkens to the days when the Socialist Party of the United States and the Democrat Party merged and chose to use a name that did not have the nasty implications of a national socialist party (not to mention its murderess reputation).

It was 41 years earlier on January 28, 1949, that the first party congress of the SED within the Soviet Zone of occupation in Germany (later the DDR) closed. It chose a Politburo of which Herren Pieck, Grotewohl und Ulbricht were members. Pieck would become the first head of the East and Ulbricht later became the second.

January 22, 1733: James Oglethorpe and a small party of Carolina Rangers traveled up the Savannah River looking for a location for the newly arrived Georgia colonists to settle. [See map at this link] In so doing, he followed a decision by the Georgia Trustees of November 9, 1732, that the first settlement -- which was to be named Savannah -- be located on that river. About fifteen miles upstream from the mouth of the Savannah, Oglethorpe found an area along the south bank that rose high over the river. As Oglethorpe wrote the Trustees about the site:

"The river there forms a half moon, along the South side of which the banks are about 40 foot high and upon the top a flat which they call a bluff. The plain high ground extends into the country five or six miles and along the riverside about a mile. Ships that draw twelve foot water can ride within ten yards of the bank."

The site Oglethorpe had found was known as Yamacraw Bluff, the name derived from the small group of native Yamacraws who lived there. The bluff had been a popular place for traders from the Carolina Colony in the past. In 1732 John and Mary Musgrove had opened a trading post upon the bluff. Using the Musgroves as translators, Oglethorpe met Yamacraw chief Tomochichi and asked for permission to settle a town on the bluff. Tomochichi agreed. Most likely, his decision was based on self-interest -- this tribe was small, poor, exiled from the other Creeks and now dependent on British imports. A preliminary verbal agreement was reached (though a formal treaty would not be signed until May 21). Oglethorpe then left to rejoin the colonists at Beaufort, leaving some of the Carolina rangers behind to build a stairway up the side of the bluff. He would return February 1st with the first colonists.

[Note Letters, diaries, and records of this time show dates based on the Julian calendar (referred to as "Old Style") then in effect in Britain and the American colonies. The Gregorian calendar ("New Style") was adopted in 1752. Thus, January 22, 1732/33, (Old Style) represents February 2, 1733, under the calendar now in effect. For a fuller explanation, click HERE.]

January 22, 1905 (9th under Russian Calendar -- same song different verse): Russian Orthodox Father George Gapon led a small procession of workers in St. Petersburg (about 200,000) upon the Winter Palace to present grievances to the Czar of all Russia, Nicholas II (1894-1917). Father Gapon had intended to have a peaceful march, but troops on the scene fired into the crowd, killing or wounding hundreds. Thus began the Russian Revolution of 1905. All across Russia, government officials were attacked, peasants seized private estates and workers’ strikes virtually paralyzed the economy. In St. Petersburg, a council (soviet) of workers’ delegates threatened to take over the entire government. Czar Nicholas consented to the adoption of a constitution and election of a parliament (Duma). The first Duma met in 1906. This was a case of too little, too late. Under the stress of World War I, Nicholas would abdicate and a new Revolution took place, leading to a communist takeover lasting many decades.

Le 22 janvier 1963: Le traité d'amitié franco-allemand de l'Elysée, à Paris {Elysée Treaty}, consacre le rapprochement des deux anciens ennemis. Il est signé par le général de Gaulle, président de la cinquième République Française, et le chancelier allemand (Bundesrepublik), Konrad Adenauer. Il ne serait pas peu raisonnable de faire la charge que c'était la première vraie paix entre les nations en au moins 1000 ans. voi

Le 23 janvier 1002: Meurt l'empereur d'Allemagne Otton III (19 ans) et avec lui le rêve d'un empire chrétien fondé sur les valeurs évangéliques. His death left a political vacuum ultimately filled by Henry II over the objections of many.,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

January 23, 1775: Georgia's Commons House of Assembly elected Noble Wimberly Jones, Archibald Bulloch and John Houstoun as delegates to the Second Continental Congress. On May 10, 1775, the members of the Second Continental Congress met at the State House in Philadelphia. There were several new delegates including: John Hancock from Massachusetts, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, and Benjamin Franklin from Pennsylvania. Just a few weeks earlier a shot was heard around the world, from Lexington and Concord and the roads home to Boston. On the same day Ethan Allen took possession of the strong fortress of Ticonderoga.

Le 23 janvier 1806: Ce jour meurt William Pitt the Younger. Premier ministre de Grande-Bretagne à l'âge de 24 ans, en 1783, William Pitt disparaît en pleine tourmente, sans avoir eu le temps de cueillir la récompense de ses efforts. Son ennemi, Napoléon 1er, est au faîte de la puissance. Nul ne se doute encore qu'à Trafalgar, quelques mois plus tôt, il a perdu toute chance de vaincre un jour l'Angleterre.

William Pitt the Elder, First Earl of Chatham, also known as the Great Commoner, dominated the political scene influencing government from within and without. He is remembered for his vocal criticism of harsh British policy levied against the American colonies and his skills as a wartime leader during the Seven Years' War. The City of Pittsburgh, PA bears his name. The memory of William Pitt is kept alive in this city by the interest the name itself creates. There is a bust of him in the City-County Building and Carnegie Institute owns one of his noted portraits. from

The City of Pittsburgh has adopted the Pitt coat-of-arms for its seal and the motto -- Benigno Numine, which implies a benign divine Providence, as in:

nil Claudiæ non perficient manus,
quas et benigno numine Iuppiter
defendit et curæ sagaces
expediunt per acuta belli.

