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If peace cannot be maintained with honor, it is no longer peace. -- Lord John Russell
for whom the Russell Square and its Tube stop were named. More HERE

Most consider the Battle of Gettysburg, fought from July 1 to July 3, 1863, to be the most important engagement of the American Civil War. Following the substantial victory over Union forces at Chancellorsville, General Robert E. Lee marched his Army of Northern Virginia into Pennsylvania in late June 1863. It proved to be the high tide of the South, which could not sustain the loss of men and resources. The North's war machine was just beginning to crank out the material needed for overwhelming success. July 1st also marks the start of the battle of the Somme (1916) - lest we forget. Over 50,000 men lost their lives this day. The war just ground on at this point, a stalemate until the USA entered a year later.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

1er juillet -- C'est sa fête à Thierry: Thierry (ou Théodoric) est le fils d'un brigand de l'époque de Clovis, roi des Francs. Théodoric est converti par l'évêque de Reims, Rémi, celui-là même qui baptisa le roi. Son père l'ayant poussé au mariage, il persuade son épouse, le soir même des noces, de consacrer chacun leur vie à Dieu dans un monastère ! Théodoric fonde plus tard l'abbaye du Mont d'Hor, près de Reims, et a la joie d'y accueillir son père repenti.

Translation: Thierry (or Théodoric) is the son of a brigand in the era of Clovis, the King of the Franks. Théodoric is converted by the bishop of Rheims, Remi, the same Bishop who baptized the king. {So overcome he is at his conversion}, he even persuades his wife, on the evening of their wedding, to devote their lives to God in a monastery! Théodoric later founds the abbey of Mont d'Hor, close-by to Rheims, and has the joy of accepting his repented father there.

History records many Kings and church leaders with this same name (including a half dozen Saints). The abbey at Mont d'Hor near Reims, France is the key to identifying the person who died in 533 AD. see (english) and (french)

July 1, 1847: A new Postal Act and rates go into effect. The faces of founding fathers Benjamin Franklin and George Washington were featured on the first Federal postage stamps. Following a Congressional directive, the Post Office issued a Franklin five-cent stamp (July 7th) and a Washington 10-cent stamp (July 2nd). A picture of the first two British stamps (from May 1840) can be found HERE.

Le 1er juillet 1867: La reine Victoria signe l'Acte de l'Amérique du nord britannique par lequel est créée la Confédération canadienne sous sa forme actuelle, avec la réunion du Canada à deux autres colonies britanniques: le Nouveau-Brunswick et la Nouvelle-Écosse. Cette date est devenue fête nationale au Canada. Happy Birthday Canada !!!

Surveyor, engineer, author and inventor of standard time zones, Sandford Fleming emigrated to Quebec from Scotland, on April 24, 1845. One of the foremost railway engineers of his time, he was in charge of the initial survey for the Canadian Pacific Railway, the premier Canadian railway to span the continent. He designed the first Canadian postage stamp, the threepenny issue featuring castor canadiensis (beaver), issued in 1851. Queen Victoria knighted Sir Fleming in 1897. From 1880 until his death in 1915, he served as Chancellor of Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario, Canada). The Chancellor is the highest officer and the ceremonial head of the University. Modeled after similar positions at Scottish universities, the office was created in 1874 and first filled in 1877, Fleming was the second o hold that position.

July 1, 1948: The 5-cent subway ride came to an end in New York City. The price doubled to a dime this day. The buses and trolleys went up to seven cents. Boston, too, raised rates in 1948. It's a shame how the people have to pay and pay. The first commercial flights began on July 1, 1948, from the airport that was formally dedicated as New York International Airport on July 31, 1948. It was re-dedicated on December 24, 1963 as John F. Kennedy International Airport.

Le 2 juillet 1214: Dans le Poitou (à La Roche-aux-Moines), le roi de France Philippe II, dit Philippe Auguste, bat le roi d'Angleterre Jean sans Terre après l'avoir dépouillé de ses possessions continentales. Grâce à cette victoire, les Capétiens reprennent l'initiative dans le conflit qui les oppose à la dynastie des Plantagenêts depuis l'époque d'Aliénor d'Aquitaine.

On this date in 1214: In the Poitou area of France (at La Roche-aux-Moines), King Philip II of France, called "Philippe Auguste" beats the English King John of England, for a time stripping away England's continental possessions. With the victory, the Capetians dynasty has achieved an advantage in the conflict with the Plantagenets (Normans), for the first time since the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to John's father (her second).

The marshland called the Poitevin Marsh (French Marais Poitevin) lies on the Gulf of Poitou, on the west coast of France, just north of La Rochelle and west of Niort. By the Treaty of Paris of 1259, King Henry III of England recognized his loss of continental Plantaganet territory to France (including Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Poitou); however, this was not the end of the fighting in France.

The Siege of Calais was fought in early 1558 during the Italian War of 1551–1559. The Pale of Calais had been ruled by England since 1347, during the Hundred Years War. By the 1550s, England was ruled by Mary I of England and her husband Philip II of Spain. When the Kingdom of England supported a Spanish invasion of France, Henry II of France sent Francis Duke of Guise against English-held Calais, defended by Lord Thomas Wentworth, Baron Wentworth. Following failure in mid-1557, a renewed attack captured the outlying forts of Nieullay and Rysbank and Calais was besieged. When the city capitulated, England lost its last claim in France. Calais would again be in the news during World War II.

During the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries Poitou was a hotbed of Huguenot (French Calvinist) activity among the nobility and bourgeoisie and was severely impacted by the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598). Many of the Acadians who settled in what is now Nova Scotia beginning in 1604 and later to New Brunswick, came from the region of Poitou. After the Acadians were deported by the British beginning in 1755, some of them eventually took refuge in Québec. A large portion of these refugees also migrated to Louisiana in 1785 and eventually became known as Cajuns (see Cajuns).

La Grand'Goule est sûrement l'animal mythique le plus célèbre de la région de Poitiers. It was a kind of dragon or snake on wings with pestilential breath, the body covered with scales (sometimes described as metallic), a tail clipped from a scorpion. Patronese Sainte Radegonde reportedly struck down the animal from the Clain River (late 6th century) -- en lui lançant un pain béni (that is she gave it the helping hand back to Hell) ! The region of Poitou was called Thifalia (or Theiphalia) in the sixth century.

July 2, 1505: An apocryphal German downpour (Regenguß) launches the Protestant Reformation. While returning from a trip to visit his parents, a violent thunderstorm near Stotternheim catches Martin Luther out in the open (then a law student). Fearing for his life, he is said to have wailed, "Help me, St. Anne! I will become a monk!" Within two weeks, he made good on his vow.

July 2, 1937: Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan left Lae in Papua, New Guinea and disappeared forever. They failed to arrive at their scheduled stop at Howland Island. Radio operators received messages from Earhart saying that they had to be close and were circling, searching for land. The radio connection ended. The two were never heard from again, perishing in the Pacific Ocean attempting the first round-the-world flight at the equator. Earhart's twin-engine Lockheed Electra, had taken off from Oakland, California, bound for Miami on May 21. Thereafter, they flew across the Atlantic from Brazil to Africa, then on to Calcutta (on June 17).

Amelia Earhart loved the challenges and triumphs that the aviation industry brought. During her breath-taking career she set numerous men’s and women’s records for speed, altitude and distance. Her talent, strength of character and determination made her a worldwide role model for individuals of all ages. Earhart began in her home town of Atchison, Kansas. from

Le 3 juillet -- C'est sa fête à Saint Thomas, Apôtre: Thomas, d'un mot hébreu qui signifie jumeau, est l'un des douze apôtres du Christ. Ses amis l'ayant assuré que le Christ était ressuscité après la crucifixion et qu'ils l'avaient vu, il déclare ne vouloir les croire qu'à la condition de le voir aussi, ainsi que de toucher ses plaies. Peu après, le Christ ressuscité se manifeste à lui et exauce ses vœux. Thomas, bouleversé, confesse sa foi. Mais le Christ le réprimande pour n'avoir pas voulu croire sans voir. Après l'Ascension du Christ, Thomas évangélisera les Malabares des Indes. Un grand nombre de ceux-ci se disent encore aujourd'hui «chrétiens de Saint Thomas».

My mouth shall speak the praise of the Lord; and let all flesh bless His holy name for ever and ever !  [Psalms, Chapter 145]
Que tes œuvres, Seigneur, te grâce rendent,
et que tes fidèles te bénissent !
Qu'ils disent la gloire de ton règne,
qu'ils fassent le récit de tes merveilles.

Le Seigneur est vérité en ses paroles,
amour en toutes ses œuvres;
il retient tous ceux qui tombent,
il redresse tous ceux qui sont courbés.
{Psaume 144- Louis Segond (1910)}
Your works, O Lord, praise Thee,
Thy saints {faithful people} bless Thee !
They tell the glory of Thy kingdom,
they recite Thy wonders.

The Lord is Truth in His words,
Love in all His works;
He makes upright those that fall,
For who are bowed down, He raises up all.

July 3rd - This is the feast day of Saint Thomas, the Apostle. Thomas, in Hebrew means twin, and, indeed, some time he is a man living in two worlds - the visible and the spiritual. His friends (other Apostles) have assured him that Christ has resurrected. After crucifixion they had seen the Lord. Thomas states that he can not believe until he also sees and touches the wounds. Soon thereafter, the Risen Christ appears to him in answer to his wishes. Thomas, visibly moved, falls to his knees confessing Faith. But Christ reminds him that belief without seeing is itself a blessing. After the Ascension of Christ, Thomas is said to have evangelized the Malabares in India (the entire south-western coast of the Indian peninsula). The faithful there today, still call themselves Saint Thomas Christians.

July 3, 2008 -- Quebec City: On July 3, 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded a settlement at Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning “place where the river narrows.” In formation about its early history found HERE. The high point of the 400th anniversary celebration was on July 3, the official date of Champlain's [le Sieur de Champlain (Samuel Champlain de Brouage)] arrival. Dignitaries from France and elsewhere attended a high Mass within the Quebec Basilica. Afterward, a mammoth gathering took place on the Plains of Abraham, which in 1759 was the scene of a fierce battle between the French and the British for control of the city. It now is a 266-acre urban park. Music and dancing was followed by a nighttime fire sculpture and a torchlight parade.

July 3, 1754: Colonel George Washington turned over control of a small stockade, Fort Necessity, in southwestern Pennsylvania (near what would become known as Pittsburgh, but was then called Fort Duquesne). The loss to the French, left them in full control of the Ohio Valley. Washington’s infamous encounter marked the beginning of the French and Indian War (also called the 7 Years' War). Britain broke off diplomatic relations with France as the disputes in the New World intensified (July 8, 1755). Washington’s written statement upon capitulation caused a great scandal, because of the non-genteel actions he was forced to admit. He would revisit the Fort a year later after another defeat. Never-the-less, 21 years later, almost to the day, Washington would get command of the American Army, such as it was.

