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An historical recounting for the entire months:  January -- February -- March -- April -- May -- June -- July -- August -- September -- October -- December -- Current Newsletter

Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground. Quote from Noah Webster, US writer & lexicographer (10/16/1758 – 05/28/1843)

In case you have forgotten, November 22nd (2018) will be Thanksgiving Day in the USA: We have a Thanksgiving image of a group of stiff collars, people dressed in black and white, eating turkey, pumpkin pie and corn on the cob. They sit at a picnic table with a bunch of fully head-dressed native Americans on a bright, colorful New England fall day. The people were called pilgrims because they moved around a lot. The Pilgrims called the meal “thanksgiving” because they appreciated how much the locals had helped them in the past year. All of this takes place on a conveniently large stone called Plymouth Rock in 1620; we are sure of this, because the granite edifice is so dated. More than just the style of dress is wrong with this picture. We discuss this image and much more HERE.

Lesson appointed for the Sunday next before Advent:

“Behold, the days are coming,” says the LORD, “when I will raise up a righteous Branch to David; As king he shall reign and govern wisely, he shall do what is just and right on the earth. In his days Judah shall be saved, Israel shall dwell in security. This is the name they give him: The LORD our righteousness. Therefore, the days will come,” says the LORD, “when one shall no longer say, As the LORD lives, who brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; but rather, As the LORD lives, who led the house of Israel up from the land of the north and from all the lands to which they were banished; these descendants shall again live on their own land.” Jeremiah 5-8 {link has Jerome's Latin rendering}

Pope Anastasius I was Pope from November 27, 399 until 401AD. He condemned the writings of the theologian Origen (Alexandria). Among Anastasius' colleagues were Saints Augustine, Jerome and Paulinus (of Nola). St. Jerome speaks of Anastasius as a man of great holiness who was rich in his poverty. Barbarian relations became the challenge of the times.

Several years after emperor Theodosius died in 395, when Roman imperial rule was divided between Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West, rivalries within the court over-exaggerated the Gothic danger. These Goths (germanic tribes) had begun to integrate into the western Roman Empire. Not many years later, Constantinople, the capital of the eastern empire saw a massacre, where thousands of Goths were butchered by Roman citizens. As a consequence, in 401AD these gothic barbarians (led by Alaric I) directly threatened northern Italy and in August 410 sacked Rome. In so doing, the course of European history changed.

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !
Beloved, we are now the sons of God, but it doth not yet appear what we shall become;
however, we know that, when He shall return, we shall be like Him; for we shall see Him as He is [1 John 3:2].

Premier Novembre — C’est sa fête Toussaint (Festum Omnium Sanctorum): Called Allerheiligentag, All Saints Day in Germany remains one of several legal holidays ( Die Feiertage) in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Northrhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, as well in Austria. In Zeiten der Verfolgung durch die römischen Kaiser galt besonderes Ansehen vor allem den Märtyrern, die für ihr christliches Bekenntnis ihr Leben geopfert hatten. Christen wollten sich in der Nähe der Märtyrergräber bestatten lassen. Bei der Auferstehung am Jüngsten Tag wollte man in ihrer Nähe sein. An der Stelle mancher Gräber von Märtyrern erbaute man später Kirchen.

Toussaint est un raccourci qui désigne la fête de « tous les martyrs et de tous les saints ». Cette fête a été instituée en 610 par le pape Boniface IV afin d'honorer Marie et les martyrs romains dont il avait fait transférer les corps des catacombes au panthéon d'Agrippa, reconverti en église. L'Occident a fixé la Toussaint au 1er novembre et fait du lendemain, 2 novembre, la Fête des morts. Par cette disposition, l'Église place symboliquement l'ensemble des défunts sous la protection des saints. Gregory III (731-741) consecrated a chapel in the Basilica of St. Peter to all the saints and fixed the anniversary for November 1st. A basilica of the Apostles already existed in Rome, and its dedication was annually remembered on May First. Gregory IV (827-844) extended the celebration on November First to the entire Christian Church. A vigil seems to have been held as early as the feast itself. {English} Commémoraison des fidèles défunts:

« La mort a été engloutie dans la victoire. Ô Mort, où est ta victoire ? Ô Mort, où est ton dard venimeux ? »
[Première lettre de saint Paul Apôtre aux Corinthiens (XV, 54-58).]
« En vérité, je te le dis, dès aujourd’hui tu seras avec moi dans le paradis » [Luc 23, 46].
Jésus lui dit: « Moi, je suis la résurrection et la vie. Celui qui croit en moi, même s'il meurt, vivra ; et tout homme qui vit et qui croit en moi ne mourra jamais.
Crois-tu cela ? »

Elle répondit: « Oui, Seigneur »
« Lazare, viens dehors !»
[Suite du saint Évangile de notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ selon Saint Jean (XI, 1-45)]

Scriptum est in Gestis Pontificalibus", inquit Alcuinus lib. de Divin. Offic." quod S. Bonifacius PP". (IV.)" quandam domum Romæ, Pantheon nomine, quæ erat consecrata in honore omnium dæmoniorum, eliminatis omnibus spurcitiis, sacraverit Ecclesiam in honore sanctæ Dei Genitricis, omniumque Sanctorum. Unde constitutum est, ut plebs universa per totum orbem in Kl. Novembribus, sicut in die Natalis Domini, ad Ecclesiam in honore omnium Sanctorum ad Missarum solennia convenire studeat, illud attendentes, ut quidquid fragilitas humana per ignorantiam aut negligentiam in solennitatibus Sanctorum minus plene peregisset, in hac sancta observatione solveretur -- The Pantheon, which was dedicated to the Roman Pantheon of gods (honore omnium dæmoniorum), was rededicated to all the Saints by Pope (and Saint) Boniface IV. During the pontificate of Boniface, Mellitus, the first Bishop of London, went to Rome "to consult the pope on important matters relative to the newly established "English" Church (the tonsure crisis). The feast day for St. Boniface is May 25th.

Quiberon Bay near Brest 
Edward MoranNovember 1, 1777: The Ranger, commanded by John Paul Jones, sailed from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the first to display the Stars and Stripes at sea. En route to Nantes, the ship captured 2 brigantines, sending them into French ports as prizes -- the first time the new flag presided over combat at sea. On February 14, 1778, the French fleet gave a reply of 9 guns (Admiral La Motte Piquet) in answer to a salute of 13 guns given by John Paul Jones as he entered Quiberon Bay near Brest. This is the first recognition of the Stars and Stripes given by a foreign power. The painting of the Ranger is of its entrance to the French Bay. Edward Moran (American, 1829-1901), its painter, is perhaps best known for his 19th century representations of ships and the coast. He is not to be confused with Thomas and Edward Percy Moran who respectively had western and historical works, nor with Henry Marcus Moran (1877-1960) a commercial artist of the early 20th century (Pittsburgh PA).

Only a dozen years before on this day (November 1st) in 1765, The Stamp Act had gone into effect, prompting resistance from American colonists, setting off a chain of events leading toward a revolution against British rule. Also on this date in 1783 (plus one day), the Continental Army dissolved and George Washington made his Farewell Address to his officers at Rocky Hill, New Jersey. He had a Christmas fare-the-well on December 4th in NYC (Fraunces Tavern -- 54 Pearl Street, New York City).

Today November 2: is the "day of the dead" (Feast of All Souls (fête Tous Ames)) - Blue Öyster Cult, among others, played yesterday in 2014 at a festival, named in honour of this event, held at England Brothers Park – Pinellas Park, FL -- guess which song they featured. In Brazil, Dia de Finados is a public holiday that many Brazilians celebrate by visiting cemeteries and churches. In Spain, festivals and parades are frequently held, where people gather at cemeteries and pray for their deceased loved ones at the end of the day. Similar observances occur elsewhere in Europe, and similarly themed celebrations appear in many Asian and African cultures.; Dead Like Me

November 2, 2003 -- Un-issued Hepburn: The Hepburn stamp (part of a set of 5 honoring movie stars) was withdrawn at the last moment in 2001 because one of Hepburn's sons objected to the design - possibly because the image showed his mother smoking (She died of cancer in 1993). Germany destroyed all copies of the withdrawn stamps, except for 30 stamps that never returned. A Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman stamp in the original German set was also withdrawn around this time. The issued set substituted stamps depicting Greta Garbo and a reel of film. The other 3 stamps (issued in the set) were for Marilyn Monroe, Jean Gabin and Charlie Chaplin. A 37¢ USA Hepburn stamp (sans cigarette), issued without incident in June 2003, already circulated.

Some if not all of the missing 30 Hepburn stamps appear to have been used on domestic mail in late 2003. One can not sure how, as the DM (Deutsche Mark) officially ceased to be legal tender on December 31, 2001. Existing postage stamps in every €uro country remained valid only until June 30, 2002. These two Hepburn 110 pfennig examples passed through the German mail system nearly 18 months after they became invalid. from

Two copies have been found, one postmarked November 3rd. A leading German stamp auctioneer, Heinrich Köhler, offered a November 2nd cancelled stamp, illustrated nearby, for sale. The stamp had a hefty auction estimate of €20,000 ($A32,275 -- $24,000+US) The €20,000 estimate proved super-conservative. The final invoice price for the stamp was €69,437.60 (which includes a 17% commission and 16% VAT on the commission). That is $A112,056 -- a price level even major 19th Century rarities often fail to realize today.

November 2, 1920: This is election night. Technology advances allowed commercial radio broadcasts to cover the US national election for the first time. The announcers at KDKA AM in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, read telegraph ticker results, without commentary or critical social analyses, as the returns arrived. At night, this station could be heard over most of the Eastern United States by the small group that had radio receivers (and who had tuned to the broadcast). KDKA's license -- the first radio commercial broadcast license -- was issued October 27, 1920, and on September 20, 1921, something else happened.

Harding's Republican landslide came from carrying all states except those in the deep South, which as usual voted the solid Democrat party line. Both major parties' candidates hailed from Ohio. The third party socialists ran Eugene Victor Debs (of Indiana), who barely received 900 thousand votes (3.4% of the total cast). Back then democrat-voting states were called the red states, which was the way it was generally until the TV networks changed things in Y2K. Just as it was 90 years ago, November 2nd is the national election day in 2010. You have (for now) a choice in listening to and even watching the results arrive on the Internet, TV, as well as radio. Those oversees can tune in, too.

November 3rd: This day commemorate the translation of the relics of Saint George, from Nicomedia, where he suffered under Emperor Diocletian, to the city of Lydda in Palestine. The suffering of this saint is generally celebrated on April 23rd. Anticipating his martyrdom, St. George asked for his relics to go to Palestine, where his mother had been born and where he had distributed his large estate to the poor. During the reign of Emperor Constantine the Great, the pious built a beautiful church to George in Lydda and, upon the consecration of that church, the relics of that Saint were interred there. Innumerable miracles have occurred from these miracle-working relics of Saint George, the great-martyr of Christ.

Reichenau AbbeyToday is also the Feast Day of Saint Pirmin (ca. 690 - 753), a Western-Goth born in Aragon (Spain) (some say of Anglo-saxon descent because of his strong Irish leanings in matters of Faith). Pirmin became a traveling bishop in 720AD. In art, Saint Pirmin is depicted as a monk with three dead snakes before him. Sometimes he is shown walking with Count Sintlatz on the island of Reichenau. The Stadt Pirmasens in Germany is named for him. He is entombed in Hornbach, Germany. His designation as a saint precedes the practice of formal canonization by a pope. His feast day is revered particularly in Chur, Freiburg im Breisgau and Speyer. Kaundorf - Chapelle St. Pirmin He is also closely related with the martyr Meinrad.

in [unum] Deum Patrem omnipotentem, Creatorem cæli et terræ,
et in Iesum Christum, Filium Eius unicum, Dominum nostrum,
qui conceptus est de Spiritu Sancto, natus ex Maria Virgine,
passus sub Pontio Pilato, crucifixus, mortuus, et sepultus,
descendit ad inferos, tertia die resurrexit a mortuis,
ascendit ad cælos, sedet ad dexteram Patris omnipotentis,
inde venturus est iudicare vivos et mortuos.
Credo in Spiritum Sanctum, sanctam Ecclesiam catholicam,
sanctorum communionem,
remissionem peccatorum,
carnis resurrectionem,
vitam æternam.

A contemporary of Charles Martel and Boniface (when the Saracens invaded Spain), Pirmin organized monastic institutions in southwestern Germany, awakened a new religious and scholarly life by the banks of the Rhein in germaniæ superior and established several important monasteries (l'Ordre des Bénédictins) throughout his primature, such as at Reichenau, Gegenbach, Hornbach, l'Abbaye de Murbach en Alsace, Neuweiler, Schwarzach and Amorbach. His book de singulis libris canonicis scarapsus, written between 710-724AD, contains the earliest appearance of the text of the Apostles' Creed in its currently accepted Latin form. His name can also be found spelled Priminius, as the first abbot of the Reichenau Abbey (picture right is of Saint Georg Minster at Reichenau (

November 3, 1860 -- "never the twain shall meet" : The Territorial Enterprise, a Nevada newspaper, resumes publishing in Virginia City. The owners published the first issue of the paper, printed in Virginia City, from the corner of A Street and Sutton Avenue, then located within the heart of a booming business district. The paper had started two years before in Genoa, Nevada. Yes, Samuel Clemens, aka Mark Twain, got his big break (as a writer) with the Territorial Enterprise. The New York Saturday Press released Mark Twain's premier fictional tale The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County on November 18, 1865 (written while in California). Biologists have since opined that the frog named Dan’l Webster by Twain was a California red-legged frog, currently endangered.

