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Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

Entire months of: January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- July -- August -- September -- October -- November -- December -- Our Current Newsletter

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

Memorial Day:

Avons-nous oublié 
oublié la France ?June 1, 1943: A civilian flight from Lisbon to London was shot down. All those aboard died, including an actor known as Leslie Howard (b. 1893). He perished over the Bay of Biscay, when the British Overseas aircraft was attacked by Luftwaffe fighters. His last on-screen role was that of the Spitfire's designer, R. J. Mitchell, in the 1942 film The First of the Few (released in the U.S. as a trimmed version titled Spitfire in 1948). Leslie Howard perhaps is best remembered to Americans as Ashley Wilkes in Gone With The Wind (1939), which premiered in Atlanta in 1939, the screenplay of the novel written by Margaret Mitchell. A year after his death, Allied forces were in the final stages of preparation of an assault along the Normandy coast of France

June 2, 1944: Allied forces were in the final stages of preparation of an assault along the Normandy coast of France. As part of that effort, on June 2nd the provisional Free French government is established, with General DeGaulle as its recognized leader. Generals Giraud and de Gaulle reached an agreement on the new constitution (le gouvernement provisoire de la République français) on the 3rd. The role of the heavy bombers from 2-5 June in preparation for the invasion of Normandy, included the continuation of attacks against transportation and airfield targets in Northern France and the institution of a series of blows against coastal defenses, mainly located in the Pas de Calais coastal area, in order to deceive the enemy about which sector was to be invaded (Operation COVER). Operation Gambit (2-6 June 1944) was one of the smaller operations for the D-Day landings. Ten men in two British mini-submarines spent three days on the sea-floor along the Normandy beaches so that they could transmit a sonar signal to guide the DD tanks onto the beach.

"The men of Normandy had faith that what they were doing was right; faith that they fought for all humanity; faith that a just God would grant them {His} mercy on this beachhead, or on the next. It was the deep knowledge -- and pray God that we have not lost it -- that there is a profound, moral difference between the use of force for liberation and the use of force for conquest." R. Reagan (June 6, 1984)

For more D-Day resources: -- Great Pictures {click: L'Espace Historique} -- A great Website (now over 10 years old) that continues to attract more and more people

Poem by Mary E. Frye
Ne tenez et sanglotez pas près ma tombe
Je me trouve là pas,  je ne dors pas.
Je suis mille vents qui soufflent
Je suis le étincellement des diamants sur neige.
Je suis ce faisceau lumineux lors du blé mûr
Je suis une pluie douce d'automne.
Quand vous vous réveillez est matin se tait,
Je suis l'envol vif-argent
D'oiseaux silencieux qui tourbillonnent
Je suis l'étoile tendre qui scintille dans la nuit.
Ne venez et pleurez pas sur ma tombe
Je ne suis pas là,  je ne suis pas mort.
Do not stand at my grave and weep
I am not there, I do not sleep.
I am a thousand winds that blow
I am the diamond glints on snow.
I am the sunlight on ripened grain
I am the gentle autumn's rain.
When you awaken in the morning hush,
I am the swift uplifting rush
Of quiet birds in circled flight
I am the soft star that shines at night.
Do not stand at my grave and cry.
I am not there, I did not die. (1932)

Apparently, there is more to this poem than first meets the eye -- Absent de mon corps, présent avec Dieu.

". . . we trust in the words of the Almighty God, which are inscribed in the chapel nearby: 'I give unto them eternal life, that they shall never perish . . . .' [Je leur donne la vie éternelle; et elles ne périront jamais, et personne ne les ravira de ma main. {Jean 10:28}]"

The Battle of Midway: June 4-6, 1942 -- See also

The Battle of Midway was Japan’s first major defeat in World War II, it losing four aircraft carriers. The carrier USS Yorktown was hit by 3 Japanese bombs and put on tow to Pearl Harbor (June 7th). Three days later, it slipped beneath the waves in waters 16,650 feet deep, after a torpedo attack. Fifty-six years later a team led by oceanographer Robert Ballard found (May 19, 1998) it. He has also discovered the wrecks of the luxury-liner HMS Titanic and the Nazi warship Bismarck.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

New England Rocks -- June 1, 1638: The first damaging earthquake recorded in the american colonies occurs at the Plimoth settlement (Plymouth, Massachusetts). Roger Williams, the founder of Rhode Island, mentioned (in a letter to John Winthrop) that the 1638 earthquake was the fifth that the natives (probably of the Narraganset tribe) had felt in eighty years. Williams goes on to state that the natives had a word for earthquakes. The Abnaki's of northern New England, who speak the Algonquin language, as do the Narraganset, say that this word is NANAMKIPODA. When translated it simply means "when the earth shakes." The very fact that the Native Americans of New England have a word for earthquake shows that, if not a common occurrence, earthquakes do occur there from time to time. Just 19 years later -- to the day -- the first Quakers arrived in New Amsterdam (later called New York), beginning the tradition of making NYC a stopping place for movers and shakers.

June 1, 1959: The Battle Of New Orleans, as sung by Johnny Horton, peaked at the number one position on the pop music singles charts in the U.S.A. There it stayed for six weeks.

... Remember New Orleans I say,
Where Jackson show'd them Yankee play,
And beat them off and gain'd the day,
And then we heard the people say
"Huzza !" for Gen'ral Jackson, ["oho-ray"]
  We fired our guns and the British kept a coming
There wasn't nigh as many as there was a while ago.
We fired once more and they began to runnning
Down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico! {hut tut trey 4 ....}

Chorus from "The Battle of New Orleans" by Jimmy (James Morris)
Driftwood, voted as one of the 10 most popular American songs.

Jimmy Driftwood started work as a high school teacher. His songs taught his classes. The ballad entitled "The Battle of New Orleans" was written years before it became famous in order to show his history students that the Battle of New Orleans was fought at the end of the War of 1812, and not during the Revolutionary War. After he achieved fame as a noted songwriter and performer, Mr. Driftwood used his influence to help the rest of America and the world discover the wonder and beauty that is Arkansas Folk Culture. There are many differences in the Driftwood and Horton versions.

Precisely 2 years later on June 1st of 1961, "Surrender" by Elvis Presley stood at #1 on the U.K. pop singles chart. Undaunted, the British would invade America's music scene a few years later. The Rolling Stones arrived in the U.S.A. for the first time on June 1st 1964, landing at newly renamed Kennedy Airport in New York City. On a subsequent tour the group played at a High School Football Field in Lynn, Massachusetts, June 2, 1965 -- thus proving as we have said that New England Rocks. The Rolling Stones officially launched its first American tour with a performance at San Bernardino's Swing Auditorium on the night of June 5, 1964. Around And Around (October 1964- not from the premier tour)

June 2, 575: Catholic bishop Benedict I began his term as Pope. He led during the famine which followed upon the Lombard invasion of Italy, and died during the siege of Rome (of natural causes). His name in Latin means blessing. Today, when a celebrant closes Mass, he bestows a general benediction, blessing the people as they go forth to work and serve.

Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, elected as Pope on April 19, 2005, chose the name Benedict XVI. The last Pontiff named Benedict (XV), holding office until the end of World War I, cannonized Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc) in 1920. The last German Pope ? That is a somewhat harder question to answer. It appears to be Victor II (1055-1057AD), but there are some other contenders: (Adrian not Hadrian) -- -- Adrian VI (500 years ago) claimed by some to be the last, was from today's Netherlands (Utrecht), but spent his time in Germany, when that part of Holland was allied with other German States within the Holy Roman Empire. Victor II was from Swabia, unquestionably a German-settled area 1000 years ago and today. Our page on the Pope is HERE.

June 2, 597: Augustine, Apostle to England and the first Archbishop of Canterbury (founded in 597, the original cathedral structure was rebuilt completely from 1070 to 1077 after a fire had leveled it in 1067), baptizes Saxon King Ethelbert, the first native Christian English ruler in England. St. Martin's (in the town of Canterbury) was the private chapel of Queen Bertha of Kent in the 6th century before Augustine arrived from Rome. Queen Bertha was a Christian Frankish princess who arrived in England with her Chaplain, Bishop Liudhard. King Æthelberht of Kent, her then pagan husband, allowed her to continue to practice her faith by renovating (ca. AD 580) an existing church which the Venerable Bede says had been in use in the late Roman period but had fallen into disuse. As Bede specifically names it, this church was dedicated to Saint Martin of Tours, a city located near where Bertha grew up. Upon Augustine's arrival he used St. Martin's as his mission headquarters, immediately enlarging it (AD 597). King Æthelberht was baptised here. With the quickly subsequent establishments of Canterbury Cathedral and Augustine's Abbey, St. Martin's lost some prestige, but retained its time priority and historical heritage.

Vegdagr was Æthelberht's "historical" forebear, about 200 years removed, according to some through Æthelberht's father, King Eormenric of Kent. Vegdagr is variously described as King of Zealand and/or Angel, Roi des Saxons (King of Saxons). Brother of Yngvi Odinsson, King of Sweden; Sigar Odinsson, King in Hunaland; Sigrlami Odinsson, King of Gardariki; Weothelgeat; Winta Odinsson, King of Lindsey; Meili; Guedolgeat; Cagles / Capur; Waddy; Casere; Sigi of France and Gauti, King of Götaland. Vegdagr was a son of Odin (Wōdan).

The missionary's tomb bears this epitaph: Here rests Augustine, first archbishop of Canterbury, who being sent hither by {Pope} Gregory {the Great}, Bishop of Rome, reduced King Ethelbert and the {English} nation from the worship of idols to the faith of Christ. Many would argue however, for a later date and another king, Egbert (a direct descendant of the Æsgard, the rulers of Troy and back further of Adam). Egbert, born about 784 in Wessex, England (died after November 19, 838) is today recognized as the initial English King. He was at first King of Wessex in 800 (time of Charlemagne); but, he made the other kingdoms dependent upon him by 829 (he was the first overlord of all others in England -- 828AD). Alfred (the great) was the son of Æthelwulf and the grandson of Egbert (unless you are watching the docudrama "Vikings" on the History Channel). Alfred also is viewed by many as the first King of a true country named England, his direct line continued through to Edward the Confessor, who died at Christmas time about 200 years later.

King Edward the Confessor, another son of Anglo-Saxon King Æthelræd (the Unready), was recalled from Normandy after decades of exile, where he had secured sanctuary with his Norman Christian cousins. Not unexpectedly, Edward's reign witnessed increasing Norman-French influence, which had begun when Danish King Canute married Æthelræd's widow, Emma of Normandy, daughter of Richard the Fearless, then Duke of Normandy. Edward oversaw completion of Westminster Abbey, which he finished just in time for his burial in January 1065/66 (back then the year started in March).

Edward's unexpected death without an heir left the succession in doubt and in dispute . . . well, you know the story. Throughout history, uncertainty in succession leads to war. Before Edward's passing, he had named a Norman heir, but the Anglo-Saxon council of electors (witenagemot) wanted a man closer to their own cultural heritage, thus leading to a dispute, hastily settled outside a small English town. The direct line from Æthelræd and Ealmund returned with Henry II, who was also a grandson of William the Norman Conqueror of Anglo-Saxon England.

June 2, 1775: Members of the Georgia patriot movement spiked cannons in Savannah, so the guns could not be fired to celebrate the ruler's 37th birthday. On June 4, 1738, at Westminster in London, Princess Augusta (wife of Frederick, Prince of Wales and son of King George II) had given birth to the couple's first son, who one day would rule over Britain, and the dissolution of its American colonies, as King George III. In 1751, Frederick died, leaving George III in line for the throne. George's grandfather, George II, died in 1760.

More About Normandy in June -- Abbaye Notre-Dame du Bec-Hellouin: English Henry II, Plantagenêt was the son of Matilda, by her second marriage. A simple enough sentence with a somewhat complicated history, because she was the daughter of a King of England, direct heir to the throne (Indeed, a direct descendant of King Egbert (mentioned Here)), Empress of an ancient empire, mother of another English King and a countess and duchess in her own right by marriage of a not inconsiderable portion of France.

On January 7, 1114, Matilda first married Heinrich V, an Emperor of the German Empire, who died on May 23, 1125, at Utrecht, Netherlands (no issue by this marriage). So, she was for a while, the Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. On April 3 or 22, 1127, she married Geoffery V Plantagenêt (Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy -- born August 24, 1113, at Anjou, France; died September 7, 1151, at Chateau, Eure-et-Loire, France). Thus, she became a duchess and countess. Also known as Maud to distinguish her from her mother (see below), she was born Adelaide, Princess of England in about 1104. Adelaide was denied the throne of England by her cousin Stephen after a brief civil war upon the death of her father. She passed away on September 10, 1167, at Abbaye Notre-Dame des Prés, near Rouen, France and was buried at Abbaye Notre-Dame du Bec[-Hellouin], Eure, France. Her son would be the King of England, vindicating her claim as a rightful heir.

Empress Maud was the daughter of another Matilda (born about 1082 in Scotland; died May 1, 1118 at Winchester, Hampshire, England), whose baptized name was Edith, a Princess of Scotland. On November 11, 1100, the Princess Edith (Matilda) married English King Henry I, BEAUCLERC (born about 1068 at Selby, Yorkshire, England; died December 1, 1135, at Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France). He was the youngest son of William I THE CONQUEROR, King of England, Duke of Normandy, one of the 12 peers of France.

On June 3, 1162, Thomas à Becket was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury. Nominated by his friend, English King Henry II, (Becket had previously served as Henri's Chancellor), Becket underwent a radical change as an archbishop. He became pious and thereafter devoted his life to the Church in England. Henry found this attitude "troublesome." When some knights heard the sovereign grumbling, they murdered the Archbishop as he prayed on December 29, 1170. The Abbey of Our Lady of the Bec at Hellouin (a bec is the crest of a hill usually made of glacial material, which resembles a beak) has been closely associated with Canterbury since its founding.

June 3, 1906: Dancer, singer, Parisian nightclub owner, Freda Josephine Carson, was born in St. Louis, Missouri. A highly talented singer and dancer, Carson got her show business start locally. Later she travelled with the Dixie Steppers, changing her name and achieving international stardom by life's end. Josephine moved to France in the mid-1920's finding more acceptance for her art. She became a French citizen and was married. During World War II, she became an active underground agent for the Resistance. She also served as a sub-lieutenant in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force. The French government awarded her the Medal of Resistance, named her a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor and gave her with full military honors upon her death. Josephine Baker died in Paris in 1975, three weeks shy of her birthday and several days after her last performance. More here

Le Printemps de Pékin -- le 3 juin 1989: Dans la nuit du 3 au 4 juin 1989, place Tienanmen à Pékin, les autorités chinoises répriment dans le sang le vaste mouvement populaire en faveur de la démocratie. Depuis un mois, des étudiants et des ouvriers ont investi la place Tienanmen pour demander un changement politique. Le Premier ministre, Li Peng, décrète alors la loi martiale et envoie l'armée sur la capitale. Des centaines de manifestants seront écrasés par le chars ou abattus.