Exactly 24 years later (July 3, 1778), the Wyoming Massacre occurred during the American Revolution in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. As part of a British campaign against settlers on the frontier, 360 American settlers, including women and children, were killed at an outpost called Wintermoot's Fort. They were drawn out of the protection of the fort and ambushed, a far worse Crime of War than that with which the French had charged Washington.

July 3, 1863: The last Southern wave was repulsed at the Battle of Gettysburg at 4 p.m. in Pennsylvania. The confrontation ended after three days with a major victory for the Northern troops. Confederate forces retreated. The final action was Pickett’s Charge against the center of the Union line. It left many of the 13,000 Confederate troops dead on the field. Lt. General James Longstreet gave Major General George Pickett the assent for the assault. The Union and Confederate armies suffered an estimated 51 thousand casualties in the three-day clash. It was the bloodiest event that the country yet had seen. General Lee ultimately took responsibility for the failure that day. I thought my men were invincible. The fighting in the small Pennsylvania town marked a pivotal point in the Union’s march to victory all-but-assuring the outcome of the War Between the States.

July 3, 1878: John Wise piloted the first dirigible (a balloon that could be steered) over Lancaster, Pennsylvania. On the same day in 1885, Karl Benz drove the premier automobile. He was however not Pennsylvania Deutsch, so his ride took place in Germany. And actually the first driver was his wife, Mercedes Bertha. Sort of a Mannheim steam roller event.

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

Back on June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia had proposed to the Second Continental Congress a resolution calling for a Declaration of Independence: That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. The Continental Congress delayed the vote on the resolution until July. On June 11, 1776, the Congress appointed three concurrent committees in response to the Lee Resolution: one to draft a declaration of independence, a second to draw up a plan "for forming foreign alliances," and a third to "prepare and digest the form of a confederation." On July first and third, the approval came and the Congress adopted the Resolution. On July 4th the deed was done, signed and sealed. Delivery was by publication. Celebrate American Independence on July 4th. Our 4th of July Page:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

The Declaration of Independence was first printed by John Dunlop in Philadelphia on the 5th. 200 copies were prepared July 5-6 and distributed to the states. Colonel John Nixon gave the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence to a crowd gathered at Independence Square in Philadelphia on July 8th. The reading was announced by the Liberty Bell. The instrument had the inscription: proclaim liberty throughout all the land onto all the inhabitants thereof, which is a paraphrase alluding to, inter alia, Luke 4:15-21 and Isaiah 61:1-2.

Sometimes the image fails to show

July 4, 1889: Georgia dedicated its new state capitol building, when the Capitol Commission presented a new domed building to Governor John B. Gordon. Commissioners have another present. Having been authorized $1,000,000 to spend, they reported that construction came in under budget, so they returned $118.43 to the state treasury. The new capitol was so large that there was room for all three branches of state government, with empty rooms left over.

July 4, 1895: The words to "America the Beautiful" appeared for the first time in The Congregationalist, a Boston magazine; the author was Katherine Lee Bates (Born in Falmouth, August 12, 1859-Died March 28, 1929. Buried in Oak Grove Cemetery, Falmouth), a Wellesley professor, American Poet, Playwrite, who penned the classic words in 1893. She wrote a 2nd version in 1904. Her final version was written in 1913.

"One day some of the other teachers and I decided to go on a trip to 14,000-foot Pikes Peak. We hired a prairie wagon. Near the top we had to leave the wagon and go the rest of the way on mules. I was very tired. But when I saw the view, I felt great joy. All the wonder of America seemed displayed there, with the sea-like expanse."; see also

But wait, some years earlier on July 4 1831, Dr. Samuel Francis Smith, a Baptist minister, first introduced the song "America" in services at Park Street Church, Boston (or possibly Worcester, Massachusetts). He had composed it in half an hour, taking the tune from a German songbook, completely unaware that the melody was the same as that of "God Save the King," the British national anthem.

Perhaps Leonard Bernstein's most famous work is West Side Story, a musical first presented in on Broadway at the Winter Garden Theater in New York City. The stage version of West Side Story opened in previews/tryouts on August 20, 1957 in Washington D.C. The Premier date in NYC was September 26, 1957. One of the notable tunes, written by Bernstein with lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, was America -- it is perhaps a less grand version of its counterparts, but still conveys a freedom theme.

More July 4th: The Post Office Department announced that the eighteenth and final stamp of the Liberty Series would be issued on July 4, 1956, in conjunction with the 180th observance of Independence Day; although, eight more issues were eventually added. This 10-cent issue featured Independence Hall and was released at a special ceremony at Independence Square in Philadelphia.

July 4, 1959: A 49-star flag was raised for the first time at the Capitol in Washington, D.C., in honor of Alaska, which had become the 49th state of the Union on June 30, 1958.

July 4, 1960: A new 50-star U.S. flag flew over Georgia today reflecting Congress's granting of statehood to Hawaii. For more about our Flag's history -- go here.

On July 4, 1964, work resumed on the vast carving, surely one of the most extraordinary projects ever conceived. When one views Stone Mountain, one sees the world's largest mass of exposed granite. The stone's uniformity of texture is dazzling, The stone's uniformity of texture is dazzling, its pale gray critter [sic-gritter] superb.

More Images of Georgia Buildings

July 5, 1742: Manuel de Montiano, the then governor of Spanish Florida, used an incoming tide to sail his flotilla of 36 ships and 2,000 men past a fort on the southern tip of St. Simons Island into the safety of the harbor out of reach of British cannons. Realizing Fort St. Simon had been outflanked, Oglethorpe ordered his troops to spike the cannons. At midnight, they lowered the British flag and retreated under cover of darkness to Fort Frederica. The long-feared Spanish invasion of Georgia had begun. From this ignominious beginning, however, a bloody victory would be won.

July 5, 1864: Arriving at the Georgia town of Roswell, just north of Atlanta, Union General Kenner Garrard's cavalry found the bridge across the Chattahoochee had been burned. Garrard then ordered his men to burn all mills and industrial buildings in Roswell. According to his report, one of the cotton mills that he destroyed had over $1 million in machinery and employed over 400 women. The invaders captured and deported these civilian female workers for treason for the duration of the war; but, many could never return home.
July 6, 649 -- Feast Day of Saint Goar: St. Goar was born in Aquitaine (modern south-west France) in about 585. He became a priest. He determined to live his life in isolated prayer. In about 618 he found a location at Oberwesel near Trier (modern Germany). Word of his holiness soon spread, however, and his isolation was interrupted by numbers of pilgrims to whom he gave pious advice, thus further developing his reputation and the numbers of pilgrims. At one point King Sigebert III (at age 19) is said to have offered him the position of Bishop of Trier. He declined in favor of returning to his life of isolation and prayer. He died on this date in 649. A city on the Rhine, St-Goar, bears his name. His designation as a saint predates the formal practice of canonization by a pope.

Sigebert III of Austrasia, King has also been designated a Saint. Saint Sigebert, son of King Dagobert I and baptized by Saint Amand at Orléans, became king of Austrasia (eastern France, western Germany, centered at Metz) at the age of seven, while his brother Clovis II ruled the western portion of his father's domain. Under the influence of the Blessed Pepin of Landen, Saint Cunibert of Cologne and other saintly souls, young Sigebert grew into a pious adulthood. He died at about the age of 25. Though not a secular success (comme un roi fainéant-the Merovingian dynasty was near its end), he was revered as the founder of numerous monasteries (including Stavelot and Malmédy), hospitals and churches. He is the patron saint of the city Nancy in France. His feast day is the day of this death, February 1st. He is the father of exiled Saint Dagobert II, who is considered a martyr (le roi perdu).

Le 6 julliet 1535: Le 7 février 1478 Sir Thomas More est né à Londres. Humaniste audacieux, auteur de L'Utopie, il devient chancelier du roi Henri VIII. Il est exécuté en 1535 (6 julliet) pour n'avoir pas voulu reconnaître le roi comme chef de la nouvelle Église anglicane. More dit: "... The law, Roper, the law. I know what's legal, not what's right. And I'll stick to what's legal." -- in hoc signo vinces

“Thomas' stance on the Act of Succession, and my superb use of law ensured that I extracted that information from him and was able to present it to the court at his trial. {pause} I committed no perjury! {pause with thought} But More no longer matters {pause} to me. God doesn't matter; {pause} only affairs involving myself and the King's wishes concern me now.” -- Richard Rich

St. Thomas More: As a youth he served as a page in the household of Archbishop of Canterbury, John Morton -- More was a well-educated son of an MP, a Barrister trained at Lincoln's Inn, himself a Member of Parliament, Speaker of the House of Commons, a Knight, the Lord Chancellor of England under Henry VIII, an author, a martyr executed at Tower Hill on July 6, 1535, and a Saint. His life is more than just the sum of its parts: The King's good servant, but God's first. Thomas had been sentenced to a slow death by hanging, but in an act of true regal charity, the King allowed him to be beheaded with dignity.

The Barrister Saint -- -- “My neck is very short. Therefore, take careful aim and do not miss lest it tarnish your reputation for honesty.” The condemned by tradition pays the axeman to do a proper job, so if he does poorly then he has dishonestly earned his reward.

July 6, 1835: John Marshall, the third Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, died at the age of 79. Marshall was instrumental in defining the Court's role in American government. Marbury v. Madison is perhaps the most famous of his decisions. Total time served: 34 years, 5 months, 2 days. It is said that two days later on July 8, 1835, while tolling in his honor, the Liberty Bell cracked for the second time. Liberal thought likes to put the Chief Justice on the pedestal of Judicial Activism, claiming that his legal theory of Constitutional Review is nowhere found in that document; however, the notion of judicial review of actions illegally taken by the King was not new, and the notion that Parliament had limited powers, exercising rule only as derived from the sovereign was also not an unknown theory. The sovereign is the people, through the Several States, so Congress can (and the President may) only act as expressly provided, all else reserved to the States and their citizens. John Marshall was only crystalizing this truism in a Judicial Doctrine for the United States.

July 6, 2010: Nine years after last exceeding 100 degrees, New York City reached a record-breaking 102 today. Philadelphia also set a record as the northeast sweltered. To celebrate the occasion, Queen Elizabeth II visited New York City for the first time in over 30 years. She was last in the States for the 400 year commemoration of the founding of Jamestown. Her lost colony of Virginia was begun under the reign of the first Elizabeth.