On Sunday May 29, 1864 Mark Twain, having quit the Territorial Enterprise boarded a stagecoach to begin his journey out of the Nevada Territory to San Francisco; no duel was fought. The Territorial Enterprise wished him well, writing "Mark Twain leaves this morning for San Francisco. Sorry to see you go, Mark, old boy—but we cannot expect to have you always with us. Go then, where duty calls you, and when the highest pinnacle of fame affords you a arresting place remember that in the land of silver and sagebrush there are a host of old friends that rejoice in your success." Thanks to his time in Nevada, Twain was able to enter easily into the Bohemian literary society of San Francisco in May, 1864 and "required no apology … His work as a writer on the Territorial Enterprise had given him wide notoriety, and in previous visits to San Francisco he had been treated as a celebrity"
The famous Lion of Belfort commemorating the Victory was designed by the same person who designed the Statue of LibertyNovember 4, 1870: The 100-day siege of the massive fortification overlooking the City of Belfort begins. Belfort would be permitted, in the end, to remain with France, and became an independent entity (department), while the rest of Alsace-Lorraine came under German control one again. More about Belfort and its lion may be found on our site HERE.

There is another Lion of Belfort located in Paris at Place Denfert-Rochereau, (also on our map for Maréchaux Sud) named for Pierre Marie Philippe Aristide Denfert-Rochereau (1823-1878), who led the resistance of Belfort to a siege during the Franco-Prussian War. It is an RER stop and Métro stop (lines 4 and 6), too. Formerly known as Place d'Enfer (where one can find the Catacombs of Paris) until D-R's death, it was renamed after the hero. The smaller sculpture you will find at this square in the middle of traffic also was crafted by Auguste Bartholdi, to replicate the one on the mountain at Belfort. Both sculptures face east in defiance of the invading German hordes. The German nation has its own monument over-looking the Rhine (Niederwald Memorial in Hesse), facing west towards France, in defiance of earlier French invasions.
November 4, 1979 (written in 2008): Over 3,000 militants (terrorists, including some believe the former President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, although he denies it) overran the U.S. Embassy in Teheran, Iran. These thugs captured 54 embassy staff members and held them hostage along with others. Muslim religious extremists and Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini praised their actions. Unsatisfied with President Carter's activities to date, in which Carter had backed away from the Nation's past commitments and demonstrated weakness, the Ayatollah, through his minions, demanded that [1] Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who had governed for decades (and was now seeking medical treatment in the West), be turned over for trial (and execution); [2] that the United States apologize for its many crimes against the Iranian people; and [3] that the Shah’s assets be returned to Iran. The genie was out of the bottle. A year later, after a botched rescue attempt by forces under Carter's command, a new President secured the release of the foreign hostages that were left alive. Iranian fingerprints are all over the Lebanon bombing during Reagan's administration, but because of a weakened armed forces no direct response was forth coming.

Some would claim that the United States was forced to tolerate Sadam and the excesses of Iraq during the 1980's as a counter-balance to Iran. In any event, Iraq and Iran were soon in a shooting war. Iran in a desperate move recruited a million volunteers to fight for Islam, against Iraq also a muslim country. They were little more than children, without weapons, who were slaughtered by the tens of thousands. Today, Iraq is without Sadam; the Iranian people remain in bondage.

So, while in Mecca, a most holy city of peace and brotherhood, the Iranian president likened Israel to a tumor and claimed that the state Israel should be transferred to land in Germany or Austria (December 8th). Former Iranian President Mahmud Ahmadinejad, who in October (2005) called for Israel to be wiped off the map, also questioned the extent of the Holocaust. Ahmadinejad's comments, were made while attending a summit of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), which ended with a call on Muslim countries to fight terrorism and promote tolerance. In December 2005 (we now know) a similar conference developed a strategy for exploiting certain cartoons as cover for Iran seeking to pursue nuclear weapons. Strangely enough there is another cartoon series being questioned in Fall 2007, and Iran had threatened to impose a final solution upon Israel on October 12th 2007 (; meanwhile, Israel apparently has bombed a possible nuclear weapon's site in Syria (bought from North Korea) and Syrian and Iranians were killed when a rocket they were loading with poison gas had an incident releasing some of the nerve agent (September 2007).

Iran's Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, has expressed support for Ahmadinejad, and said criticism of Iran's president must cease by the western nations (or else ???). In mid-November (2006), during a speech for Friday-prayer leaders from across Iran, Ahmadinejad said that the main mission of the Islamic revolution in the world today is to pave the way for the reappearance of the 12th Imam. As we all know, that mythical leader will appear at the Muslim equivalent of Armageddon; apparently he can hardly wait. In October, he claimed that the light of Allah was about him as he spoke to the UN. from another These guys are serious.

Truly homicidal and suicidal pyromaniacs have launched a merciless scorched people strategy against their own people to get at their enemy, just as the Soviets executed a scorched earth policy in the past war to deprive the Nazis of resources. They foment not resistance against the occupier, not even civil war; but, a more diabolical plan -- total war using civilian populations without hesitation or apparent remorse. There is no excess in this cruelty that would move Iran's mullahs who run their country and the war against the US in Iraq. They say, via the moderate mouth-piece Rafsanjani, that Iran will accept the deaths of 15 million of its people for the sake of the religious glory of eradicating the Zionist entity, this being the necessary prelude to the next step -- the universal pursuit of Crusaders (Christians) and Infidels (like India, like China) -- the sacrifice of one's own people and of oneself, the systematic self-destruction of a culture, until at least the obsessive fury exhausts itself. This sickness is by no means unprecedented. The collective cruelties that horrified Montaigne (Reformation); the blood, devastation and death that appalled Grimmelshausen, remind us that such scourges are a European heritage, too. But none of those madmen of centuries past, yet had the nuclear toys that we now possess. Doubtless the Iranians will always overdo it, another article explains.

And What of November 4, 2008 ? The challenge is to figure out how to convince Iran that it shouldn't go forward with developing a nuclear weapon. Sanctions have not worked due to a lack of cooperation by nations like China and Russia. Meanwhile, Hundreds of thousands of Iranian students took to the streets across the country on Monday to mark the anniversary of the seizure of the U.S. embassy in Tehran, which occurred on November 4, 1979. Why Monday the 3rd ? Go HERE. The Iranian Parliament (Majlis) dismissed its Interior Minister, Ali Kordan, after he confessed to having forged an academic degree from Oxford University. Years 2009 and 2010 proved no better under the new US Administration. Vote fraud, torture, stoning and bomb building continued. The problem is worse today (2011).

"Treason doth never prosper: what's the reason ??  For if it prosper, none dare call it treason" - Sir John Harington -- How times change

November 5, 1605 -- some 410 years earlier than today: A conspiracy of eleven men, led by one Guy Fawkes, tried to return England to Roman Catholicism, in part because King James had sent many of the Jesuit order into exile. The conspirators plotted to kill the King and all the British legislature by blowing up the Houses of Parliament on November 5th. They failed in their execution, the plot was discovered. The following November 5th (1606), Parliament established a national day of thanksgiving. Guy Fawkes Day or Bonfire Night has been celebrated every year since with fireworks and the burning of a Guy Fawkes’ effigy.

"Please to remember the 5th November:
Gunpowder Treason and Plot.
We know no reason why Gunpowder Treason
Should ever be forgot."

le 5 novembre 1898 -- Première wireless Xmission: Eugène Ducretet offre une démonstration publique de transmission sans fil avec l’aide de l’ingénieur Ernest Roger. Situé au 3ème étage de la Tour Eiffel, il émet jusqu’au Panthéon, où le message est reçu en morse {code télégraphe}. This successful experiment was to save the Tower that would otherwise have been dismantled, after the 1900 Universal Exhibition. On March 31st in the year 1889, this famous Paris landmark had opened to the dismay of some. At 985 feet high, it was the highest structure in the world until 1930, when a building in NYC was built with a pretty fair view of Lady Liberty, also built by the man who built the Tour Eiffel.

À Paris, le 5 novembre 1906: Aujourd'hui, Marie Curie devient professeur à 39 ans. La physicienne française d'origine polonaise Marie Curie devient la première femme professeur à la Sorbonne. Marie Curie succède en fait à son mari, Pierre Curie, mort prématurément au mois d'avril, à la chaire de physique. Elle enseignera tout en continuant ses recherches et recevra son deuxième prix Nobel en 1911. She was born November 7th in the year 1867.

November 6, 1879: Officially, Canada celebrates Thanksgiving Day for the first time. The holiday changed to the week of Armistice Day after World War I, then moved to the second Monday of October in 1957. In an unrelated matter (but near Canada), on this date in 1944, in the State of Washington, the Hanford facility produces Plutonium, the radioactive explosive component in the Nagasaki weapon. Plutonium appears to be at the core of the first nuclear bomb produced by North Korea and exploded in October 2006.

On November 6, 1528: Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and several other survivors of the shipwrecked expedition of Panfilo de Navarez landed their crudely constructed rafts somewhere on the upper Texas coast. Most scholars believe that the location de Vaca named in his journal La Isla de Malhado, or “Misfortune Island,” was what we call today Galveston Island.

The term misfortune for the island is understandable. While de Vaca and other crewmen, including a Moor named Esteban, survived, they were quickly enslaved by the native tribes. These were probably the members of the Karankawa Nation. De Vaca slowly gained acceptance as a shaman or medicine man by practicing what scant medical knowledge he possessed as a European commoner.

After several years, the small group of Spaniards finally managed to escape, wandering across the interior of the southwest in search of other Spaniards. Their long journey carried them through Central Texas, the Big Bend, Chihuahua, and Sonora. They eventually stumbled into a Spanish outpost on the Gulf of California, fascinating their countrymen with rumors of Seven Cities of Cibola, cities of the natives laden with gold and silver. These unsubstantiated rumors, which de Vaca repeated in reports to the Viceroy and King, convinced the Spanish to mount a full-fledged search.

On the same date in 1869, in New Brunswick, New Jersey, Rutgers College defeats Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey), 6-4, in the first official intercollegiate American football game. Moving ahead to this date in 1934, Memphis, Tennessee becomes the first major city to join its power system to the Tennessee Valley Authority. Memphis was outside the Tennessee Valley and its decision (public referendum) was challenged in the courts, with the constitutionality of TVA and the service agreement upheld. A year later, on November 6, 1935, Edwin Armstrong presents his paper "A Method of Reducing Disturbances in Radio Signaling by a System of Frequency Modulation" to the New York section of the Institute of Radio Engineers. FM Broadcasting did not begin until the post-war period.

November 6th is the 310th day of the year (311th during leap years) under the Gregorian calendar. Only 55 days remain until the end of the year. In 1947, "Meet the Press" makes its television debut. Born today ? You share your day of birth with such notables as Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March (1391), Joanna of Castile (1479), Suleiman the Magnificent (1494), John Philip Sousa (1854) and Edsel Ford (1893).

Saint Winnoc (c. 640-c. 716/717) was an abbot or prior of Wormhout who came from Wales. St. Winnoc is generally called a Breton, but the Bollandist Charles de Smedt shows that he was more probably of Welsh origin. He is said to have been of noble birth, of the same house as the kings of Domnonia. Some sources state that Winnoc's father was Saint Judicael. He may have been raised and educated in Brittany, because his family fled there to escape the Saxons.

The popularity of St. Winnoc is attested by the frequent insertion of his name in liturgical documents and the numerous translations of his relics. He was originally buried at Wormhout, but his relics were translated to Bergues-Saint-Winnoc in 899. It is said that people who stood along the route taken by the monks were reported to have been healed of many illnesses, especially coughs and fevers. His relics were invoked against drought. The monastery was burned by Protestants in 1558. Some of Winnoc's relics were destroyed.

His feast is kept on the 6th of November, that of his translation on the 18th of September; a third, the Exaltation of St. Winnoc, was formerly kept on February 20th. He is one of the pre-schism Saints venerated by both the Eastern and Western church.
November 7, 1801: Dr. Volta présente sa pile électrique à M. Bonaparte. The Italian scientist Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta, noble son of Don Filippo and Donna Maddalena dei Conti Inzaghi, presented the first apparatus to produce a continuous electric current, the original battery, to the Institut de France, a command performance for the first counsul of France.  Napoléon Bonaparte will later present him with a gold medal, make him a member of the Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur and furnish him with the title of Count (1810) for these results. In 1881 the important electrical unit of potential, the volt, was named in his honor along with a moon crater. Volta is buried in the city of Como. At the Tempio Voltiano near Lake Como is a museum devoted his work, where Count Volta's original instruments and papers are on display.

November 7, 1805: Great joy in camp we are in view of the ocean, this great Pacific Ocean which we been so long anxious to see. And the roreing or noise made by the waves brakeing on the rockey shores (as I suppose) may be heard distinctly. So wrote William Clark after the Lewis & Clark Expedition (Corps of Discovery) sighted what they thought was the Pacific Ocean for the first time (but it was technically a bay). The expedition voted to build a fort near the Pacific Ocean on the south side of the bay near the city that John Jacob Astor would later found (present-day Astoria, Oregon). They had started building Fort Clatsop (named after a local native tribe) by December 7, 1805. They moved in on Christmas Eve. The winter in 1805/06 was cold and wet. Between November 4, 1805, and March 25, 1806, the party had only twelve days without rain. Unfortunately, the long-standing reconstructed life-sized model of Fort Clatsop burned to the ground in October 2005.