There is no firm figure on death toll from Communist China's crackdown freedom marches in Beijing during 1989. The government first claimed (four days after army's assault which ended June 4th) that about 300 people, mostly soldiers, had perished. Months later, it lowered the estimate to about 200, including 36 student deaths. In contrast, the foreign journalists who visited hospitals, as well as residents of the city, estimated (at the time) at least 1,000 fatalities. A Chinese student group in Germany has cited Chinese Red Cross officials as saying 3,600 died. US government documents show 2,600 were killed and 7,000 injured during what has become known as the Tiananmen {Square} Massacre.

June 4, 1789: Many Websites report that the Constitution of the United States of America, written and adopted sometime earlier through the approval of the 13 former colonial states, went into effect on this date in history. What actually happened on June 4th (1789) ?? In the brand-new US Senate, Vice President John Adams administered an oath to all Senators, setting a pattern that future Presiding Officers followed, without controversy, for the next 74 years. In true chicken or the egg fashion, the Oath Act was the first legislation approved by Congress and signed by the President on June 1st. The true business of the Country under the new Constitution did not begin until the 4th when Adams administered the oath of office.
June 5, 755: St. Boniface is martyred. St. Boniface (Wynfrith) was an English monk who was appointed by the Pope as Bishop in 722 and sent to christianize the Hassorum. In 745 his diocese was established in Mainz (Mayence). He died at the hands of a pagan mob. The body of Boniface was taken to Fulda, where it still rests. His bloodstained book, which he was reading when murdered, was exhibited for centuries as a relic. Saint Adaler was an Irish companion of Saint Boniface, who accompanied him also into martyrdom at Dokkum, Friesland (Netherlands). Saint Adaler is said to have been the first Bishop of Erfurt, a diocese founded in 741 AD. His feast day is June 5th. He is entombed at St. Mary's Cathederal, Erfurt (Thuringia). The Cathedral structure on Erfurt's Domberg was founded by 742. In 1153, the original church on cathedral hill collapsed. Work began in the next year on a Romanesque basilica. That edifice, consecrated on June 20, 1182, has experienced many exciting architectural modifications, modifications deserving of the best location in town (Domstufen Einz).

We must not forget to explore another fact: As every post-modern person knows, a monk lived out his life in a cloistered irrelevancy, much too concerned with his inward pursuit of holiness to change the course of history -- Counter-culturist, Thomas Cahill, however, has busted that truism with his work about Irish monasticism, called How the Irish Saved Civilization. from The Pagan Buster -- a pæan to St. Boniface. Bonifatius had been revered as a saint for centuries before the formal canonization by Pope Pius IX on June 11, 1874. During his lifetime Boniface had had close ties to Charles Martel, Carloman and Pippin the Short, all famous franc-o-philes of that zeitgeist. Boniface's efforts among the eastern native tribes established a structure for the Christian empire which Karl der Große (Charlemagne) would develop in the area now known as Germany.

On June 5th of 1775: Patriots raised the first Liberty Pole in Georgia, in front of Tondee's Tavern at Georgia's first city, Savannah. This town, like others throughout the colonies, by 1775 was divided into two hostile factions, with a group in the middle who hoped for peace. Peter Tondee was known as the tavern's keeper. Georgia's roster of Revolution records him as a Son of Liberty and a member of the Provincial Congress. He referred to himself as a carpenter. As usual, there is much more to this story than first meets the eye.

In 1596, the third Protestant church was built in France at Châtillon-sur-Loire. Louis XIV ordered it destroyed in 1684 and a family surnamed TONDU family quit the area, ultimately bound for England. We know little about Pierre Tondu born in France (1684) at Châtillon-sur-Loire, one year prior to the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Sun King Louis the 14th. It is believed that Pierre lived near Leicester Square, London. His son, Peter Tondee, was born at that great City in 1723. At age 10 Peter came to the Georgia Colony, settling in Savannah. Orphaned by then, Pierre and his brother Charles lived with several families until the Reverend George Whitfield arrived. Whitfield established an orphanage called Bethesda. Peter learned the carpentry trade. In 1765, the Georgia Colonial Council employed him to build a structure for the courts of the Province of Georgia. Also in 1767, he was appointed inspector of lumber for the port of Savannah, so that he was no stranger to the power of the state.

Peter had acquired several land grants, and between 1766 and 1770 he built a tavern in Savannah. In time, Tondee's Tavern, located on the corner of Broughton and Whitaker Streets, became the chief rallying place for social, as well as business, activities for the last decade of the Colonial era, including the secretive but not-so-secret meetings in protest of British taxes. There is a plaque on a wall pointing out its location, because the tavern is long gone.

On the 5th of June, 1775, Georgia patriots raised the Liberty Pole in front of Tondee's establishment. On the 21st they challenged Savannah's citizens to choose a committee to correspond with others of like mind in other places. After all the business transactions, the Liberty Flag was hoisted upon the liberty pole. Later, several of the gentlemen of the city dined in the tavern, drinking thirteen patriotic toasts, one for each colony desiring freedom. On the 4th of July, 1775, the first Provincial Congress of Georgia opened in the Tondee Tavern Long Room.

The official story of the Liberty Pole begins about 1765. The Sons of Liberty, an organization started by Samuel Adams, protested unlawful British taxes. Soon, men of the Patriot movement would rally around Liberty Poles in other towns, and would fly a Liberty Flag from the pole. This banner consisted of nine vertical stripes of alternating red and white. As might be expected, rallies tended to be night-time ventures to avoid British eyes. Their goal: organize public and patriotic actions.

First ContinentalAt first it is said that the Sons of Liberty met by large Liberty Trees, found on many village greens. A pine tree motif was used already on Colonial Flags of New England, so that a pine-shaped Liberty Tree is featured on the flags of the New England Colonies at the outset of the Revolutionary War. However, in New England towns that lacked a massive tree, and elsewhere in the Colonies, Patriots would instead raise a tall pole as a symbol of a Liberty Tree. It naturally became known as the Liberty Pole. For more information about the Liberty symbolism at the time, try:

June 5th: Adam Smith and John Maynard Keynes, both economists, have this day in common -- yet they could not be more different. Keynes was born on the 5th in Cambridge, England in 1883. He developed theories on the causes of prolonged unemployment and advised the use of wide-spread government expenditures to counter the widespread, worldwide deflation and depression of the 1930's. Some would call these theories progressive; others claim that they simply prolonged the misery of the era -- a debate which rages even today. Progressive theology works like a carnival trick. It is meant only to be seen once, afterwards everyone knows who is stealing the money and from whose pocket it comes.

In contrast, Adam Smith was baptized in Kirkcaldy, Scotland on this date in 1723. He was the author of An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Smith studied at the University of Glasgow, and then went to Balliol College, Oxford. He then returned to Glasgow as a professor of logic and then of moral philosophy. He promoted laissez faire, market economics. It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity, but to their self-love. He also wrote the Theory of Moral Sentiments in 1759.

Le 5 juin 1947: Le secrétaire d'État américain George Catlett Marshall propose un programme d'aide destiné à stimuler la reconstruction de l'Europe après la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Son plan sera rejeté par l'URSS et les démocraties populaires de l'Est, mais accepté par seize pays européens. Ce plan sera aussi favorable à l'économie des États-Unis et évitera que les pays de l'Europe occidentale ne deviennent communistes. He said: Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. Other General George Catlett Marshall quotes: We are determined that before the sun sets on this terrible struggle, our flag will be recognized throughout the world as a symbol of freedom on the one hand and of overwhelming force on the other. -- Military power wins battles, but spiritual power wins wars.

Some believe that it was Former President Hoover's report on the conditions of Germany after the war and how the Morgenthau plan to punish Germany had resulted in mass starvation, that caused Truman to change his mind. There is the illusion that the New Germany left after the annexations can be reduced to a pastoral state. It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,000,000 people out of it. In early 1947, four million German soldiers still were being used as forced labour in the UK, France and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. All remaining restrictions ended on May 5, 1955, as the last act of the Morgenthau drama occurred on that date or when the Saar was returned to Germany [January 1, 1957]. The Morgenthau plan by its end had cost the United States and Europe billions of 1950's dollars. Perhaps we should not think in terms of the money lost, but the misery prolonged.

June 6th: L'Abbaye de Prémontrés at Pont-à-Mousson was founded by Saint Norbert. Having survived the ravages of time, war and the Revolution .... wow is all one can first say at its renaissance. The Pope and Bartholomew, Bishop of Laon, requested Norbert to found a religious order in the Diocese of Laon, so that his work might be perpetuated after his death. Norbert chose a lonely, marshy valley, shaped in the form of a cross, in the Forest of Coucy (about ten miles from Laon) named Prémontré. Hugh of Fosses, Evermode of Cambray, Antony of Nivelles, seven students of the celebrated school of Anselm as well as Ralph of Laon were his first disciples. The young community at first lived in huts of wood and clay, arranged like a camp around the chapel dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, but the ordre soon built a larger church and a monastery for the religious who joined them in increasing numbers.

Going to Cologne to obtain relics for their church, Norbert discovered through a vision, the spot where those of Sainte Ursula and her companions (e.g. Cordula), of Saint Gereon and of other martyrs lay hidden. The Huns brutally murdered Ursula, the daughter of a British king, King Dionotus of Cornwall, along with eleven thousand others (from Britain?) in Cologne. In part as a result of Norbert's discoveries, women wanted to join the community and a separate convent was established. This convent survived the Revolution and remained a vital community on its own.

When two rival popes came to office after the death of Honorius II, Norbert helped try to heal the Church by getting his admirer the emperor to support the first of the two elected, Innocent II. At the end of his life he became an archbishop, but he died soon after (June 6, 1134) at the age of 53. On May 2, 1627, the saint's body was translated from Magdeburg, then in the hands of Protestants, to the Abbey of Strahov, a suburb of Prague in Bohemia. The Chancery of Prague preserved the abjurations of six hundred Protestants who, on the day, or during the octave, of the translation, were reconciled to the Catholic Church. On that occasion the Archbishop of Prague, at the request of the civil and ecclesiastical authorities, proclaimed Saint Norbert the Patron and Protector of Bohemia. His Feast Day is June 6th.

The oldest remains in Hirson (an hour drive or less from either Laon or Saint-Quentin) reveal the presence of Celtic camping. Conquered by Cæsar's troops who described the Nervi tribe as savages, the town now takes on a different appeal. In the 12th century that the town prospered. This was largely due to its two abbeys, one founded at Saint-Michel to house the Scottish and Irish monks who adopted the Benedictine way of life. The other is somewhat south, the aforementioned Abbaye de Prémontrés. Hirson is surrounded by some idyllic countryside including lakes, waterfalls and forests. Don't miss another nearby church dedicated to Saint Martin -- Église Saint-Martin de Wimy. All about (près Hirson) are ideal spots for fishing, cycling, riding, kayaking, countryside walks about Thiérache or simply relaxing. It's close to Belgium and in the heart of Apple-country, too.

June 6, 1885: Birth of Thomas Mann in Lübeck, Germany. Thomas Mann was certainly one of the most notable novelists of the 20th Century. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1929. His novels which have gained him world-wide recognition include a variation on a German legend called Doktor Faustus. Mann acknowledged a strong influence on his work by Arthur Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, as well as the works of Richard Wagner. Mann was on vacation in Switzerland in 1933 when Hitler became chancellor. He simply refused to return to a Nazi Germany. As a consequence, in 1936 his citizenship was revoked. He stayed in Switzerland until 1938 when he immigrated to the United States. After the war he refused to return to Germany. In 1952 he left the States to live in Switzerland.
June 7, 1769: Frontiersman Daniel Boone first saw the forests of present-day Kentucky. The Kentucky Historical Society celebrates June 7th as "Boone Day." It was John Finley, a fur trader of Pennsylvania, who took Daniel Boone and his brother-in-law, John Stuart, into Kentucky by way of the Cumberland Gap, the famous route afterward known as the "Wilderness Road." This improved transportation corridor was travelled by early pioneers to the "West" -- looking for land and freedom. In 1799, Col. Boone left his beloved homestead and went to Missouri following his son. Why ? Too crowded! too crowded! I want elbow-room!

Born on November 2, 1734, in Berks County, Pennsylvania, Daniel Boone spent much of his youth hunting and trapping on the North Carolina frontier. By the late 1760s, Boone had gone into the Cumberland Gap region, little explored by the English or French. Although the westward opening in the Appalachian Mountains had been identified by a Virginia explorer, Thomas Walker, as early as 1750, the "French and Indian War" had discouraged exploration and settlement of the area that would become the Kentucky territory. After the war, lacking the manpower or resources to protect the empire's trans-Appalachian frontier, the British prohibited westward migration. Boone was among the many settlers who ignored the Crown's ban, as was done by many over-the-mountain boys of Tennessee/NC. Another Boone family migrated to and lived in Colonial Maryland and Pennsylvania, but they do not appear directly related (Michael Diehl Bohun (Boone):

In 1775, Boone worked with Richard Henderson's Transylvania Company to establish more than a foot trail through the Cumberland Gap. With some thirty associates, he constructed the Wilderness Road, which soon became the settlers' primary route to the West. During the Revolutionary War, Kentucky was organized as a Virginia county and Daniel Boone first served as captain in the local militia. Captured by the Shawnee in 1778, Boone escaped in time to warn Boonesborough residents of an impending attack, enabling the settlement to survive.

June 7, 1776: Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed to the Second Continental Congress the resolution calling for a Declaration of Independence: That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. The Continental Congress delayed the vote on the resolution until July. On June 11, 1776, the Congress appointed three concurrent committees in response to Lee's proposal: one to draft a declaration of independence, a second to draw up a plan "for forming foreign alliances," and a third to "prepare and digest the form of a confederation." On July 4th the deed was signed and sealed.

June 7, 1929: The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords. These three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See (Vatican) were ratified June 7, 1929, thus ending the "Roman Question." These were a political treaty recognizing the full sovereignty of the Holy See in the State of Vatican City: a concordat regulating the position of the Catholic Church and the Catholic religion in the secular Italian state; a financial convention agreed on as a definitive settlement of the claims of the Holy See following the losses of its territories and property beginning in the 19th Century. The agreements, signed in the Lateran Palace (hence the name by which they are known), were approved by King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy through Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and by Pope Pius XI through Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri.

To commemorate the successful conclusion of the negotiations, Mussolini commissioned the Via della Conciliazione (Road of the Conciliation), which would symbolically link the Vatican City to the heart of Rome. The Lateran Agreements were incorporated into the Constitution of the Italian Republic in 1947. In 1984 an agreement was signed, revising the concordat. Among other items, it ended the Church's position as the state-supported religion of Italy. In 2008, it was announced that the Vatican would no longer immediately adopt all Italian laws, citing conflict over right-to-life issues.

