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In our 10th Year
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Il y a un siècle, Tocqueville parlait déjà de la sécularisation en Amérique: Ce ne sont pas eux qui quittent la religion, c'est la religion qui les quitte. More HERE

Back in 1938, when fascism was sweeping Europe, legendary investigative, muckraking reporter George Seldes observed: It is possible to fool all of the people all of the time -- when the government and press cooperate [emphasis added from The Lords of the Press].

Non valet hæc ego dico, hæc tu dicis, hæc ille dicit - sed hæc dicit Dominus -- Augustine

« En quel Dieu croyons-nous ? » -- Benoît XVI démasque les faux-dieux
« La violence est incompatible avec la nature de Dieu et avec la nature de l`âme »

Here are the words of the cantata's opening chorale, first in German and then in an English translation provided by the Bach Cantatas Website:

Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme
Der Wächter sehr hoch
auf der Zinne,
Wach auf, du Stadt Jerusalem!

Mitternacht heißt diese Stunde;
Sie rufen uns mit hellem Munde:
Wo seid ihr klugen Jungfrauen ?      
(Matthäus 25, 1-13)

Wohl auf, der Bräutgam kömmt;
Steht auf, die Lampen nehmt!

Macht euch bereit
Zu der Hochzeit,
Ihr müßet ihm entgegen gehen!

- Ewig in dulci jubilo !
"Wake, arise," loud call the voices
of Watchmen so high in the tower,
"Wake up, you town Jerusalem !"

Midnight's hour is now approaching
They call to us with lucid voices:
Where are the clever virgins now ?

Behold, the bridegroom comes
Rise up, your lanterns take !

Prepare yourself
For the wedding,
You must arise and go to him!

Placez-vous sur les chemins, regardez, Et demandez quels sont les anciens sentiers, Quelle est la bonne voie; marchez-y, Et vous trouverez le repos de vos âmes !

September 1, 5509 BC: According to the Eastern Orthodox Church, the world (as we know it) dates from September 1, 5509 BC. -- Creation This date rests on a reading of the Septuagint, the oldest Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament (a popular Greek (koine dislektos) version of the ancient tongue). All Christians used the Septuagint until the 5th Century AD. Latin translations of the Roman Church and by the Byzantine Empire (until it ended in 1453) also relied on it. Various Orthodox denominations still employ it today. You can view the Greek version at: Interestingly, the oldest extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible date from approximately the ninth century AD.

Ptolemæus Philadelphus freed the Jewish captives who had been brought to Egypt by his father Ptolemæus, and sent royal offerings to Onias Simon, the brother of Eleazar, who was high priest at Jerusalem. In order to translate the Jewish Scriptures from Hebrew into Greek, he locked away 72 of the Hebrew wise men on Pharos, the island of Proteus, in 72 separate dwelling places. He had placed the scriptures in the libraries which he had created at Alexandria, along with many other books of all sorts which he had collected from every city. When he saw that the books which he had brought from Jerusalem were written in letters of gold, he was amazed, and after having copies made he returned them together with gifts. The scriptures were translated within 72 days on the island of Pharos. The 72 wise men caused astonishment because they had each translated the scriptures while separated from each other, but when they came into Ptolemæus' presence and compared the translations, they were found to be identical. Then glory was given to God, and the scriptures were recognized as being truly inspired, because they had all produced the same translation. Therefore the nations of today believe that it was by the inspiration of God that the scriptures were translated within 72 days on the Island of Pharos. from [Ol. 123.4]

Many early Christians spoke and read Greek. Thus, they were able to rely on the Septuagint translation for most of their knowledge of the scriptures today called the Old Testament. The New Testament writers also relied heavily on the Septuagint, as a majority of Old Testament quotes cited in the New Testament originate directly from the Septuagint. see also

1 Behold, I send forth my messenger, and he shall survey the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come into his temple, even the angel of the covenant, whom ye take pleasure in: behold, he is coming, saith the Lord Almighty. 2 And who will abide {or wait for} the day of his coming? or who will withstand at his appearing? for he is coming in as the fire of a furnace and as the herb of them that wash {fullers}.

1 idou egw exapostellw ton aggelon mou kai epibleyetai odon pro proswpou mou kai exaifnhs hxei eis ton naon eautou kurios on umeis zhteite kai o aggelos ths diaqhkhs on umeis qelete idou ercetai legei kurios pantokratwr ("the Almighty" of Revelation 1:8 (pantokratôr)) 2 kai tis upomenei hmeran eisodou autou h tis uposthsetai en th optasia autou dioti autos eisporeuetai ws pur cwneuthriou kai ws poa plunontwn (Malachi, Chapter 3:1-2).

King James Version: 1 Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord (kurios is freely used for the Deity and for men), whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to this temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts (the King James rendering adopts the rule of Leviticus 24:16 to avoid directly using the holy name). 2 But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap .... cf Matthew 11:10.

In the New Testament the term theos takes the place of El, Elohim, and Elyon (in the Old Testament). The names Shaddai (Shadday) and El-Shaddai are rendered pantokratôr, the Almighty [Rev 1:8], [kurios pantokratôr Lord Almighty (2 Cor 6:18)] and theos pantokratôr [Rev 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 16:14 ;19:6; 21:22], God Almighty. Thus saith the LORD (Theos) the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD (Theos) of hosts (sabaôth); I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God (Theos). Isaiah 44:6 (King James)

September 01, 70: This is known as one of the traditional dates for the destruction of Jerusalem. An eyewitness to the event places it slightly earlier. More here. Others have chosen September 8th:

Bar-Kochba (Bar Koba) 
2nd Revolt 
132-135AD     And when he drew near and saw the city, he wept over it, saying, “Would that you, even you, had known on this day the things that make for peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes. For the days will come upon you, when your enemies will set up a barricade around you and surround you and hem you in on every side and tear you down to the ground, you and your children within you. And they will not leave one stone upon another in you, because you did not know the time of your visitation.” [Luke 19:41-44]

September 01, 1864: The Battle of Jonesboro (just south of the City of Atlanta), the final major aspect of the broader campaign to take Atlanta, had continued all the day then late into the night. Confederate forces had been overwhelmed by the superior Union numbers of men and equipment. Brigadier General Daniel Govan with his Arkansas troops had to surrender; and at one point, General Hardee's entire corps was at risk of the same fate. Darkness brought an end to the hard fighting. By 11 pm Hardee began to withdraw from the field of battle. In the darkness, what was left of Hardee's corps marched through the night to Lovejoy's Station six miles to the south of Jonesboro. There, they wearily dug in to prepare for what would prove to be the final battle in General Sherman's Atlanta Campaign.

Meanwhile, the morning of September 1st had found the Atlanta civilian population believing that the South had won the previous day's fight at Jonesboro. However, some Confederate deserters arrived and revealed what really happened. More confusion reigned during the day. No one seemed in charge, and by 5 pm, a full-scale evacuation of Atlanta had started. Supplies that could not be carted away were given to Atlanta residents. General Hood ordered General Stephen Lee to take his corps to Lovejoy's Station to join Hardee's corps. Lovejoy is about 25 miles south of Atlanta. As the military authority left, looting began. Scarlett and Rhet parted ways for the rest of the War Between the States. Actually, to be true to history, they separated in the early morning of the second and a hard rain was going to fall.

Mary Edwards Walker, one of the nation's 1.8 million women veterans, was the only one to earn the Congressional Medal of Honor, for her service during the Civil War. She, along with thousands of other women, were honored in the newly-dedicated Women in Military Service for America Memorial in October 1997. Her formal record for the citation: Contract Acting Assistant Surgeon (civilian), U. S. Army. Places and dates: Battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861; Patent Office Hospital, Washington, D.C., October 1861; Chattanooga, Tenn., following Battle of Chickomauga, September 1863; Prisoner of War, April 10, 1864-August 12, 1864, Richmond, Va.; Battle of Atlanta, September 1864. Entered service at: Louisville, Kentucky . . . and has devoted herself with much patriotic zeal to the sick and wounded soliders, both in the field and hospitals, to the detriment of her own health, and has also endured hardships as a prisoner of war four months in a Southern prison while acting as contract surgeon; and . . . .

Le premier de Septembre en France: In 1715, King Louis XIV of France died after a reign of 72 years, longer than any other French or other major European monarch, leaving the throne of his greatly indebted country to his great-grandson Louis XV. The Regent for the new, five-year-old monarch was Philippe d'Orléans, a nephew of Louis XIV. To commemorate the event in 1920, the state of Lebanon was created by the French, with Beirut its capital. In 1928, Ahmet Zogu, who ended his days in exile on the French Riviera (at age 65), declared Albania to be a monarchy and proclaimed himself king, ruling but 11 years until the German occupation. His hopes of returning to power dashed by the establishment of a communist republic under Enver Hoxha in 1945, Zogu formally abdicated on January 2, 1946. In 1933, HG Wells, seeing the gathering storm clouds, published The Shape of Things to Come. In 1948, Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedung set up a provisional government in China. In 1969, the lately executed Moammar Qaddafi staged a coup in Libya.

September 1, 1870: The Prussian army crushed the French under Marshal MacMahon at Sedan (Champagne-Ardennes), the last battle of the Franco-Prussian War. Napoleon III was captured (etiez-vous à Sedan?). The Germans would end up seizing French territory, thus setting the stage for the Great War. The German defeat in this next European-wide War (now called World War I) would in turn, set in motion a series of events leading to yet another great global conflict in 21 years. Interestingly, during World War II the German troops first invaded neutral Belgium and crossed the Meuse River in Sedan. This allowed them to bypass the French fortification system, the Maginot Line.

September 1, 1939: The year 2009 marked the 70th anniversary of the 6 year global conflict many call World War II. We will ignore for the moment earlier preludes, such as the Spanish Civil War, the Japanese War with China and the peaceful annexation of German Land by the Third Reich. It was not until this day that Germany invaded Poland (and the Soviet Union thereafter (June 22, 1941)). The invasion drew France and Great Britain, as allies to the Polish Nation, into the fight. On September 3rd at 11am the ultimatum to Germany to withdraw expired and Britain declared War just 15 minutes later, followed by France six hours later -- the policy of appeasement had failed with frightening consequences.

The war started near dawn (4:40am) with salvos from the cruiser Schleswig-Holstein at the Polish garrison in Gdañsk, a city within the Danzig region that had been part of Germany before World War I. The city sits at the mouth of the Vistula River on the Baltic Sea.; -- Wszystko o Gdañsku. Gdañsk was a member of the Hanseatic League and the largest city in Poland until the partitions of the late 18th century, when the largely German-speaking city became part of Eastern Prussia.

A soon surrounded Switzerland proclaimed neutrality from the first day in 1939 but could never be sure of safety. Germany would violate the neutrality of the Benelux nations, Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg. Spain, Sweden, Portugal and Ireland remained neutral, too; but, with the exception of Portugal, these countries' policies (at least early on) were influenced greatly by the Germans and their successes. The rest of Europe (and portions of northern Africa) was overrun by the Nazi hoard (except for the British Isles, the portions of Soviet Union which remained free and Finland which was at war with Russia). The Vatican was never occupied, just surrounded by a fascist Italy. Some suggest that no one in Europe was truly able to remain neutral.

September 1st or 2nd in 1945: Americans received word of Japan's formal surrender that ended World War II on September first. Because of the time difference, it was September 2nd at Tokyo Bay, where the formal signing ceremony took place. The Allies and Japan signed the instrument of surrender upon the main deck of the Battleship USS Missouri.

September 2, 1752: This is the last day on which the Julian calendar was observed officially in Great Britain and its North American colonies. The Gregorian calendar was adopted effective September 3rd. Because of errors in the Julian calendar, eleven days were eliminated, meaning the day after the 2nd in 1752 was September 14th. The beginning of a new year was also changed from March 25th to January 1st. This explains why letters from a Georgia founder, James Oglethorpe, indicated the date of arrival of the first colonists as 1 February 1732/33. This would have been February 12, 1733 on the continent of Europe, because much of the rest of Europe already used the Gregorian nomenclature, dates from January 1 to March 25 frequently showed both the Julian and Gregorian year. Often, dates will indicate "O.S." for "Old Style" (i.e., Julian) or "N.S." for "New Style" (i.e., Gregorian).

A little searching by a friend turned up but it only goes back to year 1 AD (two days difference in that year, if it's calculations are accurate) The Julian was introduced in 45 BC, but his successor, Augustus corrected the incorrect usage of leap years after the first 36 years. Previously, they had assigned a leap day every third year (it should have been 4). So, in 24 years there would be 8 leap days instead of 6 or about 8 extra days every 100 years. Augustus skipped several leap years to compensate for the mistake, and correctly set the process to every 4 years. Ten days of error crept into the Julian Calendar over the course of its use -- over and above any mistakes in the original calculations. Today, of course, we are perfect to the micro-second, c'est la vie !!
September 2, 1864: By midnight of September 1st, all the Southern troops had left the City of Atlanta, except for a few special forces, cavalry with a unique mission. Commanding General Hood had no intention of leaving the Union Army anything of military importance. The few Confederates left behind began destroying everything they could not carry. Those Atlanta residents who still remained in the city heard the explosions as the seven locomotives and 81 loaded cars of Hood's ammunition train disintegrated. It must have been very much like the scene, immortalized many years later in the film Gone With the Wind. For 5 hours this frenetic demolition continued. By dawn, the job complete, the calvary departed to rejoin Hood's forces, heading for Lovejoy's Station well south of the Atlanta city-centre.

The morning of September 2nd brought silence. Residents and city officials had expected the Union Army to enter and claim its prize; however, no one arrived. Mayor James Calhoun and a small delegation rode out, white flag flying, to surrender. The party met members of Hooker's 20th Corps. His honour was requested to make his petition of surrender in writing (triplicate no doubt). So we have preserved Calhoun's two-sentence letter, directed to Brigadier General William Ward, which states: "Sir: The fortune of war has placed Atlanta in your hands. As mayor of the city I ask protection of non-combatants and private property."

By early afternoon, Union troops flowed into town. History records the Second Massachusetts Regiment as the first unit to reach downtown and raise the Flag. Atlanta was now in Federal hands. It occupied Atlanta's city hall. The next day Sherman would write to Washington, Atlanta is ours, and fairly won. Although Atlanta still had its trial by fire through which it must pass, few realized that the town's fortunes were about to change. Atlanta would become Georgia's Capital and leading city, surpassing Savannah, Augusta and the former Capital, Milledgeville.

September 2, 1885: In Atlanta, 10,000 Georgians attended public ceremonies for the laying of the marble cornerstone of a new capitol building for Georgia in its post-war capital. Construction of the statehouse would take almost four years.

On July 4, 1889, the State of Georgia would dedicate this new structure. The Capitol Commission presented the building with a gold dome to Governor John B. Gordon. Commissioners had an additional gift. Having been authorized $1,000,000 to spend, they report that the construction project came in under budget. They return $118.43 to the state treasury. The new capitol was so large that it could house all three branches of state government, with rooms left over.

September 2, 1945: As the Japanese were signing documents in Tokyo, a 55 year old Ho Chi Minh issued a Vietnamese declaration of its independence, unifying the northern to the southern areas of the region. He was known to have written letters to President Truman asking for humanitarian assistance and advocated political rather than military action. His letters appear to have gone unnoticed, certainly unanswered.

Strangely enough on the same day in 1969, the North Vietnamese president died. The son of a poor scholar, Ho Chi Minh led his nationalist movement for 3 decades. He became an active socialist while in France (n'est pa), where he had petitioned unsuccessfully for colonial reforms (following the first World War). His involvement with the international communist movement continued from the 1920s, meeting and working with communist leaders in Europe and in the Soviet Union. In 1930 Minh, formed the Indochinese Communist Party and its successor, the Viet-Minh, in 1941. He served as president of the Democratic [Peoples'] Republic of Vietnam from 1945 until his death, le 2'er septembre 1969.

Aussi -- le 2 septembre 1969: L'ancêtre du réseau Internet naît, pendant le week-end de la fête du Travail. Il a nom ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) et relève d'un projet financé par le Pentagone des États-Unis. Le premier nœud du réseau est installé ce jour-là à l'UCLA (University of California Los Angeles), à Stanford (Californie). Il s'agit d'un mini-ordinateur Honeywell Model 516, de la taille d'un réfrigérateur, connecté à un unique terminal. Un mois plus tard, le deuxième nœud est installé au Stanford Research Institute (SRI) et connecté au premier par une ligne spécialisée de 50 Ko/s. Plusieurs transferts de données seront réalisés entre l'université de Los Angeles et le SRI durant le mois d'octobre 1969 et la première trace documentée de cette connexion sera datée du 29 octobre 1969.

Feast Day of a Doctor in the Church-September 03: Born in Rome, Italy, c. 540; died there March 12, 604; feast day was formerly March 12--his dies natalis, but is now the day he was consecrated Pope September 3rd. "The Holy Bible is like a mirror before our mind's eye. In it we see our inner face. From the Scriptures we can learn our spiritual deformities and beauties. And there too we discover the progress we are making and how far we are from perfection." Saint Bede described Gregory as the man England "may and ought to call our Apostle, because he made our nation, till then given up to idols, the Church of Christ," and Gregory's tomb in Rome bears the inscription: "He taught the Christian truth to English Saxons." Gregory remained in his monastery about three years and then was ordained by Pope Pelagius II as one of the seven deacons of Rome in 578. He was too active by temperament for a contemplative life and, five years after retiring from public affairs, he was appointed papal legate (579-585) to Constantinople, a post for which he was well-equipped, as he was a trained and practiced lawyer.

In 586, Gregory was recalled to Rome to became abbot of his monastery, while acting as papal secretary. There is a story that Gregory entertained the idea of himself preaching the Gospel in England, and even set out for that country, but was recalled to Rome by the Pope when a plague broke out. Pope Pelagius contracted the disease and died. Gregory was consecrated pope on September 3, 590--the first monk to hold that office. When he found that he could not refuse the office in good conscience, he accepted it and proceeded speedily with clerical and ecclesiastical reform. In the field of liturgy he introduced the Gregorian chant (in response to the congregational and antiphonal singing that Saint Ambrose introduced and which he viewed as flippant and irreverent), and established a choir school in conjunction with an orphanage.

But most conspicuous and far-reaching was his missionary vision. He had a lifelong interest in the conversion of England, where the Roman rule had come to an end under the battering of the barbarians, and the Romano-British Church had been driven into the provinces of Cornwall, Wales, and Cumbria, while the new Saxon and heathen kingdoms rose and rivalled one another until King Saint Ethelbert of Kent managed to exercise authority over much of the country.