November 7, 1917: (On October 25 under the older Julian calendar then used by Russia), the provisional government of Premier Aleksandr Kerensky fell to communist forces led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. Comrade Lenin called his followers Bolsheviks, meaning “the majority,” when they democratically held, for a short period of time, the majority of a revolutionary committee. The Bolsheviks became a majority of the ruling group, but they were only a small part of the total Russian population. Decades of czarist neglect and the devastation of World War I had wrecked the Russian economy. In March 1917, Czar Nicholas II abdicated. Kerensky's provisional government struggled to maintain power, until the Bolsheviks stormed Petrograd and seized all government operations. Lenin and his lieutenant, Leon Trotsky, soon confiscated private real property (land reform) and nationalized private industry (expropriation outright or aggressive progressive taxation is another type of reform that all true socialists use in the name of change).

In March 1918, an exhausted Russia withdrew from World War I by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the German Empire. Bloody civil war continued to rage in Russia for the next two years as the anti-Bolshevik White Army battled the Communists for control. Accordingly, on November 7, 1963, the film “It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World” premiered at Hollywood’s new Cinerama Théâtre in a lengthy 195 minute version. Just as entertaining today as way back then, the classic decries the capitalist west's bourgeois obsession with cars, competition and ill-gotten gain.

America did not tell the millions of men and women who came from every country in the world and who--with their hands, their intelligence and their heart--built the greatest nation in the world: “Come, and everything will be given to you.” She said: “Come, and the only limits to what you'll be able to achieve will be your own courage and your own talent.” America embodies this extraordinary ability to grant each and every person a second chance.

November 7, 2007: Renewing the French-American Alliance, by Nicolas Sarkozy, President of France, presented before a joint session of the US Congress, November 07, 2007 [Text of Speech in English].

The Orthodox Church celebrates November 8th as the Synaxis of the Chief Captains of the Heavenly Host, Michael and Gabriel, and of the other Bodiless Powers of Heaven see

" The holy Scriptures, from beginning to end, are filled with mentions and descriptions of the Heavenly Host: not to believe in angels is not to believe in the Bible. In the heavens they behold the face of God, eternally hymning His glory. They are intimately involved with mankind as well: an angel is appointed guardian over every nation, and over every individual Christian. The Archangels Michael and Gabriel, whom we especially commemorate today along with all the other bodiless powers, have served as messengers to man. "Michael" means Who is like God ?; while "Gabriel" stands for God is mighty. Gabriel especially, was appointed to announce the coming of Christ in the flesh.

"There is no reckoning the number of the Heavenly Host, though we know that they are a great multitude. They are ranked in nine orders, called Thrones, Cherubim, Seraphim, Dominions, Powers, Authorities, Principalities, Archangels and Angels. "Angel" means "herald" or "messenger" and is properly applied only to those who serve as messengers from God to man; but the name is often applied to the entire host of bodiless powers.

"Though bodiless, the angels are finite in knowledge, extension and power. The angel Lucifer, once the highest of them all, desired to be like God Himself, and was cast forever from the presence of God, along with countless others who followed him. These we now know as Satan and the demons. (Needless to say, they are not commemorated today). "

The symbol "indicates a Saint or day whose commemoration is at least "Doxology rank" (Great Doxology sung at Matins); there is generally some dispensation from fasting when these days fall on fast days. In Eastern Christianity (the Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite), a Synaxis (Greek: Σύναξις; Slavonic: Собор, Sobor) is an assembly for liturgical purposes, generally through the celebration of Vespers, Matins, Little Hours, and the Divine Liturgy. Synaxis can also refer to a common commemoration of a number of saints in a single service, such as the Synaxis of the Seventy Apostles, or as here the Holy Angels of various orders. Each individual saint may have his or her own separate feast day, but they are all commemorated together on their synaxis. Most every synaxis is observed as a fixed feast on the same day every year.
November 8, 1575: -- French Catholics and Huguenots sign yet another treaty, creating lasting peace. A year later, all the provinces of the land of Holland would unite in the Pacification of Ghent in the face of Spanish occupation. The 17 provinces of the Netherlands formed a federation to maintain peace. In 1620: The King of Bohemia was defeated at the Battle of White Mountain, Prague. Together with Hapsburg support in Bohemia, the Catholics defeated the Protestants at White Mountain. Weeks of plunder and pillage followed in Prague. In 1647: Pierre Bayle (died in 1706), French-Dutch theologian, philosopher, and writer, was born. He authored the Historical and Critical Dictionary. He is reported to have remarked: “If an historian were to relate truthfully all the crimes, weaknesses and disorders of mankind, his readers would take his work for satire rather than for history.” In 1685: Fredrick William of Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, offering French Huguenots refuge from the rampage of the Sun King. In 1793 (picture left): At the end of the French Révolution, the former french fortress-palace, Louvre, opened in Paris as an art salon and history museum. The structure was originally started as a massive tower in the early thirteenth century. French Kings and their massive entourage had used a rebuilt and expanded Louvre as a palatial residence, while they were in town. Foundations of the tower (tour), today have been revealed and are part of the tour one can take within.
Another illustration on link November 9, 1780: In the Battle of Fishdam Ford a force of British and Loyalist-Tory troops attack the South Carolina Patriot militia. Although surprised, the militia prevails. Brigadier General Thomas Sumter, of the militia was said to have skedaddled from his tent upon the initial engagement. He played no significant role that day. Just five years earlier on November 10, 1775, the institution called The US Marines is first founded at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia by the man with two first names, Samuel Nicholas. A tun is a barrel. Traditionally a tun was a large barrel containing 256 gallons of wine (later 252 - which is slightly over 1 ton in weight plus the weight of the large barrel). The Mayflower was “a bark of one hundred eighty tuns burden.” That meant she could take on a cargo of 180 tun-sized barrels (taking into account both size and weight) without foundering. Samuel became the first officer commissioned (by the Second Continental Congress) in the United States Continental Marines (now the United States Marine Corps). By tradition he is considered to be the first Commandant of the Marine Corps. He led the first landing of Marines on foreign soil in 1776. Three ships in the United States Navy have been named the USS Nicholas in his honor. Every year on this date a Marine detachment places a memorial wreath in his graveyard in Philadelphia.

Freedom November 9, 1989: It was crystal clear, the Berlin Wall was no longer a political obstacle, and soon, would not remain a physical one either. East Germany now permitted free exchange between the eastern and western portions of the divided city. Communist East Germany threw open all its borders, allowing its citizens to travel freely for the first time in over 40 years. As a practical matter, border security no longer had relevance because of recent changes that now furnished unhindered passage through Czechoslovakia. On November 10, 1989, approximately 600,000 East Germans came to West Berlin for a visit, some to shop, some to meet family and friends, some just to stand there to witness that moment in history. East and West German citizens began to dance atop the Wall, as the Stasi (guards of the East) stood unsure about what to do next with their lives. On the evening of November 11, 1989, the first concrete slab was removed from The Wall to the cheering of thousands (some cite the 10th for this event, and by the 11th a goodly number of wall samples had been taken already): -- -- Our short Berlin page,

Interestingly, the once feared and still-hated Stasi were involved with the physical reunification of Berlin. The last job of the east-german secret homeland security police was the removal of The Wall. On July 21, 1990, an estimated 150,000 persons attended an outdoor rock-'n-roll concert in East Berlin to celebrate the dismantling of the Berlin Wall. A big chunk of the Berlin Wall was unveiled as a monument in Monterey California (USA) on Wednesday, November 02, 2005, as top military officers waxed poetic about freedom, sacrifice and the strange turns of a long, twilight struggle that many believed would never end. The monument is one of the largest pieces of The Wall now on display in the United States. It consists of three 12-foot sections, still painted with a mural, as well as the graffiti associated with the most lasting symbol of the divide between communist tyranny of the east and the democratic West.

During the 20th year remembrance in 2009, former East German citizen, now the current Chancellor, Angela Merkel, of a united Germany spoke about the importance of the event for European freedom, along with former Soviet Union leader, General Secretary Mikhail S. Gorbachev. Chancellor Helmut Kohl who oversaw the reunification could not attend the evening functions. Also present was Lech Walesa. The former shipyard worker and Solidarity trades union leader, who led a fight against Moscow-backed Communism in Poland, symbolically pushed over (8:32pm local time) the first in a line of about 1000 colorful, giant dominos to illustrate how a legitimate labor movement was able to change the course of history. Absent were the late Pope of Polish descent (now Saint) and an American President who assisted greatly the effort. Mrs. Merkel said recently that she was one of those to walk into the West that night, then returned to go to work the next day. Today she repeated her walk with Gorbachev and Walesa, a moment that most certainly we will never see again. -- Das Christentum darf nicht in die Welt des Mythos und der Gefühle verbannt werden, sondern es muß in seinem Anspruch respektiert werden, die Wahrheit über den Menschen ans Licht zu bringen und die Kraft zu besitzen, Männer und Frauen geistlich umzuwandeln, so daß sie ihrer Sendung in der Geschichte nachkommen können. -- The Church Universal must never become relegated to the world of myth and sentimentality, but its message that it reveals the light of truth must find respect, as well as its power to transform the spiritual life of women and men, in order to fulfill its historic mission.

"We have worked our fingers to the bone for this country, and we are not standing by to see it all fall into ruins.
The truth has come to light. A nation that can not keep their young at home, has no future."

"We, the people, demand:

1.) The right to free access of information.
2.) We demand the right to open political discussions.
3.) We demand the freedom of thoughts and creativity.
4.) We demand the right to maintain a plural ideology.
5.) We demand the right to dissent.
6.) We demand the right to travel freely.
7.) We demand the right to exert influence over government authority.
8.) We demand the right to re-examine our beliefs.
9.) We, the people, demand the right to voice an opinion in the affairs of state."

Quote is from East Germany in 1989 -- it is interesting how history repeats itself in many variations -- WE The People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessing of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this, Constitution for the United States of America.

" have decided implement a regulation that allows every citizen of the German Democratic East Germany through any of the border crossings," said Guenter Schabowski {government spokesman}. He appeared scarcely to believe his own words and we were all dumbfounded. What did he just say? Schabowski was asked when the new rule would take effect. "That comes into effect...according to my information.... immediately, without delay," Schabowski stammered, shuffling through the papers spread in front of him as he sought in vain for more information. It later emerged that the announcement was not supposed to be released until 4 a.m. the next morning. He also meant to say East Germans could apply for visas in an orderly manner at the appropriate state agency. The sudden rush to the border, which so overwhelmed the guards there, was the last thing he had in mind. (Deshalb ... um ... wir haben heute beschlossen, ... um ... um eine Verordnung, dass jeder Bürger der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik ermöglicht ... um ... um ... um ... zu verlassen Osten Deutschland umsetzen durch eines der Grenzübergänge) -- see also

November 10, 1975: The bulk-transport freighter (iron ore -- taconite), Edmund Fitzgerald, sank beneath the waves of Lake Superior with all hands on board (29 officers and crew). She encountered heavy weather. In the early evening of November 10th, the ship suddenly foundered approximately 17 miles from the entrance to Whitefish Bay, west of Sault Ste. Marie. The Edmund Fitzgerald lies broken in two sections under 530 feet of water. Interestingly, today in 1483 is the birth date of Martin Luther (Eisleben, Germany). He was baptized the next morning on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours. Originally organized as the Continental Marines on November 10, 1775 (Second Continental Congress), as naval infantry, the Maine Corps has served in every American armed conflict. Most would say with distinction.

The legend lives on from the Chippewa on down
Of the big lake they call Gitche Gumee,
Superior, they said, never gives up her dead
When the gales of November come early. 

La légende vit dessus du Chippewa à travers les temps
Du grand lacqu’ils appellent Gitche Gumee,
Supérieur, disaient-ils, renonce jamais ses morts
Lorsque les vents forts de Novembre tôt viennent.

In the Ojibwe language, the lake is called Gichigami, meaning "big water". It is also written "Gitche Gumee" as recorded by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in The Song of Hiawatha. The lake was named le lac supérieur, or "Upper Lake," in the seventeenth century by French explorers because it was located above Lake Huron (in terms of the direction of the flow).

Voiron on November 10-11: The annual fair of Saint-Martin dates from 1356. The streets are packed with hundreds of booths and this capital of the Chartreuse (département de l'Isère et la région Rhône-Alpes) welcomes over 200,000 guests. The counts of Savoy still reigned at that time the town of Voiron was granted the right to enjoy a weekly market every Wednesday, and an annual fair November 11th, the feast day Saint Martin. Originally, the fair facilitated exchanges between the neighboring village communities. At a later time when an extra day was added, most participants were bakers, traders of livestock, clothiers, farmers, cheese makers, millers, jewelers from all over France. The only years the fair was not held were 1714 and 1715 due to livestock epidemics affecting a large proportion of the herds. Today, the fair no longer relies on animals, and the clothiers (makers of cloth) have been replaced by the merchants of clothing (chinois ?). "Fête Saint Martinus" has become a time for the artists in the region to sell their efforts, too. More about Voiron is HERE. It was a Tour host-city in 2010.
November 11th -- Feast Day for Saint Martinus (317-397), Apostle to the Gaulois, Bishop of Tours: St. Martin's story is a mixture of history and legend. During the Middle Ages and up to most recent times, he is regarded as the most popular Saint of France (also known as Martin the Merciful and The Glory of Gaul). Modern detractors claim that his war against celtic beliefs destroyed the old culture. His premier biographers were Grégoire de Tours and Sulpice Sévère; and, it is also to these two men that we owe the preservation of the many legendary exploits of the Saint.