The French Revolution had proved as disastrous for the temporal territories of the Papacy as it was for the Catholic Church in general. In 1791 the Comtat Venaissin and Avignon were annexed by France. Later, with the French invasion of Italy in 1796, the Legations were seized and became part of the revolutionary Cisalpine Republic. Two years later, the Papal States as a whole were invaded by French forces, who declared a Roman Republic. Pope Pius VI died in exile in France in 1799. The Papal States were restored in June 1800 and Pope Pius VII returned, but the French again invaded in 1808, and this time the remainder of the States of the Church were annexed to France, forming the départements of Tibre and Trasimène. With the fall of the Napoleonic system in 1814, the Papal States were restored at least temporarily. The Italian struggle for freedom left the Papal States largely in the new government's hands and the Pope under self-imposed house arrest (1870), a situation not resolved until 1929. The Holy See, for its part, recognized the Kingdom of Italy, with Rome as its capital, thus ending the situation whereby the Popes had felt constrained to remain within the Vatican for 60 years. The Pope now could visit the cathedral, the Basilica of St. John Lateran, situated on the opposite side of the city of Rome, and to travel regularly to the summer residence at Castel Gandolfo. After 60 years, imagine the dust.

Sometimes will not load

June 7, 1935: To celebrate the 400th Anniversary of the journey by Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca over halfway across the continent, Congress approved the issuance of a Commemerative Half-Dollar coin. On the obverse (front), in the center, is a steer's head (in Spanish: "cabeza de vaca"). In the field, "Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca - E. Pluribus Unum - Liberty". Around the rim, "United States of America - Half Dollar". On the reverse, in the center, a Yucca tree with a map of the journey displaying the following (Gulf) states: Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas. In the field, "In God We Trust". Around the rim, Old Spanish Trail and the anniversary dates "1535 - 1935".

It apparently made little difference that the actual Old Spanish Trail followed a route different than that taken by de Vaca. In addition, the year (1935) picked to celebrate the 400th anniversary had little historical relevance to the dates (1528-1536) of the Spanish explorer's travels in the old southwest.

Interestingly, not until May 17, 1873 was El Paso, Texas made a city. It was established by charter from the Texas Legislature.

Le 8 juin 793: La Chronique anglo-saxonne (manuscrits rédigés entre le IXème et XIIème siècle -- à Venreable Bede) relate que le 8 juin 793 "des pillards païens détruisirent l'église de Lindisfarne (île au nord-est de l'Angleterre -- Northumbria), ravageant et massacrant tout ce qui passent à leur portée". C'est le premier raid des Vikings, guerriers et navigateurs scandinaves, qui déferleront sur l'Europe occidentale et les plaines russes pour les piller ou s'y installer. Voi aussi

The attack on Lindisfarne was unprecedented and horrified those who wrote of it. For Alcuin, who was at the court of Charlemagne and a leader of the Carolingian Renaissance, it was inconceivable that ships could suddenly appear from over the horizon.

"Lo, it is nearly 350 years that we and our fathers have inhabited this most lovely land, and never before has such terror appeared in Britain as we have now suffered from a pagan race, nor was it thought that such an inroad from the sea could be made. Behold, the Church of St. Cuthbert spattered with the blood of the priests of God, despoiled of all its ornaments; a place more venerable than all in Britain is given as a prey to pagan peoples."

Alcuin, Letter to Æthelred, King of Northumbria as quoted in

Beyond Bamburgh and the tidal estuary-like mud flats of Budle Bay, is Holy Island, still often known by its more ancient name of Lindisfarne. It is only accessible from the mainland at low tide by means of a causeway, which can be reached from the village of Beal. To the south of the more modern road-surface causeway, a series of stakes mark the old route across to the island called the 'Pilgrims Way' which was used in ancient times by visitors to the great Christian centre of Lindisfarne. Again this could be crossed only at low tide, a situation reminiscent of Mont-Saint-Michel and perfectly described by Sir Walter Scott;

"For with the flow and ebb, its style

Varies from continent to isle;

Dry shoed o'er sands, twice every day,
The pilgrims to the shrine find way;

Twice every day the waves efface

Of staves and sandaled feet the trace."

from Marmion -- Canto II

June 8, 1872: A penny for your thoughts, is all it costs. US President Grant signed enabling legislation that authorized the penny postal card. Today it costs a few pennies more to write this briefly. The Post Office Department put the penny postal card on sale first on May 12, 1873, in Springfield, Massachusetts, and in other cities a day later. The May 14, 1873, edition of the New York Times reported that New York postal clerks sold 200,000 cards in two and a half hours. In the next six weeks patrons purchased about 31 million cards throughout the Nation.

Le 8 juin 1949: Quelques mois avant sa mort précoce, l’écrivain britannique George Orwell assiste à la publication de son livre 1984. Cet ouvrage de science-fiction politique s’impose immédiatement comme un best-seller mondial. 400,000 exemplaires seront vendus dans l’année en Angleterre et aux États-Unis. Conspué par les communistes, récupéré par les Américains, il deviendra en pleine guerre froide l’enjeu d’une bataille idéologique. Orwell voulait avant tout faire une satire des idées totalitaires. In the spirit of this day we offer: Nine-teen Eighty-four -- knocking at your door, will you let it come -- will you let it run your life ! (1984 TV)
June 9, 1549: The Book of Common Prayer was adopted by the Church in England. Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, issued the work, as mandated by the English King Edward VI, son of Henry VIII. Produced so that services could be spoken in the language of the people, the task of reform had begun. Martyrdom and Civil War followed. It would take until 1689 fully to establish England as a Protestant kingdom under the Anglican doctrines. More detail can be found at: See generally the links at:, especially the link:

The first complete English Book of Common Prayer was a selection and translation from the breviary and the Sarum Missal, with some additions from other sources. It was essentially that book with a few changes in liturgy that the Georgia Colonists were given in 1733. The 1928 Prayerbook (U.S.A.) retained Cranmer's translation of the Psalms. The wording of the Psalms used by Cranmer differs the version that appears in the Authorized version of the Bible, which we know as the King James Bible. Some consider it more poetic.

The Archbishop of Canterbury died as a heretic at Oxford (March 21, 1556). Upon the accession (1553) of the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I, he had been tried for treason, convicted of heresy and condemned. Before his death he had recanted. He refused however, on this day of execution, to repeat a confession of error and avoid a heretics punishment (fire). He then proceeded to place the hand that had written the admission of misdeeds into the flames. the German Reformation strongly influenced Thomas Cranmer. He procured a royal proclamation (1538) for an English copy of the Bible for every parish church. As long as Henry VIII lived, the archbishop would promote no meaningful doctrinal changes, except for his slavish support of Henry's marriage claims. The situation changed with the accession (1547) of the young Edward VI, during whose reign Cranmer was able to transform the liturgy of the English Church. He put together much of the first Book of Common Prayer (1549). He compiled its revision in 1552 that contains his well-written prose and a beautiful translation of the psalms.

His Forty-two Articles, although never finally adopted, formed the basis of the Church of England's Thirty-nine Articles. The Thirty-nine Articles, which are the official synopsis of doctrine for the Church of England, date from Elizabeth I's reign. They are Calvinistic in theological emphasis and define clearly the royal supremacy within the Church in England. One may also find the Thirty-nine Articles included, with the occasional modification, in the prayer books of other denominations professing concordance with the Anglican Communion, such as the Episcopal Church USA.

The use and doctrines of the Book of Common Prayer continue to stir controversy today in the Episcopal Church USA. Many consider the revision of it in 1979 to be the tangible point where the drift away from tradition became visible. Certainly, that which is known as the "28 Prayerbook" in the US, is much closer to the wording and intent of the original English work, and many congregations continue to worship in the Anglican style, reflected in the 1928 version. See for example:

June 10, 1051: Today marks the death of Saint Bardo von Oppertshafen. Bardo at first was a Benedictine monk, living in the historic Fulda monastery. He later became the abbot at the monasteries in Kaiserswerth and Hersfeld. In 1031 he became the Archbishop of Mainz (Mayence) -- Roman Moguntiacum. He was known for his piety and gentle nature. It was he who finished the present Cathedral at Mainz (pictured left), after a fire greatly destroyed Willigis' original structure. He died on a visit to Paderborn, Germany on June 10th, 1051. His grave within the great Cathedral became a pilgrimage site and many miracles were attributed to him.

Le 10 juin 1194: Construite en haut d'une colline dominant l'Eure, sur l'emplacement d'un ancien temple gallo-romain, la cathédrale romane de Chartres est détruite par un incendie. Seule la partie ouest est sauvée. Grâce à de nombreux dons, un programme de reconstruction est aussitôt lancé. La nouvelle cathédrale sera consacrée en 1260 et deviendra un haut lieu de pèlerinage. Elle représente le chef-d'oeuvre de l'art gothique français. More pictures are HERE.

It has been said that Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres (1904) remains one of the most profound evaluations of the medieval imagination by one of the richest minds the United States has ever produced, Henry Adams. It contains a wonderful chapter on the Chanson, which places the poem in the context of the Norman invasion of England, as well as its later focus on the 12th and 13th century glasswork of the Cathedral at Chartres. While the Education of Henry Adams (an autobiography) has been available on line to read for some time, this companion work is now Web available (see

"The Salle des Chevaliers of the Order of Saint Michael created by Louis XI in 1469 was, or shall be for tourist purposes, the great hall that every palace and castle contained, and in which the life of the chateau centered. Planned at about the same time with the Cathedral of Chartres (1195-1210), and before the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, this hall and its neighbour the refectory, studied together with the cathedral and the abbey, are an exceedingly liberal education for anybody, tourist or engineer or architect, and would make the fortune of an intelligent historian, if such should happen to exist; but the last thing we ask from them is education or instruction. We want only their poetry . . . [mes amis]."

Le 10 juin 1794: La Terreur, la répression Révolutionnaire Français qui commença avec la création du Tribunal d'exception et des comités de surveillance en mars 1793, se durcit avec la loi du 22 prairial an II. Celle-ci supprime la défense et l'interrogatoire préalable des accusés, ne laissant au tribunal que le choix entre l'acquittement et la mort. En juillet, les députés craignant d'être à leur tour victimes de la Terreur, feront arrêter Robespierre et ses partisans. En octobre 1795, la Convention sera dissoute et laissera place au Directoire.

June 10, 1915: Through the efforts of founder Juliette Gordon Low of Savannah, the Girl Scouts of America was incorporated on this day in Washington, D.C.  Girl Scout founder Juliette Gordon Low was born in Savannah (October 31, 1860). Her family traveled extensively, a habit she would carry on into adulthood. While traveling in England she met and married William Low in 1886. The marriage was not a happy one, and Juliette continued her pre-marriage traveling habit. Her husband died in 1905, giving her even more time for travel and discovery. While in England in 1911 she met Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth "Baden-Powell." This military hero had founded the Boy Scouts only a few years earlier. When over 6000 English girls tried to become Scouts, Baden-Powell asked his sister to organize a Girl Guide organization based on similar principles. It was at this juncture that Juliette Gordon Low entered the picture and the need for a girl's organization quickly became the central focus of her life.

Ms. Low established the first troops in Scotland and London, then soon decided to bring the Girl Guide organization home to America. The first meeting in America took place in Savannah on March 12, 1912. The popularity of the organization spread rapidly, thanks largely to Low's tireless efforts to promote and attract influential sponsors for the organization. The Girl Scouts of the USA was officially incorporated in Washington, DC in 1915, with Juliette Gordon Low elected as national president. Upon her resignation in 1920 she was designated with the title "Founder" and her birthday was proclaimed "Founder's Day." She continued to work with the organization, culminating in the hosting of a Fourth International get-to-gether in a brand new training center. The conference (held in 1926) was attended by both Low and Baden-Powell, plus delegates from twenty-nine countries. Low died in Savannah less than a year later, on January 17, 1927, and was buried in Laurel Grove Cemetery. During her life she had seen the Girl Scouts grow from that first meeting of eighteen girls to an international organization with a membership of approximately 148,000 girls and women.

Interesting asides: Ms. Low's place of worship was Christ Church, an Anglican denomination. The Green-Meldrim house (now the Parish House St. Johns, which was an outgrowth of Christ Church) was the occupation headquarters and residence of Sherman. The General knew Daisy's mother from before the War. He met Daisy as a young child, who left an impression on him he would never forget. On December 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill naming a new federal building in Savannah in honor of Juliette Low. It was only the second federal building in history up to that date to be named after a woman. Thirty-five years earlier on July 3, 1948, President Harry S. Truman signed a bill authorizing a stamp in honor of Juliette Gordon Low. The stamp at that time was one of the few ever dedicated to women. The first USA stamp to bear the General's likeness was issued March 25, 1895 -- He has appeared on several others since. No Sherman Federal Building exists in Georgia, as in Texas; however, there is a Grant Park in Atlanta.

January 2006 Drawing 
Landscaping has changed
O Christ the Rock,
upon which Thy Church is built,
whereon Thy People,
as living stones fitly framed together,
grow into a spiritual house:
Defend Thy Church O Lord.

June 11th: This is the feast day for Saint Barnabas. He accompanied St. Paul the Apostle on Paul's early journeys to Asia Minor and Cyprus (known as his first mission). See

Foreasmuch as devout and faithful people have taken in hand to build on this ground, now marked with the symbol of Christ, a House to be dedicated to the Glory of God, and in honor of Saint Barnabas (to be known as St. Barnabas Anglican Church), wherein the Gospel shall be truly preached, the Sacraments duly administered and the service of Prayer and Praise offered in this and future generations; Therefore, break ground for this Church -- In the Name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

Thou son of man, show the house to the house of Israel, and let them measure the pattern.

* * *

Vouchsafe, we beseech thee, to hallow this ground . . . Leave us not, we beseech thee, destitute of thy manifold gifts, nor yet grace to use them always to thy honour and glory . . . Now set your heart and your soul to seek the Lord your God; arise therefore and build ye the sanctuary . . . . Amen.

Ground Breaking Ceremony -- June 11, 2005
The Most Rev. Walter H. Grundorf, Presiding Bishop,
Anglican Province of America
The late Rev. Canon William R. Weston, Rector
The Rev. Robert E. Burgreen, Assistant Rector (now retired)
St. Barnabas Dunwoody, Georgia

Foreman · Seeley · Fountain   Architects

The first service was held in the Sanctuary on September 23rd at 9am. The dedication of the new sanctuary took place on the weekend of September 30th thru October 1st in 2006, when the congregation celebrated a delayed festival for Saint Barnabas, as the summer season drew to a close. Please drop by for a visit, if you are in the Dunwoody neighborhood !!! For those of you who do not know, Saint Barnabas is the patron Saint of Nice and Dunwoody became a new city in 2008.