In his letter to William Pitt dated "Pittsbourgh, 27th November, 1758," acquainting the Prime Minister with his conquest of the area, General Forbes says in part - I have used the freedom of giving your name to Fort Du Quesne {former French fortification}, as I hope it was in some measure the being actuated by your spirits that makes us Masters of the place . . . . The letter is not in the General's own hand, but in that of one of his clerks; but Forbes would have been cognizant of its form. from You can't raise the cane back up, when it's in the field !!!

Forbes was successful where General Braddock had failed and died. Some of you may remember that General Washington accompanied the unsuccessful man, marking Washington as a failure or worse. Pitt the Elder believed England's future lay in America and not Europe. He poured money into the colonies to shore up their defenses during the French-Indian War. These expenses, and Britain's post-war inept efforts to recoup its money led to the American Revolution, where Washington's reputation was restored in full. During the month of January 2006, The History Channel has aired a series (2006) on the French-Indian War and its implications on World events and follow-on American War of Independence.

Le 23 Janvier, 1835: Un jeune inconnu, Alexis de Tocqueville, a publié le premier volume de son meilleur ouvrage le plus connu, La démocratie en Amérique. Le livre devient un immense succès. Un héritier lointain de Montesquieu, Tocqueville propose une vision révolutionnaire de la perspective du long de l'histoire. "In républican governments, men are all equal; equal they are also in despotic governments: in the former, because they are everything; in the latter, because they are nothing." -- Montesquieu (Les hommes sont tous égaux dans le gouvernement républicain; ils sont égaux dans le gouvernement despotique; dans le premier, c'est parce qu'ils sont tout; dans le second, c'est parce qu'ils ne sont rien)
Le 24 janvier 41: L'empereur Caligula est assassiné. Il laisse la réputation d'un dément et les chroniqueurs rapportent qu'il fit entre autres folies désigner son cheval au rang de sénateur. Perhaps the best thing that can be said of him, he died early before he could do more damage.

24 January 76 AD: Birth of Publius Ælius Hadrianus (Cæsar-Roman Emperor (117-138)). Although born a Roman, Italica, Spain has been referred to as Hadrian's patria. Italica is located in a region in southern Spain named Santiponce in Bateica (old world Andalucia), just four miles north of Seville. Hadrian ordered the construction of a wall in Northumberland, which today bears his name, in order to keep out the barbarians after the first Roman withdrawal from the land of the Picts (Cruithni), which the Romans called caledonia. The Picts were not the Scots (Scotti), who came from Ireland somewhat later and called their gælic nation Alba.

The construction of Hadrian's Wall in 122 was supervised by Aulus Platorius Nepos, Governor of Roman Britain. The line of the wall from the Tyne to the Solway lies south of what is now Scotland's border, but a few outposts beyond it were retained. Indeed in 139-42 A.D. the Roman army advanced northwards, abandoning Hadrian’s Wall and erected the Antonine Wall across the Forth/Clyde isthmus. Soon, thereafter, they returned to Hadrian's fortifications, which while recommissioned proved less than effective. And, indeed, history was a wee bit more complicated than that:

Lo más significativo con todo, que destaca de esta ciudad de las restantes de la Bética, es el que dos de sus hijos accedieron a trono consecutivamente: Trajano ( 97 - 117 d.C.) y Adriano ( 117 - 137 d.C.).

Hadrian could be said to be a master-architect / city planner in his own right. He vastly increased the Roman style throughout his empire, and in so doing, affected the European style to this very day. Because Hadrian was born in Spain (as a Roman citizen), should he, often credited with being the architect of the Pantheon in Rome, then be considered a foreign architect as far as concerns Italy ?? Compare, Maxentius, perhaps born in Syria, like his mother Eutropia; his father Maximian was born in (today's) Serbia. Constantine too was born in Serbia, although his mother Helena was born in (today's) Turkey. The architecture of Eutropia and Helena had an unprecedented effect on Italian styles, later. And what of the rest of the WEST ??

The Panthéon in Paris, designed by Jacques-Germain Soufflot (1755-1792), was finished, in the midst of the French Revolution. The Constituent Assembly of the Révolution decided by decree to transform the church (église Sainte-Geneviève) into a secular temple to accommodate the remains of the great men of France. The pattern was thoroughly Roman, a pattern which the counter-revolutionary, Napoleon, followed slavishly, because it was the art of power in building. More about the Roman influence in Architecture is found HERE (with many examples pictured).

Le 24 janvier 661: Ali, le propre gendre du prophète Mahomet, est assassiné par des opposants. Sa mort sera à l'origine du plus grave schisme de l'islam, celui qui oppose les shiites et les sunnites. Ces désaccords nous infestent maintenant aujourd'hui. Est il la seule coïncidence qu'Ali et le fou Caligula partagent le même destin sur le même jour ???