Martin was born at Savaria, Pannonia (modern Szombathely, Hungary). His father, a senior officer (tribune) in the Imperial Horse Guard, later served at Ticinum, in Cisalpine Gaul (modern Pavia, Italy). As a lad he found himself enrôlé in the Roman Legions, serving in Italy and Gallia. Soldier Martin, after a vision, decided to leave the army and to convert. After baptism, he began Christian service under the famous Saint Hilaire, bishop of Poitiers. After having founded the monastery of Ligugé, Martin took up the position of bishop at Tours (370AD). He occupied this station for 26 years, yet he continued to live as a monk within the monastery of Marmoutier, which he founded also in the Loire River Valley.

He devoted his life to the destruction of the pagan temples and rebuilding them as churches. On November 8th he died. Three days later was buried at Tours. It is said that two thousand monks and nuns gathered for this funeral. His successor at Tours built a chapel over his crypt, which was replaced by a fine basilica (much destroyed during the religious wars in France). A restored basilica rested on this site until its destruction during the French Revolution. A modern one has been built there since.

After the death of Saint Martin, Tours became one of the great centers for pilgrimage in Europe. The burial vault of St. Martin constituted the most valuable relic in France. The Mérovingien and Carolingian Kings made it a symbol of their dynasties. It is the word for his burial structure that becomes the modern word chapelle. So today, in France, more than 450 communes and nearly 5,000 churches are dedicated to him. Portions of the above are my translation from an old French-Canadian source about saint days. He is the first confessor who was not a martyr to be named a Saint in the West. Saint Martin also is commemorated on November 8th in the Greek and Slavic Synaxaria; his primary feast in the West, where he is especially honored, is on November 11th.

On November 11, 1620 a group of ship passengers signed an important paper.

Haveing undertaken, for ye glorie of God, and advancemente of ye Christian faith, and honour of our king & countrie, a voyage to plant ye first colonie in ye Northerne parts of Virginia, doe by these presents solemnly & mutualy in ye presence of God, and one of another, covenant & combine our selves togeather into a civill body politick; for our better ordering & preservation & furtherance of ye ends aforesaid; and by vertue hearof, to enacte, constitute, and frame shuch just & equall lawes, ordinances, acts, constitutions, & offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meete & convenient for ye generall good of ye Colonie:  unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.  In witnes wherof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cap-Codd ye .11. of November, in ye year of the raigne of our soveraigne Lord king James of England, France, & Ireland ye eighteenth, and of Scotland ye fiftie fourth. Ano: Dom. 1620. 

These Pilgrims disembarked on November 21st at what is today known as Provincetown -- More Here

November 11th also marks the anniversary of the signing of the Armistice in the Forest of Campiègne by the Allies and the German forces in 1918. On the day the Great War ended, word reached Georgia in the morning. Governor Dorsey declared a State holiday, closing all State offices. Atlanta Mayor Candler gave city employees a vacation for the afternoon. The Atlanta City School System held impromptu patriotic ceremonies, before releasing its charges and changing student test scores. Area businesses closed. Crowds filled the streets Downtown all day long, with several, also impromptu, parades. Similar immediate celebrations occurred throughout the State as, Georgians marked the end of the War to end all wars.

Atlanta held a properly planned grand parade on November 12th to commemorate Germany's surrender to the Allies. Three hundred veterans who had fought in Europe headed the procession, followed by soldiers from Camp Gordon and other military facilities and thousands more (10,000 were said to have paraded) -- relatives and friends of the veterans, the police, fire-fighters and some of the rest of the civilian population. Georgia cities throughout the State held victory celebrations for the end of Great War. For more information, go HERE

November 11th, Armistice Day, first was observed by Presidential Proclamation as a legal holiday in the United States a year later (1919). On the 11th of November 1920, an unknown soldier of the World War was laid to rest within a tomb under the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile at the high-point of the Champs-Élysées. In 1921 on the 11th day of November, President Harding dedicated the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington. In 1938 Congress enacted a bill, which dedicated every November 11 to world peace. Kate Smith performed Irving Berlin's famous tune for the first time that same year. Ms. Smith had introduced the song on her Thursday, November 10, 1938, radio show (aired live the day before Armistice Day). It was a fitting tribute to its composer, who gave all royalties from the very popular and emotional, God Bless America to the Boy Scouts of America.

The Armistice is memorialized also in France {la date de la grande fête de l'Armistice en France}, England (where the Red Poppy of Flanders Fields serves as the symbol of Remembrance Day for the English, as well as for a lot of brave Scotsmen, Welshmen and Irishmen that died in both conflicts) and Canada, encompassing an observation for all the dead.

A Veterans Day observance was held in Emporia, Kansas on November 11, 1953. On May 24, 1954, Congress passed a bill to change the name (from Armistice Day) to Veterans Day. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed this bill into law by on June 1, 1954, and later he prepared the first Presidential Proclamation under the new law. The day was officially set aside to pay tribute to honor (all U.S.) Veterans on the 11th day of November of each year.
In 1997, the State dedicated a monument honoring Georgia's World War I Veterans. You can find it today in front of the Floyd Veterans Memorial Building, across the street from the State Capitol. The memorial's design, which mirrors that of the Federal World War I memorial, lists the names of the 1,937 Georgians who died during that conflict. The monument wall displays a map, showing how the war unfolded, plus quotes from President Woodrow Wilson and General John J. Pershing, as well as poems associated with the Great War.

Oh, by-the-way, for those who keep track of these things, General W.T. Sherman held the first Georgia tailgate barbecue after, unfortunately, igniting the city of Rome (1864). More HERE. It is not true that this was the first time You Light up my Life was performed in Georgia. It is true that one reason people came to this area of North Georgia (before the War between the States) was to visit the Tumlin Indian Mounds. More HERE.

November 12, 1701 -- Establishment Clause (history): The Carolina Assembly passed a Vestry Act making the Church of England the official denomination of the colony of Carolina (and therefore entitled to state-enforced tithes), which at that time -- according to the Carolina Charter -- included all of present-day Georgia. Very strong lobbying from The Society of Friends (aka. Quakers) and members of some other non-anglican groups led the colony's proprietors to rescind the provision within two years.Relevant today ???

Jonathan Fitch died in Charleston in 1691. His family were Quakers, likely from London, but he spent some time in Barbados, where in the 1660s and 70s he was repeatedly fined and imprisoned, for practicing his faith. About 100 Quakers immigrated from Barbados to South Carolina because of the continued persecution. His son (also named Jonathan), who was born in Barbados in 1657, eventually was able to acquire a plantation on the Ashley River. It is either he or his son (father of Izabella (she was the 4th generation in South Carolina) ) who converted to the Anglican Church, and indeed, helped build Saint Andrew's Parish Church, along with other Ashley River planters. Izabella Fitch McDonald was Adam's wife, who predeceased him by 11 years. Her daughter (Bella) was no more than 5 years old when Izabella passed away.

Interestingly, Adam MCDONALD (discussed below) was one of the seven children of Daniel MCDONALD who immigrated to South Carolina from the north of Ireland (Scottish-Irish heritage) about 1735, and settled in what is now Williamsburg County. Just a few generations after arriving in Ulster, considerable numbers of Ulster-Scots emigrated to the North American colonies of Great Britain. Between 1717 and 1775, an estimated 200,000 migrated to what became the United States of America.

When the first two Continental regiments of foot soldiers were raised in South Carolina in June, 1775, officers were chosen by ballot, the highest rank going to those who received the most votes in the Provincial Congress. Adam MCDONALD received 130 votes (only 5 less than Francis MARION) and became the seventh ranking captain. His brother JAMES received 114 votes and ranked twelfth. Adam MCDONALD, a veteran of the French-Indian War, soon revealed a talent for intelligence work, which he used to good advantage by posing as a Tory spy. Adam MCDONALD was promoted to the rank of MAJOR in the 1st Regiment of the South Carolina Continental Line, a post he held until 1778 when he was replaced by Captain Thomas PINCKNEY. Major MCDONALD was probably unable to serve because of illness, for he died in December, 1778. His daughter Bella was the mother of Elenora, grandmother of Annabella. Annabella was the antebellum wife of the Rev. Paul Trapier Keith, a Rector in Charleston SC of the oldest Parish in the city.

Ella Nora Keith, was born in Charleston in the first half of the 19th Century, the daughter of a long serving Rector of St. Michael's Anglican Church. Ella Nora, named after her maternal grandmother (Anna Bella's mother), was a teenager during the War Between the States. Her future husband, from the Pendleton District of SC, was a physician's aid in Lee's army throughout the conflict. One could argue that the freedom of worship offered by the Colony was the reason why an heir of a Georgia signor of the Declaration was able to marry the heir of a South Carolina signatory 270 years after the proprietors rescind the provision establishing a colonial church.

On November 12, 1864, The good general dined at the Park Hotel in downtown Cartersville, no doubt served a well-cooked meal, while watching the rail traffic. More HERE.Aurelius Augustinus, Augustine of Hippo, Austin
November 13, 354: Augustine of Hippo, perhaps the most well-known of the early Church fathers was born in Thagaste—modern Souq Ahras, Algeria. He was the author of Confessions and City of God, works that transformed Christian theological thought and molded Western Civilization. A few centuries later, Saracen invaders from the east invaded the land of his birth. They did more than just change place names, killing or enslaving the Christian population that resisted conversion -- wiping out all vestiges of roman/greek culture in North-Africa, except for the occasional ancient ruin. The end-run around the Mediterranean ended in France near Tours (732AD -- more properly Poitiers), but centuries more would elapse before all of Spain would be reconquered (1492). And, of course, for nearly 100 years in the 16th and into the 17th century, muslim forces of the Ottoman Empire laid siege to Europe from the east. Some say the siege is on once more.

November 13, 1504: The birth of Philip, Landgraf of Hesse, took place in Marburg. Philip became convinced that freedom for Protestant practices meant greater independence for his province in the greater context of German states (Holy Roman Empire). He also realized the need for alliances. He formed the first alliance in 1526 with the Elector of Saxony. Others followed. To that end, Philip became the leader of the Protestant princes against the Emperor, Karl V. By 1531, half a dozen princes and 10 towns had formed the Schmalkaldic League, which had become a magnet for opponents of the Habsburgs. By 1534 he had broken Austria's power-hold in southern Germany. In 1546, however, the Habsburg Emperor fought back, successfully. Philip gave himself over to the mercy of the emperor, and so was imprisoned. Others, however, rose up to take up the cause, so the struggle continued unabated. Finally the Peace of Augusburg in 1555 ended the conflicts for a time. Protestants had gained their first legal rights in the Holy Roman Empire.
Briefmarken Link: Der Löwe im hessischen Wappen stammt aus Thüringen. Hessen war bis 1247 der westliche Teil der Landgrafschaft Thüringen. Die rot/weisse Streifung des Löwen kam etwas später hinzu und beziehen sich auf die Farben von Mainz.

Wappen Thüringen

November 13, 1864: Union soldiers fought a fire that spread through downtown Marietta -- apparently set without orders. More HERE.

November 13, 1995: Atlanta Braves pitcher Greg Maddox became the first major league pitcher to win four consecutive Cy Young Awards. He had previously set a record for consecutive awards on different teams: Cubs (1992) and Braves (1993). On November 18, 1998, Atlanta Braves' pitcher Tom Glavine won the 1998 National League Cy Young award. With a 20-6 record, Glavine was the National League's only 20-game winner in the 1998 season. The win gave the Braves' pitching staff an amazing hold on the Cy Young award during the 1990s, with Glavine winning twice (1991 and 1998), John Smoltz once (1996) and Greg Maddox a four-time winner as mentioned above. Atlanta also had another Cy Young award winner on its roster during part of this time. Steve Bedrosian, when pitching for Philadelphia, won the award in 1988

A boat race (1874) !!!

November 14, 1840: Claude Monet, a French painter, uttered his first cry. Perhaps Monet is best known for his work done at Giverney (northwest of Paris) after 1890, but his work before then was still more than passible. He studied in Paris with Charles Gleyre, a Swiss academic painter. There Monet met Frederic Bazille, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley. Together they developed the type of open-air painting that came to be known as the Impressionist style, named after one of his paintings of Paris from 1873. Monet explored the idea of a series of scenes, which feature a single subject shown under varying conditions of light and weather. A Russian site showing many, many Monets -- all categorized by date Our page about Monet's red boats and John Clymer is HERE. This peinture française died in 1926.

November 14, 1864: General W. Tecumseh Sherman continued to improve his fireman-ship skills in Atlanta; more HERE.

November 17, 2018 -- Release date of Beaujolais Nouveaux: Every year the new wine is released on the third Thursday at midnight (à 00 h 00 précises-French Time). Every year it gets better and better -- promoted. Indeed, so wonderful was a recent year's vintage, that a new comet Holmes arrived to mark the event {warning: satire}. History of this Ancient Practice Enjoy the Nouveaux, along with cheese and other goodies. Villefranche sur Saône is the capital of Beaujolias where in the middle of the 12th century the Lord of Beaujeu, Humbert III first made the wine.