King Louis VII takes the Oriflamme at Saint-Denis, in the presence of Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine, and receives the burden and pannetière of a pilgrim from the hands of Pope Eugenius III, before his departure for the Second Crusade in 1147June 11, 1141: The choir of the Basilica of Saint-Denis, dedicated to the first Bishop of Paris (258AD), is consecrated in the presence of King Louis VII (King Louis VII "le Jeune" CAPET of France). This is the birth of the French gothic style, perhaps best exemplified at Chartres, which was rededicated (1260) after being rebuilt due to a catastrophic fire (June 10, 1194). Naissance de l'art gothique à Saint-Denis -- Saint-Denis is one of the premier places to be buried, if you are a French ruler. you may recall, Louis VII's young bride was Aliénor d'Aquitaine, and by this marriage he absorbed the title of Aquitaine. Eleanor married second Henry II Plantagenêt, the future King of England, after being divorced (March 21, 1152) by her first husband the King of France, an additional claim in future French / English disputes about the rightful rule of Aquitaine, specifically, and the French Kingdom, generally. It is well established that English King Henry II (and his progeny) descend in some portion from the migrating peoples of Troy, so perhaps fair Eleanor, like Helen, could be said to have inspired in some measure the jealous revenge of competing Empires. Henry and Eleanor had a falling-out later in life (Lion in Winter) and she was imprisoned by Henry until his death in 1189. She stayed in forced seclusion in a convent for several more long years until her son, Richard Cœur de Lion, became King of England and delivered her from her banishment. Of interest, however, two of the daughters of Louis VII by his second wife (Constance of Castille) married their cousins who were English Kings, and eventually the Capet line would ally itself to England through the the marriage of Isabella “the Fair” CAPET of France (a.k.a. Isabel She-wolf) to her English cousin -- you know her from the movies as the close friend of William Wallace, a braveheart.

In 1317 France adopted Salic Law, which banned women from succession to the throne, thus preventing Isabella from becoming a Queen of France. She was already married to English King Edward II and upon her father's death could have united England and France under one rule. Sometime thereafter (1324), the King of France summoned Edward II to Paris to pay homage for Edward's lands in France; but Isabella persuaded Edward to send her and their son (also named Edward) instead, so she could visit her father. While in Paris Isabella started a rather public love affair with the rebel Sir Roger I MORTIMER (1st Earl of March), who had escaped from the Tower of London.

Fair Isabella refused her husband's offer of forgiveness and heartfelt pleas for her safe return to England and his protection. She came back, somewhat later in September 1326, with said MORTIMER and an army in train. They defeated and deposed her husband. She then put her son on the throne as Edward III. Isabella and MORTIMER (whom she married) eventually had Edward II murdered. They tried to rule through the young King; but, Edward III, feeling remorse for having played a part in overthrowing his father, had MORTIMER executed for regicide instead. Isabella, in turn, fled to Scotland, where she traveled with Lady Garioch (a.k.a. Christian BRUCE, sister of King Robert I the BRUCE of the Scots) and with Isobel, Countess of Buchan (A.D. 1296-1358). Now this Isobel hailed from Clan MacDuff (she the sister of the Earl of Fife, who in his absence crowned the Bruce King in 1306). Isobel left her husband, the Earl of Buchan, to fight for the Bruce, a cause of which her husband did not approve. The Earl went as far as to issue a warrant for her capture and death. Captured by Edward and taken to England, the Isobel suffered imprisonment in a small cage for four long years. She afterwards retired to convent life. Likewise, Edward III signed a death warrant for these three women. Isabella was captured and imprisoned in a convent by her son. A sad ending to the reign of the King.

All this is just the prelude to a hundred plus years of war (1337 to 1453), Poitiers and Ste. Jeanne d'Arc. Oh ! By the way, the Mortimer titles and land were restored during the 100 Years War. Roger de Mortimer, 4th Earl of March became, as fate would have it, the presumptive heir to the British Crown, as the most direct descendent of Edward III. His son Edmund, indeed would have been King, had another revolt not intervened. Edmund Mortimer died in Ireland as Earl of Ulster (1425) [A century earlier, the Bruce married Elizabeth de Burgh (died October 26, 1327), daughter of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster (d. 1326)]. Because he left no issue, the Earldoms of March and of Ulster and all his estates, passed to his nephew (his sister Anne de Mortimer's son by another heir of Edward III), Richard Plantagenet. He later became the 3rd Duke of York, who was nevertheless styled "Earl of March", as was his son. This same son became, in 1461, King Edward IV and the Earldoms became extinct, absorbed by the Crown. -- why I think Shakespeare had some comment about all this, too. As Edward says in the play Henry VI, part 3; ... I challenge nothing but my dukedom, As being well content with that alone [Act 4, Scene 7].

June 11, 1735: In London, Georgia's Trustees decided to build a new town and fort at the mouth of the Altamaha River -- the colony's southern boundary -- and that the next colonists sent to Georgia would go there. In 1736, James Oglethorpe chose St. Simons Island (which lay immediately south of the mouth of the Altamaha) as the site Georgia's new settlement. It was to be named Frederika in honor of the king's son, Frederick, the father of George III. Fort Frederica and its adjacent town were to become a thorn in the side of the Spanish in Florida, a last straw leading to an all-out war. Francis Moore was one of several Georgia colonists who kept a journal. He recorded a military ruse on June 18, 1735:

"Mr. Oglethorpe, with seven Horses and Men upon them (which were all we had) went down to the Sea-Point, that the Spaniards might see that there were Men and Horses there. At his setting out a number of Cannons were fired, which they also could hear at Jekyll Island. When he arriv'd at the Point the Independent Company was under Arms, being drawn up in one line at double Distances, to make them appear a larger Number to the Spaniards, who lay upon Jekyll Island. The Independent Company saluting him with their Cannon, managing them so as to seem to have many more Guns by reloading."

from Our First Visit in America: Early Reports from the Colony of Georgia, 1732-1740, (Savannah: Beehive Press, 1974), p. 153.

June 11 (at 8am local time), 1798: Napoléon Bonaparte, on his way to Egypt to shoot off the nose of the Sphinx, took the island of Malta. We've been looking for it since. Actually, viticulture explains it all. Viticulture is one of Malta's most ancient branches in the sector of agriculture. Because of it's strategic position Malta was the center of a thriving wine trade throughout the time of the Roman and Byzantine empires.

From a French standpoint, it was a logical conquest to protect Napoléon's flank. The Maltese citizens initially favoured the takeover of the island, because the French ended the island's version of the Inquisition, the use of judicial torture and rights of privilege based on birth. But the troops quickly fell out of favour, when they stripped the churches of relics, paintings, gold and silver. The Maltese soon rebelled. Because the great leader left insufficient defensive troops, they generally held off the French until the British arrived in September 1800. Whereupon, Malta became a British Protectorate. The British fleet entered Grand Harbour, marking the start of a century and a half of British rule.
June 12, 1817: Today, Lothar von Faber is born in Stein, Germany. He and his brother, Eberhard, built a family pencil business in Germany. It became a global manufacturing company. His brother Eberhart Faber immigrated to America and founded the Faber American pencil company. The Faber pencil company in the USA still is owned by the Faber family, even though the German business was divested many years ago.

June 12, 1880: Baseball’s first perfect game. The southpaw, left-handed Lee Richmond of the Worcester, Massachusetts {Ruby Legs}, pitched a game in perfect perfection -- a 1-0 (shutout) of the Cleveland Spiders in a National League game. Fifty-nine years later (June 12, 1939), the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum was dedicated in Cooperstown, N.Y., on the 100th anniversary of the day Abner Doubleday supposedly invented the sport. Three years earlier (1936), the Georgia Peach, Ty Cobb of Banks County, became the first baseball player inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. By the time of the Hall's official dedication, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson, and Walter Johnson had joined Cobb as the first members honored in the new facility. June 2, 2010, a Detroit player missed his chance to become part of this history when a bad call at first plate stole his perfect game (last out last inning). Do you know who this was ? Unbelievably, two perfect games had been pitched up to that date in the 2010 season, which represented 10% of all the modern-era games (over 100 years).

June 12, 1987: President, Ronald Reagan, visits Berlin on this day in history. In a speech in front of a closed Brandenburg Gate at 2:20pm he begins his discourse on freedom. During it, he remarks, Es gibt nur ein Berlin ... General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!

I noticed words crudely spray-painted upon the wall, perhaps by a young Berliner: This wall will fall. Beliefs become reality. Yes, across Europe, this wall will fall. For it cannot withstand faith; it cannot withstand truth. The wall cannot withstand freedom. Reagan was right; his critics were wrong, very wrong and easily misled by the propaganda of the socialist left across the globe.

 Schloß CecilienhofFrom July 17 until August 2, 1945, a conference was held by the victorious powers who had defeated Germany. Truman, Churchill and Stalin met at Cecilienhof castle at Potsdam near Berlin. The Potsdam Agreement, to a far greater extent than that of Yalta, determined the shape of post-war Europe. Among other important decisions, they reached an agreement on how to divide the defeated country between them: Not only was Germany parted in four zones (French as well), but the capital of the Third Reich was divided into four sectors, with the Russians getting almost half of the city, which became East Berlin, while the Western Allies shared the other half into three sectors, which became West Berlin.

During the following years Bonn became the capital of West Germany, and on October 6, 1949 the Russian occupied zone became the country of East Germany, a country with a truly grand new name, calling themselves The German Democratic Republic, with East Berlin its capital. We could travel freely from West to East, which we often did, as almost everyone had families in the Eastern part of Germany and East Berlin. Technically West Berlin belonged to West Germany, although geographically it was located in the center of East Germany. Anyone wanting to travel from West Berlin to West Germany by road or rail, had to pass through East German check points. In the early post war years these check points were under the control of Russian military personnel.

See: -- FYI: Schloß Cecilienhof is in the northern portion of the 72 hektar Neuen Garten im Potsdam, close to the Jungfernsee. It was the last palace built by the Hohenzollern dynasty (William II).
June 13th -- PATRON SAINTS INDEX, a CALENDAR of the SAINTS: To wit -- Anthony of Padua, Aquilina, Augustine of Huy, Damhnade, Felicitas, Felicula, Fortunatus, Gérard de Clairvaux (Bernardus' close confidant and elder brother), Gyavire, Lucian, Peregrinus, Rambert & Triphyllius

From Life and Times of Saint Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux, A.D. 1091-1153 (by James Cotter Morison @ p.230): ... not command my grief, though I could control my tears ! As it is written, I was afflicted, and I kept silence. But the suppressed anguish struck deeper root within, and has become more bitter, as I perceive, from not being allowed a vent. I own I am conquered. Let it go forth, as I cannot endure it within. Let it go forth before the eyes of my children, who, knowing my affliction, will bear more leniently with my complaint, and give me a sweeter consolation.

You know, my children, the reasonableness of my sorrow — you know the lamentable wound I have received. You appreciate what a friend has left me in this walk of life which I have chosen — how prompt to labour, how gentle in manner ! Who was so necessary to me ? To whom was I equally dear ? He was my brother by blood, but more than brother by religion. Deplore my misfortune, I beseech you, who know these things. I was weak in body, and he sustained me; downcast in spirit, and he comforted me; slow and negligent, and he stimulated me; careless and forgetful, and he admonished me. Whither hast thou been torn from me, whither ! hast thou been carried from my arms, O thou man of one mind with me, thou man after my own heart ? We loved each other in life: how are we separated in death ! O most bitter separation, which nothing could have accomplished but death ! For when wouldest thou have deserted me in life? Google Books

June 13 or 14, 1777 -- Marquis de Lafayette: Revolutionary hero, Marquis de Lafayette, lands at Georgetown, then proceeds south to Charleston, South Carolina, in order to join and assist the Continentals and General George Washington (a task that he accomplished with great success Lafayette would return to the United States at the request of Congress for a Grand tour almost 50 years later, this time landing at Savannah. His arrival created a sensation, unlike any other the city had seen. On March 19, 1825, at age sixty-seven General Lafayette disembarked from a steamboat to the salute from the Chatham Artillery and the cheers of the crowd. While on the other coast, by March 19, 1825, Fort Vancouver (in the future state of Washington) had been established, with McLoughlin as chief factor. It was to be the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company in the Pacific Northwest for the next twenty years.

Lafayette's journey took him to Augusta and then on to the Georgia capital, then at Milledgeville, where he arrived on March 27th. He met first with Revolutionary War veterans; finding the man who helped carry him off the battlefield at Brandywine, where he had been wounded. Georgia Governor Troup hosted the General at an outdoor Barbeque supper on the grounds of state capitol building. Some 39 years later General Sherman would also pay a visit, stay at the Governor's home (one of the most important examples of Greek Revival architecture in America), and blow up the Georgia armory, seriously damaging the capitol next door. Monuments to both these events can be found today on State Capitol Square. Marie Jean Paul Joseph Roche Yves Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de LAFAYETTE passed away in Paris, May 20, 1834.

The present building is a replica of the original. It is now home to Georgia Military College. The ground floor is home to the Old Capital Museum. Milledgeville is the only city in the nation, besides Washington, D.C., designed to be a capital city. The capital was removed to Atlanta in 1868. The fourth capital of Georgia (1804-68) is now the Baldwin County seat of government.

Less than 120 years after Lafayette's visit, on June 13, 1944, the US Army would consider the Beachhead portion of the Normandy Invasion complete as of this day. Lafayette we are here, once more.
June 14, 1736: James Oglethorpe directed the Trustees' surveyor, Noble Jones, to draw up a plan for a new town, to be named Augusta, located where the navigable stretch of the Savannah River ended. The name honored the spouse of Frederick, son of King George II. According to the journal of Trustee proceedings, maintained by the Earl of Egmont, the new town was created for the convenience principally of inland traders and merchants.

June 14: The life and accomplishments of Joseph the Hymnographer, also known as Joseph of the Studium, are celebrated this day in the Western Church (April 3rd or 4th in the East). Born to Christian parents in Sicily (circa 810AD), Joseph fled Sicily due to the Saracen (Moslem) invasion of the island, like so many others of his time. He became a monk at Thessalonica, later joining the monastery of the Studium in Constantinople. Joseph once more had to flee, leaving Constantinople in 841 to avoid further torture at the hands of an iconoclast emperor, Leo the Armenian. He was captured, however, on his way to Rome by Muslim pirates, who were a constant threat to shipping then and for another 1000 years. Because Joesph was Christian, under Islamic custom, he was sold into bondage, spending several years as a slave in Crete. But what they meant for evil, God meant for good and he ministered to other captives. He eventually escaped and returned to Constantinople, where he established a monastery. Because he opposed the Iconoclast emperor Theophilus, he suffered exile once again, this time to the greek colony Chersonesus in ancient Tauris (today near Sevastopol in the Crimea). Later he became Bishop of Salonica, possibly after a third exile.