July 6, 1456: As an interesting side note to history, Joan of Arc was acquitted, even though she had already been burnt at the stake on May 30, 1431. She was canonized in the 20th Century. Other interesting French news this date -- in 1585 French Protestants lost all rights in the continuing religious struggles of the day, and in 1815 the British and other Allies marched into Paris after a victory at Waterloo (Louis XVIII returned to Paris 2 days later). In 1887 Marc Chagall (d. 1985), French painter and designer, was born in Vitebsk, Russia. He left there in 1907 to attend art school in St. Petersburg. He was sent to Paris by a benefactor and befriended Chaim Soutine and Alexander Archipenko. He stayed until 1914. A few years later in 1922, Pierre Cardin, a fashion designer of some repute, was born in Paris. In 1969, Canada's House of Commons gave final approval to a measure making the French language equal to English throughout its national government.

July 7, 1742: This day marks the anniversary of the Battle of Bloody Marsh, which has long been credited as General James Oglethorpe's most important victory, the penultimate battle which determined that Georgia would remain an English colony rather than become a Spanish occupied zone. The full story is far more complex. On July 7, Governor Montiano took the offensive on St. Simons Island; but, he did not commit his entire invasion force against British forces at Fort Frederica. That decision cost him that day's victory and eventually the entire campaign, when events a week later turned against him.
July 7, 1934: A stamp was issued to commemorate the three hundredth anniversary of the landing of the French explorer, Jean Nicolet, on the shores of Green Bay. Jean was believed to be the first non-native to set foot on what is now within the State of Wisconsin. Nicolet sought a short route to China, not cheese -- found neither; however, today one can find a whole Website dedicated to this memorable event {readable in French or English} --

Jean Nicolet was brought to the New World by French explorer Champlain, who recognized in him qualities of persistence, steadfastness and a love of adventure. In 1634, Nicolet accompanied a party to Huronia, in present-day Ontario. There, he secured a large canoe and, accompanied by seven Huron Indians oarsmen, Nicolet went west. Nicolet transversed Lake Huron, passed through the Straits of Mackinac, and entered Lake Michigan, where no european had been before and lived to tell. In the course of his journey, Nicolet also discovered Green Bay in present-day Wisconsin. Expecting to find Oriental natives, Nicolet encountered the Winnebago tribe inhabiting the region.

This discovery took place 26 years (almost to the day) after the first French settlement at Quebec was established by le Sieur de Champlain (Samuel Champlain de Brouage) on July 8th of 1608.
Happy Birthday Paris ... July 8, 951 Paris is founded: Well, that's what the paper said today (2009) -- but what does that mean ?? The earliest archæological signs of permanent habitation in the Paris area date from around 4200 BC. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the area in the middle of the river Seine from about the mid 3rd Century BC. The Romans conquered the Paris basin in 52 BC, and established a permanent Roman town by the end of the same century on the Left Bank (Sainte Geneviève Hill) and took over the existing settlement at Île de la Cité. The Gallo-Roman town was originally called Lutetia, but a later Gallicism is Lutèce. It expanded greatly over the following centuries, becoming a prosperous city with a forum, palaces, several baths, temples, theatres and an amphitheatre. More HERE The city reclaimed its original appellation of "Paris" towards the end of the Roman occupation, as the western empire collapsed. La patronne de la ville est sainte Geneviève, qui aurait écarté Attila et les Huns de la ville au Ve siècle par ses prières. Sa châsse se trouve aujourd'hui à l'église Saint-Étienne-du-Mont. The Frankish king Clovis I established Paris as his capital in 508. The page has not mentioned this date. Can one conclude that sometimes what you read in the paper may not be true ?

July 8, 1838: Graf (Count) Ferdinand von Zeppelin is born. Zeppelin invented the dirigible airship. His first flight was as a Prussian officer serving as an observer with the Union Army in America during the Civil War. He ascended in an observation balloon in 1863 from St. Paul, Minnesota. He then returned to Prussia and was in the army until 1890, serving in the armies of Württemburg, Prussia and Imperial Germany. When he retired, Zeppelin devoted the rest of his life to the design and construction of airships. His first rigid airship, the Luftshiff Zeppelin I, made its initial flight in July 1900. A page full of Zeppelins on stamps: In full celebration on July 8, 1973, Led Zeppelin played in concert at the Indianapolis Arena (the third of 4 nights I think).

July 8, 1889: The first issue of The Wall Street Journal is published. The editor was Mr. Charles H. Dow. Following Dow’s move to New York in 1880, he and Edward D. Jones, whom he had known in newspaper work in Providence, were employed by an organization engaged in gathering and disseminating financial and business news of the day. In November 1882, these men formed Dow, Jones & Company. Jones stayed with Dow until his departure on January 9, 1899. Dow served as the paper's editor until his death on December 4, 1902. The company is now part of the Rupert Murdoch network of news, and in April 2008 got a new Editor-in-Chief.

Also that day, the New York Giants defeated the "Pittsburgh Alleghenys" (some end with -ies) 7-5 in the first game ever played at the new Polo Grounds. Seattle voters authorized the Cedar River Water Supply system on July 8, 1889. It was a Monday and sports-history was made in the small sawmill community of Richburg, Mississippi, located three miles south of Hattiesburg, Mississippi, and 104 miles northeast of New Orleans, Louisiana. This was the site chosen for the last professional bare-knuckle championship boxing match in America, between heavyweight champion, John L. Sullivan and the challenger, Jake Kilrain. Selection of this rather obscure hamlet was due to secrecy. On July 8, 1889, the Wyoming Territory held an election of delegates to Wyoming's one and only Constitutional Convention. In 1947, the Roswell (New Mexico) Daily Record reported the military’s capture of a flying saucer. It became know as the Roswell Incident. Officials later called the debris recovered as a harmless, high-altitude weather balloon. In 1994 the Air Force released a report saying the wreckage was part of a device used to spy on the Soviets.
July 9, ca. 751: July 9th is Saint Agilof's feast day. He became a monk at the Benedicine Abbey (c. 650, 698) in an area we know today as part of today's Belgium (Stablo-Malmédy in the Ardennes). St. Agilof was at his death the archbishop in Cologne, Germany. Although the circumstances of his death are not clearly documented, he is believed to be a martyr. He was first entombed in the Cathedral at Cologne (Köln). Agilof was largely ignored for many years, but recently has been observed once again. His designation as a saint precedes the practice of canonization by the Pope.

Agilof is said to have tried to persuade King Pepin on his death-bed not to leave the succession to Charles Martel, an illegitimate son. Agilof's violent death may be attributed to the vengeance of the man he sought to exclude, but it would have occurred 10 years after, Charles (the Hammer, the hero of Tours) Martel's, death, a very long reach beyond the grave. A letter of Pope Zacharias in 747 commends Agilulfus for signing the charta veræ et orthodoxæ professionis. His remains were conveyed to the Church of Our Lady of the Steps, at Köln, where they have recently again received a public veneration.

In order to celebrate this day in 1951, Great Britain, France and the United States declare the end to the state of war with Germany, six years after hostilities had ceased. Interestingly, on July 9th of the year 1572, the Watergeuzen (Dutch Protestants rebel against Spanish (and Catholic) rule) conquered Gorinchem. On July 9, 1810, Napoleon convinced Lodewijk to abdicate and annexed the Kingdom of Holland into the French Empire making the Netherlands, en réalité, an integral part of France. Napoleon's brother, Louis Bonaparte, had been installed as the King of Holland in 1806, also designated Connétable de France in 1807. While the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland was short-lived, in the aftermath of Napoleon's defeat and exile the precedent of Netherlands having been a Kingdom facilitated the House of Orange's successful efforts to upgrade from a stadhouder (a steward) to a full-fledged monarchy. William I of Orange (Willem de Zwijger) had been instrumental in the revolt against the Spanish in the 16th Century that resulted in a war lasting 80 years.

- Statue of George Washington -
Modern and past labels

The Battle of Braddock's Field Revisited-- July 9, 1930: This was another in the series of stamps during this period of US postal art that had nothing to do with commemorating events surrounding the 150th anniversary of the War of Independence, but rather was, like many stamps, purely of political inspiration. Pennsylvania representative Clyde Kelley, whose bill had provided for air mail transportation to be transferred to the private sector, was a native of Braddock. It so happened that 1930 marked the 175th anniversary of the Battle at Braddock's Field, a battle in which George Washington, then a non-commissioned "colonel" in the British army, ironically lost. The town of Braddock was to hold a large celebration commemorating this "defeat" and it was hoped the stamp would help promote the event. Although Washington and General Braddock, who was mortally wounded in the affair, lost the battle, the event began the stories of Washington's heroism. Braddock got a town named after him and a street in Pittsburgh. Washington, of course, went on to become one of the greatest Americans and father of his country. The stamps on the envelop above show the statue of Washington, unveiled at Braddock's Field on July 9, 1930, the day the stamp was first released.

General Edward Braddock, mortally wounded when French and Indian troops ambushed his force of British regulars and colonial militia, had marched to attack France's Fort France's Fort Duquesne (later Fort Pitt, today Pittsburgh today with an "h"). General Braddock's had refused to accept Washington's advice on frontier style fighting, with serious losses as a result. British Gen'l. Braddock gave his bloody sash to George Washington at Fort Necessity just before he died (July 13th).

July 10, 1509: French Protestant reformer John Calvin is born in Nyon, France. Dans le parc des Bastions, le Monument de la Réformation rappelle aux visiteurs que Genève fut au XVIe siècle surnommée la "Rome protestante". Sur le mur, les statues représentent Guillaume Farel, Jean Calvin, Théodore de Bèze et John Knox. In 1536 Calvin published (in Latin) The Institutes of the Christian Religion in Basel (French translation 1541). On this date in 1778, in support of the American Revolution, Louis XVI declared war on England.

The Geneva Bible was first printed in Geneva, Switzerland, by refugees from England, fleeing the persecution of Protestants by Roman Catholic Queen “Bloody” Mary. Many copies were smuggled back into England at great personal risk. In later years, when Protestant-friendly Queen Elizabeth took the throne, printing of the Book moved back to England. The Geneva Bible was produced by John Calvin, John Knox, Myles Coverdale (of whom we have spoken elsewhere), John Foxe, and other Reformers. It is the version that William Shakespeare quotes from hundreds of times in his plays, and the first English Bible to offer plain roman-style type in some of its earliest printings. The Geneva Bible was also the first English Bible to break the chapters of scripture into numbered verses, and it was the first true “Study Bible” offering extensive commentary notes in the margins.