November 15th: On this day Justin II (Latin: Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus; Ancient Greek: Φλάβιος Ἰουστίνος ὁ νεώτερος; born c. 520AD – d. 5 October 578) became Eastern Roman Emperor (565 to 574). He was the husband of Sophia, nephew of Justinian I and the Empress Theodora, and was therefore a member of the Justinian Dynasty. About 100 years later in 655AD at the Battle of the Winwæd, Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Penda was the last great pagan warrior-king among the Anglo-Saxons, although he permitted the practice of Christianity in his territory. After Penda's death, the Mercians were converted to Christianity, such that all three of Penda's reigning sons became Christian.

Oswiu (a son of Æthelfrith who acceded to the throne after the death of his brother at the hands of Penda), in contrast, was a devoted Christian, promoting the faith among his subjects and establishing a number of monasteries, including Gilling Abbey and Whitby Abbey. He was raised in the "Ionan" Christian tradition of much of the Irish world, rather than the Roman tradition practiced by the southern Anglo-Saxon kingdoms as well as some members of the Deiran nobility, including Oswiu's queen Eanflæd. In exile, the sons of Æthelfrith converted to Christianity, or at least raised in a Christian setting. In Oswiu's case, he became an exile at the age of four, and cannot have returned to Northumbria until the age of twenty-one. Oswiu presided over the Synod of Whitby, where English clerics debated over the two traditions, and helped resolve tension between the parties by decreeing that Northumbria would follow the Roman style.

While the debate centered on the calculation of the Easter celebration and the haircuts of monks and clerics, in fact this debate better aligned the English with the European Continent, and eventually destroyed the spirit of scholarship, independence and evangelism of the Irish church, which had kept the Faith alive during the Early Middle Ages, a period after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The English would soon be tested with the arrival of the Vikings in Northumbria the late 8th century.

November 15, 1763: Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon began surveying the border between Pennsylvania and Maryland. They completed 233 miles by 1767, when members of the Six Nations tribes told them they could not proceed any further west. The Mason-Dixon Line is the traditional border between North and South. Fourteen years later on this date in 1777, the Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation in York, Pennsylvania. These articles instituted the perpetual union of the United States of America, the document serving as a precursor to the U.S. Constitution. The structure of the Constitution was inspired by the Iroquois Confederacy of six major northeastern tribes. The matrilineal society of the Iroquois of the North (and other nations such as the Cherokee in the South) is said to have inspired the suffragist movement of the 19th and 20th centuries.

November 15, 1864: With much of what was once downtown Atlanta (such as it was in this new city of the south) a smoking ruin ... more HERE.
Follow the numbers -- November 16, 1763: John Wilkes (born 1725), English journalist, MP, and friend of American Colonies, was injured in a duel. John Wilkes’ protest of the Treaty of Paris of 1763 appeared in The North Briton: No. 45. Silversmith and legendary Patriot Paul Revere crafted his Liberty Bowl to commemorate the two “Patriotic numbers” -- 92 and 45. The bowl, which weighed 45 ounces and held 45 gills (a measure of volume), was inscribed with Ninety-Two. The numbers had special significance to American Patriots, representing resistance to British taxation. The Massachusetts colonial assembly voted in 1768 92-17 to refuse British demands for repeal the Massachusetts Circular Letter, which had been penned by Samuel Adams in protest of the Townshend Revenue Act. Reference to the numbers 92 and 45, in songs and toasts, helped solidify opposition throughout the 13 colonies.

November 16, 1864: In order to celebrate General Sherman’s March to the Sea, Henry Clay wrote the song, called Marching through Georgia; but, he should have written a song about the Oklahoma Territory and made more cash. In any event, on November 16, 1907, the big OK became a state -- number 46. Speaking of numbers, Tennessee Ernie Ford drove to the top spot on the record charts on this day in 1955. Sixteen Tons, in which he owed his “soul to the company store,” became the fastest-selling record in history, jumping to #1 in just 3 weeks. The tune, on Capitol Records, stayed at #1 for eight weeks. So, returning to Georgia, Rhet Butler passed away on this date in 1960. The famed actor of the silver screen, Clark Gable, died at the age of 59 at about 11 o'clock in the evening (local time). He smoked too much.
November 17th -- feast day for Gregory of Tours: He is best remembered for his well-written history of the Franks, a long, vivid insight into the world in which he lived.; see also (en française) Interestingly, Tours has a few more saints in its history, including Saints Martin and Brice, whose feast days are celebrated the 11th and 13th of this month. More about Tours may be found on our pages.

With liberal culture on the wane, or rather perishing in the Gallic cities there were many deeds being done both good and evil: the heathen were raging fiercely; kings were growing more cruel; the church. attacked by heretics, was defended by Catholics; while the Christian faith was in general devoutly cherished, among some it was growing cold; the churches also were enriched by the faithful or plundered by traitors-and no grammarian skilled in the dialectic art could be found to describe these matters either in prose or verse; and many were lamenting and saying: "Woe to our day, since the pursuit of letters has perished from among us and no one can be found among the people who can set forth the deeds of the present on the written page." Hearing continually these complaints and others like them I [have undertaken] to commemorate the past, order that it may come to the knowledge of the future; and although my speech is rude, I have been unable to be silent as to the struggles between the wicked and the upright; and I have been especially ­ encouraged because, to my surprise, it has often been said by men of our day, that few understand the learned words of the rhetorician but many the rude language of the common people. I have decided also that for the reckoning of the years the first book shall begin with the very beginning of the world, and I have given its chapters below.

November 17, 1231: Death came to Saint Elisabeth von Thüringen after a brief but full life (1207 - 1231). Elisabeth was born in Hungary. At age 4 Elisabeth was engaged to the 11 year old son of the Duke of Thüringia. She was sent there for a German education in preparation. But Hermann, her intended's father, died in 1216. Elisabeth was sent back to Hungary. The new Duke of Thüringia, Ludwig IV, had fallen in love with her. They were married in 1221. Elisabeth devoted her energies to caring for the sick, most notably lepers. In the year of famine, 1226, she emptied Thüringia's granneries in order to feed the populace. Legends tell of a number of miracles that followed upon her good works. Ludwig participated in the 5th Crusade as a member of the Teutonic Knights of the „Deutscher Orden“ -- he grew ill and died. After his death Elisabeth left her home at the Wartburg, first to live with her uncle, the Bishop of Würzburg, then to live life in poverty as a caretaker of the ill in a hospital. She died on November 17, 1231. She was canonized by Gregory IX in 1235. In 1236 the construction of the Church of St. Elisabeth began in Marburg. Elisabeth's remains were then moved to the church. The church soon became one of the most observed pilgrimage sites of the times. She remains a very popular saint in Germany. Our page about some Thüringian cities ist HERE.

Saint ELIZABETH appears to be an eighteenth-century tune from the Glatz area of (lower) Silesia (which has belonged to Bohemia, Germany and Poland during the past century). No factual data exists for the legend that this text and tune date back to the twelfth-century crusades, although those apocryphal stories explain one of the names by which this tune is known, namely, CRUSADER'S HYMN. After Franz Liszt used the tune for a crusaders' march in his oratorio The Legend of St. Elizabeth (1862), the tune also became known as ST. ELIZABETH.;

November 17, 1372: Part at least of the personal history of M. Mandeville is mere invention. No contemporary record corroborates the existence of Jehan de Mandeville. Some French manuscripts, not contemporary, give a Latin letter of presentation from him to Edward III, but so vague that it might have been penned by any writer on any subject. It is in fact beyond reasonable doubt that the travels were in large part compiled by a Liège physician, known as Johains a le Barbe or Jehan a la Barbe, otherwise known as Jehan de Bourgogne (Gentleman Johhnny's forbear ??). It is added that, having had the misfortune to kill an unnamed count in his own country, he engaged himself to travel through the rest of the world and arrived at Liège in 1343. He became a great naturalist, profound philosopher and astrologer and had a remarkable knowledge of physics. His identification is confirmed by the fact that in the now destroyed church of the Guillemins was a tombstone of Mandeville, with a Latin inscription stating that he was otherwise named ad Barbam, was a professor of medicine and died at Liège on November 17, 1372.

November 17, 1558 -- If only they had the fax: Queen Mary died on this date, the first queen to rule England in her own right, and known as Bloody Mary for her persecution of Protestants (during three years, some 300 of whom were burned at the stake), a vain attempt to restore Catholic discipline to the Church of England and her attempt to reclaim the lands of the Catholic Church, confiscated by her father English King Henry VIII. Unsuccessful in England, she sought to discipline revolutionaries in Eire -- ever the convenient whipping child of the English monarchs.

In 1558, Queen Mary charged learned Doctor Henry Cole, Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral, with a commission to the Privy Council of Ireland, instigating the persecution of the English Protestants residing in that far off land. On his way west en route for Dublin, the good doctor stopped a night in Chester, staying at the 'Blue Posts' on Bridge Street -- then kept by a Mrs. Mottershead. While there, he was visited by Chester's Mayor, to whom he he related his errand. Pointing to a leather box containing the commission, Dr. Cole was heard to exclaim, Here is what will lash the heretics of Ireland ! The eavesdropping landlady (Mottershead) had a brother in Ireland. When the room was empty, she removed said commission and replaced it with the devil's toy, a pack of cards, the Knave of Clubs uppermost. This humorous deception was not discovered right away. Dean Cole arrived in Dublin and in the presence of the Lord Deputy and Privy Council at the city's castle opened the box. The surprise of the whole assembly may be more easily imagined than in words described. Doctor Cole was immediately sent back to London for a more satisfactory authority, but before he could return, Queen Mary, alas, had breathed her last. Elizabeth rewarded the ingenuity of the landlady, who truly had risked her life, with a pension of £40 (Forty Pounds Sterling) per year -- a very considerable sum at the time. Queen Elizabeth I, came to the throne on November 17th, when Mary passed on to her greater reward. Don’t go away thinking that Elizabeth was a saint and Mary a demon. Elisabeth, as queen, proved every bit as ruthless (if not more) against the Catholic faith and the Irish.

Do not confuse Mary Tudor with Mary Stuart. In 1559, King Henry II of France, killed in a tournament, is succeeded by his son François II, whose wife, Mary, Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart), assumes the title Queen of England. She also desired a return to catholicism in England, but in a somewhat complicated story she is executed by her cousin, the very same Queen Elizabeth. Her son, however, becomes James I, King of England and Scotland, 16 years after Mary Stuart's death in 1587. In 1612, James (a Protestant) moved his mother's body to Westminster Abbey, in London, constructing a magnificent tomb that rivaled Elizabeth's monument. Tribulation has been to them {the saints and martyrs} as a furnace to fine gold - a means of proving {meaning perfecting} their virtue.
One of Several in townNovember 17, 1732: “After repeated delays, the frigate Anne set sail from Gravesend down the Thames River into the Straits of Dover, then southward into the English Channel, and then westward along the southern coast of England before embarking into the Atlantic Ocean. At last, James Oglethorpe and the 114 colonists being sent at Trustees' expense were on their way to build the first settlement in the new colony of Georgia.”   © Carl Vinson Institute of Government [est. 1983], The University of Georgia [established in 1785].

November 17, 1755 — Birth of Louis XVIII: Louis Stanislas Xavier de France , brother of Louis XVI . arrives in France. The execution of his brother and the death of his nephew, Louis XVII, causes the Nation to crown him Louis XVIII in 1814, when a coalition of European powers restored the Bourbon monarchy to the heirs. After the fall of the Empire and Napoleon, the Restoration of this constitutional monarchy lasted for only a few years under his rule. He died childless on September 16, 1824. His brother replaced him under the name of Charles X as King of France until the popular uprising of 1830.

Charles's dissolution of the chamber of deputies, his July Ordinances, which set up rigid control of the press, and his restriction of suffrage resulted in the July Revolution of 1830. The major cause of the regime's downfall, however, was that, while it managed to keep the support of the aristocracy, the Catholic Church and even much of the peasantry, the ultras' cause was deeply unpopular outside of parliament and with those who did not hold the franchise, especially the industrial workers and the bourgeoisie (middle class). Charles abdicated in favor of his grandson, the Comte de Chambord, and left for England. However, the liberal, bourgeois-controlled Chamber of Deputies refused to confirm the Count as Henri V. In a vote largely boycotted by conservative deputies, the body declared the French Nation to be without constitutional head, and elevated Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, to the throne.
November 17, 1800: The Sixth U.S. Congress (2nd session) convened for the first time in Washington, D.C. Previously, the Federal capital briefly had been moored in other cities, including New York, Philadelphia and Annapolis, Maryland. George Washington, a surveyor by profession, and assigned to find a site for a capital city somewhere along the upper Potomac River (which flows between Maryland and Virginia), chose a site that turned out to be a close commute to Mount Vernon, his home. This placed the new capital city in a swamp, a foggy bottom land. Indeed, the Mall sits today on fill placed in an old canal bed that drained the area when the city first was built. It still follows the lines suggested by Pierre Charles L’Enfant.