One of the great liturgical poets and hymnodists of the Byzantine Church, Joseph is credited with approximately 1,000 works. Some 200 hundred of the canons found in the melismatic canons of the Menaion are primarily his work. The general menaion is a book of services common to the festivals of the church and different orders of the Saints. A very complete, full example of one of these can be found at: A canon is a highly structured and disciplined literary form, poetic, metrical. Each day of the week has a particular theme that the canon develops. Joseph is the major contributor to the weekday canons of the Paraklitiki, a sacred work (or the large Oktoichos), providing the material for Vespers, the Midnight Office, Matins and the Liturgy for most of the year from the Sunday of All Saints to the beginning of Lent. Of these 96 canons assigned to weekday Matins at least 56 are by The Venerable Joseph the Hymnographer. The canon of the Akathist is also attributed to him. The service books for Great Lent and Easter, the Lenten Triodion and the Flower Triodion (also called the Pentecostarion) are almost totally the work of the Studite monks, among the most famous of whom is Joseph the Hymnographer.

Joseph died in 886 (or 883), most say of natural causes. But, before the end, he shared in a great missionary enterprise, for during his time in Constantinople he was among those who inspired the first missionaries to the Russ (Russia). Indeed, some say he was among the many honored men of the church banished to the Crimea, who died there in exile. The Feast of All Saints of the Crimea is December 15th. see also

I know not how to praise
Thy mercy and Thy love;
But deign my soul from earth to raise
And learn from Thee above.

  1. Let Us Now Our Voices Raise
  2. O Happy Band of Pilgrims
  3. Φωστηρες της ουσιας
  4. Τω̃ν αμαρτω̃ν μου τὴν πληυν

Verse 4, Hymn #322. "And Wilt Thou Pardon, Lord". Translated by John M. Neale, (1818-1866).
Text From: THE LUTHERAN HYMNAL, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House (1941).

Happy Birthday -- June 14, 1775: Today is the birthday of the U.S. Army. The Continental Congress first sponsored a muster of troops on this date. A new constellation rises, a new emblem is created for a new nation on the birthday of our Flag in 1777: -- one of our oldest pages (from an earlier Website), still kept up to date.

The real dealJune 14, 1846: Thirty-three U.S. settlers in the Sonoma Valley in Northern California rebelled against Mexican authorities in what is called the Bear Flag Revolt. They proclaimed the Republic of California. Wagonmaster William B. Ide, leader of the Bear Flag Party, was urged to loot the Mexican stronghold. Instead, in a paraphrase of Joshua's speech, Ide said: Choose ye this day what you will be! We are robbers or we must be conquerors. Although the U.S. already had declared war against Mexico in May, word had not reached California. In July word arrived and Commodore John Sloat raised the Stars and Stripes over the American Customs House in Monterey, and three days later it flew over the Sonoma Plaza.

William L. Todd, nephew of Mrs. Abraham Lincoln, designed a flag for the Bear Flag Revolt and placed upon it the words California Republic. With rusty nails and blackberry juice he painted a grizzly and a star on white cloth. The lower red border was said to come from the flannel petticoat of Nancy Kelsey, who sewed the flag. The Bear Flag Revolt got its name from the presence of a grizzly bear on the standard proposed for the independent California. Interestingly, on this date in 1989, the late President Ronald Reagan (and former Governor of California) received an honorary knighthood from Britain's Queen Elizabeth II, about six months after leaving office.
June 15, 1215: At Runnymeade in southern England (a meadow called Ronimed), King John signed the Magna Carta. It is often cited as a fundamental document in the development of English, later-British and American constitutional government, although one can argue that it was signed at knife-point (i.e. under duress), applied only to a limited class of titled gentry ("Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Priors, Earls, Barons, and to all freemen of this our realm") and was later repudiated, if not by word, then by deed. A modified Magna Carta became part of the Common Law of England in 1297, by and through a statute called Confirmatio Cartarum [25 Edw. I]. See also This is the time of half-fictional Robinhood, Ivanhoe (19th Century romantic novel character by Walter Scott) and the historic Richard, Cœur de Lion, whose heart is still, at Rouen. Article 1 of the Magna Carta, England's first charter of citizen liberties:

1. We have in the first place granted to God and by this our present charter have confirmed, for us and our heirs forever, that the English Church shall be free and shall have its rights entire and its liberties inviolate. And how we wish [that freedom] to be observed appears from this, that of our own pure and free will, before the conflict that arose between us and our barons, we granted and by our charter confirmed the liberty of election that is considered of prime importance and necessity for the English Church, and we obtained confirmation of it from the lord pope Innocent III — which [charter] we will observe ourself and we wish to be observed in good faith by our heirs forever. We have also granted to all freemen of our kingdom, for us and our heirs forever, all the liberties hereinunder written, to be had and held by them and their heirs of us and our heirs. see generally

Another victim to intolerance by extremistsOn this date in the 13th Century AD, just a few years later: The name of the Danish flag, Dannebrog, means banner of the Danes. It occurs first in a Danish text in 1478. In the Dutch armorial gelre published a century before (1370-86), a red banner with a white cross is seen next to the coat of arms for Danish King Valdemar IV. The legend of the flag is made from whole cloth, as Dannebrog fell from the skies on June 15, 1219, into the waiting and expectant arms (more or less) of Valdemar II, during his Estonian campaign. The flag symbolized a divine approval of the conquest (Med danne brog, skal I sejre). With this blessed standard in hand, the Danish sovereign won the battle at Lyndanise near Reval (Tallinn). This, in any event, is the explanation Danes prefer to give in order to tell the origin of the their national flag. -- There are other post-modern theories, too.

When it comes to freedom of speech, the liberal-left should not sacrifice its values one inch to those who seek censorship on religious grounds. But the right to freedom of speech equates to neither an obligation to offend nor a duty to be insensitive. If our commitment to free speech is important, our belief in antiracism should be no less so. Neither the cartoons nor the violence has emerged from a vacuum. They are steeped in and have contributed to an increasingly recriminatory atmosphere shaped by, among other things, war, intolerance and historic injustices.

from The Nation—Gary Younge, as republished at: Yahoo News

The party line, that the Prophet may never be depicted is only truth for a sect within the Muslim community. Indeed, in Iran such depictions exist; but, one could understand that any likeness runs the risk of being disrespectful, which alone in turn is an executable offense in some Muslim jurisdictions. I now tread very lightly in announcing my own discovery of the public image, sponsored by the government of the United States -- from the Editorial Page of Wednesday's, February 8th, edition of The Wall Street Journal a few years ago.

Overhead, along all four sides of the Supreme Court Chamber, are sculpted marble panels, the work of Adolph A. Weinman. Directly above the Bench of the Supreme Court of the United States are two central figures, depicting Majesty of the Law and Power of Government. The group at the far left represents Safeguard of the Rights of the People, and Genii of Wisdom and Statecraft. The far right group represents the Defense of Human Rights. To the right is a procession of historical lawgivers including: Menes, Hammurabi, Moses, Solomon, Lycurgus, Solon, Draco, Confucius and Augustus. They are flanked by figures symbolizing Fame and History. To the left are later historical lawgivers including Napoléon, John Marshall, William Blackstone, Hugo Grotius, Saint Louis, King John, Charlemagne (Karl der Große), Mohammed and Justinian. Figures representing Liberty, Peace and Philosophy appear at either end. On the back wall frieze is the familiar Justice with the winged female figure of Divine Inspiration, flanked by Wisdom and Truth. At the far left the Powers of Good are shown, representing Security, Harmony, Peace, Charity, and Defense of Virtue. At the far right the Powers of Evil are represented by Corruption, Slander, Deceit, and Despotic Power. from Much more detailed discussion: Back in 1997, when fanatical hatred of the West was better concealed, the then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (now deceased) refused to remove the offending image; however, as a concession he did change Court literature about the figure from Mohammed the founder to the Prophet of Islam.

NOTE: On the history of this depression-era artwork, the best place to go, if you have a pdf reader, is: where you will see a clear image of the one whom one is not permitted to depict. Thus, before a complaint is lodged, perhaps we should chip this image off the frieze, much in the same way that the Taliban removed the ancient image that offended their religiosity, so that everyone may remain happy. And, we do not heighten the risk of destruction of the U.S. Supreme Court building. One also could argue that the President of Iran, as a measure of good faith in recognition of our voluntary efforts, ought to lead the effort to burn the images that are in his country's museums and libraries. This would be a good example for tout le monde on how tolerance can be achieved by fire. Edict of Milan (Mediolanum), 313 A.D. -- "We have also conceded to other religions the right of open and free observance of their worship for the sake of the peace of our times, that each one may have the free opportunity to worship as each pleases". This was the policy of a Christian Government .. .. .. the policy of the new regime (2011) of peace and tolerance in Egypt is to kill Christians and burn all Christian churches; oh, but you would not be hearing about this from CNN, ABC, NBC, CBS and PBS. And do you think you will hear anything resembling the truth from MSNBC (an affiliate of GE) -- where are the hearings about GE that does not pay taxes and does not want to lose its currently effective exempt status ? The new boss, same as the old boss ?

Old link works againJune 15, 1752: Ben Franklin, assisted by his son, confirms that the energy of lightening is the same electrical force observed in static discharges, which were captured and stored in crude capacitors of the time. A shocking discovery, which fortunately, helps make him a legend in France, rather than a french fry. His status in the Royaume, helped the American cause during the War, but caused some consternation among his diplomatic partners, who thought his ways a bit too wild for a man of his many years.

June 15, 1776: The citizens of Delaware declared their independence from two countries this date, from England and from Pennsylvania with whom the Colony had been forced to share a royal governor. The original Colony in Delaware was established under Swedish jurisdiction (1637); however, when the Dutch sent troops to Delaware in 1655, technical Swedish sovereignty over New Sweden came to an end. Never-the-less, a Swedish and Finnish presence remained very much in evidence. In fact, Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant (Nova York) permitted the Scandinavian colonists to continue to be a Swedish Nation, governed by a court of the local's choosing, free to practice customary religion. This Swedish Nation organized its own militia, retained existing land rights and traded with the native people. This colony continued independent until 1681 when an Englishman, William Penn, received his charter for Pennsylvania, which included the three lower counties that comprise present-day Delaware.

June 16, 1755: The British Army captured Fortress Beauséjour. Now called Fort Cumberland, it played a leading role in the expulsion of the French emigrés from New France, as the new English governor uprooted most of the Acadians of Nova Scotia. It was the 'Grand Derangement' (a Great Exile) and the Acadian population (some 10,000 people) was deported to points all across the settled continent (to destinations like Maine, Boston and Louisiana), in order that the British might consolidate its political hold on the former French lands. Some managed to escape the deportation and came to Iles-de-la-Madeleine off mainland Quebec in the St. Lawrence River. As in any forced removal, many died. The Longfellow poem Evangeline is based on this displacement.

Like unto shipwrecked Paul on Melita's desolate sea-shore,
Thus he approached the place where Evangeline sat . . . .

June 16, 1815: Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte marched into Belgium to find himself confronted by two allied armies, which he tried to split apart. On June 16th, a French attack at the crossroads called Quatre Bras (depicted in a painting by W.B. Wollen) badly mauled the British. Yet French forces failed to rout their enemy or to retain control of the crossroads. Although also badly beaten at Ligny that day, the Prussian army was permitted to retire intact. Both armies would face Napoléon two days later, with a different outcome. British and Prussian troops under joint command of the Duke of Wellington thus defeated Napoléon at the Battle of Waterloo. They did not permit their enemy to withdraw and fight another day.

The French elite troops of the Imperial Guard had worn bearskins to appear more intimidating. Afterwards, Great Britain would utilize tall bear skin hats for soldiers stationed at the Tower of London, those charged with ceremonial duties or placed at the royal residencies. Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington became a hero. Napoléon was finally gone, he would die on a remote island in exile. The disputes that had plagued British / French relations from the 17th Century, and before, were at an end. In a hundred years, they would be allied against the Prussians.

June 16, 1821: Arriving in Scotland this day, Thomas Mitchell Morris, Senior, otherwise known as "Old Tom Morris." Mr. Morris became the pioneer of professional golf, born in the coastal town of St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland. The "home of golf" is logically enough the St. Andrews Links, where the British Open is often played. Old Tom Morris' body rests on the grounds of the St-Andrews Cathedral, and his grave attracts thousands of golfers and visitors. The Cathedral (now in ruins) was the center of Christianity in Scotland until the Reformation. By the middle of the 10th century, the Apostle Andrew had become the patron saint of Scotland. Several legends state that some of his relics arrived from Constantinople to the place where the modern town named after Saint Andrews stands today (Gaelic, Cill Rìmhinn).

The oldest surviving manuscripts, regarding the era, indicate that a man named Regulus brought these relics to the Pictish King Óengus mac Fergusa (729–761AD). The only historical Regulus (or Riagail meaning Rule), a name preserved with the tower of Saint Rule on the Cathedral grounds, was an Irish monk expelled from Ireland with Saint Columba; however, his dates of his life are too early by about 100 years. Therefore, it is now supposed that the relics were originally in the "collection" of a Priest named Acca, Bishop of Hexham, who took them into Pictish countryside when he was driven from Hexham (c. 732). He founded a Bishopric, not, according to tradition, in Galloway, but on the site of St-Andrews Cathedral.

According to legend, in 832 AD, Óengus II led an army of Picts and Scots into battle against the Angles, led by Æthelstan, near modern-day Athelstaneford, East Lothian. The legend states that Óengus was heavily outnumbered and hence whilst engaged in prayer on the eve of battle, he vowed that if granted victory he would appoint Saint Andrew as the Patron Saint of Scotland. On the morning of battle white clouds forming an X shape in the blue sky were said to have appeared. Óengus and his combined force, emboldened by this apparent divine intervention, took to the field and despite being heavily outnumbered obtained victory.

Having interpreted the cloud phenomenon as representing the crux decussate upon which Saint Andrew was martyred, Óengus honored his pre-battle vow and made Saint Andrew the Patron of Alba (Scotland). The white saltire set against a celestial blue background is said to have been adopted as the design of the flag of Scotland on the basis of this legend. There is evidence, however, that Saint. Andrew was venerated throughout Scotland before this battle. See also

The Flag of Scotland, (Scottish Gaelic: "Bratach na h-Alba" in proper Scots: Banner o Scotland), also known as St Andrew's Cross or the "Saltire" is the national flag of Scotland. As the national flag, the Saltire, rather than the Royal Standard of Scotland, is the correct flag to display. The actual word Saltire means 'a cross with diagonal bars of equal length' Saint Andrew first appeared, as a national symbol on a coins of the realm, minted during the reign of Robert III (1390-1406) and his successors. Pictured (along with the Saltire) are a gold Demi Lion (9 shillings) of Robert !!! and from the second reign of Robert II (1403-06) a Lion. Not to be confused; “The reason of the assumption of the thistle as the national badge of Scotland (representing the land not the kingdom) remains largely a matter of mystery, though it is of nothing like an ancient an origin. Of course one knows the time-honoured and wholly impossible legend that its adoption as a national symbol dates from the battle of Largs (1263), when one of the Danish invaders gave away an attempted surprise by his cry of agony caused by stepping barefooted upon a thistle." The fact, however, remains that its earliest appearance is on a silver coinage of 1474, in the reign of James III.