Even before Gregory was pope, when walking in the market-place of Rome, he had noticed the fair-haired Saxon boys offered for sale as slaves and had made his famous pun: "Not Angles, but angels!" adding, still humorously, that "Alleluia shall be sung in Aella's land." Until he was able to carry out his plan for evangelization, he would buy young English boys in the slave market and give them a good education with the view of sending them home as missionaries.

A better opportunity arose when King Ethelbert of Kent married the Catholic princess, Bertha of Gaul. She had been allowed to bring her chaplain with her to England and to have Mass said in her own chapel. Gregory recognized the opportunity this presented. Thus, he decided to dispatch Saint Augustine and a small band of monks to bring the Gospel to those shores. Several times the daunted monks wanted to give up the project, but Gregory continually encouraged them to press on. The missionaries finally landed on the Isle of Thanet in May 597. Ethelbert received them courteously and eventually was baptized. The mission was so prosperous that Augustine went to Gaul to be consecrated bishop at the hands of the bishop of Arles. from

Beátus Gregórius, in cáthedra Petri sublimátus,
semper spéciem Dómini
quærébat, atque in sollemnitáte illíus amóris habitábat.

Blessed Gregory, raised upon the throne of Peter,
sought alwaysthe beauty of the Lord
and lived in celebration of that love

Collect: ... with a spirit of wisdom those to whom you have given authority to govern,
that the flourishing of a holy flock may become the eternal joy of the shepherds....

September 3, 1783: Great Britain and the United States signed a formal Peace Treaty on this day in Paris. Issues still remained, issues that would result in an armed additional conflict in less than 30 years. Never-the-less, what had begun in earnest on a common green in Massachusetts in the Spring of 1775 was now at an end. The treaty bears the signatures of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay. Mackinaw Island, Michigan, passed into US hands following the Paris Peace Treaty. In the South, the border of Georgia was redrawn on the west and to the south. The state expanse once limited only by the Mississippi and Gulf of Mexico was diminished, helping to set up the Seminole Wars.

Wainwright building, St Louis, Missouri, 1891September 3, 1856: Louis H. Sullivan, architect, the leading figure in the Chicago-School style, was born in Boston, Massachusetts. Sullivan attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the first US school to offer formal training in his field. MIT was not enough; however, he had to go to Europe.

In Rome, the abundance of Renaissance art convinced him to emulate Michelangelo's style of creation rather than imitate those ideas from earlier periods. He considered himself an artist trying to impart espirit, not just an architect seeking to beautify a structure. Indeed, leaders of the Art Noueveau movement considered his work to be based on similar premises about art, nature and the artist. Sullivan thought that a building should reflect the place and time in which it was built, not some long-gone historical period, and be sympathetic to its site and natural surroundings.

After a year of study in Paris (Vaudremer studio at the École des Beaux-Arts -- 1874), Sullivan returned to Chicago and became a draftsman (under John Edelman). Later he joined the office of Dankmar Adler, and at age 24 became a partner in the firm. He gained fame for his design of the Chicago Auditorium Theater. Sullivan, regarded as a father of modern architecture in the United States, is particularly identified with the æsthetics of skyscraper design, as he was among the first to stress the vertical lines of steel skeleton construction.

Sullivan's work inspired a younger generation of architects to apply his principles to all types of buildings, with an emphasis on residential architecture, what would later become known as the Prairie School. I particular, Sullivan attracted a new architect of promise, Frank Lloyd Wright, to his firm in 1888. He even asked Wright to design his own (Sullivan's) house.

On January 6, 2006, fire destroyed a landmark structure on Chicago's South Side that played a major role in the development of gospel music in the 1930's. The Pilgrim Baptist Church, designed by the distinguished architect Louis Sullivan and a partner, was built between 1890 and 1891. The building, designated a National historic site in 1981, was originally a synagogue, but had served as a the church since 1922. The Depression era congregation and its longtime music director, Thomas A. Dorsey, were instrumental in the development of gospel music. Among the great, who sang at the church during his tenure, was Mahalia Jackson.

September 3, 1914: The French capital was moved from Paris to Bordeaux as the first Battle of the Marne began. The British expeditionary force, under French General Lanrezac's command, attacked near the river Marne. French troops vacated Reims. At the same time the air defense of Great Britain was assigned to Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). Winston Churchill, as the new first Lord of the Admiralty (and thus the RNAS) was assigned the task of stopping the enemy Zeppelins. Interestingly, the first German bombs fell on London, at night on September 3, 1917.

September 3, 2006: Protests have erupted over the proposal to change the name of the square in front of the cathedral of Notre-Dame (Paris) from Square of our Lady to Parvis Notre-Dame-Place Jean-Paul-II. Activist Clowns, Greens and Act UP have viewed the move as unsecular, and perhaps illegal under principles governing post-modern civilisation. See: Jean Paul II fait place à la discorde -- note the play on words with the close-by Place de la Concorde, with its Obelisk of Luxor, fountain and nearby bridge to the left bank. A more complete article can be found in Sunday's Le Monde. Calling the local governments's approval of the decision to rename the area after the last Pope incompréhensible et indécent, critics said the sacred spirit of secularism shockingly had been violated by Mayor Bertrand Delanoë. About 3,000 persons arrived to support the dedication, a handful were there in protest.

September 4, 999: Saint Cuthbert's casket (after spending a number of years at various places in Northumberland) was moved to Durham, and enshrined there on this date. These relics have a particularly well documented history, beginning with the discovery of his incorrupt body. This in turn led the Venerable Bede to write his history of the Saint. In 875, after the second Viking raid on the Holy Isle of Lindisfarne, his body was moved to Northumbria, and rested at several sites until it moved to Dunholme (what would become the City of Durham in England). Enshrined on September 4, 999, the memorial was visited by William the Conqueror seventy years later. If this will help, the date of his death until William's pilgrimage is a longer period of time than from Jamestown's founding until today.

The site, on the Durham Peninsula, also had the benefits of being both easily defended and having ample supplies of fresh water. So, here St. Cuthbert's body finally rested, first in a rough wooden chapel, then in a fine Saxon-styled white-stone church. In 1093, however, the Norman conquerors dismantled the existing structure called (appropriately) the White Church in order to replace it with the present magnificent Cathedral. Cuthbert's remains, together with the head of the warrior-king, Saint Oswald, were housed in the specially built shrine within this new Cathedral in 1104. At this time, when Saint Cuthbert had been dead well over 4 centuries, they opened his coffin again. They found his body still without corruption. from: There is a more modern and scientific precedent for this observation (à Bernadette Soubirous).

The Commissioners of Henry VIII, during the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in England, were sent to destroy the tomb in 1537, which they did. Archbishop Charles of Glasgow, who wrote a History of St. Cuthbert, (London, New York: 1887) notes that:

[Dr. Lee, Dr. Henly and Mr. Blythman on approaching the Shrine] found many valuable and goodly jewels…After the spoil of his ornaments and jewels they approached near his body, expecting nothing but dust and ashes: but, perceiving the chest he lay in strongly bound with iron, the goldsmith…broke it open, when they found him lying whole uncorrupt with his face bare, and his beard as of a fortnight's growth, and all the vestments about him as he was accustomed to say mass.

The monks were allowed to bury him on the ground under where the shrine had been. This was opened again in 1827, at which time a skeleton, swathed in decayed robes, was found. The designs matched those described in the 1104 accounts, although some argued the real body was elsewhere. [Cruz, 54-55].

September 4, 1768: François-René, vicomte de Chateaubriand is born. In 1791, he visited North America, which furnishes the setting for his exotic novels Les Natchez (written in 1800 but published only in 1826), Atala (1801) and René (1802). His work appears, even today, authentic, vivid with captivating descriptions of natur in the then sparsely settled land. His most famous work, one would think, is Analyse raisonnée de l’histoire de France (1861) -- an homage to French culture and reason. Our introduction page (in french) to his analysis is HERE. We are persuaded that there was never complete inhumanity [during the dark ages]. We cannot say that people are completely barbarian when they preserved the [Roman] intellectual culture and its knowledge of the [public] administration.

September 4, 1849: Architect and city planner Daniel H. Burnham was born in Henderson, New York on this day. At the age of 27, Burnham joined with architect John Wellborn Root to establish one of the most famous architectural firms in U.S. history. Pioneering the construction methods which made modern skyscrapers possible, this firm along with professionals like Louis Sullivan changed forever city skylines. Burnham became the chief designer of the Chicago Columbian Exposition of 1892-93. His style restored the popularity of the neo-classical school. His plan for Chicago about a dozen years later became a model for that city's revitalization and for city planning as a whole.

Quatre-Septembre: is a stop on Paris Métro Line 3, which named for the date of 4 September 1870, the date Napoléon III's reign ended and la Troisième République began. Situated on the Rue du 4 Septembre, the station commemorates when Léon Gambetta proclaimed the beginning of this new Republic from the palace of the Tuileries. The declaration came after the capture of the French emperor by German armies during the last battle of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71). Etiez-vous à Sedan ? The station opened in October 1904, when the first section of Line 3 began service between the Avenue de Villiers (today the station is known as simply Villiers) and Pére Lachaise. The Third Republic endured seventy years, making it the longest lasting government in France since the collapse of the ancient régime in the French Revolution of 1789 (and the longest too).
September 5, 1666: A Cathedral dedicated to Saint Paul has sat within the City of London since 604AD, a constant reminder to the great commercial city-centre of the role of the Church in its prosperity. The great fire of London, which had begun three days earlier, ended on this date in 1666. Old Saint Paul’s was among the 87 churches destroyed in the conflagration. A new Christopher Wren design would replace the lost structure. It would become another land-mark in a place full of important land-mark structures. Wren's church, in turn, would survive the London Firestorm caused by incendiary ordinance dropped by the Nazis during the Second World War. See the entry for September 8, 1944 about other types of ærial destruction in London.

Interestingly, you can find several Wren influenced designs in the United States; Saint Michael's Church in Charleston, South Carolina and an old northern church at Charlestowne, Massachusetts. The Wren Building, thought to have been designed by Sir Christopher Wren in 1694 (five years before the Virginia capital was moved from Jamestown to Colonial Williamsburg), is still in use today at the College of William and Mary. It contains classrooms, the chapel and the Great Hall.

The Anglicans (Church of England) built a wooden church (Christ Church) in Philadelphia on Pine Street in 1697. When they outgrew it, they erected a new structure, the most sumptuous in the colonies, designed by Dr. John Kearsley and modeled on the work of famed English architect Sir Christopher Wren. The symmetrical, classical façade with arched windows, completed in 1754, is a fine example of Georgian architecture. The church is one of the loving city's treasures. The congregation included 15 signers of the Declaration of Independence. The bells and the soaring 196-foot steeple, the tallest in the colonies, were financed by lotteries run by Benjamin Franklin. http://travel…Philadelphia/sightsacts_30979_1.html Brass plaques mark the pews of George and Martha Washington, John and Abigail Adams, Betsy Ross and others.

September 5, 1774: The first Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia, a secret session in Carpenter's Hall, with representatives from every colony except Georgia. Tensions had affected the relations between the colonies and the government of Great Britian, the British taking singular exception to the 1773 tea soirée held in Boston harbor. The party convinced Britain to pass the Intolerable Acts. Peyton Randolph of Williamsburg, Virginia, chaired this premier Congress.

South Carolina delegates: Christopher Gadsden, Thomas Lynch, Jr., Henry Middleton, Edward Rutledge, and John Rutledge of Charleston, who became the 2nd Chief Justice, (as well as an Associate Justice appointed by Washington) of the US Supreme Court. He also was the first Governor of the State of South Carolina, fleeing Charleston at its loss. In mid-1765 John Rutledge had given notable service during the Stamp Act Congress. He also was a delegate to the Second Continental Congress and served as President of South Carolina for a while.

But, when Charleston was captured by the British in 1780, Middleton accepted that as defeat and returned to the status of a British subject. This reversal apparently did not damage his reputation in the long run, due to his previous support of the Revolution; and, he did not suffer the fate of having his estates confiscated, as many Loyalists did after the war. Indeed, his son married a daughter of John Rutledge. He died in 1784.

Gadsden became one of the founders and leaders of the Charleston Sons of Liberty. He had risen to the rank of lieutenant colonel in the militia. He was elected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress in 1774 and the Second Continental Congress the following year. He left Congress early in 1776 to assume command of the 1st South Carolina Regiment of the Continental Army and to serve in the Provincial Congress of South Carolina.

September 5, 1781: The British arrived off Virginia and found 26 French warships, under the command of Admiral François de Grasse (François Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, comte de Grasse ), in three straggling lines. Rear Admiral Thomas Graves waited for the French to form battle lines and then fought for 5 days. Outgunned and unnerved he withdrew to New York. The French had defeated the British fleet, trapping Cornwallis in Yorktown. The French had some 37 ships and 29,000 soldiers and sailors at Yorktown, while Washington had some 11,000 men engaged in the siege of the enemy. In 1881 a medal the USA issued a medal for the 100th anniversary celebration (a must see link).

September 5, 1793: In the French Révolution, terror was officially acknowledged as a tool against counter-revolutionary tendencies. The National Convention instituted harsh measures to repress activities of those with which it disagreed. One delegate, desiring that the middle-class Girondist (moderates) leaders should be sentenced to death cried, It is time for equality to wield its scythe over all the heads. Very well, Legislator, place Terror on the agenda! The Convention agreed to the arrest all suspects (dissenters), to try them swiftly in peoples' courts known as the Revolutionary Tribunals and to sentence uniformly with a penalty of death, the version français of the Sentencing Act (USA).
September 6, 1620: Today a small sailing vessel holding 101 colonists and 48 crew members sails from Plymouth, England. The leadership of thirty-five colonists aboard ship, Separatists from Leiden, Holland (later known as the Pilgrims), would help draft the an agreement off a cold New England coast that fall, named after the ship in today's history books -- the name: Mayflower -- the date: November 11, 1620. Less than 100 years before on this date in 1522, the Victoria, one of the surviving ships of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition, returns to Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the world. On this date in 1628, a group known to history as the Puritans settled in Salem, which will later become part of Massachusetts Bay Colony.

September 6, 1651: Meanwhile, back in England, a civil war is underway. Cromwell's forces had executed Charles the First and had been in effective control of the country, when Charles the Second arrived from France to pursue his claim (because he was the son of the last Royal). Charles and his Scottish army lost to Cromwell's forces at the Battle of Worcester on September 3, 1651. He became a wanted man with a price on his head, destined, if caught, to death by reason of his treason. By September 6th Charles was about to be caught at the Boscobel Estate. Charles hid his regal self among the thick limbs and greenery of an oak tree in Boscobel woods all day in a terrific rainstorm. That night, he slipped back into the estate house. Charles spent the night hidden within. Years later, as his ship carried him to Dover for his triumphal return to England, Charles II relayed the story to Samuel Pepys. While we were in this tree we saw soldiers going up and down in the thicket of the wood, searching for persons escaped. After the Restoration of the Monarchy, the tree earned the title of “Royal Oak.” Within about 50 years, it had been all but killed by souvenir seekers. From one of its acorns a younger tree, the Son of Royal Oak, grew up beside it. Visitors still flock to it today to recall its history.

The defeat at Worcester, saw one of this webmaster's forefathers sold as an indentured servant (shipped off to Massachusetts Colony in New England) for his role in supporting the rightful heir. This Scotsman later married his master's daughter and after serving his term of years migrated to Connecticut, then later to New Jersey. One of his descendants married a soldier who fought with Washington and spent winters in Valley Forge. Later descendants found their way to North Georgia to land given as payment for their service. Eventually, a descendant of one of the Pilgrims married a descendant of the Scottish soldier -- small world isn't it.

September 6, 1757: Marie Jean Paul Joseph Roche Yves Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de LAFAYETTE, a French soldier who served in the Americas, enters the world at the castle (Château) of Chavagnac, in Auvergne. He passed away in Paris, May 20, 1834, but not before surviving two Revolutions and a Reign of Terror as well as visiting Milledgeville GA on his farewell tour.

September 6th (continued): In 1901, an anarchist named Leon Czolgosz shot and fatally wounded US President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. Strangely enough on this date in 1970, Jimi Hendrix played his last concert, at the Love and Peace Festival, close by the border of East Germany (and a few air miles across the water from Denmark), on the Isle Of Fehmarn, (Puttgarden) West Germany. The concert site is north and east of Lübeck and Kiel. Mr. Hendrix and his Cry of Love band last played in Atlanta on July 4th of that year; he last appeared onstage in a jam session with Eric Burdon and War on September 16th (two days before his death).

Freedom, give it to me.
That's what I want now --
Freedom, that's what I need now.
Freedom to live --
Freedom, so I can give ....

One More -- September 6, 1991: After 51 years of occupation, the Soviet Union on this date recognizes the independence of the Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. At the same time Saint Petersburg would regain officially its name. Russia's second largest city, which had been retitled Leningrad in 1924, again bears the name of its founder. For sixteen years Putin was an officer in the KGB, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel (including a stint in East Germany), before he retired on August 20, 1991, but he had already secured his new appointment. On 28 June 1991, Putin had become the Executive Director of the Committee for External Relations under the Saint Petersburg Mayor's Office. He served in that post until 1994.

TIMBRE N° 1782-- EMISSION: 19 février 1973 -- RETRAIT: le 7 septembre 1973 {TIRAGE : 3,5 millions (série)} Amiral français, de Coligny, qui fut l'un des chefs des huguenots pendant les guerres de religion. Né à Châtillon-sur-Loing (aujourd'hui Châtillon-Coligny), issu par sa mère de la maison ducale de Montmorency, il se distingua lors des guerres menées sous François Ier et Henri II contre l'empereur Charles Quint. Craignant l'influence grandissante de l'amiral, la reine mère Catherine de Médicis fit alliance avec les Guise et obtint de son fils qu'il ordonne le déclenchement de la persécution contre les protestants, connue dans l'histoire sous le nom de massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy (1572). Amiral Coligny en fut une des premières victimes.

The postage stamp is of French Admiral Coligny, who was one of the leaders of the Huguenots (Protestant) during the religious wars. Born in Châtillon-sur-Loing (now Châtillon-Coligny), his mother of the ducal house of Montmorency, he had distinguished himself in war under Francis I and Henry II, against Emperor Charles V. Fearing the growing influence of the admiral, the queen mother Catherine de Médicis made a covenant with the Duke de Guise and got her son to order another outbreak of the persecution against the Protestants. This brutal event is known in history as the massacre on the Feast Day of St. Bartholomew (1572). Admiral Coligny was one of the first victims, killed in the heart of Paris.