Sixty-nine years to the day, the Suez Canal opened in Egypt. It linked the Mediterranean and the Red seas, the Atlantic with the Indian Ocean, the east with the west. The 100 mile canal eliminated an extra 4000-mile trip around the Horn of Africa. Empress Eugenie, the wife of Napoléon III, together with Ferdinand de Lesseps, chief architect/engineer of the Suez venture, led the first ships, on board the French imperial yacht l'Aigle. The Rothschild banking empire had financed the Egyptian canal; but of course, this was not the first time that the Eagle had landed in Egypt (nor would it be the last).

le 29 octobre 1888 -- Internationalisation du canal de Suez: Un traité signé à Constantinople par plusieurs pays, dont l'Angleterre, donne au canal de Suez un statut international. Ainsi, il peut être emprunté par tous les navires sans exception, quelques soient leur nationalité, et ce, en temps de paix comme en temps de guerre. L’Angleterre détenant depuis 1875 la majorité des parts de la Compagnie du canal, la convention ne sera pas toujours respectée au cours des années futures, notamment lors des deux guerres mondiales.

Moving on in time, the Suez Crisis involved the former empires of France and England, NATO Allies. In 1956, the Egyptian leader, Gamel Abd al-Nasser, nationalized the canal, and Egypt would now run the project. This unilateral action greatly angered the British and the French, and eventually led to an Israeli-British-French attack on October 29, 1956. Their American ally however, did not lend support to either country invading Egypt, possibly fearing Egypt would fall into the Russian Soviet sphere of influence. Thus, the Suez Crisis ended quickly with all sides agreeing to a cease-fire on November 6, 1956, at the behest of the US and the UN. This US adventure into Middle-East politics turned out poorly, one can argue, demonstrating weakness and driving Nasser towards the communist camp.

November 17, 1903: Vladimir Lenin’s efforts to impose his own radical views on the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party split the Party into two factions. The followers of the Marxist revolutionary line espoused by V.I. Lenin called themselves the majority, or Bolsheviks, and referred to their rivals as the minority, or Mensheviks. The Mensheviks took a less radical position, seeking cooperation with the middle-class in forming a government. The two factions grew into separate parties, with Bolshevism becoming the strategy that led to the overthrow of Russian czarism and the establishment of Soviet power in following the Revolution of 1917. The Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Russian Communist Party in 1918 and the word Bolshevik was finally dropped from the official title of the Soviet Communist Party in 1956.
November 18, 1477: On this date the first book was printed in England by a process made popular in Mayence by Johan Gensfleisch. William Caxton had set up a press in Bruges (Brugge, Flanders), where he printed the first book in English (Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye, a translation by Caxton himself) produced in 1475, just 20 years after Gutenberg's premier effort. Our page on Brugge is HERE. Later, Caxton set up his press at Westminster in London (1476). The first book known printed: Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres on November 18, 1477. Other notable works printed by Caxton: Le Morte d'Arthur and Canterbury Tales. Interestingly, by the marriage of the daughter of Charles the Bold to Archduke Maximilian, Flanders passed to the House of Austria in 1477.

Moveable type printing started a revolution in Germany, France and later England. Now, many more would have access to the Bible, without the filter of the Roman Catholic Church and Latin texts. More about how this revolution affected England is HERE.

Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov November 19, 1711: Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov was born this day (November 8 under the old calendar). A Russian polymath, scientist and writer, made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus. He regarded heat as a form of motion, suggested the wave theory of light, contributed to the formulation of the kinetic theory of gases, and stated the idea of conservation of matter. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov was also a poet, who created the basis of the modern Russian literary language.

Lomonosov was born in the village of Denisovka (later renamed Lomonosovo in his honor) in the Arkangel Territory, on an island not far from Kholmogory, in the Far North of Russia; the son of prosperous peasant stock. His rise to Secretary of State (1764) and most of his accomplishments were unknown outside Russia until long after his death, and remain somewhat obscure today in the West. He died at age 54 in Saint Petersburg. His great-granddaughter was Princess Maria (Raevskaya) Volkonskaya, the wife of the Decembrist Prince Sergei Volkonsky. In 1755, he wrote a grammar that reformed the Russian literary language. He combining Old Church Slavonic of his early training with the vernacular tongue. To further his literary theories, he wrote more than 20 solemn ceremonial odes, notably the Evening Meditation on the God's Grandeur. Lomonosov Moscow State University is the largest university in Russia. Founded in 1755, the university is named in honor of its founder. Lomonosov published a classic history of Russia in 1760.

November 19, 1861: Julia Ward Howe, a Newport Rhode Island bon vivant, wrote The Battle Hymn of the Republic. A simple poem, it secured her place in American history. The hymn, as most of you will remember, was the center piece of the Service for the Dead at the National Cathedral on September 14, 2001. In 1853, William Steffe, a Southern composer of many Sunday School songs, had written this tune to accompany his sermons at camp meetings. It was originally called “Brothers will you meet us on Canaan’s happy shore?”

Mrs. Howe composed her verses in Washington after her visit to the soldiers and battlefields, just outside the Nation's Capital in occupied Virginia. There, she first heard Union soldiers singing John Brown's Body to the Steffe tune. Rev. Freeman Clarke, a clergyman who had read Julia’s published poems, suggested that she write new words for the war effort, saying the old tune deserved fresh words to encourage the fighting. Maybe he knew that this had become a popular tune of wartime because of circumstances with which she had already a close connection.

John Brown's body lies a-mouldering in the grave;
John Brown's body lies a-mouldering in the grave;
Oh, John Brown's body lies a-mouldering in the grave;
But his soul is marching on ...

Her then husband, Samuel, was one of a secret circle of Northern aristocrats that quietly aided Brown in his quest to ignite a nationwide slave revolt. They had called themselves the Secret Six. Brown's quest led him to seize the 60 year-old Federal armory at Harpers Ferry (October 16, 1859). Two days later, the raiders gazed upon a company of U.S. Marines, under the command of Lt. Colonel Robert E. Lee. A young lieutenant, James Ewell Brown Stuart, approached under a white flag, asking for surrender. Brown refused. The Marines stormed the building. Captured alive, Brown later was hanged for the offense. In contrast, the covert coven of conspirators who furnished financial aid, would not suffer a similar fate.

The Secret Six included the editor of the Atlantic Monthly. This abolitionist magazine would publish the verses Julia Ward Howe had written. Her husband fled to Canada, but soon returned and served in the Lincoln Administration. Mrs. Howe had her sixth and last child soon after the death of Brown. She wrote another less famous poem called The First Martyr at this time, the Winter of 1859-60.

O babe unborn! O future race!
Heir of our glory and disgrace,
We cannot see thy veiled face;
But shouldst thou keep our crime,
No new Apocalypse need say
In what wild woe shall pass away
The falsehood of the time.
{emphasis added}

Very early the next morning, after her visit to the bivouacs of the Army of the Potomac, she awoke quickly. Although startled from deep sleep at dawn, the "lines of the desired poem began to entwine themselves in my mind.” She arose and in the dim light “scrawled the verses almost without looking at the paper … I returned to bed and fell asleep, saying to myself, I like this better than most things that I have written.” This account is drawn from {link dead} as well as Her poem, when published by the Atlantic Monthly, February 1, 1862, was lightly lauded, but the War between the States had so engrossed public attention that few took strength from only its literary merits. It had a profound impact when coupled with music. “I knew, and was content to know, that the poem soon found its way to the camps, as I heard from time to time of its being sung in chorus by the soldiers.”

The Battle Hymn of the Republic: "Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord." This, of course, is ... the Nunc dimittis of Luke 2:29-30, where, upon the first presentation ... in the Temple, Simeon says, "Lord now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word. For mine eyes have seen thy salvation." National Review, ibid.

The Publication date (for The Battle Hymn of the Republic) was February 1st. Coincidence, or not, the Feast day observed February 2nd is that for the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple {or the older name Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary; another popular name for the day used to be “Candlemas,” which came from an early church custom of carrying candles in procession as part of the observance}. Nunc dimittis is a principle part of the reading, and often the focus of the sermon.

November 19, 1863: President Abraham Lincoln was asked to deliver a few appropriate remarks to the crowd at the dedication of the National Cemetery at the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Lincoln's address almost was ignored in the wake of the lengthy oration by main speaker Edwin Everett. In fact, Lincoln's speech ended before many in the crowd were even aware that he had spoken. Lincoln's "eloquent words of redemption and sacrifice" remain revered in American history. He concluded his thoughts with a National vow: We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this Nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth ... a work in progress still today.

A year later (1864), Sherman's army was taking its weekend stroll through Covington, where the pillage was ongoing. Mark Twain in contrast (in California), wrote about his observations of a meteor shower from the previous week. From the minutes of the Central (General) Council of the International Working Men's Association - November 19, 1864: Dr. [Karl] Marx then brought up the report of the subcommittee, also a draft of the address which had been drawn up for presentation to the people of America congratulating them on their having re-elected Abraham Lincoln as President.

November 20, 1947: Princess Elizabeth Alexandra Mary marries Phillip Mountbatten at the Westminster Abbey Church (London England), a ceremony broadcast worldwide by radio. Forty-five years later to the day, a fire breaks out in their Private Chapel at Windsor Castle, an event viewed live, world-wide. It burns through the night, seriously damaging a wing of the structure. You might recall that it was only a few years earlier on November 15, 1938, that television’s first on-the-scene event took place. A fire on Ward’s Island, New York City was seen by viewers of W2XBT. The station's cameras somehow caught the unexpected conflagration as it broke out, a bit of reality programming 70 years ago on what is today known as the flagship for NBC. In 2013, one expects a new birth for a future King, the great Grand issue of Elizabeth and Phillip, a child for Prince William.

November 21-22, 1922: Rebecca Latimer Felton of Georgia takes the required oath and becomes the first woman to hold office as United States Senator. Haven't heard of her ?  Well, as one might expect within these pages, much more underlies this story.

Following the death of U.S. Senator Tom Watson, on October 3, 1922, the Georgia Governor, Thomas Hardwick, had appointed Rebecca Latimer Felton temporarily to fill Watson's seat until Walter F. George, elected in a special election, could officially take office. Felton was 87 years old at the time, and Governor Hardwick was attempting to honor her for a life of service to causes in which she believed. She took the appointment seriously, although many senators opposed her actually being allowed to take the oath of office. They initially denied her a chance to become a senator. Felton attended Senate sessions on November 21st and 22nd, sitting in the gallery. Through the efforts of Walter George, senators finally gave in and Felton was officially sworn in, becoming the first woman to serve in the U.S. Senate. from

November 22, 1835: Frank Crawford Armstrong was born on November 22, 1835 at Choctaw Agency, Indian Territory (now the virtually abandoned village of Scullyville) where his father was stationed at the time. After his death, when Armstrong was a boy, Armstrong's mother married General Persifor Frazer Smith, one of the heroes of the Mexican War. Armstrong accompanied him on a military expedition across Texas into New Mexico in 1854, learning his trade out west. A Regular Officer in the Cavalry branch of the Army of the United States, and the youngest captain in the army at the time, he was transferred back east. Captain Armstrong fought for the Union at the First Battle of Bull Run (1861), later changing sides after resigning his commission. His last battle was at Selma, Alabama (April 2, 1865), when the remnant of Lt. General Forrest's corps faced far superior numbers and hundreds were taken prisoner. Armstrong escaped capture and was given a new command at Macon, but the war was over. He would retour the WEST as an Indian inspector and Commissioner for the Federal government. Armstrong passed away at Bar Harbor, Maine on September 8, 1909, but his journey was not yet complete, he had to return to Washington, where he had lived. He is buried in Rock Creek Cemetery, Georgetown, District of Columbia (Section L, Lot 41).

The Battle of Britton's Lane produced five men who would become general officers. Colonel (acting Brigadier) Frank Armstrong would shortly be made a {regular} full Brigadier General [January 20, 1863], and both William H. (Red) Jackson and Wirt Adams would rise to the rank of general during the war. On the Federal side, Colonel Elias S. Dennis would be promoted to general largely based upon his performance at Britton's lane, and his subordinate, Major Warren Shedd, who commanded the 30th Illinois at Britton's Lane, would also be a general before the end of the war. It is quite rare to find such a relatively small battle producing such a large number of general officers during the War Between the States. Over the intervening century, the Battle of Britton's Lane and Armstrong's Raid have generated many fascinating stories that have remained alive in the oral tradition and written history of Madison County and West Tennessee.

November 22, 2005: The first chancellor from East Germany ist auch die erste Bundeskanzlerin. Angela Merkel was chosen Tuesday, after weeks of uncertainty, to lead the German governing coalition (Koalition aus Union und SPD vom Parlament). Die Pfarrerstochter Merkel addierte zur Eidesformel den religiösen Zusatz „So wahr mir Gott helfe” hinzu -- her oath included by choice so help me God. Also, the seven Union and eight SPD Ministers were sworn to office in the afternoon. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

November 22, 1935: The first transpacific airmail flight departed with over 20,000 folks waving good-bye. The China Clipper began its 8,000-mile journey with 110,865 letters on board, piloted by Captain Edwin Musick. The Pan American Martin 130 took off from San Francisco International. Nearly 60 hours later, it landed at Manila in the Philippines Islands. Two other denominations featuring this aircraft may be seen HERE

JFK 50 years - 1963-2013 -- Death of CS Lewis

When President Kennedy spoke in Berlin, a few short months before his assassination, he emphasized his solidarity with the citizens of the beleaguered city, separated by The Wall. He could not know that another US President 20 years in the future would make a similar plea for freedom. Most forget the second German phrase used, equally compelling, roughly translated, "Let them come to Berlin." He was speaking about those who thought the Soviet system was not all that bad, that it was simply a different system for ordering economic priorities. The structure, the barbed wire, the guards, vividly loomed before all people, on which ever side of it one stood, with only one clear message, there is a prison here. Until it fell, all nations, like the citizens on both side of the Wall, were not fully free. If you seek peace, tear down this wall. Fifty years later . . .