Also pictured are the cathedral ruins at the town named after Saint Andrews.

June 17, 1775: The encounter that lasted less than 2 hours produced one of the deadliest confrontations during the Revolutionary War. The British captured Breed’s Hill on their third attempt, but suffered over 1,000 casualties (226 dead and 828 wounded) -- versus about 440 for the Americans (140 dead and 301 wounded). Patriot General William Prescott allegedly told his men, Don't one of you fire until you see the whites of their eyes !
Bunker Hill ??

Yes Virginia, the Battle at Bunker Hill actually occurred upon Breed’s Hill overlooking Boston. It is doubtful that the Patriot side carried any flag into battle. If it did so, then the standard probably was a red New England flag (above). The existence in history books of a blue Bunker Hill flag (left) is thought to arise from a hand-coloring error in an illustration in a flag identification book dating from 1710.

Le 17 juin 1885: La Statue de la Liberté arrive à New-York. Le navire français Isère, parti du port de Rouen deux mois plus tôt, arrive à New-York, avec à son bord la statue appelée la Liberté éclairant le monde. Symbole de l'amitié entre la France et les États-Unis depuis l'indépendance américaine, cette statue de bronze de 46 mètres de haut est l'oeuvre du sculpteur Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi à Colmar, son armature de fer a été conçu par Gustave Eiffel. L'ouvrage est stocké dans 210 caisses. Le socle, à la charge les Américains, n'étant pas achevé, la statue ne sera inaugurée qu'en octobre 1886.

Our European Allies, a continuing saga - June 18, 1940: On this date during World War II, the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill urged his countrymen to conduct themselves in a manner that would prompt future generations to say, This was their finest hour. Charles de Gaulle, future president of France, broadcast to his nation from London, urging freedom-loving french to rally to him in the fight against Hitler. He had responded to the new (pro-German) Vichy government's call for an armistice with the Nazis -- Le maréchal Pétain prononce à la radio une allocution mémorable: « C'est le cœur serré que je vous dis aujourd'hui qu'il faut cesser le combat ... »

Philippe Pétain at 84 years old was, in French eyes, the hero responsible for vanquishing the Germans in the Great War. He was named Président du Conseil (après la démission de Paul Reynaud). Much of France would become occupied by Nazi forces. Soon after the armistice the new government was installed at Vichy. In July 1940 the National Assembly gave him strong authoritarian power, ending the République. The slogan Work, Family and Patriotism, devised by Pétain, were the words -- national socialism, under German direction, was the method.

In French: Philippe Pétain, 84 ans, le vainqueur de Verdun et l'un des derniers maréchaux survivants de la Grande Guerre, est nommé président du Conseil, après la démission de Paul Reynaud. La moitié de la France étant occupée par les Allemands, il demande aussitôt l'armistice et installe son gouvernement à Vichy. En juillet, l'Assemblée nationale lui donnera les pleins pouvoirs. Pétain mettra alors fin à la République et instaurera, sous la devise "Travail, Famille, Patrie", un État nationaliste et autoritaire, dominé par les Allemands.

While on this date (June 18, 1940), the Soviet Union's occupation of the independent Baltic nations was completed in efficient style -- Hey you, keep your head down!.

For the renegade Soviet intrusion into the German sphere of influence, Stalin (a man of steal) compensated Germany with a payment of 7.5 million gold dollars, which is a whole lot more in today's dollars, euros or pounds. John Kay (at age 4) and his mother fled Soviet-occupied East Germany, an event recounted in a song on the album Steppenwolf Seven. His family resettled in Hanover, West Germany, where Joachim Krauledat (his given name) listened to AFRS radio before his family immigrated to Canada in 1958.

My birthplace would be hard to find -- It changed so many times,
I'm not sure where it belongs.
But they tell me the Baltic coast is full of amber
And the land was green -- before the tanks came !

Speaking of Radio and June 18th, in 1945: William Joyce, known as “Lord Haw-Haw,” was charged this day in London with high treason, because of his English-language wartime broadcasts on German radio for the Reichminster, Joseph Goebbels (Joe would become Reichskanzler in 1945). Although Joyce was born in the USA (brought up in Ireland), he became a German citizen in September of 1939. Unrepentant to the end, he was executed in January 1946, his body dumped into an unmarked grave.

On the same day Joyce was charged (June 18, 1945), U.S. General and future President, Dwight D. Eisenhower, received a tumultuous welcome in Washington, DC. He addressed a joint session of Congress. Eisenhower went on to meet President Harry S. Truman. Just a day later (June 19, 1945), millions of New Yorkers would turn out to cheer General Eisenhower, who received a hero's parade down Broadway. For a while Truman and Eisenhower became fast friends, but politics soon ended this over-familiarity. Dwight David “Ike” Eisenhower true name was David Dwight Eisenhower, born in Texas to a family with German heritage. First arriving in America in 1732, they settled in York, Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania Deutsch).

Eisenhower retired to the place where he and Mamie had spent much of their post-war time, a working farm adjacent to the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, only thirty miles from his ancestral home at York (which he donated in 1967). There for a few years, he had sold amish-style milk and cheese until arrested by the federal food and drug administration (just to see who's reading this closely). Ike's place of birth is not hard to find, operated currently by the State of Texas as the Eisenhower Birthplace State Historic Site. Since 1980, the National Park Service has allowed visitors to the Eisenhower Farm next to the Gettysburg Battlefield. The "Eisenhower Golf Club" at the United States Air Force Academy, a 36-hole facility featuring the Blue and Silver play, is is ranked "Number 1" among Department of Defense 5-star courses. The 18th hole at Cherry Hills Country Club, near Denver, also is named in his honor. Eisenhower was a longtime member of the club, one of his favorite courses.

During a visit to Augusta National, General Eisenhower (who also was an Augusta member) returned from a walk through the woods on the eastern part of the club grounds, and informed Clifford Roberts that he had found a perfect place to build a dam if the club would like a fish pond. Ike's Pond was built and so named, where Eisenhower said it should be placed. Roberts (a New York City financier) was the co-founder with Bobby Jones (an Atlanta Lawyer of some golfing repute) of the Augusta National Golf Club. In the early years, he and Jones personally extended invitations to the tournament. Roberts' friendship with American president Dwight Eisenhower led to making Augusta National his retreat during the Presidential years. The tree that he found so often on the course was not removed.
June 19, 1732: At age 70, Lady Eleanor Wall Oglethorpe died in London. She was born in 1661 in Ireland, but at age 17 became a maid-servant to Madam Carwell in the court of Charles II of England. In 1680, Eleanor -- or Ellen, as she was known -- became head laundress to the king. In her new post, she was given lodging at the rear of the palace -- opposite the quarters of a young major in the Dragoons, Theophilus Oglethorpe. Before year's end, the two were married. Their union produced a series of ten sons and daughters beginning with Lewis in 1682 and ending with James Edward in 1696. After the death of Charles II and the Glorious Revolution of 1688, Theophilus and Ellen went to France to be with the deposed James II. By 1696, however, they reconciled with England's new monarchs -- William and Mary (James' daughter) -- and returned to live permanently in their County Surrey estate in Godalming.

At the time of Sir Theophilus' death on April 10, 1702, Ellen was left to raise the seven children (although some of their daughters had continued to live as Jacobites in France). In Ellen's final years, all of her children were dead or in France except for James Edward, who alone was left to care for his mother (perhaps a reason why he remained unmarried). Her death, however, changed the life of her 35-year-old son, who by now was a member of Parliament. James Oglethorpe devoted his life to making the Georgia Colony a reality. In the fall of 1732, James personally led the first shipload of colonists to America -- and the rest is history.

June 19, 1786: An American hero and general of the Revolutionary War, Nathanael Greene died at his Mulberry Grove plantation near Savannah, Georgia. Eight months earlier, Greene and wife Catharine had taken residence at the plantation, which was a gift from the state legislature for his victorious campaign against British forces in the southern theater of war. At age 44, General Greene suffered from an over-exposure to the Georgia sun, passing on to his greater reward. In a second tribute to the war hero, the Georgia legislature would create Greene County in 1786.

In one sense, Nathanael Greene's early demise later would lead to the War Between the States. In 1792, his widow, Catherine, hired a young Yankee, named Eli, to tutor her children at Mulberry Grove. There he invented the cotton gin. It made growing short-fiber cotton possible, which led to the establishment of a cotton economy throughout the South. In turn this led to a perceived need for slaves, which intensified sectionalism and ultimately split the American Nation. Eli Whitney also invented the concept of interchangeable parts, giving the North a leg up on the manufacture of materials for war. [For more information on Nathanael Greene click here.]

The Statue of Liberty arrived at its permanent home at Bedloe's Island in New York Harbor on June 19, 1885, aboard the French ship Isère. A gift in friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States, the 151-foot-tall statue was created for the centennial of the American Declaration of Independence. Designed by sculptor Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi (Bartholdi Colossus) and officially titled Liberty Enlightening the World, the Statue of Liberty has symbolized freedom and democracy to the nation and to the world for over 120 years. The statue is constructed of hand-shaped copper sheets, assembled on a framework of steel supports designed by engineers Eugene-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc and Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel. For transit to America, the figure was broken down into 350 separate pieces and packed in 214 crates; A contemporary report. 20, 1628: The Clan Mackay (motto: Manu Forti - with a strong hand), a Scottish clan from the country's far north in the Scottish Highlands, has roots in the old province of Moray. The traditional seat of the Mackays was at Castle Varrich (14th Century). Clan MacKay fought under William Wallace at the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1296) to vanquish the English. The clan served with Robert Bruce (1314) at the Battle of Bannockburn. Several hundred years of inter-clan warfare follows. Even as James of Scotland becomes King of England, the clans still are fighting against British foes. On June 20, 1628, Chief of Clan Mackay, Donald, became Baron Reay (of Reay) in the Peerage of Scotland by Charles I, which Donald supports during the English Civil War (as a result Lord Reay died in exile in Denmark in 1649). At Fort Fredrika (St. Simons Island, GA), 100 years later, a group of Highlanders led by Charles MacKay from Durness (Diuranais) Scotland help James Oglethorpe ambush invading Spanish forces in July 1742, thereby securing control of Southern Georgia (north of the Altamaha River) for the British Empire.

From The Correct History of Clann MacAoidgh (The Clan Mackay), Dr. Gary Mckay (1999).

Around 710 A.D., three separate tribes leave Ireland from a region known as Dalriada and land in what is now known as Argyll and the southern Hebrides. One of the tribes is known as the C'nel Lorne, the progenitors of Clann MacAoidh (son of Hugh). The C'nel Lorne are descended from Ædh, grand-son of the Irish King N'iall. In the 12th Century, the Mac Ædh/Mac Æd/Mac Heths (all variations of the Gælic pronunciation of the time) become a virtual separate kingdom around the Moray Firth on Scotland's middle north eastern coast; but, within 100 years, a series of losses causes a migration north and west into the Highlands into the region of the Strathnaver (Cape Wrath at the north coast to Caithness {Keith} border). To finish, Clann M'hic Aoidgh is one of the most famous and certainly oldest of the true Gælic Clanns.

If you are blood-related to Clan MacKay, as am I, then you may count King Niall of Ireland, King David of Scotland, and of course, Macbeth as your ancestors. A history of Scotland is HERE. Interestingly, Niall once took Saint Patrik hostage, yet Niall's great-great grandson is Saint Columba. One may include in Niall's list of relations (and your cousins) today's British Royal family. Research suggests as many as 1 in 12 men in Ireland (and up to 3 million worldwide) descend directly from King Niall, bolstering the oft-cited claim that the ancient warlord founded a dynasty that dominated Ireland for centuries. National Geographic News

June 20, 1661: On this day, a fleet of canoes carrying Westo, or Chichimeco, native raiders descended the Altamaha River to attack and destroy the Spanish mission to the Guale of Santo Domingo de Talaje near present-day Darien, GA. The survivors from the mission fled to Sapelo Island and later re-established a town on the north end of Saint Simons Island. The Westo / Chichimeco, armed with muskets from Virginia and (later) South Carolina traders, preyed for the next two decades on Spanish missions in Georgia and other native villages in search of slaves they could capture and sell to the British for inter alia more weapons.

It is a little known fact that the Spanish rulers established more missions along the Georgia and Florida coasts than they did along the Pacific Coast of California (and at an earlier time). A short explanation and list of Georgia missions can be found: HERE -- A Coastal Map: HERE. Santa Isabel (Mission Santa Isabelle de Utinahica) was different — a spartan, tenuous foothold in the vast unexplored interior — linked to the coast 100 miles away by a wild river and overland Indian trails. Mission Santa Isabelle probably was staffed by a single friar. His flock, the Utinahica tribal unit, were one of a dozen or so native chiefdoms in the Southeast at the time, a part of the Timucua people, who are the ancestors of the modern Creek nation. The exact site is unknown, but it is somewhere between the Ocmulgee and Oconee rivers at the point where the streams merge to form the Altamaha, about 150 miles south of today's Atlanta (near Jacksonville in Telfair County).

June 20, 1793: Eli Whitney applied for a patent for his new invention, the cotton gin. The patent was granted in March 1794, and Whitney and a partner began manufacturing gins. The invention was very successful, but their business sense was not as keen. Instead of outright sale of gins, they proposed a fee system where cotton crop planters paid Whitney's partnership the equivalent of 40 percent of the cotton ginned. Planters balked, and because the cotton gin was of fairly simple design, other companies began offering copies. The partnership failed, but the cotton gin went on to change the economic and political history of the South.

As an example -- Georgia merchant, planter (ROSNY Plantation), politician and lawyer, ROBERT WATKINS, began cotton ginning on his farm, which is now taken up by Bush Field (Augusta Port Authority). In 1796, Robert published the following announcement in the Augusta Chronicle (July 16, 1796): "MACHINE FOR CLEANING COTTON BY ROLLERS. The subscriber begs leave to inform the cotton planters of Georgia and South Carolina, that he has constructed a machine for cleaning cotton by rollers, which he will lay before the public, in the following manner:

Six __??__ or shares will be allowed for each county in this state and South Carolina, at 60 dollars per share; as many persons as __??__ may be concerned in a share, and the purchasers shall have the privilege of making as many as they think proper; but all the machines belonging to a share, may be kept in one place only, and within the limits of the county for which the share is taken. After the first of September a model of this machine may be seen at Petersburg, and after the 12th of the same month, at Augusta. Three or four disinterested persons of respectability will be appointed, at both places, to view the operation of the machine, and if they adjudge it competent for cleaning cotton in the most expeditious manner without injuring the staple, the purchasers must pay the money before they can see it.