The study of etymology can be an interesting pastime. The word assassin, originally applied by Crusaders to members of a secret order of Islam, has a broader meaning today. The most important members of that order were those who actually did the killing. Having been promised paradise in return for dying in action, these murderers, yearned for paradise, by being given a life of pleasure (for a while) that included the use of hashish. Thus from this practice for a select few, came the name for the secret order as a whole. After passing through French or Italian, the word came into English use. It is recorded in 1603 with reference to the Muslim Assassins. But, in fact, the word for dagger-men (or violent-men), Sicarii, looks like it is related more and is from a much older time. Indeed, there are other explanations that work equally well. Judas ISCARIOT would indeed be an assassin at heart.

The etymology of the name CALIFORNIA is much more uncertain. Some writers have pretended that it comes from arabic and relates to the caliphate ??? Others say it has a derivation from the two Latin words calida fornax, or, in the Spanish language, caliente fornalla -- “a hot furnace.” This story, however, is doubted by Michael Venegas, a Mexican Jesuit, in his Natural and Civil History of California (2 vols. Madrid, 1758). In his opinion, the early Spanish explorers did not name new-found lands in such a pedantic fashion. “I am therefore inclined to think,” says he, “that this name owed its origin to some accident; possibly to some {native} words spoken ... and misunderstood,” as happened in many other situations, including the name of Hightower Trail. found at

We do know, however, that California is called the Golden State. The famous bridge in San Francisco is known as the Golden Gate Bridge. These names apply because an immigrant at Sutter's Mill found gold in a stream on -- you guessed it -- January 24th (1848). John Marshall, while inspecting the construction of a mill on the south fork of the American River, being built for Captain John Sutter, spotted a gold nugget. Marshall, Sutter and their workers tried to keep the discovery quiet, but gold-seekers quickly began pouring into California. In four years the population of settlers rose from 20,000 to 200,000.

Many people are surprised to learn that for centuries, gold, silver, copper and diamonds have been found in northern Michigan. In particular, gold has been found in over 100 places. Douglass Houghton, the first state geologist, initially discovered it, while camped near the present site of Negaunee in 1845. Houghton returned from a solo excursion with rock specimens carrying enough free gold to fill an eagle’s quill {not a protected species then}. Fearing that his men would desert him to search for gold, he kept the find a secret, although Houghton showed the metal to a trusted associate, Samuel Worth Hill, (the veteran mineral explorer whose penchant for spicy language has been immortalized in the euphemism What the Sam Hill !). Houghton drowned later that year (1845) when his canoe capsized in a storm near Eagle Harbor. The exact location of his gold find died with him.

January 24, 1908: The Boy Scouts movement begins in England with the publication of the first installment of Robert Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys. The name Baden-Powell was already well known because of his heroism, and thousands of English boys eagerly bought the handbook. By the end of April, the serialization of Scouting for Boys was completed. Scores of impromptu Boy Scout troops had sprung up across Britain.

You may recall that, while working his ticket in Northumberland, on July 25, 1907, Baden-Powell took a diverse group of 21 adolescents to Brownsea Island in Dorsetshire where they set up camp for a fortnight. With the aid of other instructors, he taught the boys about camping, observation, deduction, woodcraft, boating, lifesaving, patriotism and chivalry. Many of these lessons were learned through inventive games that were very popular with the boys. The first Boy Scouts' camp meeting proved a great success, so he went into syndication in 1908. You may read more Here.

Le 25 janvier -- Conversion de St Paul, Evêque et docteur de l'Eglise (AD 34): Sur la route de Damas, à la tête d’une troupe de fanatiques, chemine un homme de trente ans, qu’on appelle alors Saul (plus exactement Shaoul). Juif de race, grec de fréquentation, et politiquement romain, il a bénéficié de trois cultures, il connait le grec, l'araméen et l’hébreu. Il revendique une double citoyenneté, celle de Tarse et celle de Rome. À Tarse, sa ville natale, il n’a fréquenté que les écoles de grammaire, puis il est allé chercher à Jérusalem sa culture supérieure à l’école de Gamaliel. Moins tolérant que son maître il s’est vite mué en persécuteur des chrétiens. On le voit garder les vêtements de ceux qui lapident Etienne, ravager l’Eglise de Jérusalem et obtenir un mandat officiel pour engager des poursuites contre les chrétiens de Damas. « Il n'y a ni hommes ni femmes, ni Juifs ni Grecs, ni hommes libres ni esclaves, vous êtes tous un en Jésus-Christ » (Saint Paul, Épître aux Galates).

"I am Jesus, the one you are persecuting. Get up and go into the city, where you will be told what to do."

Only one feast commemorates a moment of conversion, but it was an event not to be forgotten. When Saul arose from the dust before Damascus, he found himself without eye-sight. So he entered the city physically disabled, and forever changed. In fast, he awaited instruction. Back in 1989-1990, we witnessed the opening of the Berlin Gate and the collapse of the Iron Curtain. Everybody was amazed, but too few recognized in these events the hand of God. see Acts of the Apostles 9:1-22; 22:3-16

January 25th: Each year on January 25 the Sorbic children of the eastern Germany celebrate Vogelhochzeit. On the evening of January 24th the children put out a plate by the window. In the morning they find the plate filled with candy that the birds (Vogel) have brought as a thank you to the children for feeding them during the winter. On the 25th children dress up in traditional wedding costumes and march in processions to celebrate the wedding of the birds -- Vogelhochzeit -- and a high time is had by all.