Monet does well in his early works to capture  the ambience of of this and other famous places There has been a church on the site of The Church of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, in the heart of Paris, since the 6th century. The oldest part of the current church building is the 12th century belfry, which rang out August 24, 1572, when some 3,000 French Protestant Christians were massacred in this neighborhood. The tower bells signaled the supporters of Catherine de Médicis, Marguerite de Guise, Charles IX, and the future Henri III to launch a slaughter of innocents (including Admiral Gaspard de Chastillon, Count de Coligny), who had been invited to celebrate the marriage of Henri de Navarre to Marguerite de Valois. The church structure, of varied architectural styles, was saved by Louis-Philippe and Chateaubriand, and restored by Balthard and Lassus (1838-1855). Today the inside remains very richly furnished. Monet painted this picture to the right.

The family Montmorency, since its first appearance in history in the person of Bouchard I of Montmorency (10th century), has furnished six constables and twelve marshals of France, several admirals and cardinals, numerous grand officers of the Crown and grand masters of various knightly orders. Henry IV of France once said, that if ever the House of Bourbon should fail (i.e., become extinct), no European family deserved the French crown better than the House of Montmorency.

September 7, 1821: Simón Bolívar as President, helped found the Republic of Gran Colombia, a federation of states encompassing much of present day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Ecuador, with Francisco de Paula Santander as Vice President. Just a year later on this date in 1822, Brazil declared its independence from the Kingdom of Portugal. A believer in constitutional government, Santander led the federalist opposition to Bolívar, who, on Sept. 24, 1828, suspended the VP. That night Bolívar barely escaped assassination. Convicted without proof of complicity in the plot, Santander was sentenced to death, but was instead banished. After Bolívar’s death and the dissolution of the republic of Greater Colombia, he returned and served (1832–36) as president of Nueva Granada.

September 7, 1881: Soldier (Seven Pines, Drewry’s Bluffs, The Seven Days Battles, Malvern Hill, Chancellorsville, Petersburg), lawyer, poet (The Marshes of Glynn), blockade runner, writer (antiwar novel Tiger-Lilies (1867)) educator (The English Novel and the Principle of its Development (posthumous: 1883)), musician (Peabody Symphony) and general observer of the times, Sidney Lanier passed away this day at the young age of 39 (tuberculosis caught when a POW). Born on High Street in Macon, Georgia, he died in the mountains near Asheville, North Carolina and is buried in Baltimore, not far from where he was imprisoned (Point Lookout, Maryland). Today, people wonder why the popular manmade lake north of Atlanta is named for him. Lake Lanier is one of 464 lakes in 43 states constructed and operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. The lake was named for him to honor his tribute to the Chattahoochee River in his poetry, The Song of the Chattahoochee.

Lanier still makes waves today. In 2009, after decades of dispute and litigation, a Federal District Court ordered the Corps of Engineers to operate the project without regard for the city of Atlanta's need for adequate water supplies. Georgia has appealed, however before negotiating from a position of extreme weakness -- three years later no progress has been announced. In other news, a new cable-stayed bridge was built over the Marshes of Glynn in order to replace the previous Sidney Lanier Bridge in Brunswick (Glynn County), Georgia. The new bridge is the longest spanning bridge in Georgia, allowing larger ships to enter the port of Brunswick. Lanier was also honored by the U.S. Postal Service, which produced an 8-cent commemorative stamp (February 3, 1972: William A. Smith was the designer).

September 8, 1775 or 1776 as some report {maybe both}: The Virginia Gazette reports this day that the impact of the Hurricane of Independence from the Carolina's into Nova Scotia, after a week of destruction along the American east Coast. It looks like the path of a classic Cape Verde storm, but it is first reported from the West Indies. An estimated 4,170 people, from North Carolina northward, die in the storm as it batters the American mainland. In 2017, Irma looks to be near Miami on this date, traveling up the coast, making a landfall somewhere along the South Carolina coast, as the most powerful there in over 100 years.

Previous September 8th's in Canada: In 1760 at Montreal Quebec - Philippe de Rigaud de Vaudreuil (1698-1778) signed letters of capitulation, surrendering Montréal and New France. Sir Jeffrey Amherst and Sir William Johnson command a force of 20,000 British troops. He asks that his 2,000 soldiers be allowed to march out of the city with their guns and banners. Amherst refuses, and that evening, the British flag replaces the fleur-de-lis of the French monarch at the Place d'Armes. The Chevalier de Lévis burns his battle flags to save his troops from the humiliation of their transfer to the enemy. This date marks the beginning of Regime Militaire as Frederick Haldimand 1718-1791 assumes the governorship, as well as the end of the French-Indian War in North America. Minor fighting continues, however in Canada as pockets of resistance are cleared. The Seven Years War continues in other parts of the world until February 10, 1763. The British will agree to give the French fair treatment, including freedom of worship, freedom to trade furs on an equal basis with the British, freedom of emigration and continued property rights; however, in effect Britain with the deportation of many Canadiens, breaks this agreement, after the Treaty of Paris ending the conflict is signed (1763).
In 1755 at Lake George, New York, Baron Ludwig August Dieskau (1701-1767), a German-borne soldier in the service of the French monarch, ambushes Sir William Johnson and his 1,000-man relief army en route to Fort Edward, 80 km north of Albany. Dieskau is shot in the knee and captured, but the action halts the British thrust northward with their Mohawk allies. With winter coming, Johnson starts building Fort William Henry on the portage road at the southern end of Lake George. Dieskau's army retreats to Crown Point and starts building Fort Carillon ten miles to the south, were Lake George joins Lake Champlain.

In 1632 at Riverport, Nova Scotia, Isaac de Razilly (1587-1635) reaches land, commanding three ships, to take possession of Acadia because the Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye restored it to France. He is accompanied by his cousin Charles de Menou d'Aulnay, his nephew, Claude de Razilly and by the Denys brothers, Nicholas and Simon. The Scots at Fort Charles surrender the territory and fifteen French families build a settlement at La Have. So, the Capuchin Order opens the first boarding school in New France.

On September 8, 1944, a week after the main V1 bombardment (pilotless flying ordinance called Buzzbombs) had ceased, Nazi Germany launched its first two rockets against the City of London. The first V2 fell at Chiswick the other at Epping -- sixteen seconds apart at about a quarter before 7 o'clock in the evening. Unlike the noisy V1 device, which flew a long distance at relatively slow speed and low altitude, so it could be tracked by radar and destroyed by anti-aircraft guns, or even fighters (indeed several were stopped by barrage balloons), the V2 rocket climbed nearly 50 miles into the stratosphere and fell silently to its target on earth, all in a matter of a few minutes. Its maximum speed was about 4000 miles per hour during the 200 mile ride from the Hague. The first rocket launched successfully in the war had been directed at Paris earlier in the day. About 500 would hit London before war's end, many would fall short, many would be launched against Antwerp and Brussels. The main defense was to destroy the weapons before launch. from Winston S. Churchill. Triumph and Tragedy: Book 1, The Tide of Victory {the 6th and Final Volume in his series The Second World War}. Riverside Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts [Printed in the USA by the Haddon Craftsmen, Scranton PA] (1953) pp 52-55. Interestingly, many people report that the beginning of the Blitz was September 7th in 1940, which would make this date a 4 year anniversary of sorts.

September 8, 1958: Roberto Clemente of the Pittsburgh Pirates tied a Major-league (USA) baseball record by hitting three triples. Clemente led the Bucs to a 4-1 win over the Cincinnati Reds. On the same day 8 years later (1966), the first Star Trek episode premiered on NBC affiliates across the Nation. NBC cancelled the show on September 2, 1969, because it was unpopular. On this day in 1986, Herschel Walker made his start in the National Football League. He led the Dallas Cowboys to a 31-28 win over the New York Giants. Walker had played in the USFL for the New Jersey Generals and played his college career for the University of Georgia. A day later (September 9, 1986), Ted Turner presented the first of his colorized films, on his superstation WTBS in Atlanta, GA. The first Hollywood classic to get the new look was Yankee Doodle Dandy. This at the time created a small controversy, pitting the purists against the progressives.

Nearly 900 years earlier, William I, The Conqueror, the first Norman King of England (1066-1087), died. This at the time created a small controversy, because his second son and his successor in England, Rufus (aka William II), was little liked by those he governed. Perhaps the most memorable event in the life of William Rufus was his death. It occurred while William hunted in the New Forest. He died by an accidental arrow through the heart, but the circumstances of his demise remain unclear. Rufus' older brother had become the Duke of Normandy upon William I's death, because it was considered a more prestigious post. England was just an uncultured province that paid homage to the Norman overlord. It was not the centre of the world:

O world, thou wast the forest to this hart;
And this, indeed, O world, the heart of thee.

And what of Rufus's other brother? He eventually became English King (Henry I) as heir to William I. Crowned King of England on August 5, 1100, at Westminster, he reunited Norman and Anglo-saxon heritage in the English crown, along with its Irish / Scottish royal roots. EDITH of SCOTLAND, a Princess of Scotland, on November 11, 1100, married English King HENRY I BEAUCLERC, the youngest son of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. Edith was the daughter of Sainte MARGARET (canonized by Pope Innocent IV in 1251), Princess of England. Edith through Margaret was the great-great-grandaughter of King ÆTHELRÆD II THE UNREADY, through EDWARD ATHELING, Prince of England and heir to be King in exile.

It is through Queen Matilda (spouse of King Henry I of England, proper christened name Edith) and the daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland, many of the later Kings and Queens descend directly from the earlier English (Anglo Saxon) Kings. The current royal family also directly descends from the Scots of Dalriada, through this line, by way of the House of York (White Rose), Mary (Queen of Scots), James I, Elizabeth (Queen of Bohemia), the Duke of Brunswick (Hanover) and his son George I, King of England. William the Conqueror's heritage back to Charlemagne and before also is well-known.

The heritage of Henri II and his path to the throne gets really complicated see also this LINK Finally, continuing the thoughts about Royal England; Richard I is born in 1157. He was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy (as Richard IV), Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Nantes, and Overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion, or Richard the Lionheart, even before his accession, because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior, even at age 16. On September 8, 1761, the man who would become King George III of the United Kingdom married Duchess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. It becomes an unhappy union and George III eventually goes mad. Exactly 20 years to the day (1781) during the American Revolution, the Battle of Eutaw Springs takes place in South Carolina. It is the war's last significant battle in the Southern theatre ending in a narrow British tactical victory. Interestingly, William IV and Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen are crowned King and Queen of the United Kingdom on this date in 1831.

September 8, 1986: The American Eagle Gold Bullion Coin was struck, similar in design to gold coins last minted over 50 years before. Indeed, this marked the first time since 1933 that the United States Mint produced a gold bullion coin. The coins are issued in several sizes, from 1 ounce down to 1/10 ounce and retail for a few dollars over bullion value. The coins do not circulate as money, as did those of an earlier era. Interestingly, the Mint announced during the second week of August 2005, that it had recovered 10 more examples of the 1933 gold $20 coin. About 10 were recovered in the 30's and 40's and destroyed. One coin is legally in private hands and two other are in Government collections. The Mint claims that the 1933 $20 coins were never released. Several 1933 $10 Gold coins were released and are in private hands. Information on the 1933 discovery: and in the August 29th (2005) issue of Coin World.

Roosevelt made gold ownership of all but collectible coins illegal during the Depression (1933) and later changed the price of gold (1934), devaluing the dollar by 70%. At that time U.S. and foreign coins of recent mintage were turned in (because of the threat of confiscation) at the lower gold price that prevailed during 1933 (about $20/oz.). They were melted. Other coins went overseas or remained illegally hidden. In 1954, the Treasury Department recognized that the time had come to legitimize the numismatic gold market. Consequently, an amendment was made to the gold regulations, to the effect that all gold coins minted prior to 1933 would subsequently be presumed to be rare and of recognized special value to collectors, without the necessity of further specific determinations by the Treasury.

In 1973, gold regulations were eased slightly, to allow more gold coins minted between 1933 and 1961 to be admitted to the country as "rare" coins, however, a drive in Congress to reverse the action of four decades before fell short, when the House failed by a single vote to permit immediate ownership. In early 1974, the President Nixon received the legal authority from U.S. Congress to allow private gold ownership at any time he felt it to be in the best interests of the international economic situation. On December 31, 1974, private gold ownership was made permissible for the first time in 40 years. It may be accurate to stay that about a third of all of the gold coins ever made by the United States have been melted by the very entity that produced them - the U.S. Mint. So it is that many of the bullion coins first issued in 1986 and sold at over $400/oz were minted from gold turned in at $20/oz in 1933. Nice profit, unless you figure in inflation, which makes it about even, and a reason why gold has been called the storehouse of value throughout the ages.

The right to gold ownership may be taken away at anytime the government wants a nice profit, simply by repeating history. Let us hope that this obamanation does not occur again; however, in August 2008 the US Mint suspended sales after it claimed it had run out of inventory. No coins remain available for purchase -- the first time in over 20 years -- in 2009 the mint says it has gold to sell at about $950 to 1000/ounce plus an up charge for production costs, profit and shipping. While some think gold will reach $1300 this year (2009), think what its price will be when oil is $400 a barrel. Interestingly, gold crossed the $1000 rubicon, again, on September 08, 2009. In 2010 inflation continued as Gold crosses $1250 for the second time. In mid-August 2011, gold rose over $1800 as the world economy collapsed (and even as oil slipped below $85) -- will it settle above $1900 in September (the Euro has lost 10% of its value and oil is back up to $87) ? In 2012 we see a $1700/oz gold price, a 1.25 Euro vs Dollar and a doubling of gas prices in the past few years. Inflation has hit the US hard, it's just not being reported. The stock market may be at 13,300 (in 2013), but in real terms (2008 dollars) it is more like 7000. The middle class is dying a slow painful death.

Commemorative window St. James's Episcopal Church, Richmond, Virginia-USASeptember 9, 1861: Sally Louisa Tompkins becomes the only woman officer in the Confederacy. Ms. Tompkins was a hospital administrator in Richmond Virginia. The southern government ordered all medical facilities to close if not run by the military. To allow the efficient and effective facility to remain, President Jefferson Davis commissioned Tompkins a captain in the confederate cavalry. On her military commission, dated 9 September 1861, she wrote, I accepted the above commission as Captain in the C.S.A. when it was offered. But, I would not allow my name to be placed upon the pay roll of the army. For the duration of the war, Tompkins labored to relieve the pain and suffering of the Confederate wounded. Carrying her Bible and medicine bag, she spent endless hours comforting and healing those in her care ... Mary Boykin Chesnut, a frequent visitor to the hospital, wrote in her diary, Our Florence Nightingale is Sally Tompkins.

September 9, 1923: The original Ponce de Leon Ball Park first welcomed the Atlanta Crackers on May 23, 1907. More than 8,000 people met the Crackers at their new home. Costing $60,000 to build, the wooden stadium could accommodate about 9,000 fans. Prior to that, the Crackers played at various parks throughout the city. On September 9, 1923, the wooden structure burned to the ground, destroying the team members' uniforms, trophies and records. A wealthy concessionaire, R. J. Spiller, came to the team's rescue. Using $250,000 of his own money, Spiller rebuilt the park on nearby property, across from a Sears & Roebuck warehouse, just off Ponce de Leon. The new park debuted in time for the 1924 season, and was widely hailed as the finest minor league stadium in the nation. When they tore down this stadium, the Crackers already were gone and the Milwaukee Braves had come to town to stay. In its place an Arlans (like a K-Mart only different) was built in the sixties, but that concern went bankrupt. Today, there is a Whole Foods there next to Home Depot (the site of the Midtown store was once the home of the Atlanta Crackers minor league baseball team, and the magnolia tree symbolized a home run for the batters who reached it. This famed magnolia tree still stands behind the store today at Midtown Place) The Sears building is now an Annex to the Atlanta City Government.

September 10th -- Saint Aubert feast day -- Evêque d'Avranches: Saint Aubert, the twelfth known bishop of Avranches, served after the death of Ragentrammus. He was born into a family of considerable means, probably either at Genêts, or at Huisnes (then called Itius). At the end of the prehistoric time period, that site which will become Avranches was inhabited by the Gallic people called the Ambibares (or Abricantes -- people from the Abers).

Pious and friendly, yet a prelate of loneliness, Aubert often withdrew himself to the Isle of Mount-Fall (also often referred to as Mont Tombe), then surrounded by the forest of Scissy It is at Mount-Fall where the Archangel Michel appeared to Aubert, instructing him to build a new church (708AD). and since then the hill has become known as Mount-Saint-Michel. Saint Aubert died in 725, his body buried within the Mount. In 966 a community of Benedictine monks was established upon this solid rock. His body remained over 1000 years on the rock until the French Révolution dispersed his remains; only his head survived with the mark upon it of the Archangel's finger. It is kept in a church at Avranches called Saint-Gervais.

The foundation of the imposing castle at Avranches is from the time of Charlemagne, after his conquest of Brittany. Indeed, Charlemagne is reported to have stayed in Avranches, but it is Norman domination that will transform the region. Henri II Plantagenêt (King of England) often stayed at Avranches. It is in front of the gate of its normanesc cathedral (1172) that he made honourable fine for his part in the murder of his friend, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Saint Thomas Becket (December 30, 1172). King and Saint Louis IX, having purchased the title and lands of the Vicomté of Avranches, now owned the city's Norman castle, which too became one of his favorite places. Mont-Saint-Michel stood unconquered during the Hundred Years War.

The known bishops of Avranches, before Aubert were: Leonce, Saint (toward 400), Népus (toward 511), Saint Perpetuates (533-541), Gilles or Egidius (549), Holy Pair (552-565), Holy Sénier (565-570), Holy Sever (570), Léodowald (toward 578), Childoald (630), Fégasse (660) and, as mentioned above, Ragentrammus. General Patton's tanks delivered the town from the Nazi Occupation on the July 31, 1944, after most of it had been reduced to rubble; never-the-less, four years of fascist occupation had ended.
September 10, 1776: Nathan Hale, who would die only a dozen days later, volunteers for an intelligence-gathering mission on Long Island. The British apprehended him, while he returned to his regiment on Manhattan Island on September 21. British General Sir William Howe ordered him hanged for spying. Hale gave a short speech from the gallows, part of which, according to tradition, included his now famous words, I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country. In all likelihood, Hale was actually repeating a passage from James Addison's play, Cato, which was an ideological inspiration to many Whigs in the Colonies:

How beautiful is death, when earn’d by virtue!
Who would not be that youth? What pity is it
That we can die but once to serve our country.

A Little Switzerland

Issued in 1984

The Liberation of Luxembourg -- September 10th: The General Patton Memorial Museum in Ettelbruck contains more than 1,000 photographs and documents pertaining to the Nazi invasion in May 10, 1940, the period of occupation of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, and the liberation of the country by American troops in September 1944, barely 3 months after coming ashore in Normandie.