The Geneva Bible was the Book taken on the Mayflower … the Bible upon which early American government was founded, and not the King of England’s Authorized Version (King James). It was so accurate and popular, that a half-century later, when the King James Bible came out, it retained more than 90% of the the Geneva Bible's wording.

0 July 11, 1798: Congress created the Marine Corps of the United States. President John Adams signed the legislation authorizing this branch. As all Marines know, however, this was an act re-establishing the Corps, founded first during the Revolution (Continental Marines). Despite the gap of nearly 15 years between the end of the War and the Federal Act, Marines still celebrate November 10th (1775) as the Marine Corps Birthday.

John Adams was the second President of the United States. Of added interest, his son, John Quincy Adams, the sixth American President (1825-1829), was born this same day (July 11th) in Braintree, Massachusetts in the year of 1767. Also of note, Ben Franklin, with whom the elder Adams served in France in order to sway the French to come to our aid, invented the Franklin stove this day in 1742. He placed the design into the public domain, as he did with his other inventions, so there is no hard and fast patent date on which to rely.

In 1782 British officers formally surrendered Savannah to Colonel James Jackson. The last British troops and officials boarded ships and departed, thus ending the American Revolution for Georgia. And one more thing, on July 11th (1955), the then new US Air Force Academy was dedicated at Lowry Air Base in Colorado, a temporary home until 1958, when the Colorado Springs facility saw its first Cadet Corps.

July 12, 1742: General James Oglethorpe had determined to launch a surprise night attack on a much larger Spanish force, camped on the south end of St. Simons Island. He marched his force of soldiers, Georgia Rangers, native allies and volunteers from Fort Frederica to a point nearby the Spanish quarters. There, they waited while Oglethorpe scouted the situation himself. In his absence, a Frenchman in the group of volunteers fired a weapon, then deserted to the Spanish. As it turned out, the deserter was actually a spy hired by Governor Manuel de Montiano, who was leading the Spanish invasion force. Knowing they had been discovered, Oglethorpe made a quick decision to retreat, while pretending to attack. His much smaller force would have no chance if the Spanish had decided to take the initiative and launch an offensive. The ruse worked. Under cover of darkness, all retreated in silence, returning to Fort Frederica.

The next day Oglethorpe still faced a dilemma. The deserter by now would have revealed that the General's forces were far outnumbered by the Spanish contingent. General Oglethorpe again tried a trick. He wrote a note to the deserter in French, instructing him to mislead Montiano by telling him that Oglethorpe only had a small force to defend the island. The note further directed the deserter to lead Spanish forces up the river. Oglethorpe then freed a Spanish prisoner and paid him to take the note to the deserter. Upon reaching Spanish lines, the prisoner was questioned and searched. The note was found. Now, Montiano did not know what to believe (those crafty English). Fearing that the deserter he had hired was actually a double agent, Montiano called off the invasion. He ordered his troops to board ships to return to St. Augustine. So ended the events following the Battle of Bloody Marsh. Oglethorpe would write of the enemy's departure on the 14th: They embarked with such precipitation that they left behind them cannon &c. and those dead of their wounds unburied.

The Cuban-based contingent of the Spanish invasion force sailed directly from St. Simons Sound to Cuba. Governor Manuel de Montiano's and his St. Augustine contingent sailed southward from the island to Jekyll Island (the island begins less than a mile from St. Simon's Beach), where they burned the plantation of Captain William Horton. Then they sailed southward to Cumberland Island. By boat, Oglethorpe and a small force pursued the retreating ships at a distance, but they made no effort to initiate an attack.

- Napoléon 1er -

Le 12 juillet 1806: Napoléon 1er crée une éphémère Confédération du Rhin pour faire contrepoids à la Prusse protestante. La Confédération, à dominante catholique, réunit la Bavière, le Wurtemberg, Mayence, le pays de Bade et huit autres principautés. Dans le même temps, le Saint Empire romain germanique disparaît après huit siècles d'existence cahotique. Son titulaire, l'archiduc d'Autriche François II de Habsbourg, échange le titre symbolique d'empereur d'Allemagne contre celui, nouveau et plus consistant, d'empereur d'Autriche.

- Confédération du Rhin -

July 12, 1874: Today marks the death of Fritz Reuter in Eisenach, Germany. Reuter is the most well known of the writers in German dialect. He wrote in Platdüütsk (Plattdeutsch) -- low German. His most significant books are Ut mine Stromtid, Ut mine Festungstid and Ut de Franzosentid. -- In dat Naokieksel stait nu wat üöwer dat Lilgenhäänken un de Wöpsenflaige. Dän Vüördrag van Vorbrinks Jens to de Laoge van dat Platdüütske is up de Site "Inföerung" to finnen. Speakers of Old Saxon were the predecessors of modern Plattdeutsch speakers, so that one will find some similiarities to English. -- four-vier-veer-féower; we-wir-wi-wé; breeze-die Brise-de Bries-se bréosa; to sleep-schlafen-slapen-slæpan, swefan.

July 13, 1793: Jean-Paul Marat, the journalist who fanned the flames of terror in France and would be turned into a hero by Charlotte Corday, the young Girondist who executed Marat. She had felt that Jean-Paul, who daily demanded more and more heads, was in large part responsible for the misfortunes that the French people were undergoing.

This 1793 painting by French neoclassical painter, Jacques-Louis David, shows the dying Marat, which he believed represented virtueJean-Paul Marat was born in a small village, Boudry, not far from Neuchâtel, in Switzerland -- see Boudry aujourd'hui. His father, a Sardinian born former Roman Catholic priest, had given up the ministry, moved to Calvinist Switzerland and became Protestant. There he had married a young woman whose Protestant grand-parents had fled France to escape earlier religious persecutions.

On July 13th, Charlotte Corday, came to Marat's bath under the pretense of furnishing him a list of traitors from her native Cæn. There, she stabbed him. He instantly became a human sacrifice for the Révolution, being referred to as the Blessed Martyr Marat. Ironically it would seem, Corday's assassination of the man she feared would bring about a dictatorship in fact led to that very result. His murder provoked the Montagnards to jail and execute the remaining Girondins at the beginning of the Reign of Terror.

July 14th

14 Julliet 1789 Bastille Day is celebrated in France on July 14th (1789): Parisians rioted over an increase in price of grain only the day before. A Parisian mob plundered the armories and opened the prison gates of St. Lazare. The King at Versailles refused to withdraw his troops from Paris. The Bastille was stormed and by the 14th the Revolution had begun. Few remember however, that Ste. Jeanne d'Arc, was taken prisoner by the Burgundians in May, soon thereafter, was handed over to Pierre Cauchon, the Bishop of Beauvais on this day in 1430. Our Bastille Day Page: Voi aussi La Fête de la Fédération -- 14 juillet 1790

About 10 km north and east of the City of Orange is the heart of the Ventoux wine production area. For example 1912 Ventoux (Vignerons de Caractère) is centered at the village of Vacqueyras. Mont Ventoux elevation 1912 metres (6273 feet) overwhelms the skyline. This place in the Provençal region of southern France has given its name to the “appellation” and its limestone to the flavor of this particular wine. Grapes used in the red wine are Grenache (traditional base), Carignan, Sinsault and Syrah. Rosé and a white wine are also produced from the terroir around Vacqueyras.

Fête des Vins Vacqueyras, July 13 and July 14 (2013): Vacqueyras really grabs you with its quality, a rich inwardness. A pleasant surprise as you remember when among the three distinguished appellations of the Southern Rhone, Vacqueyras was considered the little sister to neighboring Gigondas, and not invited to the same party as Châteauneuf du Pape. Wine connoisseurs tended to associate the adjectives rich and concentrated with CDP and Gigondas, while the rounder Vacqueyras was a feminine wine.

July 14, 1953: Richard von Mises died in Boston, MA (born in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (now in the Ukraine)). A mathematician, he made extensive contributions to ærodynamics. He rendered major advances in the understanding of air flow and advanced airfoil design. Von Mises constructed a plane for the Austrian army in 1915 and served as a pilot in World War I. After that war, he became a professor of mathematics at the University of Berlin. He fled Germany in 1933 when Hitler came to power. In 1939, Richard von Mises took a position at Harvard University. In addition to his work in ærodynamics, he also worked with statistics and probabilities.

July 15, 1806: Lieutenant Zebulon Pike set out this day from Fort Belle Fountaine (near St. Louis, Missouri) on what would become his famous second expedition of western exploration. Pike's Peak in Colorado, which he noted seeing on this journey (November 15th), is named for him. Pike also had led his men on a first expedition of discovery to the upper reaches of the Mississippi in 1805-06. He died during the War of 1812 at York (Toronto). On July 13, 1832, explorer Henry Schoolcraft stumbled upon the source of the Mississippi River, which Pike had not found on his first journey. Its 2,500-mile journey to the Gulf of Mexico begins at Lake Itasca, Minnesota.

July 15, 1923: Twenty-one-year-old Robert Tyre (Bobby) Jones, an Amateur, won his first major golfing tournament--the U.S. Open. Since entering major tournament play in 1916, he had failed to win a national title, but at Inwood Country Club on Long Island (new York), Bobby Jones broke his seven-year drought. Seven years later, almost to the day on July 12th, playing in Minneapolis, Bobby Jones won his fourth U.S. Open golf tournament. More impressively, this followed victories in the British Amateur and British Open. Later that year, he would win the U.S. Amateur championship -- thus becoming the first golfer to win these four major tournaments in a single year (or the Grand Slam). Two days later, Atlanta would welcome him home with one of its largest parades. By the way, there is a Robert Trent Jones, who lived at about the same time. It is not the same person, however he designed golf courses in the south, so one can become confused with the ease of a three put green.

July 16, 1918: Orders were given to execute Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, by the Bolsheviks under orders from party leader, Comrade Lenin. Tsar Nicholas died early the next morning in the basement at Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg (YEKATERINBURG). His wife, son, 4 daughters, and 4 servants were reported murdered also at this time. A family mass grave was discovered by a former KGB agent in 1979 in the Ural Mountains of Eastern Russia. The bodies were exhumed in 1991. Only 9 bodies were found. The Czar's family and servants were massacred by a 12-man firing squad, a jury of their would-be peers. Remains have only recently been identified.

Ipatiev house was destroyed to prevent it from being a place for pilgrimage by the Soviet Communist Party in 1977. When the Soviet government fell, opinions changed. On the site of former Ipatiev house, Cathedral-on-the-Blood has been built. It is the largest church structure in Ekaterinburg today. Its grand-opening was July, 16, 2003, on the 85th anniversary of the tragedy.