January 25, 1579: The Union of Utrecht brought together seven northern and Protestant provinces of the Netherlands against the spanish-influenced Catholics of the southern low countries. Known as the United Provinces, they become the foundation of the Dutch Republic, recognized only after over 100 years of conflict. The Treaty of Utrecht was signed in 1713, marking the end of the conflict. A timeline is HERE

January 25, 1759: Born this day, Robert Burns, the bard of Scotland, also known as the plough man's poet. He is the object of celebratory Burns Suppers, held annually. Across the globe people will rever the birth of Robert Burns, some 250 years ago, with Scottish Whiskæ, dancing, pipes, poetry and of course haggis, neeps and tatties. The Scots came from Ireland after the time of the Roman Empire, when the British Isles were left to fend for themselves. The English, who themselves were post-Roman invaders, recognized the Gælic word Alba for the northern area (?? from the Latin "white" meaning sunrise??) and the term Albion gradually became a literary reference to the entire land, a lang time gone:

Scots Wha Hae -- Robert Burns

Click to see Picture 
Burns Cottage in Alloway Scotland

Robert Burns died on July 21st in the year 1796 at age 37.


Scots, wha hae wi Wallace bled,
Scots, wham Bruce has aften led,
Welcome to your gory bed,
Or to victorie!

Now's the day, and now's the hour;
See the front o' battle lour;
See approach proud Edward's power -
Chains and slaverie!

Wha will be a traitor-knave?
Wha can fill a coward's grave?
Wha sae base as be a slave?
Let him turn and flee!

Wha for Scotland's king and law
Freedom's sword will strongly draw,
Freeman stand, or freeman fa'
Let him follow me!

By oppression's woes and pains!
By your sons in servile chains!
We will drain our dearest veins,
But they shall be free!

Lay the proud usurpers low!
Tyrants fall in ev'ry foe!
Liberty's in ev'ry blow! -
Let us do - or die!

We have moved most of our Burns and Scotland information from this page to HERE; however the Burns memorial association in Atlanta celebrated its 100th year in 2010 (kicking off festivities beginning October 13th). The cornerstone of the only replica of the Burns Cottage was laid November 5, 1910, in DeKalb County GA, near the Emory Campus.

Championnats internationaux de ski, à Chamonix

January 25, 1924: The first Winter Olympics begin at Chamonix in the French Alps. Spectators were thrilled by the ski jump and bobsled as well as 12 other events involving a total of six sports. The International Winter Sports Week, as it was known, was a great success, and in 1928 the International Olympic Committee (IOC) officially designated the Winter Games, staged in St. Moritz, Switzerland, as the second Winter Olympics. The 2006 Olympics were held just over the Alps in Torino (Turin); in 1968, about 2 hours down the road at Grenoble; In 1992 Albertville, France saw the Winter Olympics (25 air miles east of Aix-les-Bains). The cities of Grenoble, Annecy and Nice have already stated their intention to bid to host the Winter Games in 2018. More about this area is HERE

January 25, 1985: The United States Postal Service issued the 7-cent Abraham Baldwin stamp in first day of issue ceremonies on the campus of the University of Georgia. The stamp's release was coordinated to mark the 200th anniversary of the chartering of the University of Georgia. Click Here to view the stamp and read about its story. On campus, a variety of souvenir first day covers were prepared with first day of issue cancellations. see examples here.

January 26, 1881: This day marks the birth of Walter Krueger in Flatow, Germany (now in Poland). Krueger came to the United States as a child. He entered the U. S. army in 1898 and became the Chief, U.S. Tank Corps in Europe in World War I. In 1943 General Krueger was made commander of the U.S. 6th Army in Australia. He was a military leader in the U.S. island-hopping strategy in the Pacific which resulted in the ultimate defeat of the Japanese Imperial Forces throughout South-east Asia.

January 27th: Sainte Nino of Cappadocia (c. 296 (Cappadocia) – c. 340 (Iberia)) called Equal to the Apostles and the Enlightener of Georgians is a woman whose apostolic ministry turned the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Iberia into one of the first Christian states in the world largely defining it's future, civilizational choice and criteria for a cultural self-identification. There are many saintly women and men respected in Georgia, but only a few of them are spoken of as equals to the apostles.

Even though Iberia officially embraced Christianity in the early 4th century, the Orthodox Church of Georgia claims Apostolic origin and regards Andrew the "First-Called" as the patron of the Georgian church, also supported by some Roman sources. The archæological artifacts confirm the spread of Christianity before the official conversion. Some of the third-century burials in Georgia include Christian attributes, such as signet rings with a cross and ichthus or anchor and fish, clearly attesting their Christian affiliation.

The grapevine cross also known as the Georgian cross or Saint Nino's cross, is a major symbol of the Georgian Orthodox Church and dates from the 4th century AD, when Christianity became the official religion in the kingdom of Iberia (Kartli). It is recognizable by the slight drooping of its horizontal arms.

Another Saint: Domentijan states that Saint Sava died between Saturday and Sunday, most likely on 14 January [O.S. 27 January] 1235. Today, January 27th is his feast day. Sava was laid to rest first at the Holy Forty Martyrs Church (Bulgaria). Sava's body was returned to Serbia after a series of requests, and then was entombed in the Mileševa monastery, which had been built by Vladislav in 1234. (very detailed in English) "Dođite, čeda, poslušajte mene" means "come my beloved and listen to me"- I think. These (Serbian and Croatian) are not languages about which I know anything. The church is at Mileševa and fresco at Studenica Monastery, Serbia (pictured below).