About 40 percent of the men of Luxembourg drafted for service refused to serve in the German Wehrmacht and disappeared. Half hid inside the country's borders. Those who escaped to Great Britain joined the Allied Forces. They took part in the Battle of Normandy as part of the 1st Belgian Brigade, also known as the Brigade Piron. It is said that some of the Luxembourgish population openly refused to give the Nazi salute (raising one's arm while shouting "Heil Hitler"). Instead, they said "Drei Liter" ("Three liters", understood as "three liters of beer") as fast as possible and with a strong Luxembourgish accent, which may have fooled any Nazi who wasn't listening too clearly.

Following the war, Luxembourgish troops took part in the occupation of Germany, contributing troops that were in the occupation zone controlled by the French. Luxembourgish forces functioned under overall French command They were responsible for the areas of Bitburg/Eifel and parts of Saarburg (areas adjacent to Luxembourg). Occupational forces left Saarburg in 1948, and Bitburg/Eifel in July 1955.

September 11, 1864: After Confederate General John Bell Hood had been unable to persuade General Sherman to allow Atlanta civilians to continue living in their homes during the Northern occupation, Atlanta families began registering with Union authorities for their removal. Over the next nine days, 446 families and their furniture and household goods were loaded into Union Army covered wagons and moved southward to Rough and Ready, where they were met by Confederate forces who transported them to Lovejoy's Station, where they caught trains to Macon and other locations.

Seven days later, General Hood directed his Confederate troops to begin moving out of Lovejoy Station, where they had been regrouping during the occupation of Atlanta. What was left of Hood's forces, after the disastrous Atlanta Campaign, headed west toward the Atlanta & West Point Railroad line. In November, when Sherman left for points south and east within Georgia, residents were able to return as Southern forces regained control of what remained of the severely damaged city.

So, the first year's anniversary, marking the first major engagement between Confederate and Union troops in Georgia, was spent once again in repositioning. A year and 12 days earlier, Confederate General Braxton Bragg had been forced to pull the Army of Tennessee out of Chattanooga. It had retreated to a point on the W&A Railroad near Ringgold, Georgia. Union General William Rosecrans' Army of the Cumberland had pursued Bragg's forces. After some skirmishes on the 18th of September 1863, the two sides engaged in a major battle at Chickamauga Creek on the 19th (which ironically was a Cherokee name that means either River of Death or River of Blood). Both sides took heavy losses. The site was dedicated as a National Battlefield on September 19, 1895.
September 11, 1959: Elroy Face of the Pittsburgh Pirates saw his 22-game winning streak terminate with extreme prejudice. Face lost to the LA Dodgers, 5-4.  He did, however, finish the 1959 season with an impressive 18-1 record. On the same date 31 years earlier, Georgia born Ty Cobb had his last at bat in major league baseball. On the same date in 1991, playing at home in Atlanta, the Braves won a 1-0 no-hit victory over the San Diego Padres. It was the 13th no-hitter in Brave teams' history (three cities). But what made the National League record books, was the fact three different Braves pitchers -- Kent Mercker, Mark Wohlers, and Alejandro Peña -- were used in the combined no-hitter.
Bayonne NJ -- dedicated 09-11-2006 Le 11 septembre 2001: -- Did you miss this ?

... les États-Unis sont agressés sur leur propre sol. Quatre avions de ligne sont détournés par des terroristes islamistes. Deux s'écrasent avec leurs occupants sur les tours jumelles du World Trade Center, à New York, et un troisième sur le Pentagone (le ministère des armées), à Washington. Le quatrième avion s'écrase dans un bois de Pennsylvanie, les passagers ayant tenté au sacrifice de leur vie de maîtriser les terroristes. Au total, plus de 3000 morts et disparus.

In memory of September 11th (in 2006): “Among the devout group, which responded to the order of Allah and order of his messenger, were the heroes of September 11, who wrote in the ink of their blood the greatest pages of modern history,” so said Ben Laden's #2 man, as he expressly called for all of Islam to attack the West and apostate countries in the Middle East, all in the Name of Allah. “The collusion of Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Jordan is very clear.” Indeed, the US Embassy in Damascus was attacked by a suspected Al Qaeda group, bringing violence to the streets of that nation. Four zealots shouting rhetoric slogans tried to blow up the US embassy, but their car bomb failed to detonate. Syrian anti-terror security guards killed three of them in a shoot-out, the fourth was captured. One guard died on the scene. Fourteen other people were injured, including another Syrian anti-terror operative, a Syrian guard at the embassy who remains in serious condition, passers-by and a Chinese diplomat who had been slightly injured by one bullet. Condoleezza Rice expressed her gratitude for the Syrian action. La France, qui condamne cette attaque, a décidé de renforcer la sécurité de son ambassade en Damas, située à proximité de l’attaque.

In Tehran, Iran, Iraq's prime minister made his first official visit to that country on Tuesday (September 12, 2006), asking Tehran to prevent al-Qaeda militants from slipping across its border to carry out attacks on Iraq. Iran's president promised to help Iraq establish security. Ties may be growing stronger between the two Shiite dominated regimes, including improved cooperation in energy fields, sealing deals last month for Iran to provide gasoline, kerosene and cooking fuel in short supply in Iraq. Tehran officials claim that they have no interest in fomenting instability across the border, and have made arrests to limit illegal border crossings. President Ahmadinejad also said Iran hoped the United States and other unwanted guests will leave Iraq soon.

Meanwhile, Pope Benedict celebrated mass for about 250,000 people Tuesday outside Regensburg, Germany, where he rejected violence perpetrated in the name of God. Youths threw blue paint bombs at the Pope's former home on Sunday (10th), which until then had become a centre for quiet tourism. A young man charged towards Pope Benedict XVI at the end of an open-air mass, but was stopped before any harm could be done. "It was not a serious disruption to security. It was apparently a young fan, who in his excitement wanted to reach the altar," said the mayor of Regensburg, Hans Schaidinger. see also « La violence est contraire à la nature de Dieu » et à la raison, à laquelle est liée « la compréhension de Dieu et donc la réalisation concrète de la religion. » Si ceci est évident pour un chrétien, en revanche la conception musulmane de Dieu « n'est liée à aucune de nos catégories, fusse-t-elle celle de la raison. »

Of course many Muslims deplore the Pope's remarks and want an apology: A very well written news story about the protest is HERE, but you'll have to read it in French, or use the translated page HERE. Before you try to remove the speck in the eye of another, take out the giant splinter, which blinds you -- those who have ears, need to listen, not speak.

Whether you turn to the right or to the left, your ears will hear a voice behind you saying, This is the way; walk in it Isaiah 30:21. I heard a voice behind me saying My son, you are on the right path. I was again amazed. I had never had experienced these kinds of things.

Missed (in the turmoil of 2006) by all but a few, was the quiet death of an Italian lady. Oriana Fallaci passed away in Florence after her years as a member of the resistance, reporter and writer. An uncompromising reporter, she had a robust reputation for interviews without accommodation. She took on even Henry Kissinger to denounce the War in Vietnam as unnecessary, he by his own account being much worse for the encounter. For many years she guarded her privacy and did not write. Aghast, shocked and appalled by the events of September 11th, Fallaci returned to write an article for Corriere della Sera, addressed to Italians specifically and Europeans generally. Convulsive and disorganized it grew into a book about rabid Islamic anger and pride, « La Rabbia el'Orgoglio » -- a book that now reflected quite politically incorrect views, denounced as anti-muslim. So incorrect that a group in France unsuccessfully sought to have the book banned. She would not bow down to charges of racism. The Rage and The Pride sold more than 1 million copies in Italy and found a large audience elsewhere in Europe. Her next book raged against the Islamic invasion of Europe and the Church's weakness in facing the confrontation of faiths. Calling her home Eurabia, she bewailed its moslem colonial status. Yet Oriana Fallaci did not support the war in Iraq, as expressed in 2003.

Upheld by their stubborn optimism, the same optimism for which at the Alamo they fought so well and all died, slaughtered by Santa Anna, Americans think that in Baghdad they will be welcomed as they were in Rome and Florence and Paris. "They'll cheer us, throw us flowers." Maybe. In Baghdad anything can happen. But after that? Nearly two-thirds of the Iraqis are Shiites who have always dreamed of establishing an Islamic Republic of Iraq, and the Soviets too were once cheered in Kabul. They too imposed their peace. They even succeeded in convincing women to take off their burqa, remember? After a while, though, they had to leave. And the Taliban came. Thus, I ask: what if instead of learning freedom Iraq becomes a second Talibani Afghanistan? What if instead of becoming democratized by the Pax Americana the whole Middle East blows up and the cancer multiplies? As a proud defender of the West's civilization, without reservations I should join Mr. Bush and Mr. Blair in the new Alamo. Without reluctance I should fight and die with them. And this is the only thing about which I have no doubts at all.

Oriana Fallaci died between Thursday night and Friday morning (15th -- 2006) of cancer-related illness, of which she suffered for many years. Pope Benedict XVI had discreetly received her in August, 2005 -- Hommage à une grande dame.
September 12, 1782: Prior to the American Revolution, the only English-language Bibles in the colonies were imported either from the European mainland or Great Britain. Publication of the Bible was regulated by the Crown. It required a special licence. Robert Aitken's printing of the Bible (a King James translation) was the first known English-language Bible to be printed in North America. It also only Bible received Congressional approval through a Resolution of Congress. Aitken's Bible, sometimes referred to as The Bible of the Revolution, has become one of the rarest books in the world, with perhaps 25 copies still extant.

Whereupon, Resolved, That the United States in Congress assembled, highly approve the pious and laudable undertaking of Mr. Aitken, as subservient to the interest of religion as well as an instance of the progress of arts in this country, and being satisfied from the above report, of his care and accuracy in the execution of the work, they recommend this edition of the Bible to the inhabitants of the United States, and hereby authorise him to publish this recommendation in the manner he shall think proper. from

Le 12 septembre 1940: Près du village de Montignac, au cœur du Périgord noir, quatre enfants suivent leur chien dans une faille de rocher. C'est ainsi qu'ils découvrent des grottes recouvertes de dessins mystérieux. Ils font part de leur découverte à leur instituteur, Léon Laval, lequel en informe l'abbé Henri Breuil, curé du village, féru de préhistoire. The "Lascaux Cave Paintings" -- -- an English language site.

September 12, 1962 -- WE choose to go to the moon in this decade.   President Kennedy gave his famous speech this day:

We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too ... And, therefore, as we set sail, we ask God's blessing on the most hazardous and dangerous and greatest adventure on which man has ever embarked.

September 13th -- Traditional turning points: On this date in 122AD, Roman soldiers began work on what would become known as Hadrian's Wall in the north of their Colony called Britannia.  Built to reduce raids from the Selgovæ, living in what would become the land of the Scots, the wall sits well south of today's border. Neither the Scoti tribe from Ireland nor the English (the Angles) lived in Great Britain at the time of the wall's construction. Archæology has shown that some parts of the Wall remained occupied well into the 5th century. When Rome abandoned Britain in the early 5th century, many of its soldiers stayed. Interestingly, September 13th is the same date that history records the defeat of the Vandals in 533AD near Carthage on the north-African coast -- General Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire defeats Gelimer at the Battle of Ad Decimium. Fifteen hundred years later in 1503, Michelangelo is said to have begun work on his David on this day. The statue is found today at the Accademia delle Belle Arti, Florence, Italy.

Another hundred years elapses and in 1609, Henry Hudson reaches the river by which history will remember him. A century and a half later on the Plains of Abraham (September 13, 1759), the British will defeat French near Québec City during the Seven Years' War, known in North America as the French and Indian War, one of a series of struggles preceding the American Revolution. This battle proves decisive in the conquest of New France. Both the French and British commanding generals would die in the battle. More interestingly, on this date in 1762, William Colville, Lord Amherst, lands at Torbay (Newfoundland), north of St. John's, and drives French back into Fort William Henry after a two-day pitched skirmish. When the British Empire begins its assault on Baltimore this night in 1813, little did its leaders know that the turning point of that conflict had been reached.
September 13, 1847: In 1847, forces under American General Winfield Scott capture Chapultepec Castle in the Mexican-American War. This leads directly to the fall of Ciudad de México and the end of the American intervention. The efforts of the U.S. Marines in this battle and subsequent occupation of Mexico City are memorialized in the opening line of the Marines' Hymn. From the Halls of Montezuma refers to the Chapultepec Castle also known as the Halls of Montezuma. Since no Mexican government functioned after the fall of Mexico City, Scott and the State Department's agent, Nicholas P. Trist, had to wait until February 1848 before a government could be formed to agree to peace terms. Then, in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States gained California, Arizona, New Mexico, and the Rio Grande boundary for Texas, as well as portions of Utah, Nevada, and Colorado.;

Interestingly, 54 years, two major wars and a day later, President McKinley dies of wounds received at the hands of an assassin earlier in the month in Buffalo, New York. McKinley led the country into the Spanish-American War, bringing the former colonies of Spain in the Pacific (Guam and the Philippines) and the Caribbean Sea (Cuba and Puerto Rico) under American control. In addition, the territories of Hawaii and Wake Island were annexed. McKinley was shot twice by anarchist Leon Czolgosz at 4:07 p.m. on September 6, 1901, at the Pan-American Exposition. He was followed by his Vice President, Theodore Roosevelt, who also suffered wounds at the hand of a would-be assassin during his term of office. The newly-developed X-ray machine was displayed at the Buffalo fair, but no one thought to use it on McKinley to search for the bullet, which might have saved his life.

A new airmail stamp of 15-cent denomination was issued for use in the contract airmail service and first placed on sale at Washington, D.C., September 13, 1926.

Le 14 septembre -- La Fête de l'Exaltation de la Croix: Luther argued that the way to know God goes through a theology of the cross -- true theology and recognition of God are in the crucified Christ. So rather than finding God by ascending to Him through our efforts, wisdom, or self-initiated experiences, God has placed himself where He can be found by faith alone. The cross lies at the heart of this place; a supreme example of God's power (and wisdom) displayed in what the world would consider a problematic stumbling block, weakness or an example foolish thought (1 Corinthians 1:18-25). from

La fête de la Croix revêt des significations plus spirituelles. Elle symbolise la présence de la Croix à l'intérieur des chrétiens. Elle figure aussi la divine trinité (un Dieu en trois personnes). La ville détenait une relique de la Vraix Croix, qui aurait été découverte par la mère de l'empereur (Constantine le Grand) à Jérusalem. The original name of this event was the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, by which name it is still known by the Orthodox Church and the Eastern Rites of the Catholic Church. Since 1970, it has been officially called the Triumph of the Cross by the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. It is also popularly known among Anglicans and Lutherans as Holy Cross Day. The Orthodox commemorate the Feast of the Procession of the Venerable Wood of the Cross on August 1st, the day on which the relics of the True Cross would be carried through the streets of Constantinople to bless the city.

Mais quand ils se priaient, c'était pour le séduire,
avec leurs mots, ils le trompaient;
avec lui, ils avaient pas le cœur changeant,
ils ne croyaient pas vraiment à son alliance.
Et lui, le miséricordieux,
au lieu de détruire, il pardonnait;
maintes fois, il retint sa colère
au lieu de réveiller sa violence.
{ou Ainsi, plus d'une fois, il tourna sa colère,
et ne bougeait pas toute sa fureur.}
But when they prayed, it was [only] to seduce,
With their words, they deceived;
[For] with Him, they had not the heart changing,
They do not really believe in His covenant.
And He, the merciful,
Instead of destroying, He forgave;
So, He kept His anger
instead of waking His violence.
[ alt Thus, more than once, He turned away His wrath,
and did not stir up all His fury.}
   Psaume 77 (English (Ps 78:36-38))

In 327-328 Helena made a pilgrimage to the Middle-East to walk in the footsteps of Christ. She initiated the building of several Christian churches on sites she determined to be sacred in the traditions of the area. During her journey she is credited by many for the discovery of the True Cross. The relic was venerated in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem by the end of the 340's. Helena died shortly after her journey.

A lieu la dédicace du Saint-Sépulcre, à Jérusalem (le 17 septembre 335). Une dizaine d'années plus tôt, on a découvert l'endroit où fut enseveli le Christ après sa crucifixion. Constantin, qui règne alors sur l'empire romain d'Orient, ordonne la construction d'une basilique et d'une rotonde autour du Saint-Sépulcre. L'inauguration de l'ensemble va faire de Jérusalem une grande ville de pèlerinage chrétien. Thus, another item, which Helena had discovered, was dedicated.

The Monastery of the Cross in Jerusalem, was built in 11th century on the site of an older structure (perhaps built at the time of Justinian). The monastery, constructed with the aid of the King of Georgia (where there is a similar-named monastery at Jvari in the region of South Caucasus), reportedly lies on the site where the tree grew that was turned into the true cross and is situated in the Valley of the Cross. The Monastery of the Cross that stands today was built in the 11th century by Orthodox monks from Mount Athos in Greece (the Monastery of the Holy Mountain). It remains in operation and a principle site to see in Israel, primarily for its beauty, a place where heaven and earth touch.

The monastery in the Valley of the Cross belonged to the Georgian Church until the 19th century, when the church essentially went bankrupt and was forced to sell all of its assets in the region to Greek Orthodox Church, which controls the site today. This results in some friction, now that the Georgian Church has regained its freedom after the end of Soviet control. Vandalism has been blamed on Israel's lack of attention, as a deliberate provocation. The entire issue is further complicated by the fact that the Greek Orthodox Church is in effect ruled by two patriarchs: Irineos, who is recognized by Israel only, and Theophilus, who is recognized by the Greek Orthodox world.

Less beautiful, but much older, a Monastery of the Cross is located in Egypt (The Monastery of Apa Bane (Deir Abu Fana)). This place founded by desert fathers (often called hermits), as were others, lies in the deep desert. Ancient sources such as the History of the Egyptian Monks (Historia Monachorum in Ægypto), Sayings of the Fathers (Apophtegnmata Patrum), Palladius' Lausiac History (Historia Lausiaca), Sozomen's Church History (Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ), and others make reference to a man named Benus or Banus (Bes) who lived near Deir Abu Fana (meaning Monastery of the Cross) and can be identified as none other than Apa Bane. The Monastery of the Cross is once again inviting, as its ancient portions are gradually reconstructed "Our architecture has a past, an identity we should know. The architecture of American-style skyscrapers is not at all humane, especially not in a country like ours." An extensive article on the current restoration project may be found at

Issued November 25, 1958September 14, 1758: At the Forks of the Ohio River (at Fort Duquesne later to be called Fort Pitt, in a disputed portion of Penn's Woods), French forces, under command of François-Marie Le Marchand de Lignery, defeat Highlander, Major James Grant's troops on as yet unnamed heights above Fort Duquesne. Almost 300 British Regulars (77th Highland Regiment), Virginians and Pennsylvanians died this day as French-allied native tribes spilled out of Fort Duquesne and swept over the British forces. Many an englishman was taken captive and tortured to death.