July 16, 1945: The first test of an atomic bomb was conducted at Alamogordo Air Base, south of Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bomb was called the Gadget and the experiment was called Trinity from a poem by John Donne (1572-1631) -- Batter my heart, three-person’d God {circa 1609}. The explosion took place in a part of the desert called Jornada del Muerto, (Dead Man’s Trail), with the measured the equivalent of 18,600 tons of TNT. It was the culmination of 28 months of break-neck scientific research and development, conducted under the leadership of a former German physicist, Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, using the code name of Manhattan.

This was a very high-cost, high-profile, yet secret project. The successful atomic test was witnessed by only one journalist, William L. Laurence of the New York Times, who described seeing the blinding explosion: "One felt as though he had been privileged to ... be present at the moment of the Creation when the Lord said: Let There be Light." Oppenheimer’s own thoughts were less sanguine: "I am become death, the shatterer of worlds" (words from the Hindu Bhagavad-Gita). The event is chronicled in Richard Thode’s The Making of the Atomic Bomb.

OF COURSE it was H.G. Wells who first perfected the atomic bomb and put it to work. And not only did he put it to work, demolishing most of the world's capital cities and destroying governments, but then he got busy and built an entirely new society. In less time than you can imagine after the last bomb fell, everybody was settling down nicely in a global socialist community under a World Republic; atomic energy, internationally controlled, was performing all the necessary jobs of production, transportation, heating, and such, so that the creative energies of mankind could be applied to more noble works. In 1914, when The World Set Free was published and no bombs of any sort had been dropped, it all sounded [oh so] fantastic ....

This essay was reprinted in 2003 from the August 18, 1945, issue of The Nation. The Nation claims that it will not be the organ of any party, sect, or body. It will, on the contrary, make an earnest effort to bring to the discussion of political and social questions a really critical spirit, and to wage war upon the vices of violence, exaggeration, and misrepresentation by which so much of the political writing of the day is marred -- a credo that first appeared in The Nation's founding prospectus of 1865.

July 17: In 1717, George I, King of Great Britain, sails down the Thames River on a barge containing 50 musicians. George Frideric Handel's (Georg Friedrich Händel auf deutsch) Water Music is premiered on this night of nights. Charlotte Corday, French aristocrat and heroine dies this day at the hands of the Revolution (1793). The sixteen Carmelite Martyrs of Compiegne are executed 10 days prior to the end of the French Revolution's Reign of Terror (1794). On the orders of the Bolshevik Party carried out by the Cheka, Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, his immediate family and retainers are murdered at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg, Russia (1918). On this same day the RMS Carpathia, the ship that rescued the 705 survivors from the RMS Titanic, is sunk off Ireland by the German submarine U-55. Five lives are lost. An Armed Forces rebellion against the recently-elected leftist Popular Front government of Spain starts the Spanish civil war (1936).

In 1945, President Truman, Soviet leader Josef Stalin and British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill began meeting at Potsdam (outside of Berlin) in the final Allied summit of World War II, a day after the Trinity test. Some theorize that the date of the test and the bomb's use against Japan a few weeks later were employed to temper Stalin's post-war demands, as well as to secure his cooperation in opening a new front against the Imperial Japanese forces in Manchuria. TWA Flight 800: Off the coast of Long Island, New York, a Paris-bound Boeing 747 explodes, killing all 230 on board (1996). Some believe that it was brought down by a surface to air missile, which the then current US Administration denied. On this date in 1864 General Joseph E. Johnston is relieved of command. To Sherman's delight John Bell Hood is the replacement. Hood will watch the battle a few days later from a position in today's Oakland Cemetery, while Sherman's HQ will be at the Carter Center. The scourging of Atlanta with fire takes place in November, when the march to the sea begins; but before then, it will have been heavily bombarded without regard to civilian casualties.

Christ Pantocrator A Nomisma of Michael III (842-67)

July 18, 64AD: The Great Fire of Rome began. After the fire the Roman Emperor, Nero, built his Golden House (Domus Aurea), a country house in the center of the city. The ruler made other improvements to the city, too. Nero blamed a growing religious sect for the event in order to deflect suspicion about his motives. Many of the Way were tortured and killed; some set alight for their beliefs. It is thought that Nero is the Beast of the Revelation of St. John the Divine because of this persecution, and that 666 was the number of his name (Rev 13:18). The numerical values of the Hebrew letters in the name Neron Kesar (Nero Cæsar) added together are equal to the sum of Six Hundred Sixty-Six.

A few years after the death of Nero, the Emperor Vespasian launched the construction of a huge 50,000-seat amphitheater at the site of the lake and gardens of the former emperor. Its official name, the Flavian Amphitheatre (after the family name of Vespasian) was soon replaced in popular usage by the Colosseum (in Latin, the Colossus), probably because of the proximity of the gigantic statue of Nero. The name stuck even after the removal of this large object.

18. Juli 1996 - Bundesrepublik Deutschland -- 800 Jahre Stadt Heidelberg (Sondermarke 100 Pfennig)

Eighteen Hundred Years Later -- July 18, 1864: Now relieved of command of the Confederate Army of Tennessee, General Joseph E. Johnston spent most of this day briefing new commander General John Bell Hood on the location of units defending Atlanta. Johnston then caught the evening train to Macon, leaving Hood alone to plan a new strategy to stop the advancing Union Army. The Confederate rank-and-file did not expect the replacement of Johnston with Hood, but Union soldiers seemed pleased. The Yankees thought that Hood would be more aggressive than Johnston had been, thus finally resolving the issue at hand. Johnston's repeated retreats had led Jefferson Davis to conclude the General had no strategy to stop Sherman. Officers and enlisted men on both sides now knew that fierce fighting with substantial loss of life now was only days away.

General W. T. Sherman had issued orders to his generals on the 17th for the next day's plan of action and movements into position had already occurred before daybreak on the 18th. Beginning at 5am, Thomas would advance on Peachtree Creek, Schofield on Decatur and McPherson would follow Schofield tearing up railroad tracks and downing telegraph lines. Sherman's order also included the recipe for what would be known as Sherman's Neckties. McPherson ( was directed to:

keep every man of his command at work in destroying the railroad by tearing up track, burning the ties and iron, and twisting the bars when hot. Officers should be instructed that bars simply bent may be used again, but if when red hot they are twisted out of line they cannot be used again. Pile the ties into shape for a bonfire, put the rails across and when red hot in the middle, let a man at each end twist the bar so that its surface becomes spiral.

By 7 p.m., five miles of Georgia Railroad track had been destroyed, and McPherson's troops were within four miles of Stone Mountain. As for Sherman, he had been in Fulton County for about a day, tenting on the tranquil tree-lined banks of the Hooch (Chattahoochee River) near Power's Ferry, yet he was already making a lasting impression on the area's infrastructure. Sherman's handiwork in Atlanta would secure Lincoln a second term.

July 19, 1864: Confederate forces engaged several divisions of General George Thomas' Army of the Cumberland trying to negotiate Peachtree Creek north of Atlanta. In heavy fighting, some Union forces had advanced south, while others turned back. Meanwhile, Sherman was now with General Schofield's 23rd Corps at the present site of Emory University. Here, he issued Special Field Order No. 39, which stated in part:

If fired on from the forts or buildings of Atlanta no consideration must be paid to the fact that they are occupied by families, but the place must be cannonaded without the formality of a demand ....

As the night fell, Thomas' forces stretched along Peachtree Creek to the north, Schofield's forces formed an arc to the northeast, and McPherson's forces were to the east. General Sherman now was well-positioned to advance on the City of Atlanta proper, while General Hood had determined to repulse the attack. Both leaders could only imagine how many soldiers would fall in the next 24 hours.

That evening in Atlanta, Miss Abby, a Yankee sympathizer, wrote in her diary:

All of my neighbors have gone. Am alone on the hill. A friend has urged me to move to town and reside with her. But this is my house, and I wish to protect it, if possible. There may be not battle here. If not, I am safe. If there is one, where is any safety ?

July 20, 1861: During the American War Between the States, Northerners who advocated restoration of the Union through a negotiated settlement with the South were called Peace Democrats. The New York Tribune compared them to the venomous Copperhead snake, which strikes without warning. If you remember your history, it was Ben Franklin in this Nation's most famous (and earliest) political cartoon that likened the 13 colonies to a rattlesnake, which desires only to be left alone, but will strike after giving a suitable warning.

July 20, 1864: Three years later, the whole Democrat party was populated with those wanting to trade honor for peace. Led by a fired general, who would soon be the party's candidate for President, Democrats urged a change in the terms for ending the war which was going badly for Lincoln in the popular Press. Grant was bogged down before Petersburg, Sherman had been stymied before Atlanta. A win was needed to preserve the Union.

So dawn and a morning meeting came early, as they always do on days when things are not going well. General Hood has less than 51,000 officers and men capable of fighting against a Union army twice the size. Under pressure from government in Richmond to stop Sherman's advance (to assure Lincoln's loss), Hood spelled out the day's objective in no uncertain terms: No matter what the price, eliminate all Union forces south of Peachtree Creek. An elaborate battle plan was outlined that calls for coordinated thrusts to begin at 1 o'clock in the afternoon. Confusion, however was really the order of the day, and the vastly superior numbers of Union forces and artillery took the toll one would expect.

By evening, the Battle of Peachtree Creek was over -- but at a terrible cost. Confederate casualties totaled 4,796 men (including Gen. C. H. Stevens, who was killed in event), while Union dead and wounded amounted to 1,710 dead and wounded. This total while high is about 10% of the casualty totals for the last day at Gettysburg only a year earlier. But the first of three major battles in and around Atlanta (see map) had been too much of loss for Hood to bear. To put put this in more stark perspective, every soldier in the South was now irreplaceable. In contrast, President Lincoln had just called for (and reasonably expected) 500 thousand new combatants in the coming year in the quest to crush the rebellion.

While the Battle of Peachtree Creek raged that day, fierce fighting also took place to the east of town as Federal forces at Decatur began advancing on Atlanta. Confederate forces opened fire, slowing the Union advance. Meanwhile, artillery units in the Union's 20th Corps began the first shelling of the City of Atlanta. The first round struck downtown causing the death of a young child. Shelling would continue for 20 days more.

1969 July 20th: During somewhat better times for Atlanta in 1869, Joel Chandler Harris had his first Uncle Remus story published -- in the Atlanta Constitution. One hundred years later, Astronaut Neil Armstrong took his legendary small step. Some claim the event never happened; it was a Hollywood invention to take the Nation's eyes off Reality-Vietnam, which was playing a new episode every night on TV. Who knew that the Moon was on the same time as the East Coast or that it had daylight saving's time ?? The timing of the first step, 10:56 p.m. EDT made the late-evening news in the States. The €uro-centric among you will no doubt point out that the first step occurred on the 21st according to Universal Time, which we admit ought to apply to the Moon -- but perhaps back then, when it was called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), a term of the British Empire, it had less than universal appeal. Everyone is talking about moonwalks: Links HERE.