Radite vazda i slozno i mudro,
Pa da nam srecan bude srpski rod;
Vi cete sami i potomci vasi
Vasega truda uzivati plod.

Dodjite, čeda, poslusajte mene,
Strahu Gospodnjem naucicu vas,
Pokazacu vam kako radit treba,
U cemu je propast, u cemu je spas!
Labour always in harmony, and wisely,
So we're happy to be Serbian people {fruit};
{and} you will, yourself and your children,
Enjoy the fruits of your effort.

Come my beloved, listen to me,
I will teach you the fear of the Lord,
[which is the beginning of Wisdom]
I'll show you how to labor {live} properly,
What would be your downfall,
What will be your salvation!
Note: the direct reference to wisdom
and the use of the imagery of the concept "fruit"
which brings to mind Biblical passages
about bearing good not worthless
fruit (people who ignore God) ...

"Yet I planted you a choice vine,
A completely faithful seed
How then have you turned yourself before Me
Into the degenerate shoots of a foreign vine
[Jeremiah 2:21] ?

Duchy of Saint Sava (Latin: Ducatus Sancti Sabae, Serbian Cyrillic: војводство Светог Саве[a]) was a Serbian late medieval political state which existed amid the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. It was ruled by Stjepan Vukčić and his son Vladislav, of the Kosača noble family, and included parts of modern-day Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia.

Stjepan titled himself "Vojvoda of Saint Sava", after the first Serbian Archbishop, Saint Sava. Vojvoda in German translation is Herzog ("duke"), and this would later give the name to the present-day region of Herzegovina, as the Ottomans used Hersek Sancağı ("Sanjak of the Herzog") for the province which was transformed into an Ottoman sanjak.

The Church of Saint Sava (Serbian: Храм светог Саве/Hram svetog Save[a]) is a Serbian Orthodox church located on the Vračar plateau in Belgrade. It is one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world and ranks among the largest church buildings in the world. The church is dedicated to Saint Sava, the founder of the Serbian Orthodox Church and an important figure in medieval Serbia. It is built on the Vračar plateau, on the location where his remains were burned in 1595 by Ottoman Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha. From its location, it dominates Belgrade's cityscape, and is perhaps the most monumental building in the city.

January 2006 -- Double Leopard: Florin is the name applied to several coins from 13th Century Europe and about 50 years later from England, as well as more modern coinage. The word comes through the French word florin from the Italian fiorino, Fiorino being the Italian name of a gold denomination issued by the kingdom ruling today's Firenza (Florence) in 1252, weighing about fifty-four grains. This coin bore on the obverse a lily, from which it took its name of the flower, on the reverse in Latin is the name of the city Florentia. Florin and Florence seem to have been used interchangeably in English as the name of this coin used in trading. The Florentine florin held a substantial commercial reputation throughout Europe, and similar coins were struck in Germany, other parts of Italy, France, and elsewhere. The English gold florin was introduced by Edward III in order to have a medium for trade, acceptable on the Continent.

The coinage he produced, however, came along well after Florence had stopped its issues, and the British versions were lightweight (i.e. overvalued). Until 1857, a double leopard, the name for the coin, was suspected (value was 6 shillings or 72 pence), but no known examples existed. In that year two children found two at once; today the coins both reside in the collection of the British Museum. In January 2006, the third example was found, in an undisclosed location in southern England. The first two were found at Newcastle within the Tyne Riverbank. Note: there is some confusion about whether the coin found was a double florin -- -- It appears that Coin World may have confused things. The 72p coin is indeed called a double leopard, but appears also to be called a florin. see also

The issue was declared on January 27, 1344. In all a ton of gold was converted (120,000 pieces of each of three denominations could have been struck), but all coins are quite rare today due to melting by the mint. Production ceased on July 10th, and the coin was declared no longer legal tender by August 20th, simply because the issue was not accepted by the merchants overseas. Each of the three known examples of the double leopard have slight design differences (varieties). The coins' reverse legend in Latin states: IHC TRANSIENS PER MEDIUM ILLORUM IBAT (Jesus passing through the midst of them, went on his way - Luke 4:30 (Vulgate)). It may well be an illusion to Edward's passage unharmed through the midst of the French fleet at the Battle of Sluys in June 24, 1340, in the early stages of the Hundred Years’ War. see generally Great Britain introduced the double florin during Queen Victoria's reign as a silver coin. Its value was 4 shillings or 48 pence.

About 250 Years ago -- January 27th: Der Komponist Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wurde am 27.  Januar 1756 in Salzburg geboren. Schon als Knabe reiste er durch ganz Europa und wurde als Wunderkind mit Violine und am Klavier berühmt. Er schuf 675 Werke vielfältigster vokaler und instrumentaler Gattungen und beeinflusste damit die Musikgeschichte bis heute nachhaltig. Mozart starb im Alter von 35 Jahren in Wien am 5. Dezember 1791 und wurde auf dem Marxer Friedhof beigesetzt.