This machine is easily constructed; any persons knowing how to use common carpenter's tools, is capable of doing the wood work, and almost any smith can, by having patterns, make the iron work with ease-- the whole expense of making one is very trifling; two or three persons are sufficient for attending one of any size. -- ROBERT WATKINS"

At the same time, Longstreet was working on his machine. "The most famous manufacturer in Augusta was the merchant William Longstreet. By 1788 he and Isaac Briggs obtained a patent for exclusive use of their steam engine. Four years later he had a working model of the machine. It could be used for operating saw mills, grist mills or even for propelling a boat. It ran without wheels, cogs or cranks, and was capable of 45 stokes per minute. With a few weeks of tinkering, his little engine could do 155 strokes per minute. If only he could figure a use for it ... When he heard about Eli Whitney's cotton gin, Longstreet adapted his engine to a gin of his own design and claimed that it was superior to Whitney's. To vouch for his gin, he appointed a blue ribbon committee consisting of George Walton {kin to Robert, both kin to this Webmaster}, John Course, ROBERT WATKINS, Thomas Cumming and John Catlett. Robert Watkins, honestly stated that Longstreet's machine was no better than other gins. Longstreet's real interest was to put his engine on the water ... After years of effort, the inventor succeeded in actually propelling a boat on the river [in 1808]." from Story of Augusta, Edward J. Cashin, The Reprint Company Publishers, Spartanburg, SC (August 1991): Hardcover reprint of the volume originally published by Richmond County Board of Education, Augusta, Georgia ©1980 (Whitney's story is on the few pages previous to Longstreet's).

An Isaac Briggs, was the secretary of the Georgia Convention that ratified the US Constitution (which gathering began December 25, 1787) -- When Congress established the position of Surveyor-General an Isaac Brigs was the first appointed to that position -- same person ? The answer is yes. Until about 1803 a young Isaac Briggs had land in Georgia in Richmond County; afterwards he was "based" in Maryland. Today, the papers from his life reside at the University of Maryland. Thomas Jefferson personally paid him for surveys of the west that Congress refused to fund. Briggs performed some of the original survey work on the Mississippi and Alabama territories after they were ceded by Georgia.

William Longstreet (of Dutch Heritage), the inventor, was the grandfather of General James Longstreet, Lee's controversial "war horse" leader. And James, he was General Grant's lifelong friend from the time they were classmates at West Point. Grant had another good friend who stayed with him through thick and thin. This friend, General William T. Sherman, visited Georgia a few times in his life. Continuing in "the small world department," a descendent of Mr. Watkins married a descendent of one of the MacKay's of New Inverness Georgia and Fredrika. Thus, may I claim King Niall as a direct heritage, like millions of others. Also, my wife's great-grandfather served under Longstreet: He was discharged at Appomattox Court House along with my great-great grandfather in 1865.

Pfarrei und Kirche 
St. Alban BodenheimJune 21 ca. 406: June 21 is Saint Alban's day. Legend, more than historical certainty, attests to the martyrdom of Alban in Mainz {Mayence}. He is said to have died by decapitation during an attack by the Vandals in about 406. He is sometimes confused with another St. Alban a martyr of England from an earlier period (the English Saint Alban was, along with saints Julius and Aaron, one of three converts who lost their heads overlooking the Roman town of Verulamium, province of Britannia. This British Alban's feast is celebrated on June 22nd in the Eastern and Western churches).

The first structure dedicated to Alban (im Döllwang etwa zwölf Kilometer südlich von Neumarkt and about 20 miles north of Ingolstadt) was begun in 1074AD at the behest of Bischof Gundekar II von Eichstätt. The Kirche was im Bau on and off for another 800 years. It still remains, whereas the Benedictine Monastery Church of St. Alban, later serving one of the oldest parishes in Köln, was destroyed by allied bombing during World War II. The ruins have been left standing in the northern portion of the Kölner Altstadt, citi-centre of Cologne, as a reminder of the horrors of war. The first structure dated from the Frankish period in a Roman cemetery. Several more were built on the site.'s_Abbey,_Mainz

The Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, designed by German architect Oswald Mathias Ungers, is an easy ten-minute walk away from the river, in the very heart of old Cologne. The elegant but severe museum cube, faced with basalt lava and sandstone tuff from the Eifel hills nearby, is bordered by the ruins of the Gothic church of St. Alban and the Gürzenich, a trade center dating from the 17th century that was enlarged after World War II (with an annex by architect Rudolf Schwarz).

Rome was not plundered in a day: Who can question the action of the Holy Ghost ? Especially when it took five ballots. It would be presumptuous to do so; but, to assume that the decision made is the work of the Spirit, is itself a position taken in shifting sand. It appears to this observer that the progressive powers and prelate principalities, which have set adrift the Episcopal Church, USA for the last 30 years or more (as they have tried to do in many other denominations), continue to determine policy, unabated by declining numbers and undaunted by the good counsel of others in the Anglican Communion. In reply to the frequent query: “Will you leave the Episcopal Church in the light of its apostasy ?” leaders in the American Anglican Council (AAC) and of the Anglican Communion Network (ACN) usually reply: “The Episcopal Church has left us. We have not left it. Thus we are going nowhere, for we are where we should be.” [a call to radical orthodoxy -- Further they {the reformers} use and treat the 1979 Book as though it truly were The Book of Common Prayer and The Formulary for them]

Former US Ambassador to the United Nations, the Rev. John Danforth said: “If we can't hold ourselves together, it's hard to see how we can [be] a force to hold the world together; and, if we can't exchange the peace with one another, it is hard to explain to [other] people how we purport to be agents of [His] peace.” Who can question that thought ? So it is unsurprising that the outside world views all of this as they would a football match during the World Cup, if their home team is not out on the field.

While it is true that some bishops of the Episcopal Church have more in common with a crystal-gazing Californian housewife than George Herbert, it is also true that Anglican dioceses in the developing world have been hijacked by poisonously bigoted Bible-bashers [in the US one might say Bible-thumpers]. from

The head of the Anglican Communion, Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams has said, in a statement on June 19th, the day after Bishop Jefferts-Schori’s election as the 26th Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, USA, “she will bring many intellectual and pastoral gifts to her new work and I am pleased to see the strength of her commitment to mission and to the (United Nations’) Millennium Development goals.” However, he noted also that “her election will undoubtedly have an impact on the collegial life of the Anglican Primates; and it also brings into focus some continuing issues in several of our ecumenical dialogues.”

For “the actor in a sacramental act, the validity of the sacramental act is not dependent on the holiness or qualities of the actor,” Jefferts-Schori has explained. To think otherwise she states is the “heresy of Donatism.” Compare and contrast the views of another Bishop: “It’s Gnosticism to think that you have new hidden information no one else has,” saying “the vast majority of Anglicans have not accepted the concept of the ordination of women as bishops and the vast majority of Catholic Christians around the world don’t accept women’s holy orders at all. To think that she is going to educate people ... [against] what the Catholic Church has believed for over 2000 years is feminist hysterics.” The bidding war is on. see generally It is a reflection of our age; at its core is a pagan heart that assumes it has the ultimate revelation.

Hera, the greek mother-goddess name means protectress. It is related to the word “hero,” which originally meant a “defender or protector.” In contrast “heresy” is generally thought of as “an opinion of private men different from that of the catholick and orthodox church [Samuel Johnson].” It derives from Old French heresie, earlier from the Latin hæresis, meaning a “school of thought, philosophical sect.” Often used, the Latin hæresis is employed by early Christian writers to mean an “unorthodox sect or doctrine.” The word is in Greek, hairesis, “a taking or choosing,” It derives from haireisthai “take, seize,” of earlier unknown origin. The Greek koinos was used in New Testament books and the forms of haireisthai are used to refer to the Sadducees, Pharisees {Scribes}, and even the Christians, as sects of Judaism. In the English Bible translations, however, the English word used is usually sect. The meaning “religious belief opposed to the orthodox doctrines of the universal [Catholic] Church” evolved in liturgical latin in the Dark Ages.

This discussion is no academic exercise. Money and Power are at stake. For instance, look at what has happened in Savannah. Founded in 1733, with the establishment of the Georgia colony, Christ Church (Anglican tradition) is the longest continuous parish in Georgia. Early rectors include the English evangelists John Wesley and George Whitefield. Although the greek-revival structure (looks a lot like Église Saint Pothin in Lyon) is much later (1838), Christ Church still is located on its original site on Johnson Square (28 Bull Street). A great experience recounted, well-written and moving: Unfortunately, the Presiding Bishop had her way (au chemin de l'honneur) and this congregation lost its historic home. No, the building was not torn down, the existing congregation lost it to a competing group in the appeal process. The case was settled in May 2012 because the Congregation could not afford further appeals, while the presiding bishop had unlimited endowment money into which to tap: The Anglican parish left at the end of the summer in 2013.

June 21, 1919: In protest against the unexpected and harsh conditions in the proposed Treaty of Versailles and against the continuing naval blockade of his nation, German Chancellor Scheidemann resigns. Also in protest, sailors of the interned German fleet scuttle their 50 warships in the harbor, at Scapa Flow. Note: The United States Senate declined to ratify the Versailles treaty and the USA arranged a separate treaty.

Ship Rajah -- Antoine Roux, Marseilles June 22, 1807: The British demand to search an American military vessel, which demand was declined. The British man-of-war Leopard fired upon, then boarded the U.S. frigate Chesapeake. James Barron, the American commander, was convicted following a court-martial for this incident. The tribunal found Barron unprepared for action. This incident, along with a few others, led to War in June of 1812. A little-known side-bar: Stephen Decatur, a judge in the military trial, died in a duel some eight years after that war began. The survivor of the duel was James Barron.

Shown below, right: US Brig Rajah of Beverly {Salem, Massachusetts} -- Captain Josiah Lovett: There was a 120 ton ship (built secretly for the pepper trade circa 1795 sailing at least until 1808) and a larger vessel (maiden voyage circa 1818 -- 250 tons on the route to Sumatra via Marseille). This picture is attributed to the heavier one; but note the US Flag, which looks to be from an earlier time. The painting is thought to be by Antoine Roux, Jr. (1799-1872). Several French artists of ships bear the Roux name, and Antoine Roux, Sr. was very famous and could have done this picture, too. The painting probably was based on a stop at Marseilles.

The county seat of DeKalb County GA is Decatur, Georgia. It was named for American hero Commodore Stephen Decatur (1779-1820), a distinguished officer of the U. S. Navy, perhaps best remembered for his saying: Our country, in her [relations] with foreign nations may she always be right; but our country, right or wrong. Also well known is his daring raid (1804) to burn the U.S. frigate Philadelphia, which had been captured by moslem pirates and held at Tripoli harbor. He later served with honor in command of the warships USS United States and USS President during the War of 1812. Commodore Decatur's success against the North-african pirate-states (Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli -- June 30, 1815) won for him a premier place in the pantheon of American heroes. The town of Decatur GA was incorporated on December 10, 1823.

June 23, 1683: English Quaker William Penn, an advocate of peace and religious toleration, signs a treaty with Natives of Pennsylvania. Voltaire said the agreement was the only treaty never sworn to and never broken. The treaty was with the Lenni Lenape, a name that belongs to the Algonquian language family, a tribe which the English called the Delaware., see also A legend about the Leni Lenape

The name DELAWARE was given to the people who lived along the river that in turn was named after Lord Thomas Leighton WEST, 3rd Lord de la Warr, one-time governor of the Jamestown {Virginia} colony. The name Delaware later came to be applied to almost all Lenape people. In their language, LENAPE (len-NAH-pay) means something like The People. The Lenapi were among the first Natives to come in contact with the Europeans (Dutch, English, & Swedish) in the early 1600s. The Delaware often are called the Grandfather tribe for its role as a peacemaker, settling disputes among rival tribes. Also known for fierceness and tenacity as warriors, the tribe's preferred path became peaceful relations with other tribes and the new strangers to the land, a characteristic we still have not learned.

June 24th: During the reign of the French King Clovis, the annual summer-solstice pagan event became a religious celebration of the birth of Saint John the Baptist, who is known as the Precursor of Christ, the light of the world – thus the link with the solstice and the bonfires. The festival of Saint-Jean-Baptiste had particular importance for France. The King of France would light the bonfire in the nights of June 23 and 24 in Paris. Once in America, those of French heritage continued to celebrate, by then in a very pious, religious festival with processions, such as in the streets of Quebec City. St-Jean Baptiste became the patron saint of French Canadians as a result of the centuries of recognition and influence from the time of early colonization (1615).

The Catholic Cathedral of St. John the Baptist sits in historic downtown Savannah, Georgia. Founded in 18th Century by French colonists, it stands in contrast to the Huguenot Church in Charlestown SC, established by refugee Protestants from France. Savannah was tolerant of many faiths at this time. Other places in the Colonies of Britain were not. Possibly/probably these were French from Canada (Arcadian) who found comfort in Georgia following their exile after the French & Indian War. Also of interest:

The Christmas Eve issue (2008) of The Wall Street Journal had an article in the last section about the chapel at the Église St-Jean-Baptiste (Picture on the page that is HERE). It begins by saying that Bourbourg is a town typical of the region, which until now was not alone a reason to get off the road from Calais to Dunkerque to visit. The attraction featured involved the intersection of sculpture and architecture, a merger of beauty and functionality, the work of Anthony Caro.

A mid-reign George III SovereignJune 1348 (10th or 24th): Saint George was adopted by Edward III as principal patron of the king's new order of chivalry, the Knights of the Garter. An old story recounts that while the King was dancing with the Countess of Salisbury at a magnificent court ball, the lady lost her garter. As Edward III retrieved it and handed it to her, he noticed several people smiling and indulging in remarks. Becoming angry, he exclaimed in French: Honi soit qui mal y pense (Dishonour be to him who thinks evil of it). Then, he added that he would make the little blue garter so glorious that everyone would wish to wear it. This tale may or may not be true; yet, the Order was founded by King Edward III with its emblem being a dark blue garter, edged in gold, on which are printed the French words that the King spoke.

Some of the founding members include # 1 Edward, Prince of Wales. Known since 1569 as the Black Prince. The hero of the battles of Crécy and Poitiers, he died in his father's lifetime; # 2 Henry (Plantagenêt), styled of Lancaster. Earl of Derby, afterwards Duke of Lancaster, he served in the wars against the Scots, the Dutch, and French, Admiral of the Fleet and Steward of England -- An earlier Henri Plantagenêt was Henry II, King of England; # 3 Thomas (Beauchamp), 3rd Earl of Warwick, Marshal of England, he fought at the battles of Crécy and Poitiers; # 4 Sir John de Grailly, Vicomte de Benanges et Castillon, Captal (i.e. Governor) de Buch, he fought under the Black Prince at Poitiers.

St. George's Day is celebrated on April 23rd, so, in a sense, this is England's national holiday. In modern times, Saint George was chosen by Baden-Powell, founder of the Scouting movement, to be the association's patron. On Saint George's Day, scouts are instructed to remember their Promise and the Scout Law. In the handbook Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell recounted that the Knights of the Round Table had adopted Saint George as their patron because he was the only one of all the saints who had been a horseman.