On this date in 1976, the Viking robot spacecraft made a successful, first-ever landing on Mars, began taking soil samples and sent back pictures of red rocks, sand and sky. In 1989, the President used the anniversary of these occasions to call for a long-range space program to build an orbiting space station, establish a base on the moon and send a manned mission to the planet Mars. His son, the President in 2004, also renewed this pledge. We shall see. Well, if not me, then thee. Voyez

In 2010, members of the Executive Branch now wanted to kill NASA's ambitious back-to-the moon program, an effort that carried the imprimatur of someone whose policies they have blamed for economic failure. So one has to wonder about NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, who backs the new President's plans to eliminate this manned spaceflight. Both have redefined NASA's primary missions. The claim that the Constellation program draws off resources for investments in other key space technologies; does it represent a heartfelt belief or a clever cover for the fact that the current administration wants to end any prior program because of Bush's faulty thinking. The Constellation program already has digested about $9 billion -- for a new crew capsule, called the Orion, and a new rocket, the Ares 1. Both (along with the cash) are vaporized by the administration's progressive NASA strategy of using a space taxi system and corporate contributions to reach the moon and beyond.

In Baseball on July 20th: Hank Aaron (1974) broke Ty Cobb's record of 3,033 career games. So, that the then 40-year-old Aaron would set the new record during his 20th major league baseball season. In 1976, as the all-time home run champion, Henry Aaron hit his 755th and final home run off power-pitcher Mr. Richard Drago.

July 21, 1959: The first atomic-powered merchant ship, the NS Savannah, was christened in Camden, NJ by First Lady Mamie Eisenhower as a showcase for passenger and cargo ships of the future. The ship was named after the SS Savannah, the premier steam-powered vessel of the 1820s. Powered by a B&W Pressurized-water Reactor, the NS Savannah had a unique career lasting only about 10 years (only two others were built world-wide). For a while, the decommissioned vessel was docked at Patriot's Point near Charlestown SC, as part of the Naval & Maritime Museum, which includes the Yorktown memorial. In recent past, one had to travel to Newport News in Virginia to find it, rusting with the rest of the Ghost Fleet along the James River. see also You may remember that another vessel christened the Savannah was the first steam ship to cross the Atlantic, way back in 1819. In 2010, B&W has proposed to rejuvenate the nuclear industry with small add-on units {integral Pressurized Water Reactors (iPWR)} And in 2012, the ship Savannah is docked near Baltimore, for an eventual return to its namesake, perhaps as a Museum attached to Hutchinson Island. On August 22nd, the City of Savannah dedicated a plaque memorializing the vessel.

July 22, 1620: The Pilgrims set out from Holland destined for the New World. The Speedwell sailed to England from the Netherlands with members of the English Separatist congregation that had been living in Leiden, Holland. Joining the larger group in the Mayflower at Southampton, the two ships set sail together in August, but the Speedwell soon proved unseaworthy. Both vessels turned back and the Speedwell was abandoned at Plymouth, England. The entire company of both ships then crowded aboard the Mayflower, setting sail for North America on September 16, 1620, arriving on November 11th.

The Pilgrims Embark for a New World 
10,000 Dollar Bill -- Series of 1918
The Pilgrims Embark for a New World
10,000 Dollar Federal Reserve Note (Series 1918)

July 23, 1945: French Marshal Henri Phillipe Pétain (born in Cauch-a-la-Tour in April 24, 1856), who had headed the neutral Vichy government of unoccupied France during World War Two, went on trial, charged with treason. He was condemned to death, but his sentence was commuted to life, in major part because of Pétain's record as a great War hero during the First World War. Exactly 6 years to the day, he died in prison (Île d'Yeu off the south Brittany coast -- 1951). Before Marshal Pétain made the town his capital, Vichy was best known for its rich hot mineral water (e.g. fine ammonia, iodine and bromine content, as well as chlorides) and spas.

July 23, 1950: To the strains of Back in the Saddle Again (by Ray Whitley and Gene Autry), TV viewers were treated to the first performance of The Gene Autry Show. The singing cowboy made the transition from Hollywood films to the tube this night. Autry and his sidekick Pat Buttram maintained law and order in the U.S. Southwest for six years. And, they did it in a most entertaining manner. Gene sang just like he did in the movies. His horse, Champion, would perform some amazing equine antics, and Pat Buttram invariably would slip into silly situations. This TV foray ended in 1956.

In 1934, program producer Nathaniel Levine was looking for someone who could sing, ride a horse and act in western movies. Autry wasn't an actor, but had by then, as a singer, established a loyal radio audience. He began performing on local radio in 1928 as Oklahoma's Yodeling Cowboy. He was already under contract to Columbia records and had had several hits. Mr. Levine put him in numerous B grade westerns. Playing the lead role in a long-running series of Saturday matinee films, Mr. Autry became America's favorite cowboy; this native of Tioga, Texas and railroad telegraph agent from Oklahoma.

So it was way back in 1940 Gene Autry's Melody Ranch, debuted. There was (only) one hiatus, when Autry joined the U.S. Army Air Corps after taking his oath on the air in 1942. Roy Rogers took his place on the show, while Autry served. Autry later became America's favorite TV cowboy, despite Rogers' own potential claim to that title (and that of Dale Evans, too).

From Back in the Saddle Again to such yuletide mainstays such as Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer, Here Comes Santa Claus and Frosty the Snowman, Gene Autry's music etched its way into western Americana. Autry recorded over 625 songs, writing about 200 of them and was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1969. Gene Autry was a master merchandiser among his offerings were song books and children's records; comic books and Western apparel; children's books, belts and toys of every description. from
Great White North even then -- July 24, 1534: Jacques Cartier landed in what today is part of the Canadian Maritime Provinces, claiming North America for France. Jacques Cartier, while probing for a northern route to Asia, visited Labrador and of it reportedly said: Fit only for wild beasts ... This must be the land God gave to Cain. A few years later (1701) to the day, Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac established Fort Ponchartrain for France on the future site of the city of Detroit, Michigan, in an attempt to halt the advance of the British into the western Great Lakes region, who also possessed a rightful claim to North America, through John Cabot's mysterious exploits.

Le 24 juillet 1967: Au cours d'une visite officielle à Montréal, la première d'un chef d'État français au Québec, le général de Gaulle lance du balcon de l'Hôtel de ville à la foule médusée et ravie un cri vibrant : «Vive le Québec libre» ! C'est un encouragement spectaculaire et décisif aux revendications indépendantistes que promeut en particulier l'Union nationale du Premier ministre québécois Daniel Johnson, à l'origine de l'invitation du président français.

July 25, 1909: A French aviator, Louis Blériot, made the first crossing of the English Channel from Calais to Dover in a powered-aircraft, winning a £1,000 prize offered by the London Daily Mail. Piloting his Type XI monoplane at an average of 39 miles per hour, Blériot made the trip of 23.2 miles in just over 35 minutes. National Public Broadcasting in the USA (PBS) has presented a program about the event (it is several years old now, but still well worth a view):

The 5¢ Beacon Air Mail Postage-stamp -- July 26, 1928: A new 5¢ airmail rate went into effect August 1, 1928. The purpose of a rate decrease (from 10¢) was to increase the volume of air-shipped mail, thereby increasing the revenue of the private air mail carriers, keeping them in business. Call it the Laffer curve of postage rates. The 5¢ Beacon Air Mail stamp was issued to meet this new rate.

- First Day issued: July 26th -

The beacon design symbolized the new lighted airways that had been put up across the country, reflecting an awareness of safety, vital if the new air mail service was to keep public support. This stamp was, in effect, advertising for the new air mail service and rates. Extra features that were not found on other stamps such as a bi-colored design and an unusual size has led to a wealth of plate and imprint varieties for philatelists. First Day sales were at the Philatelic Agency in Washington, D.C., but the number of First Day covers are exceedingly scarce. This was perhaps because First Day covers issued on July 26 required two 5¢ stamps to cover the existing 10¢ rate, whereas if the collector were willing to wait a week, the August 1st rate would be 5¢ and only one stamp would be necessary. Sure enough, covers from August 1st, the first day of the new rate, are common.

- Error exists ?? -

Why was the 26th chosen for issuance instead of the 1st of August when the rates changed ? My guess is that it had something to do with the fact that the Continental Congress established a postal system for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general in Philadelphia on July 26, 1775.

The regular snail-mail was still 2¢ in July of 1928 and would not increase to 3¢ until July 6, 1932 during the heart of the hardship and at the height of deflation. Indeed, on July 8, 1932, the stock market fell to its lowest point during the era. The Great Crash, as it was known, had begun in the autumn of 1929, sparking a decade of economic stagnation known as the Great Depression. What a great time for a rate increase of 50%. Beginning in 2008, we have had another increase during hard times; however, the value of our currency has fallen so much, that the change is barely noticeable (in real purchasing power). An additional Resource: HERE.
July 26th: On this day in 1941 in response to the Japanese occupation of French Indochina, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States. This was essentially an act of War. Three years later, the war in the European theatre had begun to wind down (although many lives were still to be lost); and, on July 26, 1944, the Soviet Army entered Lviv, a major city in western Ukraine, liberating it from the Nazis. While on the western front as an aggressive last gasp, the first German V-2 rocket hits the United Kingdom. Most people do not realize that most of these rocket attacks were launched against positions in Belgium. The war ended in Europe before July or even June rolled around again. So on this date in 1945 the grateful British people reward Churchill's great War efforts by removing Winston from power and electing the Labour Party (general election of July 5th). Yet too is Russia rewarded, when the Allies signed the Potsdam Declaration; while on the same day the HMS Vestal sinks, becoming the last major British Royal Navy vessel to slip under the water in the Second World War.

Interestingly, the Navy cruiser USS Indianapolis arrives at an Island called Tinian with parts of a warhead for an atomic weapon that will level downtown Hiroshima. The crew of the ship would not fare well on the return voyage. Arguably the most well known reference to the events that occur on the return voyage can be found in Jaws during a monologue by the late Robert Shaw, whose character Samuel Quint had survived of the Indianapolis sinking. The monologue focuses on the numerous deaths caused by shark attacks after the loss. This soliloquy refers the date of the sinking as the 29th June, when the ship actually sunk on July 30th. The USS Indianapolis is the last major US ship to sink in World War II.