January 27, 1785 -- an early Chartered Partner: The Georgia legislature enacted into law Abraham Baldwin's proposed charter for the University of Georgia. In so doing, Georgia became the first state to charter a state university. The act's preamble declared:

When the minds of the people in general are viciously disposed and unprincipled and their conduct disorderly a free government will be attended with greater confusions and evils more horrid than the wild uncultivated state of nature. It can only be happy where the public principles and opinions are properly directed and their manners regulated. This is an influence beyond the reach of laws and punishments and can be claimed only by religion and education. It should therefore be among the first objects of those who wish well to the national prosperity to encourage and support the principles of religion and morality and early to place the youth under the forming hand of society that by instruction they may be molded to the love of virtue and good order [emphasis added]. Sending them abroad to other countries for their education will not answer these purposes; it is too humiliating an acknowledgment of the ignorance or inferiority of our own, and will always be the cause of so great foreign attachments, that upon principles of policy it is inadmissible.

This country, in times of our common danger and distress, found security in the principle and abilities which wise regulations had before established in the minds of our countrymen. That our our present happiness, joined to the pleasing prospect, should conspire to make us feel ourselves under the strongest obligations to form the youth, the rising hope of our land, to render the like glorious and essential services to our country.


January 27, 2000: The United States Mint released the new golden dollar coin on January 27, 2000. The obverse of the coin depicts Sacagawea and her infant son, Jean Baptiste. Sacagawea was the Native American who helped guide the Lewis and Clark expedition during much of its journey across the west from 1804 to 1806. In 2007, after several years of limited mintage, the Sacagawea coin will again be minted in quantities sufficient for general circulation. Congress has required the continuation of the Sacagawea Dollar during the life of the Presidential Coin Program (see below). The Sacagawea Dollar reverse will bear a new design each year, starting in 2009, to recognize Native Americans for their contributions to the history and development of the United States. In response to the law enacted in 2005, the mint produced Presidential dollars of similar size and metallic composition. Coins for 2007 thru 2011 have been issued. More years of obverse design changes will follow, but these will no longer be of high mintage or for regular public release.

Reverse of all Presidential $ coins

January 28th Feast Day of Saint Karl: Karl der Große or Charlemagne was born near Aachen in about 742. He was the king of the Franks. (The Franks were a Germanic people who had extended their influence over parts of modern France and Belgium by this date in history.) On Christmas day of the year 800 he was crowned emperor of an empire which would become known as the Holy Roman Empire at some periods in history and as the German Empire at other periods. He established his capital at Aix-la Chapelle (or Aachen in modern Germany). He spread Christianity and developed efficient educational and political systems in his empire. He built many churches and was a devout Christian. The cathedral he built in his capital city of Aachen remains. He was declared a saint in 1165 at the urging of the emperor, Friedrich Barbarossa (predating the formal process of canonization). The declaration, made by the bishop of Köln had the formal approval of Pope Paschal III. Paschal III, however, was an antipope. The man who came to be recognized as the official pope, Alexander III, opposed the sainthood designation for Karl. After 1176, a compromise permitted the title, but did not officially sanction it. Relics of Karl der Große (Charlemagne -- ca. 742-814) may be viewed in the Cathedral at Aachen.

Le 28 Janvier 1077: Depuis qu'au XIXe siècle, le chancelier Bismarck, en conflit avec l'Église catholique, lança: «Je n'irai pas à Canossa !», l'expression «aller à Canossa» signifie que l'on se rend aux injonctions de l'adversaire. Elle rappelle une fameuse querelle entre le pape et l'empereur d'Allemagne qui se dénoua le 28 janvier 1077 par une humiliation feinte de ce dernier. Canossa (Province of Reggio Emilia), a commune and castle town in Emilia-Romagna (north-central Italy), remains famous as the place where the Holy Roman Emperor (Henry IV) was once thought to have performed his penance, standing three days bare-headed in the snow before the castle gate where Pope Gregory VII was sheltered, so as to reverse his excommunication. His walk to Canossa is sometimes used as a symbol of the changing relationship between the medieval Church and State, but more often refers to a public personal humiliation. The castle is an abandoned ruin today; it was about 20 years old when the King stood before its gates.

January 28, 1672: Col. William Stephens, first president of Georgia, was born in England. There, he was elected to the House of Commons in 1702 and served until 1727 (the last five years joined by James Oglethorpe). In 1736, Stephens' was hired to go to South Carolina and survey a land grant on the Savannah River. From there, he traveled went to Savannah, where he met Oglethorpe. He accompanied Georgia's founder back to England later that year. In London, the Trustees of the Georgia Colony had read Stephens' journal of his travels in America. Impressed, they hired him in April 1737 to serve as the Secretary for Georgia and keep the Trustees informed on military, civil and other concerns in the Colony. They had become disturbed at how Oglethorpe overspent his instructions.