For his poor effort Grant gets the hill named for him, and later Grant Street in the City of Pittsburgh, which ascends the Hill. When General Forbes and Colonel Bouquet arrived with the remaining forces on the 25th of November of that year, Fort Duquesne was a smoking ruin as the French had fled. Today, Heinz Field sits on the spot where Native villages once stood and where some of Grant's doomed army met their brutal end above the banks of the Allegheny River. Grant himself, although captured, escaped certain death and had what can best be described as a checkered career thereafter.

September 14, 1814 -- at Dawn's Early Light: A British fleet under command of 56 year old Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis Cochrane began the bombardment of Fort McHenry, the last American defensive structure which could protect Baltimore. Lawyer Francis Scott Key had approached the British invaders, seeking the release of a friend who was being held for unfriendly acts toward the British. Key himself was detained on September 13th. He witnessed the bombardment of Fort McHenry from a British ship. At sunrise (14th), Key stood stunned. The American Flag still flew over a battered fort. His experience inspired Key to write the lyrics to The Star-Spangled Banner (on the 15th) and adapt them to the tune of a then well-known British drinking song (To Anacreon in Heaven -- "To Anacreon in Heaven" is the opening line (and often mistaken for the title of) of "The Anacreontic Song", the official song of the London amateur musical club the Anacreontic Society. The US national anthem, "The Star Spangled Banner", is set to the tune of "The Anacreontic Song"). As composed by Francis Scott Key it was called first "In Defense of Fort McHenry" and published September 20, 1814. It gained instant popularity and was renamed The Star-Spangled Banner; but, not until March 3, 1931, was this all-time hit officially recognized as the National Anthem.

Soon after the universal peace ensued (1815), Sir Alexander Cochrane returned to England. He was raised to the rank of full admiral in 1819, and held the office of commander-in-chief at Plymouth from 1821 to 1824, thereafter retiring. His death, which occurred at Paris, was fearfully sudden. Accompanied by his brother he went, on the morning of the 26th of January, 1832, to visit his daughter, Lady Trowbridge, for the purpose of inviting his young grand-children to an evening's entertainment; but while he was with them he suddenly started, placed his hand on his left side, and exclaiming to Mr. Cochrane, O brother, what a dreadful pain ! He fell back and had passed away before he hit the ground.

September 14, 1944: Maastricht was the first Dutch city to be liberated by allied forces, on their way to Aachen, Germany. When the southern provinces sought independence from the North to form Belgium in 1830, the garrison in Maastricht remained loyal to the Dutch king, although the countryside fell to Belgium. Because of the resulting eccentric map and its location, Maastricht often remained more focused on Belgium and Germany than on the rest of the Netherlands. Today it still has economic connections with Liège and Aachen. The city can be reached from Brussels and Cologne in approximately 1 hour and from Amsterdam in about 2.5 hours.

September 15, 1789: James Fenimore Cooper once said; The press, like fire, is an excellent servant, but a terrible master. On this date this American novelist was born in Burlington, NJ (died in 1851). He is best known for The Pioneers and The Last of the Mohicans, the second of James Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales, both in composition and in order of narrative. Written in 1826, it is an adventure set in the forests of North America during the Seven Years War (1756 - 1763) between Great Britain and France, better known here as the French and Indian War (a conflict that takes place 2 dozen years before his birth). The plot involves the efforts of Alice and Cora MUNRO to join their father, who is the commander of Fort William Henry near Lake Champlain. Their course is blocked by MAGUA, the leader of the Huron tribe, who are allied to the French. Read it here: General Munro does not get to pursue a career, checkered or otherwise, after the war has ended, because of a tragic set of circumstances. Paroled by the French after suffering defeat, Munro and most of his men and their families are slaughtered by a tribe with a bitter history. Cooper's book is a fictional portrayal of a real event in history.

The writers of MASH (a show about a mobile hospital unit during the Korean Conflict) borrowed the name of Hawkeye, the principal male hero for their lead character, an independent-thinking doctor during the Korean Conflict. MASH the movie and later a long-running TV show was an outlet for anti-war feelings, while the Vietnam War raged on the TV news every night. The Last of the Mohicans was produced in the 1992 and today remains somewhat of a cult movie, remembered by a haunting theme and images of the vast forested sections of the north-east that once dominated the region.

September 15, 1927: France issues two stamps to celebrate the reunion of the American members of the French Foreign Legion (Legion Americaine), who fought for France during World War I. For more information see: Edwin W. Morse, America in the War-The Vanguard of American Volunteers in the Fighting Lines and in Humanitarian Service: August, 1914 --April, 1917. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons (1919). More links -are- HERE. All the stamps seen here were issued within a few years of each other and are found at a large Website showing many, many issues: Right Click to view a much larger image -- s.v.p.

Paquebot Normandie
4è centenaire de l'arrivée de Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) au Canada.
Port de La Rochelle

Among the French troops waiting to assault the German trenches on July 1 was the American poet named Alan Seeger. He had graduated from Harvard in 1910, having spent two years in Greenwich Village before his move to Paris. He thrived in the artistic atmosphere of the Rive Gauche. When the Great War broke, Seeger joined the French Foreign Legion in order to defend the country he had come to love. He did not abandon his poetry. One of his compositions during this period was an eerily prophetic poem entitled Rendezvous with Death:

On July 4, 1923, a monument was unveiled in Paris at the Place des États-Unis. It was dedicated to the American volunteers who were killed fighting for France. The statue which crowned it, symbolic of all the American volunteers, portrayed Alan Seeger. Photographs and conversations with Alan's father had guided the sculptor in his effort to make the statue resemble the poet as much as possible. Many dignitaries and a tremendous crowd attended the dedication ceremonies. On the sides of the monument's pedestal were engraved verses from some of Alan Seeger's poems. A wartime comrade remarked, This would have pleased him very much - to know that his words will last forever.

Mont Saint-Michel
Cathédrale de Reims where the French Kings were Crowned
Au profit de la Caisse d'Amortissement
 Détail de la cathédrale de Reims

I have a rendezvous with Death
At some disputed barricade,
When Spring comes back with rustling shade
And apple-blossoms fill the air --
I have a rendezvous with Death
When Spring brings back blue days and fair.

Seeger kept his appointment with death on July 1, 1916 - the first day of the Battle of the Somme (at Belloy-en-Santerre). He was 28 years old. from Alan was the uncle of Pete Seeger, noted anti-war activist for many, many years. Poet TS Eliot, was Alan Seeger's classmate at Harvard.

We are the hollow men
We are the stuffed men
Leaning together
Headpiece filled with straw.  Alas!
Our dried voices, when
We whisper together
Are quiet and meaningless
Shape without form, shade without colour,
Paralysed force, gesture without motion;

Those who have crossed
With direct eyes, to death's other Kingdom
Remember us -- if at all -- not as lost
Violent souls, but only
As the hollow men
The stuffed men.

    (The Hollow Men-1925)

September 15, 1961: All $1 US currency notes printed on or after this date bore the National Motto, In God We Trust. This motto first appeared on coinage in the 1860's.
September 16, 1638: Prince Louis is born in the Palais du Louvre. He will become Louis XIV, King of France, ruling for 72 years. Canada was his personal property. Louis XIV (the Sun King) became King of France upon the death of his father, Louis XIII, on May 14, 1643. Queen Anne, the widow of Louis XIII, was granted sole and absolute power as Regent by the Paris Parliament, overriding the late sovereign's will (May 18th). In effect, the murder of Henri, who converted to Catholicism to bring peace to Paris and France, will set up a reign of terror. Louis XIV will war against the Protestants of France (Edict of Fontainebleau) and those in the Palatine region of Germany. Later, during the French Revolution, The Terror will spend its rage against all religious people. Louis XIV's actions contribute to a mass migration of Protestant refugees (French and German) to what will become the United States (e.g. Pennsylvania Deutsch and Huguenot settlers in South Carolina).

September 16, 1810 -- ¡ Méxicanos, Viva México ! Criollos (Mexican-born Spaniards) and Mexico in general begin the quest for freedom against the rule of the gachupines (Spaniards born in Spain and living in Mexico), who had been exploiting the wealth of the Mexican people with the greatest injustice for three hundred years. Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla delivered the cry for liberty in front of a small crowd of his parishioners (The Grito de Dolores) in Dolores Hidalgo. This action stemmed from meetings of the literary and social club of Queretaro (now a central state of Mexico), which included the priest, the mayor of the town and a local military captain named Ignacio Allende. They believed that New Spain should be governed by the Creoles (criollos) rather than the Gachupines (or peninsulares).

At age 55, Hidalgo was a tall, gaunt man who carried his head habitually bent forward, giving him the appearance of a true contemplative. But looks were deceiving. He had a restless, willful nature, and it is said that his expressive green eyes shot fire when he argued politics. In his student days, he had won debates and honors; as a theologian he enjoyed considerable local renown. He was a visionary, yet a Creole resentful of the ruling authority. A air of the crusader was about him. Father Hidalgo was joined by Father Jose Maria Morelos. Both priests were later executed by firing squads (1811). These deaths were not in vain, as Mexico gained its independence on September 21, 1821. Under the Creole government the Catholic missions were secularized. The land holdings of the Catholic Church and the Spanish born elite were subject to a reformation, that is, the redistribution of their property to the newly empowered.

Grito de Independencia: Not many remembered the revolutionary aspect of the War of Independence on that night of nights. As in every other year of the recent past, what really mattered was going to the Zócalo (the central plaza) to participate in the ritual of the grito. According to witnesses present at the original event, Hidalgo and then his followers had shouted ¡ Mueran los gachupines! ¡ Viva la Virgen de Guadalupe! (Death to the Spaniards! Long live the Virgin of Guadalupe), but after one hundred years, time, good manners and the secularization has transformed the ritual from the call for a holy war, to a peaceful, patriotic affirmation. However, the celebrations in 2006 were tainted because of the national election dispute, which by 2010 has resulted in a virtual civil war in portions of the country.

How we got into this mess -- September 16, 1920: This marks the date of the Wall Street bombing, when an improvised device went off in a vehicle in the heart of Manhattan's financial district. A home-made bomb explodes in a horse wagon, which was parked in front of the J.P.Morgan building in New York City. History records the death toll at 33, with another 400 or more innocent civilians injured. The American Anarchist Fighters seeking release of political prisioners claimed responsibility. The crackdown on and deportations of radical left-wing political groups had actually begun during World War I. All foreign aliens rounded-up were deported, under the provisions of the Anarchist Act. About 10 thousand suspected terrorists were shipped out by 1921, in the fear that the new Soviet government in Russia was using the movement to further its goals of world domination through the export of terror.

Twenty-one years later (September 16, 1941), at the beginning of the third year of a world-wide conflict, the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) acted on evidence demonstrating that Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Persia (Iran) was about to supply Germany with oil much-needed. They shut off these resources to them. Churchill and Stalin agreed to occupy the Kingdom. These allies forced the Shah to abdicate in favor of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. The United States was not officially at war at this time, and victory was far from assured at this date. Failure was not an option, because a world socialist (fascist) state was the Nazi regime's ultimate goal.

The new Shah supported Britain, whose sphere of influence (along with that of France) had included much of the Middle East, since the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the first World War. The Shah would support the West in its cold war against the USSR after 1945. The failure of the Carter Administration to support him because of human rights concerns (along with his ill health), led to his downfall and the establishment of the regime now seeking Persian hegemony, through the sponsorship of terror. The Wall Street bombing was regarded as the worst act of politically-motivated terror on American soil until the attack on the Federal building in Oklahoma City. Manhattan was ground zero again in September 2001. It was also very interesting in the fall of 2006 to hear the Pope called a new Hitler, when his crime seemed only to be an expression against an intolerance that leads to murder. How soon we forget !!!

September 17th is Constitution Day

...We The People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessing of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this, Constitution for the United States of America.

An historical version of the 33-star 
Flag of the USA

On September 17, 1787, at exactly 4 PM,  EST, the Founding Fathers adjourned the Constitutional Convention sine die. Only one item of business had occupied the agenda that day, to sign the Constitution of the United States of America. see: Every year this date is to be celebrated as Constitution Day, something at least C-Span remembers. The Constitutional Convention was held in Philadelphia.

September 17, 1862 -- Two Presidents Day -- Demonstrates the Constitution in Action: Sergeant William McKinley and another volunteer drove a wagon of hot coffee and warm food through withering Confederate fire at the Battle of Antietam to the men of the 23rd Ohio regiment. Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes promoted him to the rank of officer (lieutenant) the bravery and initiative he demonstrated. Elected to a second term in 1900, President McKinley looked forward to concentrating on domestic affairs. His term ended when he was shot by an anarchist at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo in September 1901.

Rutherford B. Hayes, the 19th president (R) of the United States, was born in Delaware, Ohio. Hayes was a major-general in the Civil War, then became congressman from an Ohio district. He followed President Grant into office (1877-81). Hayes won the Electoral College by a margin of one vote after his opponent won the popular vote in an election so fraught with charges of vote fraud that there were even fears of a coup. Hayes refused to seek a second term. It is so wonderful that charges of vote fraud and controversy about the Electoral College are just issues for the past.

Oddly enough, this day in 1862 directly demonstrates some strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. Constitution. First, it clearly was not drafted with Civil War in mind. The ability to bear arms, enabled the South to be armed at War's beginning. The US had a small standing army and navy to defend itself at home, under the Constitution. Vast supplies of weapons and ammunition and forts were maintained for the same purpose, which the South took and the North had to recapture or remanufacture. The War demonstrated that the Union was permanent until, by the peaceful agreement under the terms of the document, a dissolution could occur. This day also shows how succession is handled in particularly hard cases, death and contested elections.

September 17, 1939: The Soviets invade Poland. Poland permanently lost land on its eastern border, but after war's end obtained permanent sovereignty over part of Germany. Ironically, the Allies did nothing about this intrusion. Indeed, Britain permitted Poland to be occupied after the war and "repatriated" many who had fought alongside the British forces. Many of these disappeared into the Gulag. Ironically, on this same date in 2009, the USA (some would argue) stabbed Poland in the back once more. After pressing Poland to stand up to Russian pressure (after all Russia invaded Georgia in 2008), the US has given up its missile defense shield in Poland, fulfilling a campaign promise. The move permanently puts the US at risk, and has (some would say) shown our friends how weak-willed we are we now view appeasement. Almost half Poland's population supports a U.S. decision to scrap a planned anti-missile system. Political analysts say the economy in Poland and Health Insurance is a far bigger priority than missile defense.

September 17, 1994: The U.S. Postal Service released a stamp honoring Gertrude "Ma" Rainey in first-day-of-issue ceremonies in Greenville, Mississippi, as part of a series of 8 stamps featuring American jazz and blues singers. Gertrude Malissa Pridgett, born in Columbus in 1886, sang at the Springer Opera House at age 14. She subsequently joined all-black vaudeville troupes touring the south. Performing in tent shows, the groups mainly sang secular tunes, the popular music of the day; but, shortly after she married "Pa" Rainey at age 18, "Ma" Rainey began bringing her audience something different. She began to work into her Rabbit Foot Minstrels act the music she had first heard from a young Missouri woman. As the music she dubbed the blues took hold, Rainey's fame grew, and in fact is known as the "Mother of the Blues." She was one of the first female artists professionally to record the blues. In 1934, she retired and purchased two theaters during the Depression--one in Columbus GA and the other in Rome, Georgia, which are over 100 miles apart on US 27 -- both of which she managed until her death in 1939.

Patrick StewartSeptember 18, 31AD: The head of the Roman Prætorian Guard, known as Sejanus, died. For some years, the third Julian Emperor, called Tiberius, ran the Roman Empire through Lucius Aelius Sejanus, the leader (Prefect -- Prætorian Præfectus) of the Guard, an elite unit formed first by Augustus for personal protection. Sejanus tried to take too much power, especially after he became Consul. He had made too many enemies and met an untimely end when Tiberius found out about Sejanus' ultimate plot to seize the throne. For more about the young starship captain, who once played Sejanus, go HERE or HERE, s.v.p. For more about Sejanus go HERE.

Battle-mania: On September 18th farmers revolted in Transylvania (1437). English King Henry VIII's troops occupied Boulogne-sur-Mer, France (1544). Turkey and Austria signed a peace treaty, Austria ceding Belgrade to the Turks (1739). Fort Ticonderoga opened for business in the colony of New York (1755), once the domain of Holland. James Abercromby lost his post as supreme commander of British forces after his defeat by French commander, the Marquis of Montcalm, at Fort Ticonderoga during the French and Indian War (1758). Ticonderoga was abandoned by the British after the American victory at the first battle of Saratoga (September 18, 1777). Chile declared its independence from Spain (National Day -- 1810). A fire in the mostly wooden city of Moscow (set ablaze by Napoléon's troops) destroyed 90% of houses and 1,000 churches (1812). Russian Premier Piotr Stolypin died four days after being shot at the Kiev opera house by a socialist lawyer, Dimitri Bogroff. As governor of the Saratov province, Stolypin had ruthlessly suppressed local peasant uprisings, and helped to squelch the 1905 revolutionary upheavals (1911). The Battle of Aisne ended with Germans defeating the French (1914). The U.S. Air Force, an independent military service, was established by the National Security Act (1947). Originally, in 1907, U.S. military aviation began as part of the U.S. Army and had been known as the Army Air Corps during the Second World War.

On September 18, 1931, the Mukden Incident was initiated by the Japanese Kwangtung Army in Mukden. It involved an explosion along the Japanese-controlled South-Manchurian Railway. It was soon followed by the Japanese invasion of Manchuria and the eventual establishment of the Japanese-dominated state of Manchukuo. The neutrality of the area, and the ability of Japan to defend its colony in Korea, was threatened in the 1920s by efforts at unification of China. Within three months Japanese troops had spread out throughout Manchuria, an occupation that finally ended at the conclusion of the Second World War. On September 18, 1954, the USA, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, France, Thailand and the Philippines signed a treaty providing for the creation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), a collective defense pact. The organization was created in response to adverse events in Korea and Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) all thought backed by the Communist governments of China and Russia. The pact formally ended in 1977.

September 18, 1961: Dag Hammarskjold, Secretary-General of the UN, was killed in a suspicious plane crash in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). He was flying to negotiate a cease-fire in the Congo. Hammarskjold was the son of a Swedish prime minister. In 1953, he was elected to the top UN post and in 1957 was reelected. During his second term, he initiated and directed the United Nation's vigorous role trying to bring peace in the Belgian Congo.