July 26, 2016: Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France (située dans le département de la Seine-Maritime et la région Normandie). A hamlet called Sancti Stephani and dependent on the Abbey of Saint-Wandrille was reported in the ninth century in a royal charter. The village then developed along the road connecting Paris to Rouen (4 miles south of Rouen's city centre). During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the parish had five hundred inhabitants. This small village has several churches, the sixteenth-century church of St Étienne (Stephen), a church of St Thérèse and the twentieth-century church of Notre-Dame. The priest of the Parish of Saint-Étienne was Father Jacques Hamel who was ordained in 1958 and had been the parish's priest for 20 years. He was murdered during the Mass. One of the parishioners was also wounded in the attack and the French interior ministry said the number of injured could rise, with a second parishioner "fighting for life" with a throat wound. L'État islamique revendique l'attaque le jour-même.…/Normandy-attack-hostages-taken-a…

Stephen is the patron saint of deacons, headaches, horses, coffin makers and masons. He is often represented carrying a pile of rocks or with rocks on his head. St Stephen's Feast Day is 26th December He is named in the Christmas carol "Good King Wenceslas." Stephen's name means "crown," and he was the first disciple of Jesus to receive the martyr's crown.

Acts 7:58 And they stoned Stephen, invoking, and saying: "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit."

Acts 7:59 And falling on his knees, he cried with a loud voice, saying: "Lord, lay not this sin to their charge." And when he had said this, he fell asleep in the Lord....

Also on July 26th: The public devotion of Sainte Anne (the mother of Mary) probably was introduced into the Western Church in the 8th century. In 1378, the feast of St. Anne was celebrated for the first time on July 26th in England. Devotion to St. Anne spread rapidly everywhere in the West. Pilgrimages developed around the many churches or shrines dedicated to St. Anne. The most famous are those of Düren in Germany, since 1501; Sainte Anne d’Auray, in Brittany, France, since 1623; and Sainte Anne de Beaupré in Québec City, Canada, since 1670.

The devotion to Sainte Anne was brought to the United States and Canada by the first missionaries of North America, who came from France at a time when St. Anne had become important through her shrine in Brittany ( Today, St. Anne has hundreds of churches and shrines dedicated to her in the United States and Canada and remains a popular subject of prayer and veneration.

July 27, 82AD: It is reported that Joseph of Arimathea died and was buried in the tomb he once lent to Jesus, or so the story goes. Because Jerusalem by then was destroyed as had been predicted, and the Jewish people already were exiled from their homeland by the Romans, it is a remote possibility that this report (and date) is correct as stated.

Others say that Joseph died at Glastonbury, Somersetshire, England on that date. An English Tradition recounts Jesus' visit to Somersetshire as a lad and also states that Joseph of Arimathea built a church here. The last British Roman Emperor, Arthur, and his Empress, Guinevere, lived and died here, at what was already an ancient place of pagan worship. Somersetshire was home to saints, including Patrick of Irish fame, Dunstan, Benedict, David and Bridget. We need not believe that the Glastonbury legends are records of facts; but the existence of those legends has had an important unifying effect on English history.

But then again, you only need to remember the greatest of truths, the tomb was empty on that first Resurrection Sunday. See

"Wherever a saint has dwelt, wherever a martyr has given his blood for the blood of Christ, There is holy ground, and the sanctity shall not depart from it Though armies trample over it, though sightseers come with guide-books looking over it; From where the western seas gnaw at the coast of Iona, To the death in the desert, the prayer in forgotten places by {next to} the broken imperial column, From this ground springs that which forever renews the earth ...." T.S. Eliot (

Some have said that Glastonbury was one of the places on this earth where the boundaries between history and myth, as well as tradition and legend remain unmarked. Indeed, a pilgrim today might easily be overwhelmed by the way the town has been taken over by the hucksters of a new age -- sometimes thinly veiled, and sometimes an open revival of ancient spiritism that dominated this land before Roman times. Never-the-less, a principal reason for the importance of Glastonbury, as an English Christian center, devolves from its heritage an ancient religious center.

July 27, 1784: Just seven years after the first French daily was published in Paris, Courier De L’Amerique became the first French-language newspaper to be published in the United States. The paper, printed in Philadelphia (PA) served all the many citizens in that fair city of brotherly love who spoke French. It ceased operation on October 26 of that year (or at least the library has no copy of it beyond that date in 1784). L'Imprimerie de Charles Cist, & se distribue chez Boinod & Gaillard, editeurs Danie Boinod and ...???... Gaillard. It had another brief run from le 04 Decembre 1792 - le 22 Fevrier 1793 (again, the source of these dates is from the library copies that remain). One wonders if perhaps another French paper could have been printed in Charlestowne (SC) at about this time ?

July 28, 1609: Admiral George Somers shipwrecks in Bermuda. His ship was on a voyage to Virginia, the British colony founded a few years earlier -- named in tribute to the late Queen, Elizabeth. He and other survivors were presumed dead for nearly a year, but finally improvised a vessel and reached their original destination. William Strachey, secretary of the colony at Jamestowne, Virginia, later sent a letter to England that described the event. His letter is thought by many to have been an inspiration for Shakespeare’s "Tempest."

Somers almost immediately returns to Bermuda, but passes away at Virgineola - a smaller version of the Virginia settlement established on the island. For leadership, courage at sea and other skills Admiral Sir George Somers showed, the islands became the Somers Isles, which is still Bermuda's official alternate name.

The Battle of the Summer Islands (named for Bermuda's alternate name, the Somers or Summer Islands), was a mock-heroic poem penned by the renowned English poet Edmund Waller. It was published in the first edition of his Poems in 1645.   So was the huntsman by the bear oppressed, whose hide he sold before he caught the beast .... It is the line from which we get the economic term Bear Market.

In Pgh for July 4th weekend (2010) Waller did more than write. He sat for Ilchester (Somerset) in the final Parliament under James I, for Chipping Wycombe (Buckinghamshire, which town has had a continuous representative for nearly 710 years) in the first Parliament of Charles I, for Amersham (Chiltern district in Buckinghamshire) in the third Parliament of Charles I and the Short Parliament and for St. Ives (Cambridgeshire -- Kits, Cats, Sacks and Wives; how many to St. Ives) in the Long Parliament. No Parliament was summoned from 1629 to 1640. Waller became a prominent and famous speaker in the House of Commons: at the troubles first outbreak, he took the side of the popular leaders, and took part in the opposition to ship-money. But, by 1642, he was gradually drawn closer to the party of the via media; and his parliamentary career ended, for the time, in 1643, with the discovery of his complicity in a royalist conspiracy, which became known as Waller’s plot.

Banished from England, after being committed briefly to the Tower of London for treason in July, 1643, Waller left for France. He resided in Rouen until his sentence was revoked by Oliver Cromwell in November, 1651. Indeed, the Islands have another fascinating connection with France. The first confirmed visit to Bermuda by a Frenchman was by Captain Russel or Roussel, shipwrecked here sometime between 1560 and 1570. Because of this close encounter and other shipwrecks, the French would call them Isle of Devils

July 28, 1935: Today the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress took wing for the first time (Model 299). Boeing did not get a primary Federal contract (for 200 bombers) because the prototype crashed; however, the US Army Air Corps (later "Air Forces") still was captivated with Boeing's design, so that they ordered thirteen (13) B-17s. The B-17 Flying Fortress overtime evolved through numerous design advances. Barely 20 years after air warfare was introduced over the fields of France, the US would have one of its primary workhorses for World War II. Its primary job became precision daylight bombing in Europe and the plane played a somewhat lesser role in the Pacific.

In somewhat unrelated news, the Battle of Ezra Church, also known as the Battle of Ezra Chapel or the Battle of the Poor House was fought on July 28, 1864, in Fulton County, Georgia. The battle was part of the Atlanta Campaign. Unfortunately for General Hood, he did not surprise the defenders under General Howard, who had predicted such a manœuver. Like so many other examples of officers who faced each other in battle, both men had attended West Point at the same time. So, the northern troops simply awaited Hood's offensive, in trenches behind a hastily built bulwark of logs and rails. The Confederate army attacked, but fell back before the Union's improvised breastwork. The southern forces defeated this day, still managed to keep Howard from reaching the railroad line. In all, about 3,562 men became casualties; 3,000 on the Confederate side and 562 on the Union side. Wikipedia has an English Language entry for this battle, if you want to know more.
July 29, 1786: - The first newspaper west of the Alleghenies was published. The newspaper was founded in 1786 when John Scull and Joseph Hall brought a printing press from Philadelphia and set it up in a small shop in the village which was growing up around Fort Pitt {Pittsburgh}. Originally called The Pittsburgh Gazette, it still is being published, but is now titled The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, having acquired the Pittsburgh Press, the Pittsburgh Post and one guesses a few more along the way.

July 29, 1740: From Ebenezer, an early settlement in the Georgia Colony, John Martin Boltzius recorded in his journal the different types of peaches grown in colonial Georgia:

This year God has very richly blessed our two gardens by the old torn-down cottages with peaches of all kinds, with which we can give joy and refreshment to many adults and children . . . . We did not notice in Germany whether the types of peaches were also as varied as they are here in our gardens. I believe we have over ten different kinds, all of which have a very pleasant, wholesome, and refreshing taste, but different in each fruit. Some kinds come loose from the pit and have various colors, others grow tight around the pit and are either all yellow or yellow and red, or all dark red. Some taste quite sweet, others tangy, others have a wine-like taste and pleasant sharpness, others seem to us to taste like the big plums in Germany and have externally a round, pretty appearance like apples. God be praised for this benefaction! Who could have imagined anything like it a few years ago when we were still in Old Ebenezer! We often compare the old and the present times.

Source: George Fenwick Jones and Don Savelle (ed. and trans.), Detailed Reports on the Salzburger Emigrants Who Settled in America, . . . Edited by Samuel Urlsperger (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1983), Vol. VII, pp. 190-191.

Le 29 juillet 1805: Alexis de Tocqueville est né à Paris.

« Les nations de nos jours ne sauraient faire que dans leur sein les conditions ne soient pas égales; mais il dépend d'elles que l'égalité les conduise à la servitude ou à la liberté, aux lumières ou à la barbarie, à la prospérité ou aux misères. »

The characteristics of the American journalist consist in an open and coarse appeal to the passions of his readers; he abandons principles to assail the characters of individuals, to track them into private life and disclose all their weaknesses and vices.

The personal opinions of the editors have no weight in the eyes of the public. What they seek in a newspaper is a knowledge of facts, and it is only by altering or distorting those facts that a journalist can contribute to the support of his own views.