Therefore, in 1740, the Trustees divided Georgia into two parts. The northern half was known as the County of Savannah. Stephens was named as its president. The southern half was the County of Frederica, with the office of president temporarily left vacant. In 1742, Stephens was elevated to president of the entire colony, a post he held until he resigned in 1750. Spending his last days at his Beaulieu plantation near Savannah, Stephens died at age 81 in August 1753. Bewlie, is where the French landed on September 12, 1779, in an ill-fated attempt to take back Savannah during the Revolution from

John Morel owned Bewlie after Stephens. A portion of the plantation became the Colonial Shipyard because of its water access and abundant Live Oak resources:Marker pictured; see also John Morel is listed as having been at the Tondee Tavern on the evening of July 29,1774, a meeting where the Patriots of the Colony would set in motion, Georgia's response to the ongoing crisis with Britain. Five-Hundred (500) barrels of rice were sent in relief of the Boston Patriots (following their tea party). At this meeting was my cousin George Walton and a few other Colonial notables, such as Messieurs Habersham and Houstoun.

January 28, 1733: Georgia colonists celebrated this day -- a Sunday -- as a day of thanksgiving for their safe arrival as well as for General Oglethorpe's success in obtaining permission from Chief Tomochichi to settle on Yamacraw Bluff on the Savannah River. The fête took place in the military barracks at Beaufort in the Royal Colony of South Carolina, just up the road (except there was no road and they traveled by boat).

January 29, 1761: Another Swiss immigrant was born on this day in January, which marks that of Albert Gallatin in Geneva. Gallatin would immigrate to America. He won election to the United States Senate in 1793; however, he was disqualified, because of his length of citizenship, after he had already taken the Oath of Office. Entering the House of Representatives in 1795, serving in the fourth through sixth Congresses, he went on to become majority leader. He was the Nation's fourth Secretary of the Treasury in 1801, appointed by Thomas Jefferson (3rd US President). During Gallatin's tenure, the Nation was able to purchase the Louisiana Territory, while reducing its debt. He played a significant role in negotiating the end of the War of 1812. see also The Writings of Albert Gallatin. Henry Adams, editor. (3 volumes, 1879); Adams, Henry. Life of Albert Gallatin (1879).

Gallatin (lying on the Cumberland River), was established in 1802 as the permanent seat of Sumner County, in what is called the Middle Tennessee region. The town was named after Albert Gallatin, then Secretary of Treasury to presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Interestingly, Andrew Jackson became one of the first to purchase a lot when the town was surveyed and platted in 1803. He built the first General Store for the town on the traditional open square.

January 29, 1845: Edgar Allen Poe's poem The Raven was first published, in the New York Evening Mirror. Our version of that poem may be found HERE

To this day I do not know the land to which lost information goes.
To what virtual nether-world, is orphaned data shipped, stacked or ...
Is it beyond the reach of mortal souls, beyond the ether, slurped into black holes?
For as sure as there is C, plus Pascal, Lotus, Ashton-Tate and more,
You too, one day may these basic facts ponder, lost on some antediluvian shore,
Still pleading; “Abort, Retry, Ignore?”

January 29, 1934: Today is the death date for Fritz Häber in Basel, Switzerland. As a professor of physical chemistry at the Technische Hochschule of Karlsruhe (like Basel near the French/German Border), he invented a method of synthesizing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. The need for nitrogen-based fertilizer in Germany and elsewhere was very great, but the natural supplies of ammonia (as well as phosphate) came from Guano, which had to be imported from Chile. World political problems (compounded because ammonia also was a resource in the making of high-explosives) turned this into a risky as well as expensive undertaking. In 1909, Häber took his discovery to the Badische Anilin- and Soda-Fabrik (BASF) where he and Carl Bosch developed a method of ammonia mass production, the Häber-Bosch Process. He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1918 for his work. The discovery gave Germany access to technology necessary to feed the population and arm its soldiers. During the outset of the Nazi years (1933) he stopped his research in Germany and accepted a position at the University of Cambridge in England. Only a year later Herr Häber died in Basel Switzerland of heart failure en route to a winter holiday in Italy for his health.

January 29, 1936: Georgia born Tyrus Cobb became one of the first five inductees in a new Major League Baseball Hall of Fame established at Cooperstown, N.Y. Cobb joined Walter Johnson, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner and Christy Mathewson in being honored that day.

January 30th: Anglican Saint and King Charles I of England was executed in a power struggle. He death was followed by a civil war and the government of Oliver Cromwell. His death was considered by the English Church to be martyrdom for the Faith. Although his Catholic Grandmother Mary died by order of Elizabeth I (for treason), his father, James I, was a fully Protestant ruler. Charles was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland (later James I England). Upon the death of his elder brother he became the heir apparent. Charles was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution in January 30, 1649.

After Charles II was restored to the English throne, he granted the chartered Carolina territory to eight of his loyal friends, known as the Lord Proprietors, in 1663. It took seven years before the Lords could arrange for settlement, the first being that of Charles Town. The community named for the King Charles I was established by English settlers in 1670 across the Ashley River from the City of Charleston's current location.

By tradition every year on January 30th, white roses are laid at the foot of a king's statue in London -- the last English Saint recognized in the Anglican tradition. Winston Churchill in his histories of England, has written of him a fitting epitaph: He cannot be claimed as the defender of English liberties, nor wholly of the English Church, but none the less he died for them, and by his death preserved them not only to his son and heir, but to our own day. a speechwriters' saint --

Le 30 janvier 1965: Le Royaume-Uni célèbre en grande pompe les funérailles du plus grand Anglais du siècle et sans doute du plus grand génie politique de l'ère moderne, Sir Winston Churchill. Le héros de la Victoire sur le nazisme est inhumé à Bladon, près du château natal de Blenheim, dans le comté d'Oxford.