In addition to being the Patron Saint of England (Cry God for Harry, England and St. George ! [Henry V, Act 3, Scene 1]), George is the Patron Saint of Aragon, Lithuania, Palestine, Portugal, Germany and Greece. He is the Patron Saint of Catalonia, where legend has it that, after killing the dragon, he gave the princess a red rose and, as a result, on April 23rd it is traditional (especially in the City of Barcelona) for men to give their sweethearts or wives a red rose and the lady in question reciprocates the gesture with the gift of a book. He is also the Patron Saint of Moscow, Istanbul, Genoa and Venice (where he is second in veneration only to Saint Mark), as well as being the Patron Saint of the State of Georgia.

Saint George is the traditional patron of the Orthodox Church. see Constantinople (now pronounced Istanbul) has been the center of the Eastern Christian Church since Constantine moved the Roman capital there in the 4th century. To this day, the city remains the home of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, who is recognized as the first among equals of all Orthodox spiritual leaders. The Orthodox Patriarchate was briefly headquartered in the Church of the Holy Apostles in the 15th century, but that office soon was transferred to the Theotokos Pammacaristos Church (now Fethiye Mosque). It remained there until 1586, when it moved to St. George Church. The building of Saint George had been part of a monastery before it acceded to the Orthodox Patriarchate.

June 24, 1497: John Cabot in the ship Matthew discovers North America, securing England's claims to the New World. He is from Genoa, but is sailing for the English King, Henry VII. He sets a big foot in Canada, eh.

He was a man of vision, too. John Cabot sought to reach Asia by sailing west across the north Atlantic. He estimated that this would be better than the longer Columbus route. In England, Cabot received the backing which Spain and Portugal had refused him. The merchants of Bristol agreed to support his scheme. They had sponsored probes into the north Atlantic from the early 1480s, looking for possible trading opportunities. Some historians think that Bristol mariners might even have reached Newfoundland and Labrador before Cabot arrived on the scene. English King Henry VII hired John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) to explore the New World for England. That is all we will really know.

It is a mystery what Cabot found on his first successful voyage and even when the discovery occurred, other than to say sometime during June-July 1497 he landed somewhere along the coast of what today is a Canadian province. There is simply no surviving first-hand account of what happened. Cabot would disappear on his last voyage for the English, in search of Japan. -- a fascinating tale told here !!!

The Berlin Airlift begins June 26, 1948

June 24, 1948: West Berlin, Germany, physically located entirely within communist-held East Germany, was isolated completely from the Western world on this day. Joseph Stalin, premier of Soviet Union, who had already cut rail and road access to the city for three months, now blocked all ground and water entry. He cut electric power to the Western sector. Within a few days, the great Berlin Airlift began. U.S. planes flew up to 13,000 tons of goods per day into the city for the next 10 months. Stalin lifted the blockade on May 23, 1949. Berlin--Retracing the Cold War begins at: See also USAFE Berlin Airlift Web Site; more here too. The organization of CARE was involved in the process of giving humanitarian aid, in the face of Soviet domination.

Airlift Map of Germany and Berlin

More Choices -- June 25th: It is sometimes difficult what to choose, if anything, about a day in history. Surely there is something worthy to ponder about every day; but, then one must always ask why ? On June 25, 1876, George Armstrong Custer and the 265 men under his command lost their lives in a skirmish with thousands of native peoples. The Battle of Little Big Horn, often referred to as Custer's Last Stand, concerns several different actions that took place that day in close proximity to one another.

A guerrilla movement in South Korea (ROK) had been quashed, after two years of extensive conflict. Is it coincidence that on the same date in 1950, what has become known as the Korean War began when North Korean troops (DPRK) crossed the 38th parallel at 11 places ? The Security Council of the United Nations called for an immediate cessation of hostilities, and asked the DPRK troops to head back north. At the end of June 1950, the DPRK had taken Seoul and threatened complete dominance of the theater. It was not until July 8th that General Douglas MacArthur became supreme commander of the opposition alliance and the tide turned. Yet even then, it took some effort to get organized, as by September 8th, at its farthest advance, North Korea held most of the Korean peninsula, except for a UN beachhead around Pusan in the southeast. By October 31st the counter-offensive had reached Manchuria and the Chinese border. Intervention by the Peoples Republic (the PRC had a million volunteers to through into the fight) pushed back. The Allied advance retreated to the 38th parallel, where the stalemate that we have today ensued. The war still goes on after 60 years -- in 2010 North Korea sunk a South Korean ship. The US cautions restraint.

Charles Messier (June 26, 1730 - April 12, 1817): The great nebulæ discoverer and cataloger Charles Messier had a long life and accomplished much. He almost discovered Halley's comet, but due to a math error by another, he was looking somewhere else. However, he did find another comet on August 14, 1758, which he followed and carefully observed with telescopes until November 2, 1758. During these observations (on August 28, 1758), he discovered another comet-like patch in the constellation called Taurus. Evidently, it turned out that this patch was not moving, not a comet, but a nebula. He measured its position on September 12, 1758, and it later became the first entry, M1, in his soon-to-be famous catalog. Moreover, this objéct later turned out to be one of the most interesting objects in the sky, the remnant of the supernova of 1054, now commonly called the Crab nebula. It was also this first discovery of a comet-like nebula that triggered Messier to both look for comets with telescopes (thereby inventing comet hunting, a new discipline of astronomy in those days) and to compile his catalog of nebulous-like objects which might be mistaken for comets.

The French Revolution began with the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, and 4 years later, this culminated in the Year of Terror in France, 1793-1794. That year, the French King Louis XVI was guillotined on January 21, and Messier's friend, Assembly President Bouchart de Saron, on April 20, 1794, shortly after he had calculated the orbit of Messier's comet discovered on September 27, 1793, and Messier could notify him secretly that he had found the comet on the calculated path. The terrorism ended when finally Robbespierre himself was guillotined on July 27, 1794. During this time of unrest, Messier lost his salaries and pension, and had to ask for a loan even for oil for his lamp. His family lost its estate during 1793. Messier left France for Italy, but returned to Paris in 1795.

June 27th - a follow-up: The UN Security Council, during the temporary absence of the Soviet representative, who could have vetoed the whole idea, asked members of the United Nations to furnish assistance to the Republic of Korea (ROK-South Korea). The U.S. at once intervened to help stem the illegal North Korean advance that had begun on the 25th. The President ordered the Air and Naval Forces to go to the immediate aid of the South Koreans. He also sent the fleet to Taiwan, in order to keep things cool there. see also Actual hostilities occurred from June 27, 1950 to July 27, 1953. Interestingly, in 2008, on this day, North Korea blows up the cooling tower of one of its nuclear facilities alleged to be used for nuclear bomb making. Most in the media rejoiced at this action as showing North Korea's sincerity about Peace in our Time.

In the morning of the 27th (1950) in Texarkana, Texas, employees at the Red River Arsenal saw an unidentified bright aluminum-colored objéct silently dart across the sky (7:50am local time), heading due south -- a mystery never solved. It was not the only thing going on in 1950: --

June 28th -- A busy date in history, indeed: In 1119, a battle at Sarmada (Syria) saw Emir Ilghazi defeat the French Crusaders. The massacre led to the name of the battle, ager sanguinis, Latin for "the field of blood." Just a few survived, including Walter the Chancellor (of Antioch), who later wrote a first-hand account of the slaughter. The Serbs would lose their independence to the Turks on this day in 1389, blaming the Albanians (a sin never forgiven, which continues in the penance imposed on Kosovo today). In 1914, Arch-Duke Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungary Empire, would be killed in the Balkans (Sarajevo) by Serbian nationalists, leading to the First World War. Exactly five years later (1919) at Versailles, the Allies would impose terms and conditions on the Germans that would lead to the next World-wide conflict. Indeed, Marshall Foch (Head of Allied Forces) is reported to have remarked that the treaty was not one of peace, but only an Armistice for twenty years. Hitler would later relish the change in circumstances by imposing his peace on the French Nation in the same place (June 25, 1940); but, today in Nazi history (June 28, 1934), Hitler would fly to Essen to attend a wedding. But, this is just a prelude to what will be known as the Night of the Long Knives (30th June), which decapitates the SA. By the way, the Serbs aligned with whom during WWII ???
June 28, 2009: Pope Benedict XVI announced that scientific tests (carbon 14) may confirm what Catholic tradition has always held, specifically that the body of the Apostle Paul lies under the papal altar in the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls. The announcement was made today in the basilica during the homily of the First Vespers of the Feast Day of Saints Peter and Paul, which brought the Pauline Year to a close, a year that celebrated 2,000 years since the birth of the Apostle of Tarsus.

June 29, 1721: On Saint Peter's feast day (today called the Solemnity of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Apostles), some eleven years before the Georgia Colony was established, Johann De Kalb was born in Hüttendorf, (near Erlangen and Nuremburg). In 1777, De Kalb accompanied the Marquis de Lafayette (Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier) and a group of French soldiers to America to fight the British. The Continental Congress made De Kalb a major general in the Continental Army. Major General Johann Kalb, Baron De Kalb, fatally wounded in battle at Camden, South Carolina, died in 1780. In 1822, the Georgia General Assembly recognized the contributions of this Revolutionary War hero by creating DeKalb County. Two sites with information about these two men and other foreign born patriots, who came over to support the American cause: --

French army trained, the Baron de Kalb came to America with earned rank and a title. Yet, he was not a Baron by birth. Born of country farming stock, from a small town of huts, soon he realized that one goes nowhere in the French Army without a title. So Monsieur Baron De Kalb fought with the French during the French Indian War. He was eager to join the American cause against the British; yet, when captured by the British, as he lay dying, it is said that he was treated with profound respect and given top-rate medical treatment in the field.

June 29, 1995: The U.S. Postal Service released a set of 20 Civil War commemorative stamps. Three of the stamps featured Georgia-related subjects: Stand Watie (Georgia-born Cherokee native and Confederate general), General Joseph E. Johnston (who commanded most of the Confederate defense during Sherman's Atlanta Campaign and who later was Confederate commander for Georgia and the Carolinas), and General William T. Sherman (who in 1844 as a young Army officer was stationed in Marietta for six weeks, but is better remembered for his fiery march through Georgia 20 years later).

June 30, 1688: The Immortal Seven issue the Invitation to William of Orange (continuing the English rebellion from Rome), which would culminate in what would be called the "Glorious Revolution" in the same year. His wife Mary would also become his co-ruler, but would not produce an heir. Her sister Anne would follow (she married the Prince of Denmark, who although Protestant could not become King), also childless at her death. Both were the daughters of the deposed James II who fled from Britain. George I of Hannover would follow as King.

Through King James I by way of Elizabeth (Queen of Bohemia) and her husband Duke of Brunswick (then the head of the House of Hanover), George it turns out was a cousin to the Stuart rulers (of whom Anne was the last). He also was of the lineage of King Henry I of England (Henry being a son of William I, England's first Norman King). Thus, on October 20, 1714, Georg Ludwig, Elector of Hanover, was crowned King George I of merry olde England and the rest of Great Britain on the Stone of Scone.

The signatories to the original invitation were:

Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds, known at his death as Earl of Danby and Marquess of Carmarthen; Charles Talbot, 1st Duke of Shrewsbury, later Earl of Shrewsbury; William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire (later Earl-he had espoused The Hon. Rachel Russell (1674–1725), daughter of William, Lord Russell on June 21, 1688); Richard Lumley, 2nd Viscount Lumley and later, 1st Earl of Scarborough; The Lord Bishop of London (Henry Compton); Admiral of the Fleet Edward Russell, 1st Earl of Orford; Viscount Henry Sydney (Sydney), who wrote the Invitation, later Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1692–3) --- again bringing to mind the famous maxim: If Treason prospers, none dare call it Treason.

The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. As Lord Bishops he was one of the Wardens of the City. The See of the diocese is in the City, where the Bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Paul. The church was founded as a Bishopric cathedral in 604 AD and fully was rebuilt from 1675, following the Great Fire of London (1666). The location of Londinium's original cathedral is uncertain. In 1688 this was a very new structure, a Christopher Wren church. The Bishop of London remains one of the 26 Lords Spiritual in the House of Lords. He has been regarded as the "King's Bishop," historically having a considerable influence with members of the Royal Family and leading politicians of the day. Until the American Revolution, The Lord Bishop of London oversaw the work of the Anglican Church in the 13 Colonies. Henry Compton was nominated on December 6, 1675 and confirmed on February 8, 1676. Henry Lord Bishop Compton died in office on the 7th of July 1713. .Alaska Statehood 2:30pm local time June 30, 1958 
49th Star pinned to Federal Courthouse Flag

June 30, 1785: After a short and unexpected illness, Georgia founder James Edward Oglethorpe passed away at age 88+. At his side was Elizabeth, his wife of 41 years. His death came at Cranham Hall, an Essex estate inherited by his wife prior to their marriage. Only 100 feet away from Cranham Hall is the Parish Church of All Saints, where the Oglethorpe family had maintained membership for four decades. Not only was the general's funeral service held here, but a burial vault for the church's most famous parishioner was created beneath the floor at the center front of the church.

Two of the members of the Corporation of Georgia were Thomas and John LaRoche, was one also Oglethorpe's kin ? John is clearly French, but what of Thomas ? Lady Eleanor Wall's father was Richard WALL of Rathkenny in Tipperary and her mother, Catherine [de la] ROCHE. Catherine's father was Lord Roche. It is said that she was born in Ireland, so one might think she is from that line, upon which Sir Walter Raleigh and his Queen took revenge. In support is : which also claims that Thomas was of Scottish heritage, too. John Drummond of the Scottish Drummond Bank was also a corporate member and treasurer of the royally chartered concern. A few years later an Isaac LaRoche would marry an Elizabeth Drummond, both of Georgia -- Coincidence, or perhaps a not unsubstantial clue about my heritage.

June 30, 1908: An explosion near the Tunguska River in Siberia instantly vaporized much of what occupied some 300 square kilometers, an area that encircled the impact site of an estimated 60 meter diameter stony meteorite. Because the site was remote, it was many years before the first research expeditions were made into the area

The Last Indian-head Cent

A year later on the other side of the world, another explosion of sorts, when 35,000 Baseball fans help to dedicate a new Sports Stadium. The largest assemblage ever gathered at any Ball Park to date, anywhere, enjoyed ideal weather conditions and impressive ceremonies, including concerts by two (count 'em two) marching bands. Brief speeches, as one might expect, preceded the game. The Pittsburgh Pirates hosted the Chicago Cubs, when Forbes Field opened on June 30th (1909). -Do you know which team prevailed that fateful day ? Forbes Field is long gone (last game June 28, 1970), although the home plate that Maz crossed in 1960 still rests in place and under glass at CMU. Indeed, the next ballpark (Three Rivers Stadium) also has been razed. In its place is Heinz Field..

First Lincoln-head cent

June 30, 1958 -- Alaska Statehood: New star added to flag on the US Courthouse in Anchorage.
Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls

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qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

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