Dag Hammarskjold - UN Leader Memorial Dag Hammarskjold "Error Stamp"
Scott 1203 - 4c Dag Hammarskjold - Secretary General of the UN

New York, NY - Oct. 23, 1962
Giori Press - Perf 11 - 200 Subject
121,440,000 issued
Scott 1204 - 4c Dag Hammarskjold - Special Issue of the Error Stamp

Washington, D.C. - Nov. 16, 1962
  Giori Press - Perf 11 - 200 Subject 
40,270,000 issued

September 18, 1898: Six weeks after getting drenched by a sudden storm during a review of Confederate veterans, while substituting for her sick father (former Confederate president Jefferson Davis), Winnie Davis died in her family's summer home in Narragansett Pier, Rhode Island. Davis was widely known throughout the South as the Daughter of the Confederacy -- a title she acquired when Georgian John B. Gordon introduced her by saying, Fellow countrymen, your late president is unable to greet you, but here is his daughter. Our daughter, the daughter of the Confederacy. After her death, the Georgia Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy decided to honor her with a new women's dormitory at the State Normal School for Teachers in Athens. Winnie Davis Hall continued in this role until the U.S. Navy purchased the Normal School property in 1953 and converted it from a dormitory to a building for administrative offices for its new Supply Corps School.

September 19th: Goeric of Metz (also known as Abbo I of Metz, Gœricus of Metz, and Gury of Metz) was a married man with two daughters. He became blind but recovered his eyesight at Saint Stephen's Cathedral in Metz. Shortly thereafter, he joined the clergy and Arnulf of Metz ordained him. In 627, he succeeded Arnulf as Bishop of Metz. While bishop, he transferred the relics of his predecessor to the Church of the Apostles. He had built the church of Great St. Peter's and a monastery at Épinal for his two daughters, Precia and Victorina. He was also a personal friend of Dagobert I. He died in 643. He has his feast day on September 19th.

September 19, 1356: The Battle of Poitiers, the English defeat the French in an early battle in what will become known as The 100 Years War. Among the many killed at the Battle of Poitiers, Peter I, Duke of Bourbon (b. 1311) and Walter VI (born 1304) of Brienne-le-Château, Constable of France, Duke of Athens (son of Isabella de la Roche, heiress of Thebes, daughter of Guy II de la Roche, Duke of Athens, possessor of Saint-Suaire (Shroud of Turin)).

frying bacon the virginia ham way September 19, 1676: Jamestown burns to the ground, its location thereafter lost for over 300 years. Forces of Nathaniel Bacon during Bacon's Rebellion set it aflame; In other news this date, (1778) the Continental Congress passes the first budget of the United States; (1796) George Washington's farewell address appears across the 13 Colonies, beginning on this date, as an open letter to the public; (1863) In War between the States: A Battle at Chickamauga Tennessee takes place (first day). The second day resulted in terrible losses and a pyrrhic victory for the South; (1870) In the Franco-Prussian War, the Siege of Paris begins. This will result on January 28, 1871 in the surrender of Paris and a decisive Prussian victory, but not until the Germans let French Forces into the city to put down a rebellion by the left.

On the same day - having invaded the Papal States a week earlier - the Italian Army lays siege to Rome. The city is taken the next day, after which the Pope described himself as a prisoner in the Vatican, in effect under house arrest. The Papal states had a checkered past of existence (including some time as part of France), now the Pope would be forced to cede all but the Vatican to Italy (1871).

September 19, 1895: The fields and hills of Chickamauga were set apart as the first National Battlefield on this date. The Honorable A. E. Stevenson, of Illinois, then Vice-President of the United States, in his opening remarks as presiding officer at the dedication of that National facility said - Here, in the dread tribunal of last resort, valor contended against valor. Here brave men struggled and died for the right as God gave them to see the right. Technically, the Union did not prevail in the battle that began on September 19, 1863. Casualties, however were second only behind the losses suffered at Gettysburg just a few months before.

The South could ill afford these losses. No one else was going to become soldiers, the North in contrast had hundreds of thousands in the pipeline. The die was caste; only a political victory could be won. Sherman's fire would put an end to that hope.

September 19, 1900 -- An Apocryphal Account (if not true): Chancellor Walter Bernard Hill conducted opening exercises, at the University of Georgia in Athens, by noting that this was the centennial of the University's first graduating class. Actually, Chancellor Hill did not have the correct facts at the tip of his tongue (today, we would say he simply misspoke). The University was chartered by the General Assembly on January 27, 1785, but at that time its future campus was located on Cherokee land. It was not until 1801 that classes actually began and 1804 that the first nine students graduated.

The Georgia legislature enacted into law Abraham Baldwin's proposed charter for the University of Georgia. In so doing, Georgia became the first state to charter a state university. The act's preamble declared:

When the minds of the people in general are viciously disposed and unprincipled and their conduct disorderly a free government will be attended with greater confusions and evils more horrid than the wild uncultivated state of nature. It can only be happy where the public principles and opinions are properly directed and their manners regulated. This is an influence beyond the reach of laws and punishments and can be claimed only by religion and education. It should therefore be among the first objects of those who wish well to the national prosperity to encourage and support the principles of religion and morality and early to place the youth under the forming hand of society that by instruction they may be molded to the love of virtue and good order [emphasis added]. Sending them abroad to other countries for their education will not answer these purposes; it is too humiliating an acknowledgment of the ignorance or inferiority of our own, and will always be the cause of so great foreign attachments, that upon principles of policy it is inadmissible.

This country, in times of our common danger and distress, found security in the principle and abilities which wise regulations had before established in the minds of our countrymen. That our our present happiness, joined to the pleasing prospect, should conspire to make us feel ourselves under the strongest obligations to form the youth, the rising hope of our land, to render the like glorious and essential services to our country.


After Baldwin turned down a prestigious teaching position as a professor of divinity at Yale, Georgia governor Lyman Hall persuaded him to accept the responsibility of creating an educational plan for both secondary and higher education in the state. Baldwin strongly believed that education was the key to developing frontier states like Georgia. Once elected to the Georgia House of Representatives in the state legislature, he developed a comprehensive educational plan that ultimately included land grants from the state to fund the establishment of the University of Georgia (UGA) in Athens, Georgia. Through Baldwin's efforts, UGA became the first state-chartered school in the nation when UGA was incorporated on January 27, 1785. Baldwin served as the first president of the institution during its initial planning phase, from 1785 to 1801.

September 19, 1970: The U.S. Post Office Department issued a six cent stamp for the completion of the carving of the face of Stone Mountain showing Confederate president Jefferson Davis and generals Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson. The stamp's issuance came just over four months after the formal dedication ceremonies on May 9th. On April 1, 1925, sculptor Augustus Lukeman took over the Stone Mountain (Georgia) project and had changed the design from Borglum's original vision. Indeed, Lukeman's first job was to erase the work already done. Borglum moved on and found some more granite to carve near Rapid City, South Dakota.

September 19, 1991: Ötzi, the Iceman, was found by a German tourist, Helmut Simon, on the Similaun Glacier in the Tirolean Ötztal Alps, on the Italian-Austrian border. The body found is that of a man aged 25 to 35 who had stood about 5 feet 2 inches (1.6 meters) tall and had weighed about 50 kg (110 pounds). It is the oldest mummified human body ever found intact -- some 5300 years old. He had a number of ‘points’ tattooed on his body. Importantly, his few remaining scalp hairs provided the earliest archæological evidence of haircutting. Ötzi did not survive his close brush with death. Die offizielle Bergung wurde am 23. September 1991. Interestingly, Batman was born n this date in 1928 -- the late Adam West, that is.

September 20, 1258: The Norman Cathedral of Salisbury, begun 38 years earlier, was dedicated. It is one of a very few large church structures with a double cross design; and, because it's single spire is over 400 feet high, the church structure of new Sarum is able to easily dominate the beautiful English countryside. More pictures are HERE.

The site of Old Sarum is located one and a half miles north of the present town of Salisbury. Here the Normans built a royal castle within the earthworks of an Iron Age hill fort. During the twelfth century a great tower and palace were built in the inner bailey. The cathedral, begun in the late eleventh century, was constructed on the north side of the outer bailey. The cathedral remained the seat of a local bishopric until 1218, when the Pope permitted the clergy to remove to a new site. With the Norman reorganization of the church in England, the Bishopric became more regional center at the new Cathedral in a town now known as Salisbury. Salisbury's claim to fame, apart from the Cathedral, is its 10k gold jewelry, which I guess grew up as a cottage industry to profit on the many pilgrims that wanted a souvenir of their visit to Salisbury, like those they got elsewhere cf.

September 20, 1561: Queen Elizabeth of England, head of the Church of England, signed a treaty at Hampton Court with French Huguenot leader Louis de Bourbon, First Prince of Condé, youngest son of Charles, duc de Vendôme, and Françoise d'Alençon. The English would occupy Le Harve in return for aiding the Bourbons against the Catholic Valois sovereigns of France. Louis' nephew Henri the Prince of Navarre would become France's first Bourbon King, Henri IV. Louis died in 1569, before that goal was reached and before Henri IV converted to ease tensions in the Kingdom. England became a place of Huguenot refuge during the persecutions of the 16th and later 17th centuries.

September 20, 1565: Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and his Spanish force destroyed Fort Caroline and killed most of its French Huguenot defenders. Located on the St. Johns River, the French fort was not located in present-day Georgia; nevertheless, it fell within the Spanish-claim that included Georgia. The total destruction meant the loss of the first church on the East Coast (which was apparently Protestant) and all of its congregation. This attack effectively ended French efforts to colonize directly the eastern Atlantic seaboard of North America; however, Frenchmen did arrive in large numbers as Huguenot refugees or as second and third generation English, Irish or German colonists of Huguenot lineage, to places such as Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia.

September 20, 1697: The Treaty of Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg, (1688-1697)) between France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known as Saint-Domingue (today Haiti). The remaining Spanish section was called Santo Domingo. The protest of former King James II against the Treaty of Ryswick, dated June 8, 1697, can be found HERE in Latin and English.

September 20, 1736: In his journal of Trustees' proceedings, the Earl of Egmont recorded the basis for the rival claims of England and Spain for the disputed land between Charles Town and St. Augustine:

20 Sept. 1736 came an Acct. that Don Antonio Aredondo the Spanish Commissary demanded that the English Should evacuate all they Stand possest of as far as St. Helena Sound, the Spaniards having formerly had Forts there. But that Mr. Oglethorp demanded of him, that the Spaniards Should evacuate as far as the 29 degree North latitude, conformable to King Charles the 2ds Charter, the English having formerly had possession as far as that Latitude, Sr. Francis Drake having by Q. Elizabeths orders taken Augustine. This at length Don Antonio agreed that on withdrawing the Garison from the Island St. George, the Said Island Should remain unpossest by either Party, till advices Should arrive from Europe, and that no hostilities Should be committed on either Side till the determination of the English and Spanish Courts Should be known; and all other claims be defer'd till their determination . . . .

Source: Robert G. McPherson (ed.), The Journal of the Earl of Egmont: Abstract of the Trustees Proceedings for Establishing the Colony of Georgia, 1732-1738, (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1962), pp. 201-202.

Le 20 septembre 1792: La Révolution française est sauvée in extremis de l'invasion étrangère, à Valmy. There is far more to this modest battle than first meets the eye. Had the Prussians succeeded, then the crown might have been restored, but certainly Louis 17th would not have lost his head. -- en français

September 20, 1863: The second full day of the Battle of Chickamauga raged near Ringgold, Georgia. On August 30th Confederate General Braxton Bragg had been forced to pull the Army of Tennessee out of Chattanooga. It had retreated to a point on the W&A Railroad close to Ringgold, Georgia. The Union Army of the Cumberland, under the command of General William Rosecrans, had pursued Bragg's forces. After some skirmishes on the 18th of September 1863, the two sides engaged in a major battle at Chickamauga Creek on the 19th (which ironically was a Cherokee name that means either River of Death or River of Blood). Both sides took heavy losses, and some saw it as the pouring out of the blood on the altar, the principle part of the sacrifice that purifies and atones for the sin of the Nation (Lev. 17:11, see Hebrews 9:22).

On the 20th Confederate General Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee was victorious, but at a terrible price. Union commander Rosecrans retreated from the field leaving his army behind under General George Thomas, whose defense of Snodgrass Hill lead to his nickname of the Rock of Chickamauga. General Thomas's forces held their position until nightfall, when they retreated back to Chattanooga. Total casualties for Confederate forces were 18,454 (including Brigadier General James Deshler, who was killed in battle, and General Benjamin Helm who was mortally wounded), compared to 16,170 Union casualties (including Brigadier General William Lytle, who was mortally wounded). The picture is of Samuel Jackson, a grandson of President Andrew Jackson, who died in this battle.

In desperate charges to flank the Union left, Helm was in the forefront of his men when he was hit mortally. The last words of General Helm, Mary Lincoln's brother-in-law, as he lay dying on the Chickamauga battlefield, were Victory uttered over and over again -- perhaps in remembering the familiar verse often quoted as: Oh Death where is thy victory; oh Grave thy sting. cf. I Corinthians 15:55 Or perhaps from part of the previous verse that quotes the Old Testament [Isaiah 25:8]: Death is swallowed up in victory ! This is God's promise of salvation, of which Helm assuredly had on his mind as he lay dying. President Lincoln received Helm's widow in the White House with tears in his eyes. It was there that Mary Todd Lincoln was to mourn the death of the four men, her three half brothers and a brother-in-law who had died fighting against the armies of her husband, President Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln himself became a sacrifice for lasting Union. She lost a son too while in Washington -- understandably all this had a severe effect on a person who already suffered episodes of depression -- she went mad.

While the battle was considered a Confederate victory, Bragg subsequently was criticized for allowing retreating Union forces to escape, even though his forces were exhausted from two days of heavy fighting. But more important, this tactical victory assured the ultimate doom of Atlanta, so it ended in a strategic defeat for the South, one from which it would not recover. The Chickamauga site was dedicated as a National Battlefield on September 19, 1895, although some would consider it already holy ground, sanctified () by blood of the Nation.

Ringgold is the county seat of Catoosa County, part of the Chattanooga, TN–GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city was named after Samuel Ringgold, a hero of the Battle of Palo Alto (at "Fort Texas" on May 8, 1846, five miles (8 km) from Brownsville TX). A tactic using fast moving heavy guns, developed by Major Samuel Ringgold, won the battle for the Americans -- but he died of wounds suffered that day. In 2011 portions of the town were devastated by a tornado that rolled north up the Valley into Tennessee.

September 20, 1921: KDKA on your dial at 1020 (ten-twenty) today -- 980 back then -- although dials (analog circuit tuning devises and indicators of frequency) were not so precise or selectivity (the Q of the circuit) that narrow. Broadcasting from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the station management started one of the first daily radio newscasts in the country from the city desk of The Pittsburgh Post, now the Post Gazette, the first newspaper west of the Alleghenies.

Many people ask if these call letters "stand for" anything. The simple answer is: no. KDKA's license -- the first radio commercial broadcast license -- was issued October 27, 1920. The call letters "KDKA" were assigned from a roster maintained to provide identification for ships and marine shore stations, these being the only regular radio services operating under formal license supervision by the Federal Government. When it came time to grant the license, "KDKA" was simply the next set of call letters on the list.

Today, KDKA-TV is a CBS owned and operated station that once was the premier station of the Westinghouse Electric Company holdings. KDKA-TV remains the official station of the Pittsburgh Steelers. Some radio stations were issued a 3 letter call sign. One of these is fun-lovin' KQV-Audio 14, also in Pittsburgh.

The Iron Man bloomsThe evening of September 20, 1998: Today, for the first time in the history of Camden yards, the Ironman was not there. On this date he voluntarily withdrew minutes before the game with the Yankees took place. Cal Ripken ended his major league record streak of 2,632 consecutive game starts, a record perhaps never to be broken. Ripken passed Lou Gehrig's record of 2,130 consecutive games on September 6, 1995. His streak began on May 30, 1982.

September 21, 19BC: Vergil (who died on the 21st of September about 2010 years ago) wasn't happy with his masterpiece, Æneid, a tale which recounts the exploits of the Trojan prince named Æneas, who had to flee the burning city of Troy at the end of the Trojan War. Indeed, Vergil did not want his work to become public. In spite of Vergil's desires, his epic survives to this day; moreover, it has become one of the most important pieces of Western literature, having influence the thinking of those like Dante. How much do you know about Vergil? Take the Vergil quiz -- Link HERE

Thousands left Troy immediately after the city fell (April 24, 1184BC) and the war ended. Others remained about 30 to 50 years. Then an estimated 30,000 Trojans/Thracians suddenly abandoned what was left of Troy. Homer (Greek writer/poet, eighth century BC) and various sources (Etruscan, Merovingian, Roman and later Scandinavian) confirm this departure. The stories describe how, after the Greeks sacked the city, all the Trojans remaining alive eventually left. Most of them crossed the sea going to Italy, becoming the dominating influence in the development of Rome.

A few Trojans, mainly said to be chieftains and warriors, about 12,000 in all, went north across the Black Sea. They traveled into the Mare Mœtis or shallow sea, where the Don River ends (Caucasus region in southern Russia). These émigrés established a kingdom about 1150 BC.

The Romans would later refer to the inhabitants as Sicambrians. The locals (nomadic Scythians) named the Trojan conquerors the "Iron people", or the Æsir. They built the famous fortified city Æsgard or Asgard, described as Troy in the north. Various other sources collaborate this, stating the Trojans landed on the eastern shores with their superior weaponry, and claimed land. More HERE.

September 21, 1522: On this date Martin Luther's German translation of the New Testament was first published. Printing made the Bible accessible directly to the common person, in her/his language and at an economic price. It changed the world forever, leading to the Protestant Reformation and war, more particularly in Germany, civil war. Thirty-three years later (September 25, 1555), the Peace of Augsburg was signed after the defeat of Emperor Charles V's forces by Protestant princes in Germany (1552). With the official recognition of the Lutheran denomination in Germany, the agreement signified the dissolution of both political unity in Germany and the European medieval unity of Christendom under one Holy and catholic (meaning universal) Church. A story about the first English translations of the Bible is HERE.