November 23, 1846: The Augusta Canal system began operation. Conceived two years earlier as a way to to provide water power for manufacturing and thus aid Augusta's depressed economy, the canal system diverted water from the Savannah River seven miles north of Augusta. Because the city was situated on the Fall Line, the ground elevation was higher seven miles to the north. The thirteen-foot difference in elevations would cause the water in the canal to flow southward into Augusta with enough speed to power factory turbines. Water first flowed into the canal on Nov. 23, 1846, and Petersburg cotton boats quickly began using the canal. True to its intended purpose, the canal led to construction of the Augusta Factory -- a cloth manufacturing firm -- in 1847. WJBF TV channel 6 in Augusta, Georgia (ABC) began broadcasting this day in 1953 to commemorate this event. On November 23, 2009, the same station is broadcasting on digital channels 42-1 and 42-2.

November 24th: Today is the 329th day of the year (2008). Only 37 days remain until the end of the year. Tasmania was discovered today by the European culture of the time (1642). To celebrate the event, the Apollo 12 command module splashed safely in the Pacific Ocean, ending the second reported mission to earth's moon. Charles, Duke of Orléans arrived this day in 1394, as an unknown poet, as did William F. Buckley Jr. in 1925. John Knox of Scotland departed this day in 1572. At soon to be named Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, John Forbes (1707-1759) captured Fort Duquesne, after the French had destroyed it exothermically (1758), one of the first firework displays over the peaceful Point Park.

According to legend, Charles of Valois, Duke of Orléans and father of the popular King Louis XII (Father of the People), sent the first Valentine messages (letters and poems) to his second wife, Bonne of Armagnac, in 1415, when he was imprisoned in the Tower of London after the Battle of Agincourt {100 Years' War}. He, however, was not beheaded, and lived a full life. Unfortunately, until 1440, it was spent in English captivity. He never saw his wife Bonne again. Orléans, an accomplished poet, composing in both French and English, was exceptional among his French contemporaries. So it is that the British Library has a copy of his works from about 1500, composed in French, English and Latin. He makes an appearance in Shakespeare's King Henry V (Act 4. Scene VIII), when his name is mentioned as one of the captives taken on October 25th -- Saint Crispin's Day.

November 24, 2003: Former Brave's pitcher Warren Spahn died at age 82. Spahn was an ace for the Boston and later Milwaukee, Braves. He won more games than any other left-hander in the history of professional baseball. Although he never pitched for the Braves after the franchise moved to Atlanta, he was honored in 2003 with a statue at Turner Field, also known as Atlanta's Olympic stadium. In 1973, in his first year of eligibility, Spahn was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame. He received the Cy Young Award in 1957.

November 24, 2006: William Diehl passed away this day. His death, announced on the 28th was followed by an obituary that appeared in the Atlanta morning paper on November 29th. He was working on the ending of what would be his 10th novel at the time of his death. Mr. Diehl’s other novels included Primal Fear, a tale about a defense lawyer and a client accused of killing an archbishop (an open and shut case). It too became a film in 1996. from The LA Times

Sharky's Machine, a 1981 motion picture directed by Burt Reynolds (who also starred in the title role of Sgt Tom Sharky), adapts William Diehl's first novel, Sharky's Machine (1978), to the big screen. Diehl, who was age fifty when he wrote the novel, saw the movie shot on location in and around his hometown of Atlanta, Georgia. According to the Internet Movie Database, this film has the distinction of a stunt record. As of 2004, at 220 feet, the stunt from Atlanta's Hyatt Regency Hotel still holds up as the longest outdoor free-fall (no wires) stunt to ever be performed for commercial film. The stuntman was Dar Robinson. Diehl had a cameo role.

Diehl joined the Army Air Corps at age 17 after falsifying his birth date. Never-the-less, he served as a ball turret gunner on a B-24 during World War II. His conduct in action earned the Distinguished Flying Cross, Purple Heart and Air Medal with three Oak Leaf Clusters.

Without the Channel, how would history have changedNovember 25, 1120: The events collectively known as "The Anarchy" represent one of the least known periods of English history (post 1066). This particular period of English civil unrest has its origins on the fateful night of the 25th of November 1120, when the "White Ship" sank in the Channel off the Normandy coast when it struck a submerged rock. The shipwreck killed the only direct heir of King Henry I, William Adelin. The cause of the ship's sinking remains uncertain, but some reports describe a night of binge drinking by crew and passengers alike; and, rumors of purposeful destruction persist today. The "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" recalls the 19-year reign of King Stephen, that followed Henry's death as an era “when Christ and his saints were asleep." Henry I King of all England and Normandy had designated Matilda (known as Maud) his daughter to be the Queen (she was married to Geoffrey of Anjou who had contested the control of Normandy by Henry). After trading victories in battle Maud and Stephen were at a stalemate. Before the coronation of the Queen could take place, Londoners stormed out of the "City" to attack Westminster, compelling Matilda to flee, her plans in flames. Eventually, an agreement recognized Henry II (Henry 's grandson by Maud) as rightful heir, when the men of the opposing armies refused to fight, weary of the seemingly unending struggle. Indeed, after the accord the once and future Kings were at peace personally, appearing together.

HENRI Plantagenêt, born March 5, 1133, in Le Mans, Maine Province (Sarthe), France; died July 6, 1189 at Chinon, Indre-et-Loire, France; was crowned HENRY II, King of England, on December 19, 1154. He is buried at Abbey-et-Fontevrault, Maine-et-Loire, France. On May 11, 1152, Henry married ELEANOR of Aquitaine, born about 1122 in Aquitaine, France. She passed on June 26, 1202, at Mirabell Castle, France. ELEANOR was the daughter of GUILLAUME X, Duke of Aquitaine, and his wife ELEANORE. Æleanor d'Aquitaine previously had married to LOUIS VII, King of France, on July 4th or 22nd, 1137, but was divorced by him on March 21, 1152. This change of heart, as you might expect, fostered problems between the two countries, as ownership issues were again in play. ÆLEANOR of Aquitaine is buried at the Monastery of Fontevrault located in Maine-et-Loire, France.

MATILDA (Maud) was the daughter of MATILDA, born about 1082 in Scotland; died May 1, 1118 at Winchester, Hampshire, England; baptized name was EDITH of SCOTLAND, a Princess of Scotland. On November 11, 1100, MATILDA married English King HENRY I BEAUCLERC, born about 1068 at Selby, Yorkshire, England; died December 1, 1135, at Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France. Henry I was the youngest son of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR, King of England. HENRY I, crowned King of England on August 5, 1100, at Westminster was buried at Reading Abbey, Berkshire, England on January 4, 1136. William the Conquerors heritage back to Charlemagne and before is well-known.

MATILDA was the daughter of Sainte MARGARET, born about 1043 in England; died November 16, 1093, at Edinburgh Castle, Mid-Lothian, Scotland. She was a Princess of England; buried at Dunferline, Fife, Scotland; canonized as a Saint by Pope Innocent IV in 1251. In 1068 she had married Scottish King MALCOLM III CEANNMOR, born about 1031 in Scotland; died November 13, 1093, near Alnwick in Northumberland, England. Three of Sainte MARGARET's children became Scottish Kings, the fourth married the English ruler.

It is through the heritage of Queen Matilda, who was the spouse of King Henry I of England (he the son of William I, First Norman King of England) and the daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland, that many of the later Kings and Queens of England and Scotland are able to claim direct descent from the earlier English (Anglo Saxon) Kings as will be shown below, as well as the Scots of Dalriada (Malcom III's line). The current royal family also directly descends from the Scots of Dalriada, through this line, by way of the House of York (White Rose), Mary, Queen of Scots, James I, Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, the Duke of Brunswick (Hanover) and his son George I, King of England. The lineage of the Scots of Dalriada goes back about 95 generations before Matlida, where we find one named Gaodhal (or Gæls) son of Niul, grandson of Phœniusa and further back to Japhet one of the sons of Noah. From there it is only 10 generations to Adam.

November 25th: The devotion to Sainte Catherine (of Alexandria), which grew greatly in Europe starting in the 12th Century, peaked in France (15th century), when it was rumoured that she had spoken to Jeanne d'Arc and, together with Ste. Margaret, had been divinely appointed Joan's adviser. Many think Catherine did not exist or was some amalgam of many martyrs, and she was removed from the Catholic Church's calendar of feast days (1969-2002). Adam of Saint-Victor wrote a magnificent poem in her honor for a Latin Hymn, which begins: vox sonora nostri chori. (the sonorous (pleasant but powerful) voice of our choir [in praise]

Then [Roman Emperor] Maximin, with his heart of stone, commanded that Catherine be carried outside the city, and scourged and then beheaded. So it was done; but when she was dead, angels bore her body over the desert and over the Red Sea, and laid it away on the top of Mt. Sinai. As for the tyrant, he was slain in battle, and the vultures devoured him. Raphael; A Collection Of Fifteen Pictures And A Portrait Of The Painter With Introduction And Interpretation, Estelle M. (Estelle May) Hurll, EText-No. 19314, Release Date: 2006-09-19

So, I will leave it to you to discern what all this has to do with the price of hats for a few lassies in Paris.

November 26, 1864: A day after the anniversary of the Battle of Missionary Ridge (Chattanooga, Tennessee-in a defeat that many believe ended the South's hope of a negotiated end to the war), southern troops reoccupy Atlanta, as General Sherman moves south and east toward Savannah. The town is a mess. Civilians, who were forced to leave after the battle, slowly return. You may find the previous two week period recounted HERE.

November 27, 511: Clovis, often called the first King of France, died on this date. Shortly before his death, Clovis called a synod of Gallic bishops to meet in Orléans to reform the church and create a strong link between the Crown and the Catholic episcopate. This was the First Council of Orléans. Clovis I is interred today at Église Saint-Étienne-du-Mont (pictured here), not in the Saint Denis Basilica (near Paris) and not in Tournai (Belgium), as was his father and previous Salian Frank kings. The Parisian church that rises near where the Roman Forum once stood, contains Pascal’s tomb, who died while he was in the parish and Racine’s ashes -- transferred to this church from Port-Royal in 1711. Furthermore, it contains the shrine of Ste. Geneviève’s remains, the patroness of Paris. The reliquary contains only a few fingers, bones and ashes, because during the la Révolution français , the remains were burned and scattered. Also with Clovis is his wife Ste. Clotilda. Upon his death, Clovis's realm was divided into 4 parts, creating about a 240 year period of disunity for the resulting kingdoms. A map and timeline of kings, mayors and other rulers is HERE on our page about Metz.

November 28, 1095: – On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse to lead the First Crusade to the Holy Land. The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the western Church. Pope Urban delivered a speech at the closing of the Council, purportedly ending his oration with the words Deus vult ("God wills {it}"). This phrase became the battle cry of the Crusaders. Filled with zeal at the prospect of liberating the Holy Land (and earning an indulgence, that erased time in Purgatory, they ended the Council. In 1095, Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus had sent envoys to the west to request military assistance against the Seljuk Turks. The message was received well by Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza. Later that year, in November, Urban called the Council of Clermont to discuss the matter further. In convoking the council, Urban urged the bishops and abbots, whom he addressed directly, to bring with them the prominent lords in their provinces.

On this date in 1520, After navigating through a strait at the southern end of South America, three ships under the command of the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães) reach the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first known Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean from the east. Ferdinand Magellan set out from Spain on this voyage with five ships, but the voyage proved more difficult than anticipated. Indeed, Megellan and most of his men and ships did not survive this voyage. The aim of Christopher Columbus' 1492–1503 voyages to the West had been to reach the Indies and to establish direct commercial relations between Spain and the Asian kingdoms. The Spanish soon realized that the lands of the Americas were not a part of Asia, but a new continent. The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas reserved for Portugal the eastern routes that went around Africa, and Vasco da Gama and the Portuguese arrived in India in 1498. It became urgent for Spain to find a new commercial route to Asia, and after the Junta de Toro conference of 1505, the Spanish Crown set out to discover a route to the west. Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513 after crossing the Isthmus of Panama. Magellan's voyage would open the "spice route" without damaging relations with the neighboring Portuguese. On August 10, 1519, the five ships under Magellan's command, the Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepción, Victoria and Santiago, left Seville. It took 3 and 1/2 months to find the Pacific.

In 1666 on this date, some 3000 men of the Scottish Royal Army led by Tam Dalyell of the Binns defeated 900 Covenanter rebels in the Battle of Rullion Green, in Lothian, Scotland. The rebels included experienced professional soldiers as well as citizenry, and were commanded by Colonel James Wallace of Auchens. The Pentland Rising (of which this was the penultimate battle) must be viewed in the context of the long-running government campaign to impose episcopalianism upon Scotland (versus Presbyterianism (Calvin) or Catholicism) against the will of the people.

November 28, 1794: On this date, Friedrich von Steuben passed away at Remsen, New York (born in Magdeburg, Germany). Steuben had been a Prussian officer. At the behest of Benjamin Franklin, he aided the ailing effort of the American Colonies. Arriving in 1777, Washington placed von Steuben in the line of command for troops at Valley Forge. He retrained these forces and wrote a manual, Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States. The city of Steubenville, Ohio bears his name.