The pursuit of wealth generally diverts men of great talents and strong passions from the pursuit of power; and it frequently happens that a man does not undertake to direct the fortunes of the State until he has shown himself incompetent to conduct his own. Quotes from Alexis deTocqueville -- More HERE

Many persons in France think that the violence of the press originates in the instability of the social state, in our political passions and the general feeling of uneasiness that consequently prevails; and it is therefore supposed that as soon as society has resumed a certain degree of composure, the press will abandon its present vehemence. For my own part, I would willingly attribute to these causes the extraordinary ascendancy which the press has acquired over the nation; but I do not think that they exercise much influence on its language. The periodical press appears to me to have passions and instincts of its own, independent of the circumstances in which it is placed; and the present condition of America corroborates this opinion. America is perhaps, at this moment, the country of the whole world that contains the fewest germs of revolution; but the press is not less destructive in its principles there than in France, and it displays the same violence without the same reasons for indignation

Another revolution in France -- Révolution des Trois Glorieuses -- Le 27-28-29 juillet 1830: An inept ruler, King Charles X (1757-1836) inspired resentment in the French middle class and its press, especially against ultra-royalist advisers; when he directed his reactionary favorite Jules de Polignac (1780-1847) to form a new ministry, the Chamber of Deputies hotly objected. Charles' angry dismissal of the chamber (1829) turned an attempt to curb a hated functionary into the total collapse of the regime. An 1830 French election revealed even greater opposition in the chamber, and Charles again dismissed it as he and Polignac published the "July Ordinances," which established strong press controls and reduced the electorate. As usual, the Parisians revolted and blockaded the streets on July 27, 1830; among those manning the barricades were army units and former members of the National Guard disbanded in 1827. Charles acted too late in annulling the new ordinances and dismissing Polignac (July 30, 1830); the minister was arrested and condemned to life imprisonment and later (1836) amnestied. Charles fled, then abdicated in favor of a grandson; the rebels, divided into republicans favoring the Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834) and monarchists desiring the conservative Duke of Orléans, Louis-Philippe (1773-1850). They continued to argue among themselves until the dismissed bourgeois legislature declared the throne vacant and proclaimed Louis-Philippe King of the Republic of France. He later claimed for himself the title of Emperor. His ineptness led to the French Revolution of 1848 and the true Second Republic. from

Le 29 juillet 1907 -- naît le mouvement Scouting, d'un mot anglais qui signifie éclaireur: Sur l'île de Brownsea, dans le Dorsetshire, le colonel Robert Baden-Powell, héros de la Guerre des Boers entraîne une vingtaine de jeunes gens à des jeux de piste. Il veut fabriquer des citoyens émérites, épanouis tant au moral qu'au physique. Son idéal connaîtra une fortune prodigieuse. Il sera aussi dévoyé par les partis totalitaires, qui créeront sur le même modèle des mouvements de jeunesse à leur dévotion. {anglais}

July 29, 1977: The Atlanta Braves knuckle-ball hurler, Phil Niekro, struck out four Pittsburgh Pirates in one inning. Niekro became the first pitcher in Braves history (Boston, Milwaukee and Atlanta) to do so. Baseball rules provide that a batter can try to make first base, if a catcher fails to catch the ball on a batter's third strike. In such a case, if the batter reaches first base before the ball arrives, the pitcher will be credited with a strike-out, but the out does not count against the team at bat. More Baseball is here

July 30th: Saint Ursus (d. 508 AD) of Autissiodorensis (Auxerre) was bishop of that city. He had been a hermit monk at the church of Saint Amator before being elected bishop at the age of 75. It is said he was selected after he had saved the town from a fire thru his prayers. July 30th is his feast day. In 1619 at Jamestown, Virginia Colony, the premier representative assembly in the Americas, the House of Burgesses, convenes for the first time. In 1864, Union forces attempt to end the stalemate at Petersburg, Virginia by exploding a large bomb under the Confederate fortifications. The northern troops failed to capitalize on the surprise attack. On 30 July 1945, shortly after it delivered the final portion of the first atomic bomb to the US airfield at Tinian, the Imperial Japanese Navy submarine I-58 torpedoed the USS Indianapolis. It sunk in 12 minutes with great loss of life. In 1975, Union boss, Jimmy Hoffa disappeared from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox restaurant in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.

The end of July 1945 -- More to write about the "Indianapolis" incident: The Captain was court-martialed and convicted for the sinking (and loss of nearly 900 men), the only Navy leader tried for a ship loss during the Second World War. Later he was fully exonerated, but he took his own life because of the internal grief and/or guilt he felt. The heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis earned ten battle stars, including one for its participation at Iwo Jima and one for its last engagement during the bombardment of Okinawa in March 1945 during which it was struck by a kamikaze, resulting in 38 casualties (12 fatalities). Captain Charles Butler McVay III, a 1920 Naval Academy graduate and career naval officer who had taken command in November 1944, returned the ship safely to Mare Island in California for repairs, before the mission to Tinian. (a must read)

Thomas Helms, in his book, Ordeal by Sea wrote:

“Father Thomas Michael Conway swam from group to group, never stopping to rest, praying with the men, encouraging those who were frightened, trying to reason with the maddened. His faith and his prayers gave solace to many ... Father Conway, like Ensign Park, Seaman Rich and many others, burned himself out keeping up a constant patrol among the men, ministering to the dying, talking reason into others who had become momentarily deranged and calming the frightened with prayers until all at once he reached the limit of his endurance, and his life drained away.”

And so it was that on August 2, 1945, Father Conway became the last chaplain to die in combat in this war. He was awarded a Purple Heart posthumously.

More-July 30, 1619: In April, 1619, Governor General George Yeardley arrived in Virginia from England and announced that the Virginia Company had voted to abolish martial law and to establish a legislative assembly, that became the House of Burgesses — the first legislative assembly in the American colonies. The first assembly met on July 30, 1619, in the church at Jamestown. The first church on the site was constructed in 1617. It was in this church where the first Representative Legislative Assembly met, which convened there on July 30, 1619. A replacement, that was begun in 1639 remains today ( Present were Governor Yeardley, Council, and 22 burgesses representing 11 plantations (or settlements) Burgesses were elected representatives.

  "But forasmuch as men's affaires doe litle prosper where God's service is neglected, all the Burgesses tooke their places in the Quire till a prayer was said by Mr. Bucke, the Minister, that it would please God to guide and sanctifie all our proceedings to his own glory and the good of this Plantation ... The Speaker ... delivered in briefe to the whole assembly the occasions of their meeting. Which done he read unto them the commission for establishing the Counsell of Estate and the general Assembly, wherein their duties were described to the life ... And forasmuch as our intente is to establish one equall and uniforme kinde of government over all Virginia &c."

– John Pory, "A Reporte of the Manner of Proceeding in the General Assembly Convented at James City" (July 30, 1619) --

July 31, 2015 -- 11th Annual, System Administrator Appreciation Day: Today's the day to remember --
July 31, 1451: French merchant prince and financier Jacques Cœur (ou Coeur) is arrested upon the order of his King, Charles VII. Cœur is accused of poisoning la maîtresse du roi, Agnès Sorel; but more seriously, for having used his trusted position in the government for personal enrichment, an unheard of practice in France. His arrest resulted in the famous French quote: «A vaillans cuers, riens impossible,» which is a pun on his name. Today the adage may be best translated: Such a valiant heart, it is not possible. Accordingly, for the many services that he had provided to his King, he was not pardoned and the substantial wealth he and his father had gathered was confiscated (1451) -- which forfeiture may explain his fate. Cœur spent more than three years in jail, but finally escaped from prison into Provence. He reached Rome and was honorably received by Pope Nicholas V (1455). Jacques Cœur would die the following year in service to the Pope against the Ottoman Turks.

His Gothic palace, which was once his home, still remains, constructed over a portion of a Gallo-Roman wall that surrounds the city of Bourges. It was a precursor of the mansions of the Renaissance period. The façade on the street side and that of the main building are decorated with Jacques Cœur's coat-of-arms, plus a multitude of sculptures portraying religious themes. The residence includes a barrel-vaulted gallery, painted chapel and hall that housed Turkish-style baths.

July 31, 1777: The Marquis de Lafayette (Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier), a 19-year-old French nobleman, was made a major-general in the American Continental Army. His contributions to the American cause are well-documented. After the War he served France and avoided losing his head over the Révolution, unlike some others (Comte d'Estaing) who had helped America win its freedom. On this same date, just 23 years later, the cornerstone to the United States Mint was placed in Philadelphia. This was also the first Government Services building ever built by the Federal government.

To celebrate both these occasions in 1988, Willie Stargell became the 200th man inducted into Baseball’s Hall of Fame. Mr. Stargell had 475 career homers, twice leading the National League (NL) (48 in 1971, 44 in 1973). He drove in 1540 runs, scored 1195 and had 2232 hits with a lifetime batting average of .282, and Stargell's inspirational leadership contributed greatly to Pittsburgh Pirate "World" championships in 1971 and 1979, years when he shared National League Most Valuable Player honors. The Pirates retired his #8 (team field-shirt number) in 1982.

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

Need a Link to the full text of the President's speech to the Boy Scouts of America at the National Jamboree on July 31, 2005 ??? It was at but that link is now dead. Until 2009 you could still see the text at or the text of his formal videotaped remarks (from 2001) at:, but the Obama administration deleted the Bush years from history. Now you must use -- Link 1; Link 2

At times, you may come across people who say that moral truth is relative, or call a religious faith a comforting allusion. They may question the values you learn in Scouting. But remember, lives of purpose are constructed on the conviction there is right and there is wrong, and we can know the difference.

In 2007 World Scouting celebrated its 100th year, once again in the English countryside -- A World Jamboree. The 21st World Scout Jamboree took place at Hylands Park, Chelmsford, England (July 27-August 8). In 2010, the Boy Scouts of America met for the last time in Virginia to celebrate the 100th Anniversary of Scouting in the USA (July 26 thru August 4, 2010 -- at Camp A.P. Hill). The opening arena show is always a grand production. The staff show was cancelled because of heat and potential severe storms. A new 44 cent postage stamp appeared on Tuesday July 27th at the Court of Flags at the Jamboree, celebrating 100 years of Scouting and this years theme: A Century of Scouting. See and The next Jamboree already is being promoted. It will be held in West Virginia on land recently given to the Scouts. This will be the new permanent location.

The 2017 US Jamboree began at its permanent home in West Virginia, on July 19th.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes!

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls !

More Flags -- Flag Day
Betsy Ross-1777Bennington1814

Early GA Flag Gwenn Ha Du 
qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

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Last updated: August 17, 2018
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