[1.1] Im Anfang war das Wort, und das Wort war bei Gott, und Gott war das Wort.
[1.2] Dasselbe war im Anfang bei Gott.
[1.3] Alle Dinge sind durch dasselbe gemacht, und ohne dasselbe ist nichts gemacht, was gemacht ist.
[1.4] In ihm war das Leben, und das Leben war das Licht der Menschen.
[1.5] Und das Licht scheint in der Finsternis, und die Finsternis hat's nicht ergriffen ( - the past participle of ergreifen).
[1.6] Es war ein Mensch, von Gott gesandt, der hieß Johannes.
[1.7] Der kam zum Zeugnis, um von dem Licht zu zeugen, damit sie alle durch ihn glaubten.
[1.8] Er war nicht das Licht, sondern er sollte zeugen von dem Licht.
[1.9] Das war das wahre Licht, das alle Menschen erleuchtet, die in diese Welt kommen.
[1.10] Er war in der Welt, und die Welt ist durch ihn gemacht; aber die Welt erkannte ihn nicht.
[1.11] Er kam in sein Eigentum; und die Seinen nahmen ihn nicht auf.

An English translation of Luther's The Gospel according to John:
In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
The same was in the beginning with God.
All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made.
In Him was life, and that life was the Light of men.
And that Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it {has not been able to seize it}.

There was a man sent from God, whose name was John {the Baptist}.
John came as a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all might believe through him.
John was not the Light, but came to bear witness of that Light.
That was the true Light that enlightens every man, that cometh into the world.
He was in the world, and the world was made by Him; but the world knew Him not (as in how you recognize your kin, not knowledge which would have been the German verb Wissen.
He came to His own (as in ownership - the chosen people); and His {people} received Him not {more like did not "consume" God's message - an allusion to the Eucharist (bread and wine) consumed during Communion}.

I have a copy of a The Bible printed in Leipzig in 1953, with the exact same wording, some 430 years later. This is because, through the original translation, Luther in effect invented the High German written language, and this based on the Saxon dialect.

Le 21 septembre 1589: Près de Arques, dans le nord de la France, une bataille met aux prises catholiques et réformés (protestants) français. Le prince protestant Henri de Navarre, qui vient d'hériter de la couronne de France, sous le nom d'Henri IV, doit lutter contre la Ligue catholique qui rejette son autorité. Avec l'appui des Anglais, il bat les armées du duc de Mayenne près de Dieppe. Sa victoire quelque peu inespérée le rapproche du trône et met presque un terme aux guerres de religion qui durent depuis déjà depuis près de trente ans. The interest of the place centers in the castle dominating the town, which was built in the 11th century by William of Talou; his nephew, William the Conqueror, regarding it as a menace to his own power, besieged and occupied it. After frequently changing hands, it came into the possession of the English, who were expelled in 1449 after an occupation of thirty years. In 1589, its cannon decided the battle of Arques in favor of Henry IV. Arques of the battle fame is northwest of Beauvais. The area produced settlers for New France (Canada 1632). Ten times the number of Protestants left upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, bound for England, many thereafter coming to the British Colonies in North America.

September 21, 1796: The $2-1/2 gold coin, known as the "quarter eagle," initially was produced. The first quarter eagle, the 1796 Draped Bust without stars -- like most other first American coins -- was designed by Chief U.S. Engraver Robert Scot. The obverse depicts Liberty facing right, wearing a soft cap, with the inscription LIBERTY above, and the date below. The cap was long thought to be a liberty or Phrygian cap, taken from an ancient Roman model.

September 21, 1949: The Communist People’s Republic of China was proclaimed under Mao Tse Tung with Chou En-Lai as Premier: Today, the Chinese people have stood up -- Mao-Tse-Tung, who led his party into power after half a century of civil strife. The Chinese Communists drove Chiang Kai-shek to the Island of Formosa (now known as Taiwan). The stronghold of Shanghai fell to Mao Tse-tung Communist guerrillas. The Communist People’s Liberation Army brought with them to Beijing a northeastern folk dance called yang ge [go home] along with a new way of life, perhaps best demonstrated in 1989 with the severe repression or perhaps Mao's cultural revolution (1966) of far wider consequences.
September 21, 2011 -- The 10th year since the explosion at an AZF usine, causing 30 deaths and several thousand injuries: The Total chemical plant, located on the outskirts of the City of Toulouse, afterwards was rebuilt. A crater remains where the blast destroyed much of the production facility. Des représentants de Total sont aussi venus à la cérémonie. Tous ont observé une minute de silence à 10h17, à l'heure précise de l'explosion de l'usine sur le site de la société Grande Paroisse.,,3333280,00-toulouse-rend-hommage-aux-victimes-.html At first it was thought that the blast had been a terrorist attack, coming just 10 days after the twin-tower explosions in NYC. The plant produced ammonium nitrate, a substance that can be both a fertilizer and a component in explosives (AKA Oklahoma City). A root cause analysis revealed that improper storage of another substance with the ammonium nitrate had caused an unstable condition that led to the explosion.

The Toulouse-Atlanta Sister City Committee was formed to promote friendship and build personal and business relationships between the citizens of Toulouse, France, and Atlanta, after the 1974 designation. Nicknamed la ville rose (the pink city), because of the predominant use of a rose-colored brick in its buildings, Toulouse is the capital of the Midi-Pyrenees, and the space and technology center of Europe. Aerospatiale employs 9,000 workers, and Alcatel, the world's largest builder of satellites, and maker of other electronics operates here. Atlanta's symbol is the mythic phoenix, which is reborn from ashes, an allusion to Atlanta' rebirth after its destruction in (1864) during the war between the states. On May 20, 2005, a phœnix memorial arose in Atlanta's sister city. The sculpture topped by a Phœnix, by renowned Atlanta artist David Landis, was chosen to be the legacy gift from the citizens of Atlanta to its Sister City Toulouse, representing the solidarity between the citizens of Atlanta and Toulouse in the aftermath of an explosion that killed and injured so many people on September 21, 2001.

September 22nd: Today is the Feast day of Saint Mauritius (died circa 302AD). Mauritius (or Maurice) was one of the 66 Christian legionnaires, martyred after torture, some say for refusing to pay homage to pagan gods (but the truth is unclear). Authorities beheaded him at Agaunum, what would become Saint Maurice-en-Valais, Switzerland. The Augustinian monastery named for Saint Maurice stands today at the site of his death. In Magdeburg in Germany are his relics. His designation as a saint predates the formal practice of canonization by a Pope. His feast day is September 22nd in both the Roman Catholic and Protestant Lutheran traditions.

Also on this date (and in Switzerland) -- September 22, 1499 -- The Peace of Basel (Traité de Bâle (1499)) concludes what was the final war of Swiss independence. The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Maximilian I, had attempted to retake Switzerland, but the Swiss nation (les Confédérés) repulsed his efforts. In Swiss farm sayings one observes that bad weather on St. Mauritius day foretells damage and frustration (Bauernregel: Gewitter um Mauritius bringt Schaden und Verdruß -- ein anderer Wetterregel: Zeigt sich klar Mauritius, viel Sturm er bringen muß -oder- Klares Wetter an Mauritius - nächstes Jahr viel Wind kommen muß).

Worldwide, Mauritius is 7th in economic freedom (2010 numbers at 7.90), while the US has fallen from third place to 18th. Didn't know that did you ? It is the only true democracy in Africa, its official language is English (ex-British colony), but the most commonly spoken tongue is creole french. Hong Kong, a chinese province, remains #1. The Kingdom of Bahrain ranks in the top 10, too; as does Switzerland, Australia and New Zealand. Until recently, the US had ranked consistently 3rd. Coincidently, by recent count, US regulation in the past year has broken previous records (Federal Register). Economic freedom is an essential prerequisite for political freedom (Churchill). In the end, socialism requires coercion, even in a benign tyranny. It is a lesson history has taught over and over again; one that we perhaps have forgotten.

Another Saint's Day: Adamnan, or Eunan as he is also known, was born about the year 625 AD at Drumhome, County Donegal, Ireland. Nothing is told us of his early life, except that he was related to another well known Irish saint, Saint Columba. He initially entered the monastery he had founded in County Donegal, but Columba persuaded him to go the Abbey of Iona (Scotland), where in 679 he became its ninth abbot. Adamnan was an understudy to St. Ernan.

In 686 Adamnan was sent to the court of King Aldfrith of Northumbria to negotiate the release of Irish captives. The then current Northumbrian king had met Adamnan as a child when he had to flee from a usurper at the death of his father King Oswy. Adamnan succeeded in his mission. While in England he visited the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, meeting the Venerable Bede who was a thirteen year old lad. Adamnan was persuaded by St. Ceolfrith to accept the Roman date of observance for Easter. He also came to accept the Roman practice of tonsure for monks. He died this 23rd day of September in 704AD.

In France, the September equinox became New Year's Day in the Republic's new calendar, which was in use for about a dozen years. The Revolution established the First Republic and abolished the French monarchy on September 21, 1792. This event made the following day (the autumnal equinox that year) the first of the Republic for France. The start of every year was to be determined by astronomical calculations following the real path and position of the Sun (known as the calendrier républicain as well as the calendrier révolutionnaire). The Fall equinox in 2013 falls on the 22nd of September, making it the true beginning of the 222th year -- September 22, 2013 (4:44 PM EDT), is the feast du Premier Vendémiaire - Primidi, 1 Jour (décade 1), CCXXII according to Wikipedia.

September 23, 1779: The American navy under John Paul Jones, commanding from Bonhomme Richard, defeated and captured a British man-of-war. An American attack on a British convoy pitted the British frigate HMS Serapis against the American. The American ship was commanded by Scotsman John Paul Jones, who chose the name for the ship after Benjamin Franklin's nickname. Fierce fighting ensued, and when Bonhomme Richard began to sink, the Serapis' commander Richard Pearson called over to ask if Jones would surrender. He responded, I have not yet begun to fight! -- a response that would become a slogan of the U.S. Navy. The ships kept firing, and indeed, the American ship ended the day by sinking, but not before Pearson surrendered and Jones took control of the Serapis.

September 23, 1806: The Lewis and Clark Expedition returned to St. Louis from the Pacific Northwest over three years after its departure. The 12¢ Lewis and Clark Postal Card was issued on September 23, 1981, to celebrate this event.

A few years earlier on this date in 1777, the Liberty Bell took a trip to Allentown, Pennsylvania, in order to prevent its capture, when the British overran the City of Brotherly Love.

On June 27, 1778, the Bell was brought back to Philadelphia but not rehung. The rotten steeple of the State House would not allow it. The Bell was put into storage for seven years. It was rehung and later rang when the Constitution was ratified in 1787.

Speaking of western explorations -- September 24th in Canada: In 1688, Louis-Armand de Lom d'Arce, Baron de Lahontan (1666-1716), sets out from a small settlement at Michilimackinac Cove to explore the west (or at least the western reach of French territories in North America. At that time the site sat on the shore opposite from today's Mackinaw City, Michigan. In 1715, a fort named St. Philippe de Michilimackinac was reestablished on the southern shore. Louis-Armand will reach the Mississippi River (called the river St. Louis by the French) via the Wisconsin River (Meskousing -- later called the Ouisconsin). Just a few years earlier on September 24, 1669, René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle (1643-1687), had met Louis Jolliet and Father Marquette at the Saint Ignace Mission, connected with the settlement at Michilimackinac. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet of France canoed from Lake Michigan up the Fox River until reaching the present-day site of Portage (in early June), and crossed over to the Wisconsin River from the Fox (only 2 miles (3.2 km)). They too, found the Mississippi (June 17th). Marquette died on the return voyage (1675). The Algonquin people called this the father of waters (le «Pere d'eau»); the Ojibwe called the water source mezzi {misi} sippi -- the "big river."

On the 27th [of August 1679, the La Salle led explorers] were driven [in Le Griffon] northwesterly until evening, when, under favor of a light southerly breeze, they rounded Point St. Ignace, and anchored in the calm waters of the Bay of Michilimackinac, described as a sheltered harbor, protected on all sides except from the southeast. Here our voyagers found a settlement, composed of Hurons (Kis-ka-kons), Ottawas and a few Frenchmen.

Jean Nicolet, the first Frenchman to see Mackinac Island, paddled his birch bark canoe through the Straits of Mackinac in 1634 enroute to Green Bay, long before any mission in the area was established or football played.

September 24, 2007: L'extraordinaire est tout simplement que ça ait pu avoir lieu. Hier, le président iranien Mahmoud Ahmadinejad a pris la parole à l'Université Columbia, à New York, malgré l'hostilité presque furieuse que cet événement a provoquée aux États-Unis. La foi en la liberté reste l’arme la plus puissante de notre pays contre les régimes répressifs, a expliqué le président de Columbia (et le professeur de ce Web-maître il-y-a environ 31 ans, quand il était juste un professeur modeste enseignant sa première classe), Lee Bollinger. Le président iranien a ensuite affirmé que l'Iran était une nation pacifique qui entendait défendre son droit de poursuivre un programme nucléaire. Nous sommes membres de l'Agence internationale de l'énergie atomique [AIEA] et l'agence stipule que tous les Etats membres ont droit à la technologie nucléaire, a-t-il ajouté. Nous voulons avoir le droit à une énergie nucléaire pacifique, a-t-il répété. Le Monde

In 1933, Columbia University invited Hans Luther, Nazi Germany's ambassador to the United States, to speak on campus (Luther's remarks focused on what he characterized as Hitler's peaceful intentions.). Columbia's flirting with the Nazis did not end there.

While Williams College canceled its student exchanges with Germany, Columbia and others refused to do likewise. And in 1936, Columbia sent Prof. Arthur Remy as its representative to anniversary celebrations at the University of Heidelberg, where the Nazis had expelled all Jewish instructors, implemented a curriculum based on Nazi ideology, and organized book-burnings. Remy said he found a reception with Josef Goebbels -- incidentally, the man in charge of the book burnings -- to be very enjoyable. Some students protested the Columbia's participation at Heidelberg by picketing the home of president Nicholas Murray Butler. Dr. Butler, in turn, responded by permanently expelling the leader of the protest, Robert Burke, for allegedly using disrespectful language.

Lee Bollinger, the current president of Columbia (and in 2009 made a deputy director of the Federal Reserve Bank of NY), evidently felt his invitation to a would-be Hitler constituted a tribute to the principle of free speech. A more impressive gesture would have been a public apology to the family of Robert Burke. The Wall Street Journal Interestingly, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was scheduled to meet with Fox News' Shepard Smith on this day in 2010, and spoke again at Columbia in 2011.

Born 24 September 1942: Gerard "Gerry" Marsden, an English musician and television personality, best known for being leader of the British band Gerry & the Pacemakers. "Ferry Cross the Mersey," "Don't Let The Sun Catch You Crying" and "You'll Never Walk Alone" were his 60's hits. On this date 1789, the United States Post Office Department was established. Happy Birthday Snail-mail !!! Today in 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed Devils Tower in Wyoming as the nation's first National Monument; while in 1968, "60 Minutes" premiered -- Coincidence ? I think not.

In 1725, Sir Arthur Guinness, sometime Irish brewer entered this world. His father was the land steward to Dr. Arthur Price, the Archbishop of Cashel (some have called the ruin Saint Peter the Rock Cathedral (de cathédrale Saint-Pierre de la roche), but the newer Cathedral is elsewhere and is today dedicated to Saint John the Baptist and controlled by the Church of Ireland). This is an ancient place, dating back to at least the 4th Century. The site actually contains the Cathedral, its related Chapel and a Castle. Brian Boru was said to be crowned here. Saint Patrick was here too, baptising an Irish King. The elder Guiness brewed beer for the estate's workforce in County Tipperary. In celebration, Wakonda Brewing Company is located at 1725 Kingwood in Florence OR, while the Oaken Keg Spirit Shops, in Anchorage, AK, can be found at 1725 Abbott Road. More pictures are HERE.

Dateline 1066: King Harold II (Godwinson) won his first major battle against an invader today. On September 25th English troops faced down the Viking hoards, who had a legitimate claim to the Kingdom, at Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire. The fight takes place where the old Roman road crosses the River Derwent. A strategic defence point for nearly 1000 years, it is a logical spot for a major battle.

This battle will put an end to Viking threat (and claim). The Norwegian force is led by King Harald Hardrada and the English king's brother Tostig Godwinson. Both Hardrada and Tostig along with most of the Norwegians died that day. Although Harold Godwinson repelled the Norwegian invaders, his victory was short-lived. After a tiring march south, he lost to his Norman cousin William at Hastings less than three weeks later (October 14th). The victory against the Norwegians has been traditionally portrayed as symbolizing the end of the Viking Age, although major Scandinavian campaigns in Britain and Ireland occur in the following decades, such as those of King Sweyn Estrithson of Denmark in 1069–70 and King Magnus Barefoot of Norway in 1098 and 1102–03.

15¢ Independence Hall, Philadelphia
Postal Card: America the Beautiful Series

5¢ DC-4 Skymaster:
Airmail Envelope

First Day Issues of
September 25, 1946 & 1989

Considered by many to be the birthplace of the United States of America, the city of Philadelphia remains as rich in culture and charm as when the Quakers first settled here in the 17th century. Founded by William Penn in 1682, Philadelphia soon became a center of religious freedom -- hence its nickname, The City of Brotherly Love. It also became a major hub of colonial American politics, serving as the meeting place for the Second Continental Congress, the one that adopted the Declaration of Independence, as well as the convention that drafted the Bill of Rights. In time, the city played a vital role in the American Industrial Revolution, and because of its highly developed industry was a crucial supplier for Union forces during the Civil War. Independence Hall, original painting by John Benson, is shown on this postal issue -- one of the sites in four cities to be seen in the America the Beautiful series.

The original DC-4 was built as a requirement for both United and American Airlines. It began test flying in 1938, but when the U.S. entered into World War 2, the production line was commandeered by the military authorities and thus the first 24 C-54's were produced. The aircraft became a cargo workhorse during the conflict after it became available in 1942.

September 26, 1789 -- Big day in Washington: Thomas Jefferson is appointed the first United States Secretary of State, John Jay is appointed the first Chief Justice of the United States, Samuel Osgood is appointed the first United States Postmaster General, and Edmund Randolph is appointed the first United States Attorney General. In 1813, future President, William Henry Harrison (olde Tippecanoe), and some 4500 troops begin the military occupation of western Ontario, where they remain for the rest of the conflict after defeating British forces on the Thames. The Christmas Eve signed Treaty of Ghent (1814) returned this land to Britain. Meanwhile in Europe, on this day, in the years 1918 and 715, battles begin.

The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied push during World War I along the entire western front. It involved troops from Britain, its dominion/commonwealth armies (mainly Canada, Australia and New Zealand), Belgium and France in other major attacks in other sectors. On September 26th, the US forces (from northwest of the town of Verdun) began the strike towards Sedan (France) on the southern end of the line; General Sir Arthur Currie's Canadians also began this day to move; British and Belgian divisions commenced a drive towards Ghent (Belgium), on the 27th, and then British and French armies attacked across northern France, on the 28th. The scale of the overall offensive, heavily bolstered by the fresh, eager but largely inexperienced American troops, ended any German hope for victory. The big September/October Allied breakthroughs (north, center and south) across the length of the Hindenburg Line, including the Battle of the Argonne Forest, are collectively remembered as the Hundred Days Offensive by the Allies. All conflict on the Western Front ended in November, when the guns of August finally were silent.