November 28, 2007: Churches and schools for many years sponsored Boy and Girl Scout units in Waltham. Indeed, in 1974, the W.R. Nichols Company was the chartering organization for a Sea-Scout Ship. Today such a group would be a crew within Venturing, a program for young men and women under the BSA umbrella. This evening, was the 97th anniversary of the founding of the earliest documented maritime-themed Scout unit in the United States. That date in 1910 was a Monday and the time was evening at 321 Crescent Dr, Waltham, Massachusetts. The man who first brought a Sea Scout group together (in the USA), Arthur Astor Carey, lived in Waltham, which is on the Charles River. A prominent worker in the burgeoning arena of youth development of the period, Carey founded the local Scout district council, too. Carey's Little chapel Harbor -- Waltham, Massachusetts Public Library from same time period.

Carey's unit began as a Scout troop, of course, as that was the only type of Scouting program that existed then. Less than a month later these Scouts had acquired the use of an eighty-two (82) foot converted fishing boat, then moored in nearby Boston. The group spent much of the following months working on their water skills at Camp Sherwood on the Sudbury River. In the summer of 1911, the newly-christened BSS Pioneer conducted the first Long Cruise.

Mr. Carey apparently was never actually a Sea Scout Skipper [often called a Seascoutmaster in the early days], he functioned more as a combination Chartered Partner Representative and Committee Chairman in today's terms. He did go out on the Pioneer and participated in the Long Cruise. A wealthy man who was active in such diverse fields as the arts deco and neurasthenic studies, he is considered to be the first national Sea Scout director, preceding James Wilder of Hawaii.

There is some evidence pointing to a possibility that Mr. Carey had been acquainted with General Baden-Powell in England (1909) and that his encounter may have been a factor in his interest in Scouting. His daughter Alida married into the Gulick family, the founders of the Campfire Girls. Carey was the same age as Sir Robert Baden-Powell, but predeceased him by some 18 years (1923). information researched by D R McKeon SSS Sargasso Ship 22 (Atlanta Area Council) Tucker, GA.

Some say November 29, 1745-the monument on the site says the 28th, but I say serendipity like a pendulum swings: In November 1745, French troops and native allies burn Saratoga, New York (and later Albany), to retaliate for British efforts to encourage the Iroquois to fight during King George's War (War of the Austrian Succession (1744-1748)). The Saratoga of 1745 was on the site of the present Schuylerville, NY, on the west bank of the Hudson River about eleven miles east of the present Saratoga. One hundred forty-five years later in nearby West Point, New York, the United States Naval Academy defeated the United States Military Academy 24-0 in the first Army-Navy football game. Another interesting point, if you look for counseling at 1745 Saratoga Avenue, you will be in San Jose, California. You might be surprised to learn that San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe. It is the first civilian settlement, or pueblo, in Alta California.
November 30th 1016, saw an important event in English History, when the son of King Æthelræd the Unready met an untimely end. ÆTHELRÆD II {the Unready} was the son of EDGAR THE PEACEFUL. Coinage of the King shows his portrait as well as the hand of God, between the alpha and omega symbols.

England, under one rule since Alfred's son, Edward, had unified the title in 921, was ruled by Æthelræd the Unready who had become monarch aged 10 in 979. But his perceived non-preparedness had persuaded a new generation of Vikings that Britain was again for the taking and since the 980s they had been trying to do just that. East Anglia was in the front line.

King Edmund II of England (nicknamed Ironside for his military prowess), the son of King Æthelræd, was elected King of England in London upon his father's death in 1016, but his Danish rival, Canute the Great, enjoyed greater support throughout the rest of the countryside. Edmund was eventually defeated by the Danes, but he was allowed by Canute to keep the Kingdom of Wessex (Wessex is key because traditionally it held the overlordship of the rest of England), under an understanding that whoever of them survived the other would become ruler of the whole of England. Shortly after making this agreement, Edmund II died, on November 30, 1016, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey on the Isle of Avalon. A Danish claim was established over the whole of England for the next 50 years. To secure the claim, one of Canute's first order of business was to marry Emma, Æthelræd's widow of Norman descent. One of Æthelræd's children outlived Canute's direct heirs (Emma was the mother of all Canute's and Æthelræd's children).

Some years later, the survivor -- King Edward the Confessor, another son of Anglo-Saxon King Æthelred (the Unready), was recalled from Normandy after decades of exile, where he had secured sanctuary with his Norman Christian cousins. Not unexpectedly, Edward's reign witnessed increasing Norman-French influence, which had begun when Canute married Æthelred's widow, Emma of Normandy, daughter of Richard the Fearless, then Duke of Normandy. Edward oversaw completion of Westminster Abbey, which he finished just in time for his burial in January 1065/66. Before his death he had named a Norman heir, but the Saxon council of electors (witenagemot) wanted a man closer to their own cultural heritage.

WilliamEdward's unexpected death without an heir left the succession in doubt and in dispute. The electors of the witenagemot chose Harold, Earl of Wessex. The Earl had once been held hostage by a Scandinavian cousin, named Harald (Haardraade). He was released only upon giving up any interest in the English throne. This relative, now King Harald III of Norway, wished to claim his prize. The third contender and cousin was William Duke of Normandy (also of Scandanavian-Viking heritage and related to Edward and Harold and Harald).

Harold, then currently English King, Harold II, fought off an invasion by the first Scandinavian claimant, defeating him at Stamford Bridge on September 25, 1066. Notwithstanding this success, the course of world history radically changed at the Battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066; because, Duke William (the Conqueror) established a beachhead in England without opposition, while Harold had busied himself up north. When Harold's exhausted Anglo-Saxon army turned its attention to the second set of invaders, time and energy had run their course. French Barons, née Viking pirates, had established the new English royal family and noble retinue. English King William was crowned in Westminster Abbey on the next Christmas Day in 1066. More HERE. All of this is every bit as complicated as the events we would see later regarding the succession to the English Crown as the Tudor line ended and the Reformation of the Church in England began. A very good anglo-saxon Websource:

Richard I of Normandy (born 28 August 933, in Fécamp, Haute Normandy, France died November 20, 996, in Fécamp) was the leader of Normandy (princeps Nortmannorum at Rouen) from 942 to 996; many consider him to be the first to actually have held that title. He was called Richard the Fearless (French, Sans Peur). Richard was still a boy when his father died, and so he was powerless to stop Louis IV of France when he seized Normandy. Louis kept him in confinement in his youth at Laon, but he escaped with the assistance of Osmond de Centville, Bernard de Senlis (who had been a companion of Rollo of Normandy), Ivo de Bellèsme and Bernard the Dane (common ancestor of houses of Harcourt and Beaumont). In 968, Richard agreed to "commend" himself to Hugh, Count of Paris. He then allied himself with the Norman and Viking leaders, drove Louis out of Rouen, and took back Normandy by 947. He later quarreled with Æthelred II of England. The Dukes of Normandy descend in an unbroken line to Wooden (Odin of Nordic Mythology) of the Thracian Æsir, whose peoples migrated from the Black Sea; said to be a remnant of the House of Troy.

Facing the abbey church (L'Abbatiale de la Trinité), the remains of the ducal palace bring to mind the Norman Rolland (Rollo) of Fécamp, and rest upon the remains of an early 10th century castle built by William I. Today the site hints at what housing was like in the 10th and 11th centuries. Behind the abbey church , the old town bears witness to Fécamp's rich past, along France's Alabaster Coast. The abbey church of the Trinity, a masterpiece of primitive gothic (12th century), possesses the grandeur of a bishop's cathedral. It still retains numerous gems, including the chapel of the Virgin and its 14th century stained glass as well as later additions and art. The Church of Saint Stephen (Étienne) is a much later structure from the 16th Century.

Fécamp is situated in the valley of the river Valmont, at the heart of the Pays de Caux. It sits about 50 miles NE of Cæn and about 40 miles NW of Rouen. According to legend, the trunk of a fig tree carrying the Precious Blood of Christ collected by Joseph of Arimathea was washed ashore on the riverbank at Fécamp in the 1st century. In short order, the relic attracted many pilgrims. Many items of the Gallo-Roman period have been found locally, such as gold coins and celtic axes. Two Gallo-Roman cemeteries have also been discovered.écamp Charles II of England landed at Fécamp in November 1651, soon after the Battle of Worcester, where he had been defeated by Cromwell. This recalls Edward the Confessor (son of Æthelred the Unready and his second wife, Emma of Normandy), King of England's exile to the same city, where he stayed with his cousins.

November 30, 1782: In Paris, representatives from the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign preliminary peace articles, later formalized in the Treaty of Paris (September 3, 1783). The British recognized the independence of the American states. John Adams, who would become the second President, was one of four named American Representatives on the negotiating team (Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Henry Laurens were the other three).

The US and British negotiators agreed on the new nation's boundaries. The two sides secretly agreed to an article that affected Georgia's southern boundary west of the Chattahoochee River. If Spain allowed Britain to retain her two Florida colonies, the northern boundary of West Florida would continue as it was prior to the American Revolution -- a line marked at latitude 32° 22' N stretching from the Chattahoochee River to the Mississippi River. If, however, Spain insisted on the return of the two Floridas, West Florida's norther boundary would return to 31° (as originally stipulated in the Treaty of Paris of 1763). Thus, a substantial area of Georgia's western territory was in question. Spain would claim, in due course, the entire area of West Florida for its role in defeating the British. The secret text would plague U.S.-Spanish relations until 1795, when Spain finally agreed to give up its claim to western Georgia north of the 31st parallel, still holding on to the rest of its Florida empire. see

However, all was not really settled, and we went to war with the British Empire once again in 1812. In September 1814, an impressive American naval victory on Lake Champlain forced invading British forces back into Canada. This led to the final peace arrangements concluded in Ghent, Belgium. John Adam's son, John Quincy Adams (the sixth US President) would negotiate the Treaty of Ghent (December 24, 1814), ending that conflict. News of the signing would not reach the USA until 1815. This delay gave US General Andrew Jackson, later a US President, the time to achieve a still greater American victory at the Battle of New Orleans.

Jackson expected the British assault and had prepared. The shallow-draft steamboat Enterprise, completed in Pittsburgh under the direction of keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve, left for New Orleans to deliver guns and ammunition to General Jackson on December 1st of 1814. On December 13th General Andrew Jackson announced martial law in New Orleans, as British troops disembark at Lake Borne, 40 miles east of the city. The British then moved south and east of the Chalmette Plantation, a then goodly distance out from town. On the 23rd of December General Jackson stopped the first advance, but tactically retreated about 3 miles within the Parish of Saint Bernard and threw up fortifications.

On the 8th of January 1815, the British resumed their march toward New Orleans. In separating Louisiana from the rest of the United States, the British had aimed to control and would have in fact controlled the Mississippi and the trade to America's heartland, thereby protecting their possessions on the American frontier and in Canada. The British found the volunteer militia, citizens and Gentleman Pirate Jean Lafitte's men (all under General Andrew Jackson's command), strongly entrenched at the Rodriquez Canal, 6 miles from the French Quarter.

Because of its provisions of the treaty ending our last declared war with Great Britain, regarding the Georgia borders, many Georgia politicians called on the President Madison (who authored the Bill of Rights) to renounce the Treaty of Ghent and continue the war against Britain. This did not happen, the United States was exhausted. Never-the-less, the Florida Territories would come into US possession by treaty in 1819.

On November 30th: In 1803, 21 years after the preliminary agreement ending the war for freedom was reached, at the Cabildo building in New Orleans, the Spanish (Governor Manuel de Salcedo and the Marqués de Casa Calvo) officially transfered the Louisiana Territory to the French. Pierre-Clément de Laussat (Napoléon's Colonial Prefect, born in Pau) accepts possession of Louisiana from Spain in a retrocession ceremony at noon. Jean Ètienne de Boré (1741-1820) becomes the first Mayor of the city, a democratic ville for the first time. Just 20 days later, France transferred the same land to the United States and the US Flag rose on the 20th of December above the Cabildo. William C. C. Claiborne and General James Wilkinson are commissioners overseeing the transfer.

On this date in 1819: The steamship Savannah returned home after being the first steam-powered vessel to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Actually the ship had sails, carried very little coal and so could use steam only as an assist when wind failed (or to steam into port up the Savannah River). It had left the City of Savannah in May. For more information, please see our Georgia Sea Traditions Webpage.

In the mid-20th Century: On November 30th 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (who celebrated his birth in 1874 that day) and the leader of the Soviets (USSR), Josef Stalin, would agree to an invasion of Europe, codenamed Operation Overlord. The Allies, sans Josef, would come ashore at Normandie.

Ah, (eleven years later) elle a sorti le ciel, débarquant juste un peu de sud de Sylacaugie !!! In Alabama, a small {eight pound-eight ounce} sulfide stony meteorite strikes a home across from the Comet Drive-In Théâtre, near Sylacauga. The object hits Mrs. Elizabeth Hodges in the living room, after it punctures her roof and actively ricochets off her radio. As you may guess, this results in a rather nasty bruise, but she becomes the first person in recorded history to survive a close encounter of this kind -- at least the first American, well maybe first Alabamian -- You do not want to miss this story at Website:

Not one web site claimed the Hodges meteorite was a hoax, a cover up or a conspiracy. None claimed the Hodges event never happened. Interesting. Could it be that some strange stuff you read on the net is actually ... true? Yes. Some.
To celebrate this event, Creedence Clearwater Revival placed a track called It Came Out Of The Sky on its First Album, released November 2, 1969: It came out of the Sky -- con subtitulos

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls


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