It was only 23 years earlier (1942) that Churchill's government, after three days debate, won an overwhelming vote of Confidence. The discussion was brought on by Rommel's temporary success in the desert of Cyrenaica; however, it was Churchill's view that the Nazi position at Benghazi, specifically, and in North Africa, generally, was unsustainable, an opinion soon proven correct. Meanwhile, the British position worsened on the Malayan peninsula, Singapore soon to be lost.

It was necessary above all to warn the House and the country of the misfortunes which impended upon us. There is no worse mistake in public leadership than to hold out false hopes soon to be swept away. The ... people can face the peril or misfortune with fortitude ... but they bitterly resent being deceived or finding that those responsible for their affairs are themselves living in a fool's paradise. I felt it vital ... to discount future calamities by describing the immediate outlook in the darkest terms. {emphasis added}

"It is because things have gone badly and worse is yet to come that I demand a Vote of Confidence. If a Member has helpful criticisms to make, or even severe corrections to administer, that may be perfectly consistent with [showing] respect [for the Administration] ... There is no objection to anything being said in plain English [on the floor of the House], or even plainer ... But no one should be mealy-mouthed in debate, and no one should be chicken-hearted in voting .... Everyone in these rough times must do what he thinks is his duty." Churchill, Winston S. The Hinge of Fate: Book One The Onslaught of Japan. Houghton Mifflin Co. (Riverside Press Cambridge). Boston (1950) pp 61, 66.

A fine sentiment for today, too.

From ... we find a picture of Churchill's grave today, and the words Churchill ... planned his own funeral. Knowing Charles de Gaulle would be at his service, he planned to have his body carried by train out of London, leaving from Waterloo Station.

London terminus at St. Pancras Which brings to mind the question: Should the Eurostar London terminus at St. Pancras be renamed to align it more closely politically, historically and emotionally with the name of the current terminal, just south of the Thames River, Waterloo? In the past the French have pointed out that the Waterloo station name was a wee bit unfriendly, requesting (perhaps apocryphally) that the name be changed. Anyway, after some to and fro, one may recall a reader's letter in The Times, saying in effect, that one could always roughly translate Waterloo into French -as- Eau de Toilette. In any event, if the Eurostar would travel round the north of the Thames, cutting through densely populated urban areas, ending up at the most northern station in London (St-Pancras), then the French should feel free to have the train route south swing around Paris and terminate at Gare Austerlitz in the south of the city.

Saint Pancras is also known as Pancritas or Pancratius. His memorial day is May 12th. As a fourteen-year-old orphan, Pancratius born (circa 290 at Phrygia (a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey)) was brought to Rome by his uncle, Saint Dionysius. As a convert to Christianity, he suffered martyrdom (beheaded circa 304 on the Via Aurelia during Diocletian's persecution) with Saints Nereus, Achilleus and Domitilla for publicly proclaiming his faith. Pope Vitalian sent his relics from the cemetery of Calepodius in Rome to England (and his relics were presented as a gift to the king of Northumberland), as part of the evangelization of England, so that the English church would have access to relics of the greater Church. Saint Augustine of Canterbury dedicated his first structure in England to Saint Pancras, and subsequent churches throughout England are similarly named for Pancras. It is reported that his relics later were interred in the Saint Pancras church, Rome, but were destroyed in 1798; his head is still in the Lateran Basilica.

The Saint Pancras Station was designed by Gilbert Scott. The main engineer on the project was W. H. Barlow. Built in 1868 the ribs of the Gothic shaped roof continue in an unbroken line from platform level to the ridge at the top. The building is 243 feet wide, 600 feet long and the point of the arch is 100 feet above rail level (about 8 stories). Once known only as the main London terminal of the York & Midland Railway. see also St-Pancras has become an International terminal with a direct link to Europe, serving not only Midland Mainline, but also Eurostar and Thameslink trains.

January 31, 1813: Military officer, explorer and sometime politician John C. Frémont was born in Savannah, Georgia. His early life largely remains a mystery. His father was a French émigré. Frémont became an officer in the U.S. Army's Topographical Engineers, later marrying the daughter of U.S. Senator Thomas Hart Benton. With Benton's influence, Frémont undertook three major expeditions of the West (1843-46). On January 16, 1847, he was appointed civil governor of California. Between 1848 and 1853, Frémont undertook two more expeditions of the West, also serving one year as U.S. Senator from California. In 1856, he became the first Republican candidate for US President, losing to Democrat James Buchanan. With the outbreak of the War Between the States, President Lincoln appointed Frémont major general in command of volunteers in the Western Department. Acting unilaterally, Frémont placed Missouri under military command and issued an order freeing the slaves of all supporters of the Confederacy. Refusing Lincoln's order to revoke the actions, Frémont was relieved of command. After the war, he served as territorial governor of Arizona (1878-1881). Frémont passed away in New York City on July 13, 1890.

January 31, 1879: Fifteen years after burning Atlanta, former Union general William T. Sherman returned. As noted in the diary of Atlanta merchant Samuel P. Richards, Gen. Sherman has just honored our city by a visit to see how nicely we have builded it up after his burning it. Atlanta and Environs: A chronicle of Its People and Events, Franklin M. Garrett, (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1969 reprint of 1954 original volume), Vol. I, p. 953.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

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