Of course, this was neither the last nor the first conflict to rage across this land. Interestingly, this first battle in the Frankish civil war was fought this day. The Battle of Compiègne was fought on September 26, 715 and was the first definite battle of the civil war which followed the death of Pepin of Heristal, Duke of the Franks, on December 16, 714. Battles at Cologne, Amblève (near Liège), Vincy (near Cambrai) and Soissons would follow in the next three years as a three-way conflict develops. Charles Martel would emerge, setting the political foundations for the Holy Roman Empire under Charles the Great.

September 26, 2007: The Council of Europe marked the 7th European Day of Languages in its 46 member states. The event, first established by the Council following the success of the European Year of Languages in 2001, aims to alert the public to the importance of learning languages throughout life. The Council indicates that over 200 languages are native to Europe and being spoken today. To mark the day in 1687, Venetian forces (besieging the Ottoman Turks stationed in Athens) bombard the Parthenon and partially destroy it after an explosion caused by munitions stored within. The Parthenon, built at the initiative of Pericles, the leading Athenian politician of the 5th century BC, was under the general supervision of the sculptor Phidias. The architects were Iktinos and Kallikrates. Construction began in 447 BC, and the building was substantially completed by 438 BC, but work on the decorations continued until at least 433 BC.

We thought the name sounded familiar -- September 27, 1921: Today marks the death of Engelbert Humperdinck in Neustrelitz, Germany. Among the operas composed by Herr Humperdinck are, Dornröschen, Königskinder and of course Hänsel und Gretel. On December 23, 1893, Hänsel und Gretel premiered in Weimar (Thüringen). The production is conducted by Richard Strauss.

18¢ Babe Zaharias and Bobby Jones
Combination American Sports Series
September 22, 1981

September 27, 1930: Bobby Jones won the U.S. Amateur Championship at Philadelphia, thus becoming the first player ever to make the Grand Slam by winning all four of the major titles of the time (the U.S. Open, the U.S. Amateur Championship, the British Open and the British Amateur Championship). Twenty-six years later to the day Mildred Ella "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias passed away at age 42. She had become America's first female golf celebrity and leading player of the 1940s and early 1950s.

Ms. Zaharias had perhaps her greatest year in 1950 when she completed the Grand Slam of the three women's majors of the day, the US Open, the Titleholders Championship, and the Western Open, in addition to leading the money-list. She was the leading money-winner again in 1951 and in 1952 took another major with a Titleholders victory, but illness prevented her from playing a full schedule in 1952-53. She made a comeback in 1954 and took the Vare Trophy, and her tenth and final major, with a U.S. Women's Open championship. Considering her health (and age), this was her greatest triumph.

September 27, 2006: The US Senate approved a Congressional Gold Medal for Byron Nelson this night, making him the first professional golfer to join an elite list that includes the Wright Brothers and Nelson Mandela. The move came one day after the 94-year-old golf legend died. Nelson started out competing against legend Gene Sarazen and lived to see Tiger Woods set all sorts of records; an era that went from hickory shafts to graphite, wood to titanium club-heads, from smashies to specialty wedges. And the Money: I only won $182,000 in my whole life, he once said. In 1937, I got fifth-place [prize] money at the British Open - $187 - and it cost me $3,000 to play.,4136,114512,00.html The final win in the 1945 11-game streak came in early August at Thornhill Country Club in the Canadian Open, a four-shot win over Herman Barron worth another $2,000 {Canadian} — big bucks in those days. More HERE from the Toronto Star.

Nelson left the regular tour in 1946 at age 34, replaced by another Texan from the caddy shack at Glen Garden Country Club in Fort Worth, Ben Hogan. Timeline HERE. Some years ago, Nelson made 12 slivers of wood, smooth and stained, for the U.S. Ryder Cup team. His signature stamp - "Made by Byron Nelson" - was branded in black on one side, and on the other side was each US player's first name and the verse: With your help I can advance against a troop. With my God I can scale a wall Psalms 18:29. The last shot Nelson hit before an audience was the ceremonial drive to start the 2001 Masters. He was 89, some say still as nervous as when he won his first major championship at Augusta National in 1937. Nelson's last win came in 1955 at the French Open, where the prize money wasn't even enough to cover his hotel bill. Nelson was elected to the PGA Hall of Fame in 1953 and to the World Golf Hall of Fame in 1974. from the CBC

The US Congress has awarded 137 Gold Medals, starting with General George Washington, long before independence was won. Since the first civilian award in 1858, the medal has gone to explorers, scientists, humanitarians, world leaders and civil rights pioneers. The list includes the Wright brothers and Mother Teresa. Four athletes have been honored, all posthumously: baseball players Jackie Robinson and Roberto Clemente, boxer Joe Louis and track star Jesse Owens. see The Dallas Morning News On September 12, 2012, Arnold Palmer received the medal.

September 27 and 28, 1692: In 1504, Ötisheim, which had been in the Palatine region of Germany, came under the control of Württemberg. The church, pictured right, predates this time, but also has undergone extensive changes since then. The town was sacked on September 27 and 28, 1692, explaining why the church records do not go back to an earlier time. Why the wholesale destruction ? France's "Sun King", Louis XIV, attempted to claim the inheritance of his sister-in-law, Lieselotte from the Palatinate. He launched a war of succession that in a few years time left southwestern Germany lying in rubble. One of the decisive battles was fought near Ötisheim where the Duke-Administrator Karl von Württemberg was taken captive. Ötisheim was burned down leaving only the church, town hall, and monastery administration buildings damaged but still standing. In 1744, looking back on that time, pastor Christian Gottfried Nicolai wrote "the inhabitants were all dispersed, everything plundered and the village sat in complete ruin." Only nine inhabitants lived in these ruins in 1697. It is for this reason that the Waldensers (religious followers of Peter Waldo) were granted the right to repopulate this area. See also

So the separate families of John and Ursula BROYLES (Johannes BREYHEL and Ursula RUOP) moved to Ötisheim. They married and raised a family there. They most certainly worshipped here before they left for the new world and Pennsylvania. This family was part of the Second Germanna Colony - circa 1717. The colonists were all Lutherans from the Palatinate and Baden-Württemberg regions of Germany. Go to for more about this family and to learn how they ended up in Virginia !!! My spouse descends from this family.
Elizabeth Charlotte von der Pfalz (Elizabeth Charlotte of Bavaria) (Liselotte) (1652––1722), Duchess of Orléans, began life as the German princess Liselotte, the granddaughter of Frederick V, born at Heidelberg Castle, Princess Palatine. The Palatinate, an historically important area in central Europe that includes land surrounding the Rhine, has been fought over for centuries. It is governed by an Elector Palatine, one of the persons who chose the leader of the Holy Roman Empire. Her portrait in bronze is HERE. More about Orléans HERE.

Elizabeth Charlotte became the second wife of Louis XIV’s brother, Philip I, Duke of Orléans (the marriage to his first wife, Henrietta, sister of Charles II of England, ended with her death by poison in 1670), and was the sister of Charles, the Elector Palatine of the Rhine, who died without heirs in 1685. He had been succeeded as Elector Palatine by the head of the Zweibrucken line, Philip William of Neuberg, the father-in-law of the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, with whom Louis was at war. Louis decided to claim that some part of the Palatine succession ought to have gone to Charles’ sister, and Louis’ sister-in-law, Liselotte. Louis decided to enforce the claim in 1688 by issuing a manifesto setting forth the French demands. A French army under the command of the dauphin (Louis XIV’s eldest son) advanced into the Palatinate and devastated it.

As the French forces withdrew from the castle on March 2, 1689, they set fire to it and blew the front off the Fat Tower. Portions of the town were also burned, but the mercy of a French general Tesse, who told the townspeople to set small fires in their homes to create smoke and the illusion of burning, prevented wider destruction.

The Sun King, Louis, also was reclaiming French Protestant subjects who had fled to the region for its more tolerant atmosphere. This contributed to the onset of the War of the Grand Alliance, which pitted an alliance of England, Holland and the Holy Roman Empire against France. This conflict, which lasted from 1689 to 1697 had no clear victor. It ended with the Treaty of Ryswick.

When Louis XIV died in 1715, Liselotte's son (Philip II d’Orléans) became Regent for the young Louis XV, and some of Liselotte's correspondence assumed a political role: for example, she began to write to Caroline of Ansbach, whom she had never met, but who had married the heir to the English throne, a contact that the Regent wanted to secure. Liselotte's letters convey her speaking voice. She always prided herself on saying exactly what she thought, no matter to whom she was speaking, and so it is with her correspondence. Over 4000 in German survive, as do 850 in French. There is no complete English-language translation, but see

If my father had loved me as well as I loved him he would never have sent me into a country so dangerous as this, to which I came through pure obedience and against my own inclination. Here duplicity passes for wit, and frankness is looked upon as folly. I am neither cunning nor mysterious.

1931 September 28, 1781: American forces in the Revolutionary War, backed by a French fleet and a French amy, began the siege of Yorktown Heights, Virginia (it ended October 19th), just a few short miles by highway away from Williamsburg and Jamestown. Over 9,000 Americans and some 7,000 French troops took part in the action. The world was beginning to turn upside down. The allied armies had marched from New England in an effort to surprise the Britsh forces. Trapped on a peninsula, with no way out except by sea ... well, you know the story. The French role is less well known.

Debts incurred for basic existence, sheer survival, and some form of liberty are among those that can never be put paid, and whosoever repudiates those debts acquires an indelible stain. It is folly to forget them.

Trumbull's painting of Yorktown is not the only one. Louis-Nicholas van Blarenberghe executed two scenic paintings of The Siege of Yorktown, one in 1784 for Louis XVI, and a near replica in 1786 for the Comte de Rochambeau. He also painted The Surrender at Yorktown (executed in 1785 and 1786) for the same patrons. Blarenberghe was a professional painter of battle and campaign scenes for the French army. He executed his Yorktown paintings under the direct supervision of Berthier, a skilled draftsman and former member of Rochambeau's staff in America (1781-83). The first work is held by Musée National de Versailles and the two paintings for the count are exhibited at Château de Rochambeau.

Place Yorktown is a tiny square close to the Trocadéro (Paris) at the end of, appropriately enough, Rue Benjamin Franklin. It has a plaque commemorating the French dead at the battle of Yorktown, a plaque commemorating the bicentennial of the treaties of Versailles and Paris, and is dominated by a statue of Benjamin Franklin. The French were most happy about the results of the Battle of Yorktown. At the time, the French Nation had been sinking a lot of money into the fledgling country. Winning the battle of Yorktown was a welcome indication that the fight against the British might be won and the funds not wasted; however, the war with the English ultimately bankrupted France and became one of the major contributing factors to the French Revolution.

And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people:
and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time:
and at that time thy people shall be delivered,
every one that shall be found written in the Book.

And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake,
some to everlasting life,
and some to shame and everlasting contempt [Daniel 12:1-2].

September 29th: The three great desert religions all know of Michael. The Anglican Tradition, celebrates three or four angels on the 29th of September (Michaelmas) feast for St. Michael and All Angels: namely Archangel Michael (Jude 9), Gabriel, Raphael and often, Uriel. During the Middle Ages, Michaelmas was celebrated as a Holy Day of Obligation, but this tradition was abolished in the 18th century. Lutheran Christians consider it a principal feast of Christ, and the Lutheran Confessor, Philip Melanchthon, wrote a hymn for the day that is still sung in Lutheran Churches: Lord God to Thee We Give It was also one of the English, Welsh and Irish quarter days when accounts had to be settled. The Eastern Orthodox Churches do not observe Michaelmas. The Greek Orthodox Church honors the them on the 8th of November instead.

The Parish of Saint Michael [and all Angels] And there was a great battle in heaven, Michael and his angels fought with the dragon. Revelation (Apocalypse) 12:7 In Normandy (France), St. Michael is the patron of mariners in his famous sanctuary at Mont-Saint-Michel in the Diocese of Coutances. He is said to have appeared there, in 708, to St. Aubert, Bishop of Avranches. In Germany, after its evangelization, St. Michael replaced for the Christians the pagan god Wotan, to whom many mountains were sacred, hence the numerous mountain chapels of St. Michael all over Germany.

This is the only feast of angels that the 16th Century Reformers retained. The Celebration dates to the fifth century, when a basilica was dedicated to Saint Michæl. The Gregorian Sacramentary (no 726) has a Collect for the commemoration in the Basilica of the Holy Angels on September 29th. While Michael and Gabriel are the only archangels named in the Hebrew Scriptures, Raphael and Uriel are named in the Deuterocanonical/Apocryphal writings. Cranmer took the Church of England Collect from the Sarum Missal (old Salisbury) which in turn drew it from the original Gregorian. Cranmer translated it as:

EVERLASTYNG God, which haste ordayned and constituted the services of all Angels and men in a wonderfull ordre: mercifully graunt, that they whiche alwaye doe thee service in heaven, may by thy appoyntment succour and defende us in earth: through Jesus Christe our Lorde, &c.

In this translation “by thy appointment” is lacking in the Gregorian Latin-“and worship” is an addition, too. Overall, the Archangels are described as worshiping God and assisting us.

September 29, 1777: Our history books tend to emphasize Britain's 13 American colonies that declared their independence. In fact, not counting its colonies in Canada or the Caribbean, the English had 15 American colonies in 1776. The two oft overlooked British possessions were East Florida and West Florida, both of which remained in British hands after the American Revolution. In this excerpt from a letter to Henry Laurens, Savannah merchant Joseph Clay noted one problem Georgians were having with bands of raiders from East Florida:

. . . The Scouts from Augustine have for some Months past been continually making incursions into our State for Cattle & I believed they have carried some away lately from the No'side of the Great Ogechee, this to our very great shame they have done with very little interruption . . . the Number of the People who have committed these depredations have never exceeded 150 . . . this is very much complained of by the Inhabitants & with great reason that they cannot be protected from such an inferior force . . . .

Source: Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, Vol. VIII, Letters of Joseph Clay, Merchant of Savannah, 1776-1793 (Savannah: Georgia Historical Society, 1913), p. 40.

The storehouses of James Spalding at Sunbury were rifled, plundered and burned, his dwelling house likewise, and everything of value scattered to the winds; all the accumulations of industry and thrift were engulfed and destroyed by roving bands of tories or so-called loyalists [during the American Revolution].

September 29, 1962: Canada launches its first orbiting satellite and becomes the third nation in space. Alouette I sat upon a US rocket (Thor-Agena B ) fired from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. It weighed 320 pounds and cost $2.9 million (Canadian). Built to study ionosphere from 1000 km in space, it was a colaborative project of Defence Research Board and Canadian electronics industry. The name Alouette came from the French word for "skylark," which is the title of a popular French-Canadian folk song. Exactly 20 years and one day earlier at Kiska, Alaska, Canadian aircraft had made their first attacks on Japanese forces in the Aleutian Island chain. Meanwhile, nearly 400 years before in 1535, Jacques Cartier had crossed Lac St-Pierre for the first time, on his way to discovering Montreal on October 2nd.

September 30, 1989: In the late 1980s, hundreds of desperate East Germans sought refuge at the West German embassy in Prague, the capital of the-communist Czechoslovakia, triggering a major diplomatic incident that paved the way for the fall of the Berlin Wall. West Germany's former foreign minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher tells Deutsche Welle how he experienced September 30, 1989, the fateful day when he told thousands of East German refugees in Prague their departure for the West had been approved. The GDR (Communist East-German Government) could not survive what happened in Prague. Nobody could say when and how this would happen, but it was clear that this grave blow to the Wall had to have a lasting impact.,,4743914,00.html

September 30 -- Saint Viktor von Solothurn: St. Viktor (starb circa 303AD) war ein christlicher, römischer Soldat. Zusammen mit St. Ursus und anderen Christen wurde er nach der Folter gemartert, da er sich weigerte, heidnische Idole anzubeten. Seine Überreste sind in der Periode der Reformation verloren gegangen. Seine Verehrung als Heiliger geht der Heiligsprechung durch den Papst voraus, sein Gedenktag ist am 30. September. Er wird besonders in Basel, Chur, Freiburg, St. Gallen und Sitten verehrt.

Thus, September 30th is also the Feast day of Victor's companion, Saint Ursus (death ca. 303). Ursus also was a Roman Legionnaire who had converted to Christianity. According to the legends of the saints, he was tortured by men attempting to force him to worship pagan idols. Finally, he was beheaded. He is associated also with Saint Maurice and the village of Solothurn in today's Switzerland, the place of his execution. The chapel of Saint Peter (which rests on an older Roman structure) was placed where Saint Ursus died inside the Roman fort. His designation as a Saint predates the formal practice of canonization by a Pope.

The city of Solothurn is due south of Basel, and is the capital of Solothurn Canton. It has been a site for ancient pre-Roman peoples. About 10-25 AD a fort was built to protect a road station and bridge head on the Roman road from Aventicum to Augusta Raurica or Vindonissa. A small vicus or settlement sat around the castrum. Its strategic position suggests that it may have been a Celtic position, too. It became the home to a detachment of the larger XXII Legion (stationed at today's Mainz). There were several Christian structures by late Roman times. About 500 AD, the Burgundian Princess Sedeleuba, took the bones of St. Victor to Geneva, while the bones of Saint Ursus remained in Solothurn. The church dedicated to the veneration of Saint Ursus is first mentioned in 870 and later a Monastery developed. Much later, Solothurn was part of the Swiss Confederation, attacked by the Hapsburg dynasty and also conquered by Napoleon. see also

January 2006 Drawing
O Christ the Rock, upon which thy Church is built, whereon thy People, as living stones fitly framed together, grow into a spiritual house: Defend thy Church O Lord.

September 30, 2006: The premier service in the new sanctuary started at 9am on September 23rd. It was dedicated on the 30th during a 2½ hour service, the delayed feast day of Saint Barnabas. He accompanied St. Paul the Apostle on Paul's early journeys to Asia Minor and Cyprus (known as his first mission). See

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord  Psalm 122.

This is none other than the dwelling place of God, and this is the Gate of Heaven -- This is the Gate of the Lord, the Righteous shall enter into it

Stand by the roads, look and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is; walk in that way and find rest for your souls
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Betsy Ross-1777Bennington1814

Early GA Flag Gwenn Ha Du 
qui est le drapeau breton 
circa 1925* * *  04/25/03  * * * 
a flag based on history, 
but yet looking to the future

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